Sample records for magnetic confinement fusion

  1. Japanese magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Abdou, M.A.; Berry, L.A.; Horton, C.W.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six U.S. scientists surveyed and assessed Japanese research and development in magnetic fusion. The technical accomplishments from the early 1980s through June 1989 are reviewed, and the Japanese capabilities and outlook for future contributions are assessed. Detailed evaluations are provided in the areas of basic and applied plasma physics, tokamak confinement, alternate confinement approaches, plasma technology, and fusion nuclear technology and materials.

  2. Magnetic Confinement Fusion at the Crossroads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Matterhorn initiated at Princeton 1950s Classified US Project Sherwood on controlled thermonuclear fusionMagnetic Confinement Fusion at the Crossroads Michael Bell Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12;MGB / UT / 070307 2 The Beginnings of Fusion Energy Research 1928 Concept of fusion reactions

  3. Comparison of Coulomb Collision Rates in the Plasma Physics and Magnetically Confined Fusion Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of Coulomb Collision Rates in the Plasma Physics and Magnetically Confined Fusion Literature

  4. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.

  5. Magnetic-compression/magnetized-target fusion (MAGO/MTF): A marriage of inertial and magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Kirkpatrick, R.C. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Intermediate between magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF) in time and density scales is an area of research now known in the US as magnetized target fusion (MTF) and in Russian as MAGO (MAGnitnoye Obzhatiye--magnetic compression). MAGO/MTF uses a magnetic field and preheated, wall-confined plasma fusion fuel within an implodable fusion target. The magnetic field suppresses thermal conduction losses in the fuel during the target implosion and hydrodynamic compression heating process. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (i.e., ICF), MAGO/MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm (e.g., 100 eV or higher), magnetized (e.g., 100 kG) plasma within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression by an imploding pusher, of which a magnetically driven imploding liner is one example. In this paper, the authors present ongoing activities and potential future activities in this relatively unexplored area of controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  6. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.C. Stratton, M. Bitter, K.W. Hill, D.L. Hillis, and J.T. Hogan

    2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  7. Intermittency and turbulence in a magnetically confined fusion plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Carbone; L. Sorriso-Valvo; E. Martines; V. Antoni; P. Veltri

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the intermittency of magnetic turbulence as measured in Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. We show that the Probability Distribution Functions of magnetic field differences are not scale invariant, that is the wings of these functions are more important at the smallest scales, a classical signature of intermittency. We show that scaling laws appear also in a region very close to the external wall of the confinement device, and we present evidences that the observed intermittency increases moving towards the wall.

  8. Universities and the UK Magnetic Confinement Fusion Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Systems + Project Man Fusion Frontiers and interfaces Intoductory courses: plasmas, materials, computing of Liverpool: plasma exhaust physics; technological/medical plasmas ­ University of Manchester: materials, nuclear physics and activation ­ University of Oxford: materials ­ University of York (lead): magnetic

  9. The roadmap to magnetic confinement fusion Cutaway of the ITER tokamak. ( ITER)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampshire, Damian

    The roadmap to magnetic confinement fusion Cutaway of the ITER tokamak. (© ITER) There are two ways breeding concepts [8] . Roadmap beyond ITER The ITER project has mapped out a road map to a commercial is the most promising for power generation (Table 2) [9] . #12;Table 2. "Fast track" fusion roadmap Facility

  10. Universities and the UK Magnetic Confinement Fusion Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in advanced instrumentation for fusion diagnostics; superconducting strand ­ University of Liverpool: plasma in ICF reactor designs Experiments and measurement of dust in plasmas Modelling and diagnostics · Synergies with fusion research: ­ Plasma-surface interaction physics ­ Exhaust physics ­ Plasma diagnostics

  11. Fourth annual progress report on special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. The Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits.

  12. Evidence for a New Path to the Self-Sustainment of the Thermonuclear Fusion Reactions in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evidence for a New Path to the Self-Sustainment of the Thermonuclear Fusion Reactions in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasma Experiments

  13. Special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors. Third annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits.

  14. The mitigating effect of magnetic fields on Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces of disparate mass densities have long been known to generate magnetic fields during inertial confinement fusion implosions. An externally applied magnetic field can also be efficiently amplified by RT instabilities. The focus here is on magnetic field generation and amplification at the gas-ice interface which is RT unstable during the deceleration phase of the implosion. RT instabilities lead to undesirable mix of hot and cold plasmas which enhances thermal energy loss and tends to produce a more massive warm-spot instead of a hot-spot. Two mechanisms are shown here to mitigate the thermal energy loss from the hot-spot. The first mechanism is the reduction of electron thermal conductivity with interface-aligned magnetic fields. This can occur through self-generated magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect as well as through externally applied magnetic fields that undergo an exponential growth via the stretch-and-fold magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Self-generated magnetic fields during RT evolution can result in a factor of 2?10 decrease in the electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface, while externally applied magnetic fields that are compressed to 61000 T at the onset of deceleration (corresponding to pre-implosion external fields of 0.0610 T) could result in a factor of 2500 reduction in electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface. The second mechanism to mitigate thermal energy loss from the hot-spot is to decrease the interface mixing area between the hot and cold plasmas. This is achieved through large external magnetic fields of 1000 T at the onset of deceleration which damp short-wavelength RT modes and long-wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz modes thus significantly slowing the RT growth and reducing mix.

  15. Studies of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF and magnetic reconnection using laser-produced plasmas at OMEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of ion kinetic effects during the shock-convergence phase of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and magnetic reconnection in strongly-driven, laser-produced plasmas have been facilitated by the use of ...

  16. LDRD final report on confinement of cluster fusion plasmas with magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argo, Jeffrey W.; Kellogg, Jeffrey W.; Headley, Daniel Ignacio; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Waugh, Caleb J.; Lewis, Sean M.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Wisher, Matthew; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Bengtson, Roger

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two versions of a current driver for single-turn, single-use 1-cm diameter magnetic field coils have been built and tested at the Sandia National Laboratories for use with cluster fusion experiments at the University of Texas in Austin. These coils are used to provide axial magnetic fields to slow radial loss of electrons from laser-produced deuterium plasmas. Typical peak field strength achievable for the two-capacitor system is 50 T, and 200 T for the ten-capacitor system. Current rise time for both systems is about 1.7 {mu}s, with peak current of 500 kA and 2 MA, respectively. Because the coil must be brought to the laser, the driver needs to be portable and drive currents in vacuum. The drivers are complete but laser-plasma experiments are still in progress. Therefore, in this report, we focus on system design, initial tests, and performance characteristics of the two-capacitor and ten-capacitors systems. The questions of whether a 200 T magnetic field can retard the breakup of a cluster-fusion plasma, and whether this field can enhance neutron production have not yet been answered. However, tools have been developed that will enable producing the magnetic fields needed to answer these questions. These are a two-capacitor, 400-kA system that was delivered to the University of Texas in 2010, and a 2-MA ten-capacitor system delivered this year. The first system allowed initial testing, and the second system will be able to produce the 200 T magnetic fields needed for cluster fusion experiments with a petawatt laser. The prototype 400-kA magnetic field driver system was designed and built to test the design concept for the system, and to verify that a portable driver system could be built that delivers current to a magnetic field coil in vacuum. This system was built copying a design from a fixed-facility, high-field machine at LANL, but made to be portable and to use a Z-machine-like vacuum insulator and vacuum transmission line. This system was sent to the University of Texas in Austin where magnetic fields up to 50 T have been produced in vacuum. Peak charge voltage and current for this system have been 100 kV and 490 kA. It was used this last year to verify injection of deuterium and surrogate clusters into these small, single-turn coils without shorting the coil. Initial test confirmed the need to insulate the inner surface of the coil, which requires that the clusters must be injected through small holes in an insulator. Tests with a low power laser confirmed that it is possible to inject clusters into the magnetic field coils through these holes without destroying the clusters. The university team also learned the necessity of maintaining good vacuum to avoid insulator, transmission line, and coil shorting. A 200-T, 2 MA system was also constructed using the experience from the first design to make the pulsed-power system more robust. This machine is a copy of the prototype design, but with ten 100-kV capacitors versus the two used in the prototype. It has additional inductance in the switch/capacitor unit to avoid breakdown seen in the prototype design. It also has slightly more inductance at the cable connection to the vacuum chamber. With this design we have been able to demonstrate 1 MA current into a 1 cm diameter coil with the vacuum chamber at air pressure. Circuit code simulations, including the additional inductance with the new design, agree well with the measured current at a charge voltage of 40 kV with a short circuit load, and at 50 kV with a coil. The code also predicts that with a charge voltage of 97 kV we will be able to get 2 MA into a 1 cm diameter coil, which will be sufficient for 200 T fields. Smaller diameter or multiple-turn coils will be able to achieve even higher fields, or be able to achieve 200-T fields with lower charge voltage. Work is now proceeding at the university under separate funding to verify operation at the 2-MA level, and to address issues of debris mitigation, measurement of the magnetic field, and operation in vacuum. We anticipate operation at full current with single

  17. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Belle Mead, NJ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  18. Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NASH,THOMAS J.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/{micro}s, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-{micro}m in diameter.

  19. Neutron imaging with bubble chambers for inertial confinement fusion.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghilea, Marian Constantin (1973 - ); Meyerhofer, David D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??One of the main methods to obtain energy from controlled thermonuclear fusion is inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a process where nuclear fusion reactions are initiated (more)

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  1. Current state of magnetic-fusion energy research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.L.; Weimer, K.E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the improved understanding of plasma physics, progress is being made on several approaches to magnetic confinement for controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  2. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  3. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  4. Lasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermonuclear device began the Inertial Confinement Fusion Era I1860 · StanislawUlamandEdward Teller developedLasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States R. L. McCrory Director and Vice Provost confinement fusion (ICF) has grown as successively larger lasers have been built I1859 · The

  5. Taming turbulence in magnetized plasmas: from fusion energy to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occurs (fusion of particle beams will not work...) Thermonuclear fusion in a confined plasma (T~10 keTaming turbulence in magnetized plasmas: from fusion energy to black hole accretion disks Troy?: In fusion plasmas turbulent leakage of heat and particles is a key issue. Sheared flow can suppress

  6. Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux).

  7. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): Principles, Status, and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion that is intermediate between the two extremes of inertial and magnetic confinement. Target plasma preparation is followed by compression to fusion conditions. The use of a magnetic field to reduce electron thermal conduction and potentially enhance DT alpha energy deposition allows the compression rate to be drastically reduced relative to that for inertial confinement fusion. This leads to compact systems with target driver power and intensity requirements that are orders of magnitude lower than for ICF. A liner on plasma experiment has been proposed to provide a firm proof of principle for MTF.

  8. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  9. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  10. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  11. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  12. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, John M. (Del Mar, CA); Peuron, Unto A. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors (30a, 30b, etc.) formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma (12) and a toroidal field coil (18). A mechanism (60) for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  13. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, J.M.; Peuron, A.U.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma and a toroidal field coil. A mechanism for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  14. Progress in the pulsed power Inertial Confinement Fusion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A. [and others

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed power accelerators are being used in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. In order to achieve our goal of a fusion yield in the range of 200 - 1000 MJ from radiation-driven fusion capsules, it is generally believed that {approx}10 MJ of driver energy must be deposited within the ICF target in order to deposit {approx}1 MJ of radiation energy in the fusion capsule. Pulsed power represents an efficient technology for producing both these energies and these radiation environments in the required short pulses (few tens of ns). Two possible approaches are being developed to utilize pulsed power accelerators in this effort: intense beams of light ions and z- pinches. This paper describes recent progress in both approaches. Over the past several years, experiments have successfully answered many questions critical to ion target design. Increasing the ion beam power and intensity are our next objectives. Last year, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator H (PBFA II) was modified to generate ion beams in a geometry that will be required for high yield applications. This 2048 modification has resulted in the production of the highest power ion beam to be accelerated from an extraction ion diode. We are also evaluating fast magnetically-driven implosions (z-pinches) as platforms for ICF ablator physics and EOS experiments. Z-pinch implosions driven by the 20 TW Saturn accelerator have efficiently produced high x- ray power (> 75 TW) and energy (> 400 kJ). Containing these x-ray sources within a hohlraum produces a unique large volume (> 6000 mm{sup 3}), long lived (>20 ns) radiation environment. In addition to studying fundamental ICF capsule physics, there are several concepts for driving ICF capsules with these x-ray sources. Progress in increasing the x-ray power on the Saturn accelerator and promise of further increases on the higher power PBFA II accelerator will be described.

  15. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the worlds largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  16. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): A Low-Cost Fusion Development Path

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Siemon, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1998-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple transport-based scaling laws are derived to show that a density and time regime intermediate between conventional magnetic confinement and conventional inertial confinement offers attractive reductions in system size and energy when compared to magnetic confinement and attractive reductions in heating power and intensity when compared to inertial confinement. This intermediate parameter space appears to be readily accessible by existing and near term pulsed power technologies. Hence, the technology of the Megagauss conference opens up an attractive path to controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  17. Method and Apparatus to Produce and Maintain a thick, flowing, Liquid Lithium first wall for Toroidal Magnetic Confinement DT Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fission reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  18. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  19. Hydrodynamic stability theory of double ablation front structures in inertial confinement fusion.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yez Vico, Carlos

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The aim of inertial confinement fusion is the production of energy by the fusion of thermonuclear fuel (deuterium-tritium) enclosed in a spherical target due to (more)

  20. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  1. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  2. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyerhofer,D.D.

    2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at LLE using the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA laser system and cryogenic target capability to perform ignition-scaled implosions will be reported. In addition, a new high-energy (2.6-kJ) petawatt capability is currently under construction.

  3. Atomic scale mixing for inertial confinement fusion associated hydro instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Atomic scale mixing for inertial confinement fusion associated hydro instabilities J. Melvina, , P Alamos, NM 87545, USA Abstract Hydro instabilities have been identified as a potential cause- able. We find numerical convergence for this important quantity, in a purely hydro study, with only

  4. Visualization of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapid developments in experimental and theoretical fusion energy research towards more geometric details, visualization plays an increasingly important role. In this paper we will give an overview of how visualization can be used to compare and contrast some different configurations for future fusion reactors. Specifically we will focus on the stellarator and tokamak concepts. In order to gain understanding of the underlying fundamental differences and similarities these two competing concepts are compared and contrasted by visualizing some key attributes.

  5. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  6. VISUALIZATION OF MAGNETICALLY CONFINED PLASMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . As an example, in 1990, the per capita consumption of energy in India and China were 1/6 and 1/3 of the world of the fusion energy research community. There is presently a great imbalance in the world energy consumption

  7. Future directions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodner, S.E. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author discusses future directions for the ICF program. At this time there is still uncertainty on a number of key issues necessary to decide on what type of a National Ignition Facility should be constructed. Mechanisms are in place to answer these questions. The author offers his opinions of where the program is likely to proceed. Technology wise indications are that direct drive heating has the best chance of reaching ignition and high gain. This has the advantage of making all three major user programs happy, namely weapons physics, weapons effects, and electrical energy. The demand for and price of energy in the country will have a major impact on the way the program is developed. From the laser fusion side the most promising drivers at present seem to be KrF lasers, and a major concern for these systems is whether the peak to valley nonuniformities can be reduced to the 1 to 2% level when delivered to the target in order to avoid driving instabilities.

  8. HYLIFE-2 inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x-rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09$/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  10. tTOURflAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C7, suppliment au n07, Tome 40, J u i l l e t 1979, page C7-775 DIAGNOSTICSPROGRAM FOR A MAGNETICALLY INSULATED ION DIODE FOR INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Albuquerque, flew Mexico, 87185. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) schemes 2 require an ion power density of 1 the focused proton and carbon beam profiles via induced atomic excitation and thermal emission from targets exposure times of less than five nanoseconds. The resulting electron images were transported along a 2 k

  11. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems M wall in an IFE system is $10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Slough

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion has the potential to satisfy the prodigious power that the world will demand in the future, but it has yet to be harnessed as a practical energy source. The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. It is the contention here that a simpler path to fusion can be achieved by creating fusion conditions in a different regime at small scale (~ a few cm). One such program now under study, referred to as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), is directed at obtaining fusion in this high energy density regime by rapidly compressing a compact toroidal plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). To make fusion practical at this smaller scale, an efficient method for compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. In one variant of MTF a conducting metal shell is imploded electrically. This radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. The undertaking described in this report was to provide a suitable target FRC, as well as a simple and robust method for inserting and stopping the FRC within the imploding liner. The FRC must also survive during the time it takes for the metal liner to compress the FRC target. The initial work at the UW was focused on developing adequate preionization and flux trapping that were found to be essential in past experiments for obtaining the density, flux and most critically, FRC lifetime required for MTF. The timescale for testing and development of such a source can be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of a new facility funded by the Department of Energy. At this facility, two inductive plasma accelerators (IPA) were constructed and tested. Recent experiments with these IPAs have demonstrated the ability to rapidly form, accelerate and merge two hypervelocity FRCs into a compression chamber. The resultant FRC that was formed was hot (T{sub ion} ~ 400 eV), stationary, and stable with a configuration lifetime several times that necessary for the MTF liner experiments. The accelerator length was less than 1 meter, and the time from the initiation of formation to the establishment of the final equilibrium was less than 10 microseconds. With some modification, each accelerator can be made capable of producing FRCs suitable for the production of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment. Based on the initial FRC merging/compression results, the design and methodology for an experimental realization of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment can now be defined. The construction and testing of the key components for the formation of the target plasma at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) will be performed on the IPA experiment, now at MSNW. A high density FRC plasmoid will be formed and accelerated out of each IPA into a merging/compression chamber similar to the imploding liner at AFRL. The properties of the resultant FRC plasma (size, temperature, density, flux, lifetime) will be obtained. The process will be optimized, and a final design for implementation at AFRL will be carried out. When implemented at AFRL it is anticipated that the colliding/merging FRCs will then be compressed by the liner. In this manner it is hoped that ultimately a plasma with ion temperatures reaching the 10 keV range and fusion gain near unity can be obtained.

  13. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  14. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman (Irvine, CA); Binderbauer, Michl (Irvine, CA); Qerushi, Artan (Irvine, CA); Tahsiri, Hooshang (Irvine, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  15. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  16. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  17. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  18. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  19. Next-generation laser for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C.D.; Deach, R.J.; Bibeau, C. [and others

    1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the progress in developing and building the Mercury laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode- pumped solid-state Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced high energy density (HED) physics applications. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a 1-10 ns pulse with 1 omega energies of 100 J and with 2 omega/3 omega frequency conversion.

  20. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  1. Compatibility of Physics and Engineering in Magnetic Fusion White Paper on Magnetic Fusion Priorities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compatibility of Physics and Engineering in Magnetic Fusion White Paper on Magnetic Fusion.edu (Dated: July 14, 2012) The compatibility of the requirements of physics and engineering is the fundamental issue in the achievement of useful magnetic fusion energy. Issues that must be addressed include

  2. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  3. White Paper on Magnetic Fusion Program Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the international fusion program, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is now halfwayWhite Paper on Magnetic Fusion Program Strategies Prepared for The President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Prepared by David E. Baldwin Senior Vice President for Fusion General

  4. Introduction to Magnetic Thermonuclear Fusion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Introduction to Magnetic Thermonuclear Fusion and Related Research Projects Ghassan Antar Fusion 2. Research on Turbulence (Theory and Experiment) 3. Research on Disruptions 4. Research on Plasma Facing Components #12;Ghassan Y. ANTAR 3 Fusion Occurs when Two Nuclei Unite to Form One The Energy

  5. Investigation of plasma instabilities relevant toInvestigation of plasma instabilities relevant to inertial confinement fusioninertial confinement fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    . At sufficiently high temperatures a propagating fusion burn wave is ignited, releasing ~70 times the energy it is hoped that their effects can be minimized allowing fusion power to be harnessed to help combat the world's energy crisis. Plasmas InstabilitiesInertial Confinement Instabilities Small instabilities in a plasma

  6. FPEOS: A First-Principles Equation of State Table of Deuterium for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    FPEOS: A First-Principles Equation of State Table of Deuterium for Inertial Confinement Fusion) Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation- hydrodynamics. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT- fuel needs to be kept as cold

  7. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.

  8. Distribution Category: Magnetic Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    . Abdou Fusion Power Program October 1982 Invited paper presented at the International Conference by Mohamed A. Abdou ABSTRACT Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets

  9. The Vlasov-Maxwell system with strong initial magnetic field. Guiding-center approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostan, Mihai

    @univ-fcomte.fr 1 #12;duction through the thermonuclear fusion process. Two ways are currently explored for this: the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). The magnetic confinement

  10. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S., E-mail: SJafari@guilan.ac.ir; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  11. PLASMA-PHYSICS-21 Heavy ion driven reactor-size double shell inertial fusion targets*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Serna Moreno; N. A. Tahir; J. J. Lpez Cela; A. R. Piriz; D. H. H. Hoffmann

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is considered as an alternative to Magnetic Confinement Fusion to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion. The main goal is to exploit the energy released from thermonuclear fusion reactions

  12. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  13. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Standard identifies safety requirements for magnetic fusion facilities. Safety functions are used to define outcomes that must be achieved to ensure that exposures to radiation, hazardous materials, or other hazards are maintained within acceptable limits. Requirements applicable to magnetic fusion facilities have been derived from Federal law, policy, and other documents. In addition to specific safety requirements, broad direction is given in the form of safety principles that are to be implemented and within which safety can be achieved.

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion: Input to the 35-yr Fusion Long-Range Electric Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory -- Intermediate between MFE and IFE · Presently only fundedMagnetized Target Fusion: Input to the 35-yr Fusion Long-Range Electric Plan G. A. Wurden Fusion Energy Program Office Los Alamos National Laboratory Jan. 14, 2003 #12;Magnetized Target Fusion: Input

  15. Determination of the deuterium-tritium branching ratio based on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) ?-to-neutron branching ratio [[superscript 3]H(d,?)[superscript 5]He/[superscript 3]H(d,n)[superscript 4]He] was determined under inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions, where the ...

  16. Proton emission imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCiantis, Joseph Loreto

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proton core imaging system has been developed and extensively used for measuring the nuclear burn regions of inertial confinement fusion implosions. These imaging cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility, use ...

  17. FIRE, A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meade, D.M.

    2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The next major frontier in magnetic fusion physics is to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, MHD stability, self-heating, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Design Study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to attain, explore, understand, and optimize magnetically confined fusion-dominated plasmas. The FIRE is envisioned as an extension of the existing Advanced Tokamak Program that could lead to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field tokamak with the capability of achieving Q approximately equal to 10 in the ELMy H-mode for a duration of about 1.5 plasma current redistribution times (skin times) during an initial burning-plasma science phase, and the flexibility to add Advanced Tokamak hardware (e.g., lower-hybrid current drive) later. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-RS, the U.S. Fusion Power Plant study utilizing an Advanced Tokamak reactor. The key ''Advanced Tokamak'' features are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple (<0.3%), internal control coils, and space for wall stabilization capabilities. The reference design point is R subscript ''o'' = 2.14 m, a = 0.595 m, B subscript ''t''(R subscript ''o'') = 10 T, I subscript ''p'' = 7.7 MA with a flattop time of 20 s for 150 MW of fusion power. The baseline magnetic fields and pulse lengths can be provided by wedged BeCu/OFHC toroidal-field (TF) coils and OFHC poloidal-field (PF) coils that are pre-cooled to 80 K prior to the pulse and allowed to warm up to 373 K at the end of the pulse. A longer-term goal of FIRE is to explore Advanced Tokamak regimes sustained by noninductive current drive (e.g., lower-hybrid current drive) at high fusion gain (Q > 5) for a duration of 1 to 3 current redistribution times.

  18. SXR-XUV Diagnostics for Edge and Core of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutman, Dan [Johns Hopkins University

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present report summarizes the results obtained during a one-year extension of DoE grant SXR-XUV Diagnostics for Edge and Core of Magnetically Confined Plasmas, at Johns Hopkins University, aimed at completing the development of a new type of magnetic fusion plasma diagnostic, the XUV Transmission Grating Imaging Radiometer (TGIR). The TGIR enables simultaneous spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of the XUV/VUV radiated power from impurities in fusion plasmas, with high speed. The instrument was successfully developed and qualified in the laboratory and in experiments on a tokamak. Its future applications will be diagnostic of the impurity content and transport in the divertor and edge of advanced magnetic fusion experiments, such as NSTX Upgrade.

  19. An Assessment of Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics A Panel on Fusion Target Physics ("the Panel") will serve as a technical resource to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Assessment of Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics A Panel on Fusion Target Physics ("the Panel") will serve as a technical resource to the Committee on Inertial Confinement Energy Systems ("the Physics will prepare a report that will assess the current performance of fusion targets associated

  20. Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masayuki Ono

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

  1. Magnetic Fusion Pilot Plant Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FNSF = Fusion Nuclear Science Facility CTF = Component Test Facility · Powerplantlike maintenance. · Targeted ultimate capabilities: ­ Fusion nuclear S&T development, component testing · Steady applicable to power plant · Demonstrate methods for fast replacement of in-vessel components ­ Net

  2. Comment on 'Species separation in inertial confinement fusion fuels'[Phys. Plasmas 20, 012701 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larroche, O. [CEA DIF, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent paper presents numerical simulations of shock waves in a two-ion-component plasma, investigating how species separation occurring in the latter can affect the nuclear fusion yield of inertial confinement fusion targets. Here, it is shown that an important physical mechanism has obviously been omitted in those calculations, which thus lead to significantly overestimated results.

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, April--June 1995. Volume 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ICF Quarterly Reports is published four times each fiscal year by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The journal reports selected current research within the ICF Program. Major areas of investigation presented here include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology.

  4. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  5. Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

  6. Course: FUSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Universit degli Studi di Padova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesare, Bernardo

    the subject of controlled thermonuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas. Both fusion science of Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, b) Engineering of a Magnetically Confined Fusion Reactor, c) ExperimentalCourse: FUSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Università degli Studi di Padova in agreement

  7. ITER Physics and Exploring Magnetically-Confined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Scientific and Technological Feasibility of Fusion Energy for Peaceful Purposes #12;Special ITER Features???Flow/rotation Port-based coils?RWM Stab. x~1.9, 95%~1.7 x~0.5, 95%~0.33 Shaping J(0)Jefficient (r>a/2)J (R)J(0) ­ pedestal characteristics ­ core-edge integration ­ ITB-access at low- * with weak rotation · Demands

  8. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, W W; Godwin, R O; Hurley, C A; Wallerstein, E. P.; Whitham, K.; Murray, J. E.; Bliss, E. S.; Ozarski, R. G.; Summers, M. A.; Rienecker, F.; Gritton, D. G.; Holloway, F. W.; Suski, G. J.; Severyn, J. R.

    1982-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility.

  9. The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules Josselin Garnier1,a and Catherine Cherfils-Clérouin2 1 Laboratoire de Probabilités et the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the -particle energy deposition process

  10. The physics issues that determine inertial confinement fusion target gain and driver requirements: A tutorial*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The physics issues that determine inertial confinement fusion target gain and driver requirements ``bookkeeping'' of input parametrized by ICF drivers' coupling efficiencies to the target, and subsequent requirements will be discussed for both the direct drive driver impinging directly on the target and indirect

  11. Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 AAAS Annual Meeting 14-18 FebruaryBasics of Inertial Confinement Fusion John Lindl NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist

  12. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  13. Final report on the Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Slough

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion has the potential to satisfy the prodigious power that the world will demand in the future, but it has yet to be harnessed as a practical energy source. The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. It is the contention here that a simpler path to fusion can be achieved by creating fusion conditions in a different regime at small scale (~ a few cm). One such program now under study, referred to as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), is directed at obtaining fusion in this high energy density regime by rapidly compressing a compact toroidal plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). To make fusion practical at this smaller scale, an efficient method for compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. In one variant of MTF a conducting metal shell is imploded electrically. This radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to provide a suitable target FRC, as well as a simple and robust method for inserting and stopping the FRC within the imploding liner. The timescale for testing and development can be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of a new facility funded by the Department of Energy. At this facility, two inductive plasma accelerators (IPA) were constructed and tested. Recent experiments with these IPAs have demonstrated the ability to rapidly form, accelerate and merge two hypervelocity FRCs into a compression chamber. The resultant FRC that was formed was hot (T&ion ~ 400 eV), stationary, and stable with a configuration lifetime several times that necessary for the MTF liner experiments. The accelerator length was less than 1 meter, and the time from the initiation of formation to the establishment of the final equilibrium was less than 10 microseconds. With some modification, each accelerator was made capable of producing FRCs suitable for the production of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment. Based on the initial FRC merging/compression results, the design and methodology for an experimental realization of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment can now be defined. A high density FRC plasmoid is to be formed and accelerated out of each IPA into a merging/compression chamber similar to the imploding liner at AFRL. The properties of the resultant FRC plasma (size, temperature, density, flux, lifetime) are obtained in the reevant regime of interest. The process still needs to be optimized, and a final design for implementation at AFRL must now be carried out. When implemented at AFRL it is anticipated that the colliding/merging FRCs will then be compressed by the liner. In this manner it is hoped that ultimately a plasma with ion temperatures reaching the 10 keV range and fusion gain near unity can be obtained.

  14. Dynamic response of materials on subnanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa.

  15. PPPL-3183 -Preprint: May 1996, UC-420, 424, 426 Fusion Reactivity, Confinement, and Stability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controllable plasma parameters, the limitation and optimization of fusion power production of the present TFTR with a reversed shear (RS) magnetic configuration [8], and Supershots enhanced by Li pellet conditioning [9, 10

  16. PPPL3183 Preprint: May 1996, UC420, 424, 426 Fusion Reactivity, Confinement, and Stability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controllable plasma parameters, the limitation and optimization of fusion power production of the present TFTR], discharges with a reversed shear (RS) magnetic configuration#[8], and Supershots enhanced by Li pellet

  17. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana, E-mail: srinbhu@vt.edu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  18. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1 , Leslie fusion reactors rely on superconducting magnets for efficient and reliable production of these magnetic fields. Future superconducting magnets for fusion

  19. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystalQ1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    in a room temperature solid-state setting, including `cold' fusion5 and `bubble' fusion6 , have met.............................................................. Observation of nuclear fusion driven ............................................................................................................................................................................. While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic1 and inertial2 confinement, alternative

  20. Improved Magnetic Fusion Energy Economics via Massive Resistive Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abandoning superconductors for magnetic fusion reactors and instead using resistive magnet designs based on cheap copper or aluminum conductor material operating at "room temperature" (300 K) can reduce the capital cost per unit fusion power and simplify plant operations. By increasing unit size well beyond that of present magnetic fusion energy conceptual designs using superconducting electromagnets, the recirculating power fraction needed to operate resistive electromagnets can be made as close to zero as needed for economy without requiring superconductors. Other advantages of larger fusion plant size, such as very long inductively driven pulses, may also help reduce the cost per unit fusion power.

  1. Scientists discuss progress toward magnetic fusion energy at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists discuss progress toward magnetic fusion energy at 2013 AAAS annual meeting February 21, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Scientists participating in...

  2. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, October--December 1994. Volume 5, No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included in this issue include: system description and initial performance results for beamlet, design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers and optical switch, beamlet pulse-generation and wavefront-control system, large-aperture, high- damage-threshold optics for beamlet, beamlet pulsed power system, beamlet laser diagnostics, and beam propagation and frequency conversion modeling for the beamlet laser.

  4. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Inertial confinement fusion research and development studies. Final report, October 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullis, R.; Finkelman, M.; Leng, J.; Luzzi, T.; Ojalvo, I.; Powell, E.; Sedgley, D.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and development studies were selected for structural, thermal, and vacuum pumping analyses in support of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept development. An additional task provided an outlined program plan for an ICF Engineering Test Facility, using the HYLIFE concept as a model, although the plan is generally applicable to other ICF concepts. The HYLIFE is one promising type of ICF concept which features a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets surround the fusion reaction to protect the first structural wall (FSW) of the vacuum chamber by absorbing the fusion energy, and to act as the tritium breeder. The fusion energy source is a deuterium-tritium pellet injected into the chamber every second and driven by laser or heavy ion beams. The studies performed by Grumman have considered the capabilities of specific HYLIFE features to meet life requirements and the requirement to recover to preshot conditions prior to each subsequent shot. The components under investigation were the FSW which restrains the outward motion of the liquid lithium, the nozzle plate which forms the falling jet array, the graphite shield which is in direct top view of the fusion pellet, and the vacuum pumping system. The FSW studies included structural analysis, and definition of an experimental program to validate computer codes describing lithium motion and the resulting impact on the wall.

  6. COLLIMATION AND CONFINEMENT OF MAGNETIC JETS BY EXTERNAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Amir [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: Levinson@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the collimation of a highly magnetized jet by a surrounding cocoon that forms as a result of the interaction of the jet with the external medium. We show that in regions where the jet is well confined by the cocoon, current-driven instabilities should develop over timescales shorter than the expansion time of the jet's head. We speculate that these instabilities would give rise to complete magnetic field destruction, whereby the jet undergoes a transition from high to low sigma above the collimation zone. Using this assumption, we construct a self-consistent model for the evolution of the jet-cocoon system in an ambient medium of arbitrary density profile. We apply the model to jet breakout in long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and show that the jet is highly collimated inside the envelope of the progenitor star and is likely to remain confined well after breakout. We speculate that this strong confinement may provide a channel for magnetic field conversion in GRB outflows, whereby the hot, low-sigma jet section thereby produced is the source of the photospheric emission observed in many bursts.

  7. Optical emission in magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. K.; Lu, Y. F.; Gebre, T.; Ling, H.; Han, Y. X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was investigated by studying the optical emission from laser-induced plasma plumes expanding across an external transverse magnetic field. KrF excimer laser pulses with a pulse duration of 23 ns and a wavelength of 248 nm were used to produce plasmas from Al, Cu, and Co targets. Various optical emission lines obtained from Al and Cu targets show an obvious enhancement in the intensity of optical emission when a magnetic field of {approx}0.8 T is applied, while the optical emission lines from Co targets show a decrease in the optical emission intensity. The enhancement factors of optical emission lines were measured to be around 2 for the Al and Mn (impurity) lines from Al targets, and 6-8 for Cu lines from Cu targets. Temporal evolution of the optical emission lines from the Al samples shows a maximum enhancement in emission intensity at time delays of 8-20 {mu}s after the incident laser pulse, while from the Cu targets it shows a continuous enhancement at time delays of 3-20 {mu}s after the pulse. The enhancement in the optical emission from the Al and Cu plasmas was presumably due to the increase in the effective plasma density as a result of magnetic confinement. The decrease in the emission intensity from the Co plasmas was suggested to be due to the decrease of effective plasma density as a result of the magnetic force.

  8. Direct-Drive Inerital Confinement Fusion Research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Charting the Path to Thermonuclear Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCrory, R.L.; Regan, S.P.; Loucks, S.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Keck, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; McKenty, P.W.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress continues to be made at the University of Rocheter's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), charting the path to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition. Direct drive offers the potential for higher-gain implosions than x-ray drive and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion enery power plant.

  9. Fast Neutral Generation by Charge Exchange Reaction and Its Effect on Neutron Production Rate in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K. [Kyushu University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutral generation by charge exchange reaction in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas is studied by solving the Poisson equation and the Boltzmann equation for fast neutrals. Fusion reactions carried by the charge exchange fast neutrals become appreciable compared with ion-background fusion reaction. It is shown that the fusion reaction between fast neutral and background gas is sensitively affected by experimental parameters (grid voltage, background gas pressure) and ion distribution function.

  10. The Development of RF Heating of Magnetically Confined Deuterium-Tritium Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.P. LeBlanc; C.K. Phillips; J.C. Hosea; R. Majeski; S. Bernabei [and others

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental and theoretical development of ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRF) in toroidal magnetically-confined plasmas recently culminated with the demonstration of ICRF heating of D-T plasmas, first in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and then in the Joint European Torus (JET). Various heating schemes based on the cyclotron resonances between the plasma ions and the applied ICRF waves have been used, including second harmonic tritium, minority deuterium, minority helium-3, mode conversion at the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer, and ion Bernstein wave heating. Second harmonic tritium heating was first shown to be effective in a reactor-grade plasma in TFTR. D-minority heating on JET has led to the achievement of Q = 0.22, the ratio of fusion power produced to RF power input, sustained over a few energy confinement times. In this paper, some of the key building blocks in the development of rf heating of plasmas are reviewed and prospects for the development of advanced methods of plasma control based on the application of rf waves are discussed.

  11. {gamma}-ray 'bang-time' measurements with a gas-Cherenkov detector for inertial-confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horsfield, C. J.; Caldwell, S. E.; Christensen, C. R.; Evans, S. C.; Mack, J. M.; Sedillo, T.; Young, C. S.; Glebov, V. Yu. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a laser driven inertial-confinement fusion experiment, bang time is defined as the time between the laser light impinging the target and the peak of the fusion reactions. Bang time is often used to compare computed predictions to experiment. Large laser facilities, such as NIF and LMJ, which are currently under construction, will produce yields far in excess of any previous inertial-confinement fusion experiment. One of the implications of such high yields is that fusion {gamma} rays, which have branching ratios four orders of magnitude less than that of fusion neutrons, may be used to diagnose bang time. This article describes the first of such {gamma}-ray bang-time measurement made using the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The diagnostic used for this was a gas Cherenkov detector. The experimental setup, data and error analyses, and suggested improvements are presented.

  12. Manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as RayleighTaylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.

  13. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prager, Stewart (PPPL) [PPPL

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

  14. Multiple-beam laserplasma interactions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myatt, J. F., E-mail: jmya@lle.rochester.edu; Zhang, J.; Maximov, A. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States); Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental evidence for multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities of relevance to laser driven inertial confinement fusion at the ignition scale is reviewed, in both the indirect and direct-drive approaches. The instabilities described are cross-beam energy transfer (in both indirectly driven targets on the NIF and in direct-drive targets), multiple-beam stimulated Raman scattering (for indirect-drive), and multiple-beam two-plasmon decay instability (in direct drive). Advances in theoretical understanding and in the numerical modeling of these multiple beam instabilities are presented.

  15. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  16. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

  17. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ono, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, R. Kaita, H.W. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, J.M. Canik, S. Diem, S.P.. Gerhardt, J. Hosea, S. Kaye, D. Mansfield, R. Maingi, J. Menard, S. F. Paul, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, C.H. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, G. Taylor, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ~ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  18. Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetton, Brian

    illustrate how various material properties influence the efficiency of the design in our model setting by an imploding shell of lead-lithium. With sufficient compression, the plasma will heat to igni- tion in producing fusion is forcing the lighter particles to interact enough with each other so that they can fuse

  19. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Volume 2, Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in Vol. 1 of this Standard. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While Vol. 1 is generally applicable in that requirements there apply to a wide range of fusion facilities, this volume is concerned mainly with large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This volume is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 1 LA-UR-11-01898 #12;Some Observations An economic for the DOE/NNSA 2 #12;Magneto-inertial fusion: Part of a plan B · May allow more efficient drivers, lower Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 3 #12;A Wide Range of Driver

  2. Path Integral Confined Dirac Fermions in a Constant Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdeldjalil Merdaci; Ahmed Jellal; Lyazid Chetouani

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider Dirac fermion confined in harmonic potential and submitted to a constant magnetic field. The corresponding solutions of the energy spectrum are obtained by using the path integral techniques. For this, we begin by establishing a symmetric global projection, which provides a symmetric form for the Green function. Based on this, we show that it is possible to end up with the propagator of the harmonic oscillator for one charged particle. After some transformations, we derive the normalized wave functions and the eigenvalues in terms of different physical parameters and quantum numbers. By interchanging quantum numbers, we show that our solutions possed interesting properties. The density of current and the non-relativistic limit are analyzed where different conclusions are obtained.

  3. The Case for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of conventional unmagnetized targets by orders of magnitude; (b) makes fusion "easier" for any driver; (c) makes) drivers feasible; (d) allows experimentation at much higher energy (e.g., 20 MJ implosion kinetic energy can reduce the required radial convergence to drivers can lead to a new fusion

  4. Improved Magnetic Fusion Energy Economics Via Massive Resistive Electromagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for magnetic fusion reactors and instead using resistive magnet designs based on cheap copper or aluminum maintenance cost To put the capital cost issue into perspective, consider the following comparison, which incorporate niobium, a rare and expensive material compared to copper or aluminum. In addition to the direct

  5. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini, Leslie Superconductivity Center, Florida State University 2014 FESAC Strategic Planning (SP) Panel June 5, 2014 program now has the opportunity to take a world- leading role in making high field superconducting magnets

  6. The magnetic field and wind confinement of b Cephei: new clues for interpreting the Be phenomenon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donati, Jean-François

    The magnetic field and wind confinement of b Cephei: new clues for interpreting the Be phenomenon and of the associated magnetically confined wind and circumstellar environment. A re- examination of the fundamental with an inclination of the rotation axis of about 608. Using two different modelling strategies, we obtain

  7. Fusion reactor control study. Volume 4: inertial confinement reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, F.R.; Fisher, J.L.; Madden, P.A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor control investigated concepts of the type intended to be driven by laser, electron, or light-ion pulsed energy beams. The study delineates the major reactor control functions, the methods and techniques advanced so far to perform those functions, and the problems, uncertainties, and issues associated with their possible implementation. The perceived shortcomings of some proposed methods of beam/target interaction initiated a search for potentially better solutions to the guidance/pointing/tracking control problem. A preliminary study of a new scheme to accomplish this most important control function is described. The simulated performance of the concept, which involves the active control of the intensity of a laser tube through which the fuel pellet travels to the target point, is encouraging. However, it is concluded that a more detailed study including experimental verification is required to establish the practicality of the concept.

  8. Development of a Bayesian method for the analysis of inertial confinement fusion experiments on the NIF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Jim A; Sonnad, Vijay; Libby, Stephen B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex nature of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments results in a very large number of experimental parameters that are only known with limited reliability. These parameters, combined with the myriad physical models that govern target evolution, make the reliable extraction of physics from experimental campaigns very difficult. We develop an inference method that allows all important experimental parameters, and previous knowledge, to be taken into account when investigating underlying microphysics models. The result is framed as a modified $\\chi^{2}$ analysis which is easy to implement in existing analyses, and quite portable. We present a first application to a recent convergent ablator experiment performed at the NIF, and investigate the effect of variations in all physical dimensions of the target (very difficult to do using other methods). We show that for well characterised targets in which dimensions vary at the 0.5% level there is little effect, but 3% variations change the results of i...

  9. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Doug C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  10. Mode 1 drive asymmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K., E-mail: spears9@llnl.gov; Edwards, M. J.; Hatchett, S.; Kritcher, A.; Lindl, J.; Munro, D.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mode 1 radiation drive asymmetry (pole-to-pole imbalance) at significant levels can have a large impact on inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This asymmetry distorts the cold confining shell and drives a high-speed jet through the hot spot. The perturbed hot spot shows increased residual kinetic energy and reduced internal energy, and it achieves reduced pressure and neutron yield. The altered implosion physics manifests itself in observable diagnostic signatures, especially the neutron spectrum which can be used to measure the neutron-weighted flow velocity, apparent ion temperature, and neutron downscattering. Numerical simulations of implosions with mode 1 asymmetry show that the resultant simulated diagnostic signatures are moved toward the values observed in many NIF experiments. The diagnostic output can also be used to build a set of integrated implosion performance metrics. The metrics indicate that P{sub 1} has a significant impact on implosion performance and must be carefully controlled in NIF implosions.

  11. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  12. Pressure and impulse scaling methods for wall impact in ICF (inertial confinement fusion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.C.; Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Orth, C.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the first structural wall (FSW) in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor requires some knowledge of the expected wall loading produced by x-ray and neutron deposition; specifically in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reactor, wall loading results from two sources -- gas shock and liquid impact. Gas shock is derived from x-ray deposition in the thin layers of exposed blanket material, producing ionized vapor, which will generate gas shock on the FSW. Liquid impact, on the other hand, results from the acceleration of liquid blanket material by two possible forces -- the drag from vapor expansion through the blanket material and the neutron-induced isochoric disassembly process. Both impacts, however, are coupled by the interaction of hot gas expanding through the liquid blanket. This paper discusses scaling methods for estimating pressure and impulse on the HYLIFE FSW from these impacts. In particular, this paper reviews simple analytical and numerical techniques, and the use of experimental results in the estimation of wall impacts for the HYLIFE blanket geometry. Considered important in the analyses are supersonic flow through jet arrays and isochoric disassembly. Given the same initial parameters as those used in previous HYLIFE studies, the techniques described here yield results comparable to the previous studies utilizing heavy numerical simulation.

  13. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  14. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, Ryan D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized alpha-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original Ma...

  15. Framework for a Road Map to Magnetic Fusion Energy Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Framework for a Road Map to Magnetic Fusion Energy Status Report Dale Meade for U. S. Magnetic paths: 1) ITER plus Fusion Nuclear Science Facility leading to a Tokamak DEMO 2) ITER directly Fusion Program Leaders Working Group MIT Independent Activities Period Plasma Science and Fusion Center

  16. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  17. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    for U.S. fusion research. This presentation proposes a mission for a major new U.S. facility, leading-even behind us, it is now time to address the logically first of the combined physics and technology% Japan 13% U.S. 10% China 10% India 10% Russia 10% S. Korea China Europe India Japan (w/EU) South Korea U

  18. On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1 , L. E. Zakharov2 It is shown that lithium walls resulting in zero recycling conditions at the edge of magnetic fusion device strong impact of fully absorbing lithium walls on the performance of magnetic fusion devices have been

  19. Dynamic symmetry of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsules on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Town, R. P. J., E-mail: town2@llnl.gov; Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Dppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments.

  20. Report of the Technical' Panel on Magnetic Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Grumman CorporationBethpage, New York 11714-3580 Joseph G. Gavin, Jr Senior Management Consultant DecemberDOE/S-O035 Report of the Technical' Panel on Magnetic Fusion of the Energy Research Advisory Board November 1986 A Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board to the United States Department of Energy

  1. Stable High Beta Plasmas Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field D. T. Garnier,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Stable High Beta Plasmas Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field D. T. Garnier, A. Hansen, M. E. Mauel Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (Dated: October 21, 2005) Abstract Stable high-beta plasma is created we report the first production of high beta plasma confined by a laboratory dipole using neutral gas

  2. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V rely on superconducting magnets for efficient and reliable production of these magnetic fields. Superconducting magnet technology is a powerful knob

  3. Generation and compression of a target plasma for magnetized target fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T. [and others

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is intermediate between the two very different approaches to fusion: inertial and magnetic confinement fusion (ICF and MCF). Results from collaboration with a Russian MTF team on their MAGO experiments suggest they have a target plasma suitable for compression to provide an MTF proof of principle. This LDRD project had tow main objectives: first, to provide a computational basis for experimental investigation of an alternative MTF plasma, and second to explore the physics and computational needs for a continuing program. Secondary objectives included analytic and computational support for MTF experiments. The first objective was fulfilled. The second main objective has several facets to be described in the body of this report. Finally, the authors have developed tools for analyzing data collected on the MAGO a nd LDRD experiments, and have tested them on limited MAGO data.

  4. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  5. Metrics for long wavelength asymmetries in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Town, R.; Bradley, D.; Clark, D.; Spears, B.; Jones, O.; Haan, S.; Springer, P. T.; Lindl, J.; Callahan, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Scott, R. H. H. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)] [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate yield degradation due to applied low mode P2 and P4 asymmetries in layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. This study has been performed with a large database of >600 2D simulations. We show that low mode radiation induced drive asymmetries can result in significant deviation between the core hot spot shape and the fuel ?R shape at peak compression. In addition, we show that significant residual kinetic energy at peak compression can be induced by these low mode asymmetries. We have developed a metric, which is a function of the hot spot shape, fuel ?R shape, and residual kinetic energy at peak compression, that is well correlated to yield degradation due to low mode shape perturbations. It is shown that the ?R shape and residual kinetic energy cannot, in general, be recovered by inducing counter asymmetries to make the hot core emission symmetric. In addition, we show that the yield degradation due to low mode asymmetries is well correlated to measurements of time dependent shape throughout the entire implosion, including early time shock symmetry and inflight fuel symmetry.

  6. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: huangyblhy@gmail.com [Mechatronics School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  7. Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: heat transfer loop and balance of plant considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, M.W.; Murray, K.A.

    1984-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance of plant design for the Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and results are presented. The Pulse*Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar approximately 11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ coolant which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5 m thick plenum of droplets around an 8 m diameter inner chamber. The reactor and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17 m diameter pool of Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops with flow rates of 5.5 m/sup 3//s each are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. Power balance calculations based on an improved electrical conversion efficiency revealed a net electrical output of 1260 MWe to the bus bar and a resulting net efficiency of 39%. Suggested balance-of-plant layouts are also presented.

  8. Real viscosity effects in inertial confinement fusion target deuteriumtritium micro-implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R. J., E-mail: rodmason01@msn.com; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Faehl, R. J. [Research Applications Corporation, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Research Applications Corporation, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on numerical studies of real viscous effects on the implosion characteristics of imploded DT micro-targets. We use the implicit ePLAS code to perform 2D simulations of spherical and slightly ellipsoidal DT shells on DT gas filled ?40??m diameter voids. Before their final implosions the shells have been nearly adiabatically compressed up to 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3}?g/cm{sup 3} densities. While the use of conventional artificial viscosity can lead to high central densities for initially spherical shells, we find that a real physical viscosity from ion-ion collisions can give a high (>20?keV) central temperature but severely reduced central density (<200?g/cm{sup 3}), while the elliptical shells evidence p?=?2 distortion of the heated central fuel region. These results suggest that the general use of artificial viscosities in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) modeling may have lead to overly optimistic yields for current NIF targets and that polar direct drive with more energy for the imploding capsule may be needed for ultimate ICF success.

  9. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tommasini, R; MacPhee, A; Hey, D; Ma, T; Chen, C; Izumi, N; Unites, W; MacKinnon, A; Hatchett, S P; Remington, B A; Park, H S; Springer, P; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Seely, J; Holland, G; Hudson, L

    2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting Bremsstrahlung x-rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the Bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length, from solid targets irradiated at 2e17-5e18 W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {micro}m, and conversion efficiencies of about 1e-3 J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding, and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  10. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Justin, Terence Davies, Frans Janson, Bruce Marshall, Perry Bell, Daniel Kalantar, Joseph Kimbrough, Stephen Vernon, Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called comb pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber.

  11. An improved method for measuring the absolute DD neutron yield and calibrating neutron time-of-flight detectors in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the establishment of nuclear physics in the early 1900's and the development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950's, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been an important field in physics. Funded largely though the ...

  12. Hamiltonian description of low frequency waves propagation and absorption in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumont, R. J.; Eriksson, L.-G. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetically confined fusion plasmas feature a large variety of waves. In the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF), radiofrequency waves are routinely used for plasma heating and non-inductive current-drive, whereas unstable modes in the Alfven range of frequencies are observed in ongoing experiments and are expected to play a crucial role in future devices. In experiments where Alfven and ICRF waves co-exist, a strong interplay between them is observed via the intermediary of the wave accelerated fast ions. A Hamiltonian description of the resonating particles is particularly well adapted to describe accurately their interaction with ICRF and Alfven waves. It provides a convenient framework for self-consistent calculations of the wave propagation and the kinetics of resonating plasma species. In the wave-field calculation, this formulation allows to account for non-local effects caused by wide fast particle orbits (e.g. wave accelerated fast ions and alpha particles). We present here the progress made in the development of the full-wave code EVE, based on a Hamiltonian description of the particle dynamics in terms of action-angle variables. The formalism of EVE, the numerical aspects, as well as some simulation results obtained with the code are discussed.

  13. Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials Science Subcommittee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials for tritium-suppressed D-D fusion and the understanding of the turbulent pinch in magnetically confined plasma pathway. Tritium- suppressed D-D fusion eliminates the need to breed fuel from lithium, reduces the damage

  14. MMMMaaaaggggnnnneeeettttiiiicccc FFFFuuuussssiiiioooonnnn EEEEnnnneeeerrrrggggyyyy MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES - NO CARBON EMISSIONS - LOW RADIOACTIVITY · CAN'T BLOW UP, CAN'T MELT DOWN - , WIND, ETC. - MINIMAL LAND USE · Not subject to daily, seasonal or regional weather variation. - NO NEED FFFFuuuussssiiiioooonnnn EEEEnnnneeeerrrrggggyyyy Schematic of MFE Power Plant Raw Fuel WasteFuel p First Wall Magnet

  15. Improving particle confinement in inertial electrostatic fusion for spacecraft power and propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Carl, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion energy is attractive for use in future spacecraft because of improved fuel energy density and reduced radioactivity compared with fission power. Unfortunately, the most promising means of generating fusion power on ...

  16. Study of internal magnetic field via polarimetry in fusion plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivation Controlled thermonuclear fusion is a promising2007]. Controlled thermonuclear fusion is based on the

  17. Progress with developing a target for magnetized target fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wysocki, F.J.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Whiteson, D.O.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with an embedded magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV, and must be free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. Target plasma generation experiments are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Colt facility; a 0.25 MJ, 2--3 {micro}s rise-time capacitor bank. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate plasma conditions meeting the minimum requirements for a MTF initial target plasma. In the first experiments, a Z-pinch is produced in a 2 cm radius by 2 cm high conducting wall using a static gas-fill of hydrogen or deuterium gas in the range of 0.5 to 2 torr. Thus far, the diagnostics include an array of 12 B-dot probes, framing camera, gated OMA visible spectrometer, time-resolved monochrometer, filtered silicon photodiodes, neutron yield, and plasma-density interferometer. These diagnostics show that a plasma is produced in the containment region that lasts roughly 10 to 20 {micro}s with a maximum plasma density exceeding 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. The experimental design and data are presented.

  18. A Magnetic Diagnostic Code for 3D Fusion Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Aaron Lazerson

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic magnetic diagnostics code for fusion equilibria is presented. This code calculates the response of various magnetic diagnostics to the equilibria produced by the VMEC and PIES codes. This allows for treatment of equilibria with both good nested flux surfaces and those with stochastic regions. DIAGNO v2.0 builds upon previous codes through the implementation of a virtual casing principle. The codes is validated against a vacuum shot on the Large Helical Device where the vertical field was ramped. As an exercise of the code, the diagnostic response for various equilibria are calculated on the Large Helical Device (LHD).

  19. A Magnetic Diagnostic Code for 3D Fusion Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel A. Lazerson, S. Sakakibara and Y. Suzuki

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic magnetic diagnostics code for fusion equilibria is presented. This code calculates the response of various magnetic diagnostics to the equilibria produced by the VMEC and PIES codes. This allows for treatment of equilibria with both good nested flux surfaces and those with stochastic regions. DIAGNO v2.0 builds upon previous codes through the implementation of a virtual casing principle. The code is validated against a vacuum shot on the Large Helical Device (LHD) where the vertical field was ramped. As an exercise of the code, the diagnostic response for various equilibria are calculated on the LHD.

  20. Propagation of shear Alven waves in two-ion species plasmas confined by a nonuniform magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Propagation of shear Alven waves in two-ion species plasmas confined by a nonuniform magnetic field for waves originally propagating along the magnetic field direction. Calculations are performed for waves propagating across the confinement magnetic field, typically the compressional or fast Alfven wave

  1. Magnetic monopole and confinement/deconfinement phase transition in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiro Shibata; Kei-Ichi Kondo; Seikou Kato; Toru Shinohara

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory for the mechanism of quark confinement,and we presented the numerical evidences in preceding lattice conferences by using the proposed gauge link decomposition to extract magnetic monopole in the gauge invariant way. In this talk, we focus on the dual Meissner effects in view of the magnetic monopole in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. We measure the chromoelectric and chromomagnetic flux due to a pair of quark and antiquark source at finite temperature. Then, we measure the correlation function of Polyakov loops and Polyakov loop average at various temperatures, and investigate chromomagnetic monopole current induced by chromo-magnetic flux in both confinement and deconfinement phase. We will discuss the role of the chromoelectric monopole in confinement/deconfinement phase transition.

  2. NNSA Defense Programs Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion and National Ignition Facility Project Dr. Christopher J. Keane NA-16 Office of Inertial Scott L. Samuelson NA-162 NA-10 * = stationed in Albuquerque #12;5 Militarily Effective Yield Fission concepts (pulsed power fusion, "fast ignition", petawatt lasers) 4. Maintain robust national program

  3. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan G., E-mail: lynn@ece.unm.edu; Gilmore, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ?10{sup 4} T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (?10{sup ?10}m{sup 3}) at high plasma densities (?10{sup 28}m{sup ?3}) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  4. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and their partial or total evaporation in the expanding flow.

  5. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13 CO to Lipid 31 P ABSTRACT: Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane

  6. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION B. Fornberg,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION N. Flyer,1 B. Fornberg numerically to generate a continuum of solutions with two parameters to control the total azimuthal flux from the study to the solar corona and the energetics of coronal mass ejections and flares. Subject

  8. MHD problems in free liquid surfaces as plasma-facing materials in magnetically confined reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    -producing magnetically confined reactors. Solid PFC cannot be reliably used because of the large erosion losses during is in 5 T, the density r is g/cm3 , and the liquid metal is lithium. The velocity V0 and thickness/depth h

  9. Observation of the Dynamical Structure of Turbulence in Plasma Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Observation of the Dynamical Structure of Turbulence in Plasma Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field in time and cause chaotic plasma fluctuations. The predominance of large scale structures represents energy cascade and a linear damping of small scale structures. PACS numbers: 52.35Mw, 52.35.Ra, 52.55.Hc

  10. A real-time algorithm for the harmonic estimation and frequency tracking of dominant components in fusion plasma magnetic diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves, D.; Coelho, R. [Associao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Associao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The real-time tracking of instantaneous quantities such as frequency, amplitude, and phase of components immerse in noisy signals has been a common problem in many scientific and engineering fields such as power systems and delivery, telecommunications, and acoustics for the past decades. In magnetically confined fusion research, extracting this sort of information from magnetic signals can be of valuable assistance in, for instance, feedback control of detrimental magnetohydrodynamic modes and disruption avoidance mechanisms by monitoring instability growth or anticipating mode-locking events. This work is focused on nonlinear Kalman filter based methods for tackling this problem. Similar methods have already proven their merits and have been successfully employed in this scientific domain in applications such as amplitude demodulation for the motional Stark effect diagnostic. In the course of this work, three approaches are described, compared, and discussed using magnetic signals from the Joint European Torus tokamak plasma discharges for benchmarking purposes.

  11. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (711 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (57 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the viewing of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self-consistent treatment of the induced fields that accounts for toroidally asymmetric MHD response. In addition, a significant number of studies focused on understanding nonlinear behavior by means of computer simulation of energetic particle driven instability. An under-represented area of investigation was the study of electron runaway formation during major tokamak disruptions. It was noted in an overview by S. Putvinski that electron energies in the 1020 MeV range is to be expected during projected major disruptions in ITER and that reliable methods for mitigation of the runaway process needs to be developed. Significant recent work in the field of the disruption induced electron runaway, which was reported by J. Riemann, had been submitted to Physics of Plasmas [3]. Overall it is clear that reliable mitigation of electron runaway is an extremely important topic that is in need of better understanding and solutions.

  12. A Cognitive Vision System for Nuclear Fusion Device Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power by magnetic confinement of a plasma (fully ionized gasA Cognitive Vision System for Nuclear Fusion Device Monitoring Vincent Martin1 , Victor Moncada1 optimizations. The framework is generic and can be easily adapted to different fusion device environ- ments

  13. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and R are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA 3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF Rev, Livermore, California 94550, USA 4 General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186, USA (Received 5 June 2014

  14. Confinement Of Pure Ion Plasma In A Cylindrical Current Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    j ?B force. An equilibrium calculation using a relativistic, 1-D, cold-fluid model shows: the confine- ment of non-neutral ion plasmas that are adequately dense for controlled thermonu- clear fusion limit? Conventional magnetic fusion devices contain quasi-neutral plasmas in a toroidal or linear

  15. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, S.N. [ed.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The Beamlet Front End: Prototype of a new pulse generation system;imaging biological objects with x-ray lasers; coherent XUV generation via high-order harmonic generation in rare gases; theory of high-order harmonic generation; two-dimensional computer simulations of ultra- intense, short-pulse laser-plasma interactions; neutron detectors for measuring the fusion burn history of ICF targets; the recirculator; and lasnex evolves to exploit computer industry advances.

  16. Magnetic Bion Condensation: A New Mechanism ofConfinement and Mass Gap in Four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent work, we derived the long distance confining dynamics of certain QCD-like gauge theories formulated on small S{sup 1} x R{sup 3} based on symmetries, an index theorem and abelian duality. Here, we give the microscopic derivation. The solution reveals a new mechanism of confinement in QCD(adj) in the regime where we have control over both perturbative and nonperturbative aspects. In particular, consider SU(2) QCD(adj) theory with 1 {le} n{sub f} {le} 4 Majorana fermions, a theory which undergoes gauge symmetry breaking at small S{sup 1}. If the magnetic charge of the BPS monopole is normalized to unity, we show that confinement occurs due to condensation of objects with magnetic charge 2, not 1. Due to index theorems, we know that such an object cannot be a two identical monopole configuration. Its net topological charge must vanish, and hence it must be topologically indistinguishable from the perturbative vacuum. We construct such objects, the magnetically charged, topologically null molecules of a BPS monopole and {bar K}{bar K} antimonopole, which we refer as magnetic bions. An immediate puzzle with this proposal is the apparent Coulomb repulsion between BPS-{bar K}{bar K} pair. An attraction which overcomes the Coulomb repulsion between the two is induced by 2n{sub f} -fermion exchange. Bion condensation is also the mechanism of confinement in N = 1 SYM on the same four-manifold. The SU(N) generalization hints a possible hidden integrability behind nonsupersymmetric QCD of affine Toda type, and allows us to analytically compute the string tensions and thicknesses. We currently do not know the extension to R{sup 4}.

  17. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  18. ERDA-76/110/l FUSION POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ERDA-76/110/l UC-20 FUSION POWER BY MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT PROGRAMPLAN VOLUME I SUMMARY JULY 1976 electric plants. These include direct production of hydrogen gas and/or synthetic fuels; direct energy production for chemical processing; fissile fuel production; fission product waste disposal; and fusion

  19. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masnari, Nino A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Rensel, Walter B. (Ann Arbor, MI); Robinson, Merrill G. (Ann Arbor, MI); Solomon, David E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wise, Kensall D. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wuttke, Gilbert H. (Ypsilanti Township, Washtenaw County, MI)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ICF target comprising a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a concentric shell; and a process for manufacturing the same which includes the steps of forming hemispheric shells of a silicon or other substrate material, adhering the shell segments to each other with a fuel pellet contained concentrically therein, then separating the individual targets from the parent substrate. Formation of hemispheric cavities by deposition or coating of a mold substrate is also described. Coatings or membranes may also be applied to the interior of the hemispheric segments prior to joining.

  20. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF Using novel neutron spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Daniel Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), was designed, built, and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the neutron spectra from ...

  1. Fusion and Plasma Physics are at the Core of Nature's Most Powerful Self-Driven Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -D DIII-D JET FT ITER Ignitor, CIT, FIRE TFTR OmegaU direct drive Nova indirect drive Nova direct drive Laser D-T #12;Comparison of Typical Plasma Parameters for Inertial and Magnetic Fusion Inertial Magnetic is Confinement a Challenge for Magnetic Fusion? A D-T reactor at a fuel density of 1020 m-3 requires E ~ 1 second

  2. Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1997) 159188 ARIES-RS magnet systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1997) 159188 ARIES-RS magnet systems L. Bromberg a, *, P. Titus and engineering data bases. In contrast with ARIES-I [1], with a high magnetic field and aggressive engineering. The engineering approach to evaluate the magnet issues for ARIES-RS is simi- lar to that of ARIES-II and ARIES

  3. Fusion Engineering and Design 80 (2006) 139160 ARIES-AT magnet systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion Engineering and Design 80 (2006) 139160 ARIES-AT magnet systems F. Dahlgrenb,, T. Brownb, P the physics and the engineering are more aggressive. The design of the toroidal field magnet is slightly less Available online 21 October 2005 Abstract This report presents a conceptual design of the magnet systems

  4. NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS OF A SELF-COOLED BLANKET FOR A LASER FUSION PLANT WITH MAGNETIC DIVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. Ren

    NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS OF A SELF-COOLED BLANKET FOR A LASER FUSION PLANT WITH MAGNETIC DIVERSION M. INTRODUCTION The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is carrying out a coordinated effort to develop laser accommodate the ion and photon threat spectra from the fusion micro-explosion over its required lifetime

  5. The solar tachocline: a self-consistent model of magnetic confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Toby

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tachocline: A Self-Consistent Model of Magnetic Confinement Toby Wood Queens College, Cambridge A Dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy April 2010 There is no easy way from the earth... with members of my research group, including Prof. D. O. Gough, Dr. G. I. Ogilvie, Prof. J. C. B. Papaloizou, Prof. M. R. E. Proctor and Prof. N. O. Weiss. I am indebted to Prof. J. Christensen- Dalsgaard for providing the one-dimensional profiles of the solar...

  6. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  7. Dependence of Shell Mix on Feedthrough in Direct Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, F. J. Marshall, J. M. Soures, V. A. Smalyuk, P. B. Radha, B. Yaakobi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dependence of Shell Mix on Feedthrough in Direct Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion S. P. Regan, J 87545, USA J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, and F. H. Se´guin Plasma Science and Fusion Center May 2004) The mixing of cold, high-density shell plasma with the low-density, hot spot plasma

  8. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  9. Status and Promise CT's and Magnetized Target Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Hill (LLNL) #12;CT's: Spheromaks & Field Reversed Configurations At LLNL, the SSPX experiment is investigating spheromak formation, sustainment, and confinement issues. (Hill, Mclean, Wood, Ryutov). At UC-Davis, formation and acceleration of spheromaks. (Hwang) At the U of Washington, field reversed configuration

  10. THE NATIONAL FUSION COLLABORATORY PROJECT: APPLYING GRID TECHNOLOGY FOR MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary R.

    of advanced software tools that reduce technical barriers to collaboration and sharing on a national scale. Our vision is to make resources -- data, computers along with analysis, simulation and visualization-institutional collaboration on fusion experiments, and improving comparisons between experiments and theory. The project

  11. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) (a.k.a. Magneto-Inertial Fusion)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .g., Atlas $50M). The low cost and size of experimental facilities should significantly reduce fusion TEMPERATURE (eV) IONDENSITY(/cm)3 1016 1014 1018 1020 1022 1024 1026 103 104 105 Facility Cost($) = 1 TEMPERATURE (eV) 104 105 Facility Cost($) B=5 MG Operation at an intermediate density leads to reduced

  12. Technology spinoffs from the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document briefly describes eight new spin-offs from the fusion program: (1) cray timesharing system, (2) CRT touch panel, (3) magneform, (4) plasma separation process, (5) homopolar resistance welding, (6) plasma diagnostic development, (7) electrodeless microwave lamp, and (8) superconducting energy storage. (MOW)

  13. A Plan for the Deveiopment of Magnetic Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    source for meeting future base-loadelectricity needs. Fusion fuel supply is widely available, controlof plasma-wall interactions, tritium processing, developmentof low-activationradiation-damage that relies more heavily on internationalcollaboration. Since about 611 billion (1990 dollars) have been spent

  14. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  15. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, George P. (Arlington, VA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

  16. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

  17. A Study of Liquid Metal Film Flow, Under Fusion Relevant Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, M.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.A. [UCLA (United States)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of flowing liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has received considerable attention over the past several years both in the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. A key issue for the feasibility of flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, lies in their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior. The spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device can lead to serious flow disrupting MHD forces that hinder the development of a smooth and controllable flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields, to aid in better understanding of flowing liquid metal PFC systems.

  18. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  19. First-wall and blanket engineering development for magnetic-fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.; Herman, H.; Maroni, V.; Turner, L.; Clemmer, R.; Finn, P.; Johnson, C.; Abdou, M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of programs in the USA concerned with materials and engineering development of the first wall and breeder blanket systems for magnetic-fusion power reactors are described. Argonne National Laboratory has the lead or coordinating role, with many major elements of the research and engineering tests carried out by a number of organizations including industry and other national laboratories.

  20. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schissel, David P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Abla, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Burruss, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Feibush, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Fredian, T. W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Goode, M. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenwald, M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Keahey, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leggett, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Li, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); McCune, D. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Papka, M. E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Randerson, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Sanderson, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Thompson, M. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Uram, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES ??Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid'??s resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  1. Impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vujic, J.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sisolak et al. defined two methods for the approximation of pulsed irradiation: the steady-state (SS) and the equivalent steady-state (ESS) methods. Both methods have been shown to greatly simplify the process of calculating radionuclide inventories. However, they are not accurate when applied to magnetic fusion energy (MFF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) experimental facilities. In the work reported here, an attempt has been made to evaluate the accuracy of the SS and ESS methods as they might be applied to typical MFE and IFE power plants. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Hydrogen Hydrogen FusionFusionFusionFusionFusionFusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiz, Ulrich

    100.000 years LNGS Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso Borexino THE THERMONUCLEAR FUSION REACTIONHydrogen Hydrogen Fusion Deuterium FusionFusionFusionFusionFusionFusion THE SUN AS BOREXINO SEES

  3. Nuclear processes in magnetic fusion reactors with polarized fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michail P. Rekalo; Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson

    2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the processes $d +d \\to n +{^3He}$, $d +{^3He} \\to p +{^4He}$, $d +{^3H} \\to n +{^4He}$, ${^3He} +{^3He}\\to p+p +{^4He}$, ${^3H} +{^3He}\\to d +{^4He}$, with particular attention for applications in fusion reactors. After a model independent parametrization of the spin structure of the matrix elements for these processes at thermal colliding energies, in terms of partial amplitudes, we study polarization phenomena in the framework of a formalism of helicity amplitudes. The strong angular dependence of the final nuclei and of the polarization observables on the polarizations of the fuel components can be helpful in the design of the reactor shielding, blanket arrangement etc..We analyze also the angular dependence of the neutron polarization for the processes $\\vec d +\\vec d \\to n +{^3He}$ and $\\vec d +\\vec {^3H} \\to n +{^4He}$.

  4. External proton beam analysis of plasma facing materials for magnetic confinement fusion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Harold Salvadore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 1.7MV tandem accelerator was reconstructed and refurbished for this thesis and for surface science applications at the Cambridge laboratory for accelerator study of surfaces (CLASS). At CLASS, an external proton beam ...

  5. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create visualizations and perform analysis of their simulation data from either the MDSplus data storage environment or from locally stored HDF5 files. More advanced tools for visualization and analysis also were created in collaboration with the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling. Versions of SCIRun with the FusionViewer have been made available to fusion scientists on the Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix based platforms and have been downloaded 1163 times. SCIRun has been used with NIMROD, M3D, BOUT fusion simulation data as well as simulation data from other SciDAC application areas (e.g., Astrophysics). The subsequent visualization results - including animations - have been incorporated into invited talks at multiple APS/DPP meetings as well as peer reviewed journal articles. As an example, SCIRun was used for the visualization and analysis of a NIMROD simulation of a disruption that occurred in a DIII-D experiment. The resulting animations and stills were presented as part of invited talks at APS/DPP meetings and the SC04 conference in addition to being highlighted in the NIH/NSF Visualization Research Challenges Report. By achieving its technical goals, the University of Utah played a key role in the successful development of a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. Many of the visualization tools developed as part of the NFC continue to be used by Fusion and other SciDAC application scientists and are currently being supported and expanded through follow-on up on SciDAC projects (Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technology, and the Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion SAP).

  6. An in-situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science in magnetic fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartwig, Zachary Seth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices such as fuel retention, material erosion and redeposition, and material mixing present significant scientific and engineering challenges, particularly for the ...

  7. Rheological behavior and cryogenic properties of cyanate ester/epoxy insulation material for fusion superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR (China); Li, L. F. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China and State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, C (China); Li, J. W. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR (China); Tan, R.; Tu, Y. P. [North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, PR (China)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Tokamak fusion reactor device like ITER, insulation materials for superconducting magnets are usually fabricated by a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. Thus these insulation materials must exhibit low viscosity, long working life as well as good radiation resistance. Previous studies have indicated that cyanate ester (CE) blended with epoxy has an excellent resistance against neutron irradiation which is expected to be a candidate insulation material for a fusion magnet. In this work, the rheological behavior of a CE/epoxy (CE/EP) blend containing 40% CE was investigated with non-isothermal and isothermal viscosity experiments. Furthermore, the cryogenic mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were evaluated in terms of interlaminar shear strength and electrical breakdown strength. The results showed that CE/epoxy blend had a very low viscosity and an exceptionally long processing life of about 4 days at 60 C.

  8. Fusion and Plasma Physics are at the Core of Nature's Most Powerful Self-Driven Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    drive Nova indirect drive Nova direct drive Laser D-T #12;Comparison of Typical Plasma Parameters Density Magnetic Higher Density Magnetic DIII-D DIII-D JET FT ITER Ignitor, CIT, FIRE TFTR OmegaU direct 2 radius (m) 10 -4 1 #12;Why is Confinement a Challenge for Magnetic Fusion? A D-T reactor at a fuel

  9. Plasma Barodiffusion in Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Implosions: Application to Observed Yield Anomalies in Thermonuclear Fuel Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anomalies in Thermonuclear Fuel Mixtures Peter Amendt, O. L. Landen, and H. F. Robey Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551, USA C. K. Li and R. D. Petrasso Plasma Science and Fusion performance in general, and upcoming igni- tion tuning campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [4

  10. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ?R are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Sguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ?1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are <10% in yield and 120?keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  11. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A. J.; Cooper, G. W. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Smelser, R.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

  12. Advanced 3 -D electron kinetic calculations for the current drive problem in magnetically confined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    thermonuclear plasmas Y Peysson, J Decker, A Bers, R Harvey§and A Ram Association EURATOM-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance, France Plasma Science and Fusion Center is a challenging issue for realistic simulations of thermonuclear tokamak plasmas. Relativistic corrections

  13. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chris Holland

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  14. Development of accelerator based spatially resolved ion beam analysis techniques for the study of plasma materials interactions in magnetic fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Harold Salvadore

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices pose significant scientific and engineering challenges for the development of steady-state fusion power reactors. Understanding PMI is crucial for the develpment ...

  15. Summary of the report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Logan, B.G.; Schultz, K.R.

    1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) has assessed magnetic fusion energy's prospects for providing energy with economic, environmental, and safety characteristics that would be attractive compared with other energy sources (mainly fission) available in the year 2015 and beyond. ESECOM gives particular attention to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics of a variety of magnetic fusion reactors, and compares them with a variety of fission cases. Eight fusion cases, two fusion-fission hybrid cases, and four fission cases are examined, using consistent economic and safety models. These models permit exploration of the environmental, safety, and economic potential of fusion concepts using a wide range of possible materials choices, power densities, power conversion schemes, and fuel cycles. The ESECOM analysis indicates that magnetic fusion energy systems have the potential to achieve costs-of-electricity comparable to those of present and future fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 75 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Report ofReport of Nuclear Fusion Section,Nuclear Fusion Section,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    governmental negotiation is being undertaken concerning technical site assessment addressing construction) It is essential to develop plans for success of ITER and early realization of fusion power. subcommittee: ~ 1 / 104) Other magnetic confinement systems: ~ 1 / 1055 (ii) power plant concept & engineering

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  18. Density profiles of plasmas confined by the field of a Levitating Dipole Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Alexander C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure the density profiles of plasmas confined within the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). LDX is the first and only experiment ...

  19. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics.

  20. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  1. Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Byron J.; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Kostryukov, Artem Yu.; Miroshnikov, Igor V. [St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Seo, Dongcheol [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Omori, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 {mu}m, 256x360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF{sub 2} optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cmx9 cmx5 {mu}m tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is achieved with 40x24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} for 16x12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U.

  2. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  3. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  4. On the efficacy of imploding plasma liners for magnetized fusion target compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5688 (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new theoretical model is formulated to study the idea of merging a spherical array of converging plasma jets to form a 'plasma liner' that further converges to compress a magnetized plasma target to fusion conditions [Y. C. F. Thio et al., 'Magnetized target fusion in a spheroidal geometry with standoff drivers', Current Trends in International Fusion Research II, edited by E. Panarella (National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999)]. For a spherically imploding plasma liner shell with high initial Mach number (M=liner speed/sound speed) the rise in liner density with decreasing radius r goes as {rho}{approx}1/r{sup 2}, for any constant adiabatic index {gamma}=d ln p/d ln {rho}. Accordingly, spherical convergence amplifies the ram pressure of the liner on target by the factor A{approx}C{sup 2}, indicating strong coupling to its radial convergence C=r{sub m}/R, where r{sub m}(R)=jet merging radius (compressed target radius), and A=compressed target pressure/initial liner ram pressure. Deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma liners with initial velocity {approx}100 km/s and {gamma}=5/3, need to be hypersonic M{approx}60 and thus cold in order to realize values of A{approx}10{sup 4} necessary for target ignition. For optically thick DT liners, T<2 eV, n>10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, blackbody radiative cooling is appreciable and may counteract compressional heating during the later stages of the implosion. The fluid then behaves as if the adiabatic index were depressed below 5/3, which in turn means that the same amplification A=1.6x10{sup 4} can be accomplished with a reduced initial Mach number M{approx_equal}12.7({gamma}-0.3){sup 4.86}, valid in the range (10fusion {alpha}-particle heating of the collapsed liner indicates that 'spark' ignition of the DT liner fuel does not appear to be possible for magnetized fusion targets with typical threshold values of areal density {rho}R<0.02 g cm{sup -2}.

  5. Nuclear Fusion: Bringing a star down to Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion offers the potential for being a near limitless energy source by fusing together deuterium and tritium nuclei to form helium inside a plasma burning at 100 million kelvin. However, scientific and engineering challenges remain. This paper describes how such a plasma can be confined on Earth and discusses the similarities and differences with fusion in stars. It focusses on the magnetic confinement technique and, in particular, the method used in a tokamak. The confinement achieved in the equilibrium state is reviewed and it is shown how the confinement can be too good, leading to explosive instabilities at the plasma edge called Edge Localised modes (ELMs). It is shown how the impact of ELMs can be minimised by the application of magnetic perturbations and discusses the physics behind the penetration of these perturbations into what is ideally a perfect conducting plasma.

  6. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours.

  7. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000--000 (0000) Printed 7 June 2001 (MN L A T E X style file v2.2) The magnetic field and wind confinement of fi Cephei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donati, Jean-François

    .2) The magnetic field and wind confinement of fi Cephei: new clues for interpreting the Be phenomenon? J of the large scale magnetic field and of the associated magnetically confined wind and cir­ cumstellar of 26000 K and age of 12 Myr, viewed with an inclination of the rotation axis of about 60 ffi . Using two

  8. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide to Lipid Distances Reveal the Intimate Contact of Strand Peptide with Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide to Lipid Distances Reveal 23, 2007 ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection begins with fusion between viral and host cell membranes and is catalyzed by the HIV gp41 fusion protein. The 20 N-terminal apolar residues

  9. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guskov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Ilin, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  10. Development of a polar direct-drive platform for studying inertial confinement fusion implosion mix on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, Mark J.; Bradley, Paul A.; Cobble, James A.; Fincke, James R.; Hakel, Peter; Hsu, Scott C.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Kyrala, George A.; Magelssen, Glenn R.; Montgomery, David S.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Shah, Rahul C.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Baumgaertel, Jessica A.; Wysocki, Frederick J.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephen Craxton, R.; McKenty, Patrick W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 E. River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 E. River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fitzsimmons, Paul [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were performed to develop a platform for the simultaneous measurement of mix and its effects on fusion burn. Two polar direct drive implosions of all-plastic capsules were conducted for the first time on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To measure implosion trajectory and symmetry, area image backlighting of these capsules was also employed for the first time on NIF, an advance over previous 1-D slit imaging experiments, providing detailed symmetry data of the capsules as they imploded. The implosion trajectory and low-mode asymmetry seen in the resultant radiographs agreed with pre-shot predictions even though the 700 kJ drive energy produced laser beam intensities exceeding laser-plasma instability thresholds. Post-shot simulations indicate that the capsule yield was reduced by a factor of two compared to pre-shot predictions owing to as-shot laser drive asymmetries. The pre-shot predictions of bang time agreed within 200 ps with the experimental results. The second shot incorporated a narrow groove encircling the equator of the capsule. A predicted yield reduction factor of three was not observed.

  11. Need for development of higher strength cryogenic structural materials for fusion magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Arata [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype fusion reactor is targeted as a beyond ITER project which is so called DEMO. Several conceptual designs have been carried out. Recently, in order to recognize practical aspects on maintenance of the prototype reactor, the replacement procedure of in-vessel components was focused and sector process was proposed. The process is that the reactor consists of sectors and all sectors will be drowned and replaced in a short time. The slim coil which generated higher magnetic field is required to realize the sector process. From the point of coil design, the occupancy of the structural material on the cross section of the coil increases with an increase of magnetic field. To realize the slim coil, the cryogenic structural material with higher yield strength and the proper toughness is desired.

  12. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Roger J. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and nonperturbative sensing of the local magnetic field in reactor relevant plasmas is presented. Pulsed polarimetry [Patent No. 12/150,169 (pending)] combines optical scattering with the Faraday effect. The polarimetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-like diagnostic has the potential to be a local B{sub pol} diagnostic on ITER and can achieve spatial resolutions of millimeters on high energy density (HED) plasmas using existing lasers. The pulsed polarimetry method is based on nonlocal measurements and subtle effects are introduced that are not present in either cw polarimetry or Thomson scattering LIDAR. Important features include the capability of simultaneously measuring local T{sub e}, n{sub e}, and B{sub ||} along the line of sight, a resiliency to refractive effects, a short measurement duration providing near instantaneous data in time, and location for real-time feedback and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities and the realization of a widely applicable internal magnetic field diagnostic for the magnetic fusion energy program. The technique improves for higher n{sub e}B{sub ||} product and higher n{sub e} and is well suited for diagnosing the transient plasmas in the HED program. Larger devices such as ITER and DEMO are also better suited to the technique, allowing longer pulse lengths and thereby relaxing key technology constraints making pulsed polarimetry a valuable asset for next step devices. The pulsed polarimetry technique is clarified by way of illustration on the ITER tokamak and plasmas within the magnetized target fusion program within present technological means.

  13. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Peterson, K. J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87125 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure RayleighTaylor and RichtmyerMeshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a low-foot drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  14. Final Report on Development of Optimized Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Formation Techniques for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of New Mexico (UNM) proposed a collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop and test methods for improved formation of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas relevant to magnetized target fusion (MTF) energy research. MTF is an innovative approach for a relatively fast and cheap path to the production of fusion energy that utilizes magnetic confinement to assist in the compression of a hot plasma to thermonuclear conditions by an external driver. LANL is currently pursing demonstration of the MTF concept via compression of an FRC plasma by a metal liner z-pinch in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM. A key physics issue for the FRC's ultimate success as an MTF target lies in the initial pre-ionization (PI) stage. The PI plasma sets the initial conditions from which the FRC is created. In particular, the PI formation process determines the amount of magnetic flux that can be trapped to form the FRC. A ringing theta pinch ionization (RTPI) technique, such as currently used by the FRX-L device at LANL, has the advantages of high ionization fraction, simplicity (since no additional coils are required), and does not require internal electrodes which can introduce impurities into the plasma. However RTPI has been shown to only trap #24;50% of the initial bias flux at best and imposes additional engineering constraints on the capacitor banks. The amount of trapped flux plays an important role in the FRC's final equilibrium, transport, and stability properties, and provides increased ohmic heating of the FRC through induced currents as the magnetic field decays. Increasing the trapped flux also provides the route to greatest potential gains in FRC lifetime, which is essential to provide enough time to translate and compress the FRC effectively. In conjunction with LANL we initially planned to develop and test a microwave break- down system to improve the initial PI plasma formation. The UNM team would design the microwave optics and oversee the fabrication and assembly of all components and assist with integration into the FRX-L machine control system. LANL would provide a preexisting 65 kW X-band microwave source and some associated waveguide hardware. Once constructed and installed, UNM would take the lead in operating the microwave breakdown system and conducting studies to optimize its use in FRC PI formation in close cooperation with the needs of the LANL MTF team. In conjunction with our LANL collaborators, we decided after starting the project to switch from a microwave plasma breakdown approach to a plasma gun technology to use for enhanced plasma formation in the FRX-L field-reversed configuration experiment at LANL. Plasma guns would be able to provide significantly higher density plasma with greater control over its distribution in time and space within the experiment. This would allow greater control and #12;ne-tuning of the PI plasma formed in the experiment. Multiple plasma guns would be employed to fill a Pyrex glass test chamber (built at UNM) with plasma which would then be characterized and optimized for the MTF effort.

  15. Suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations and improvement of confinement due to current profile modification by biased electrode in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Debjyoti; Pal, Rabindranath [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of plasma confinement is achieved in normal q{sub a} discharges of SINP-tokamak by introducing a biased electrode inside the last closed flux surface. All the important features of high confinement mode are observed biasing the electrode negatively with respect to the vacuum vessel. Arrays of electric and magnetic probes introduced in the edge plasma region reveal suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations over distinct frequency ranges as well as modification of the toroidal current profile due to biasing. Further analysis identifies the electrostatic fluctuations to be due to drift mode and the magnetic fluctuations may be of slow compressional Alfven waves. Both get suppressed due to current profile modification during biasing, hence leading to the improvement of plasma confinement.

  16. An H minority heating regime in Tore Supra showing improved L mode confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    on the plasma facing components, parti- cle control through pumping and thermalization of fast particles for the next tokamak generation. High energy confinement will also be required for fusion reactor operation to the magnetic axis. The working gas is either deuterium or helium. The density is raised by gas puffing

  17. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    confinement configurations; to demonstrate performance capability at burning plasma conditions; and to develop of achieving the plasma conditions needed for a practical fusion power system. Fusion researchers have achieved confinement fusion (ICF) researchers have achieved great success as well. Two major facilities, the National

  18. Magnetic mirror fusion-fission early history and applicability to other systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the mid 1970s to mid 1980s the mirror program was stuck with a concept, the Standard Mirror that was Q {approx} 1 where Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub injection}. Heroic efforts were put into hybridizing thinking added energy and fuel sales would make a commercial product. At the same time the tokamak was thought to allow ignition and ultrahigh Q values of 20 or even higher. There was an effort to use neutral beams to drive the tokamak just like the mirror machines were driven in which case the Q value plunged to a few, however this was thought to be achievable decades earlier than the high Q versions. Meanwhile current drive and other features of the tokamak have seen the projected Q values come down to the range of 10. Meanwhile the mirror program got Q enhancement into high gear and various tandem mirrors projected Q values up towards 10 and with advanced features over 10 with axi-symmetric magnets (See R. F. Post papers), however the experimental program is all but non-existent. Meanwhile, the gas dynamic trap mirror system which is present day state-of-the-art can with low risk produce Q of {approx}0.1 useful for a low risk, low cost neutron source for materials development useful for the development of materials for all fusion concepts (see Simonen white paper: 'A Physics-Based Strategy to Develop a Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid' and D.D. Ryutov, 'Axisymmetric MHD-stable mirror as a neutron source and a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid'). Many early hybrid designs with multi-disciplinary teams were carried out in great detail for the mirror system with its axi-symmetric blanket modules. It is recognized that most of these designs are adaptable to tokamak or inertial fusion geometry. When Q is low (1 to 2) economics gives a large economic penalty for high recirculating power. These early studies covered the three design types: Power production, fuel production and waste burning. All three had their place but power production fell away because every study showed fusion machines that were extensively studied by multidisciplinary teams came up with power costs much higher than for existing fission plants except in very large sizes (3 GWe). There was lots of work on waste burning - Ted Parrish - comes to mind. However, fuel production along with power production became nearly everyone's goals. First, fast-fission blankets were favored but later to enhance safety, fission-suppressed blankets came into vogue. Both fuel producing and waste burning hybrid studies were terminated with the advent of accidents, high interest rates, rising 'green like' movement and cheap natural gas for power production. For waste burning and fast-fission fuel producing designs, the blanket energy multiplication was about 10 and economics was OK relative to recirculating power for Q over 2. For fission-suppressed fuel producers, where the blanket multiplication is under 2, the Q needed was over 5. In the mirror program we came at this problem by trying to find a product for mirror fusion technology. We hoped we had a product and studied and promoted it. There was no market pull and when the mirror program collapsed in the US, so did both hybrid programs for mirrors and tokamaks and IFE by the mid 1980s. Today, the problem of what to do with wastes that were supposed to be accepted by the government appears to be a high value market pull. It remains to be shown if fusion neutrons can be generated at low enough cost so that economics will not be a showstopper. For burning only the minor actinides, the economics will be the most favorable. Burning the Pu as well will lower the number of fission reactors supported by each burner fusion machine and hurt economics of the system. The fuel-producing role of fusion to fuel fission reactors remains an important possible use of fusion especially in the early stages of fusion development. It is not clear that burning fission wastes in a fusion machine is more appropriate than burning these wastes in specially designed fission machines. Fusion can produce U-233 along with over 2.4%U-232 making the material large

  19. X-ray imaging of vortex cores in confined magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Kasai, S.; Yamada, K.; Ono, T.; Thiaville, A.

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Cores of magnetic vortices in micron-sized NiFe disk structures, with thicknesses between 150 and 50 nm, were imaged and analysed by high resolution magnetic soft X-ray microscopy. A decrease of the vortex core radius was observed, from #24; ~38 to 18 nm with decreasing disk thickness. By comparing with full 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the well-known barrel structure, we obtained excellent agreement taking into account instrumental broadening and a small perpendicular anisotropy. The proven magnetic spatial resolution of better than 25 nm was sufficient to identify a negative dip close to the vortex core, originating from stray fields of the core. Magnetic vortex structures can serve as test objects for evaluating sensitivity and spatial resolution of advanced magnetic microscopy techniques.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alternate magnetic fusion Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics and Fusion 86 E. Velikhov, E. Azizov (presented by B.Kuteev) Summary: thermonuclear fusion reactor, using reaction of deuterium and tritium in high temperature...

  1. Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion can play an important role in sustainable global energy because it has an available and unlimited fuel supply and location not restricted by climate or geography. Further, it emits no greenhouse gases. It has no potential for large energy releases in an accident, and no need for more than about 100 years retention for radioactive waste disposal. Substantial progress in the realization of fusion energy has been made during the past 20 years of research. It is now possible to produce significant amounts of energy from controlled deuterium and tritium (DT) reactions in the laboratory. This has led to a growing confidence in our ability to produce burning plasmas with significant energy gain in the next generation of fusion experiments. As success in fusion facilities has underpinned the scientific feasibility of fusion, the high cost of next-step fusion facilities has led to a shift in the focus of international fusion research towards a lower cost development path and an attractive end product. The increasing data base from fusion research allows conceptual fusion power plant studies, of both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches to fusion, to translate commercial requirements into the design features that must be met if fusion is to play a role in the world's energy mix; and identify key R and D items; and benchmark progress in fusion energy development. This paper addresses the question, ''Is mankind closer or farther away from controlled fusion than a few decades ago?'' We review the tremendous scientific progress during the last 10 years. We use the detailed engineering design activities of burning plasma experiments as well as conceptual fusion power plant studies to describe our visions of attractive fusion power plants. We use these studies to compare technical requirements of an attractive fusion system with present achievements and to identify remaining technical challenges for fusion. We discuss scenarios for fusion energy deployment in the energy market.

  2. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemon, R.E. (comp.)

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  3. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  4. Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A qualitative identification of future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) is presented. These needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection, redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed here for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids.

  5. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  6. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  8. Fusion Propulsion and Power for Future Flight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, H.D. Jr.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are innovative magnetic and electric confinement fusion power and propulsion system designs with potential for: vacuum specific impulses of 1500-2000 seconds with rocket engine thrust/mass ratios of 5-10 g`s; environmentally favorable exhaust emissions if aneutronic fusion propellants can be used; a 2 to 3-fold reduction in the mass of hypersonic airliners and SSTO aerospace planes; a 10 to 20 fold reduction in Mars expedition mass and cost (if propellant from planetary atmospheres is used); and feasibility or in-feasibility of these systems could be confirmed with a modest applied research and exploratory development cost.

  9. Three-dimensional linear peeling-ballooning theory in magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyens, T., E-mail: tweyens@fis.uc3m.es; Snchez, R.; Garca, L. [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid 28911 (Spain)] [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)] [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory is extended to fully 3D magnetic configurations to investigate the linear stability of intermediate to high n peeling-ballooning modes, with n the toroidal mode number. These are thought to be important for the behavior of edge localized modes and for the limit of the size of the pedestal that governs the high confinement H-mode. The end point of the derivation is a set of coupled second order ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions that minimize the perturbed energy and that can be solved to find the growth rate of the perturbations. This theory allows of the evaluation of 3D effects on edge plasma stability in tokamaks such as those associated with the toroidal ripple due to the finite number of toroidal field coils, the application of external 3D fields for elm control, local modification of the magnetic field in the vicinity of ferromagnetic components such as the test blanket modules in ITER, etc.

  10. SOLVING THE STAND-OFF PROBLEM FOR MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION: PLASMA STREAMS AS DISPOSABLE ELECTRODES, PLUS A LOCAL SPHERICAL BLANKET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D D; Thio, Y F

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fusion reactor based on the Magnetized Target Fusion approach, the permanent power supply has to deliver currents up to a few mega-amperes to the target dropped into the reaction chamber. All the structures situated around the target will be destroyed after every pulse and have to be replaced at a frequency of 1 to 10 Hz. In this paper, an approach based on the use of spherical blanket surrounding the target, and pulsed plasma electrodes connecting the target to the power supply, is discussed. A brief physic analysis of the processes associated with creation of plasma electrodes is discussed.

  11. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagheri, Mehran, E-mail: mh-bagheri@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdikian, Alireza, E-mail: abdykian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

  12. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for Parallel and Antiparallel Strand Arrangements in the Membrane-Associated HIV-1 Fusion Peptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for Parallel and Antiparallel Strand Arrangements in the Membrane-Associated HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Jun Yang and David P. Weliky* Department of Chemistry, Michigan 7, 2003 ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 fusion peptide serves as a useful model system for understanding viral

  13. Exploring Plasma Science Advances from Fusion Findings to Astrophysica...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Speakers noted that producing fusion by heating a...

  14. Progress on the FRX-L FRC plasma injector at LANL for magnetized target fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmus, P. N. (Phillip N.); Feinup, W. J.; Intrator, Thomas; Langner, M. C. (Matthew C.); Maqueda, R. J. (Ricardo J.); Scott, K. J.; Siemon, R. E. (Richard E.); Tejero, E. M. (Erik M.); Taccetti, J. M. (Jose Martin); Tuszewski, M. G. (Michael G.); Wang, Z. (Zhehui); Wurden, G. A. (Glen A.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FRX-L Field Reversed Configuration plasma is now operational at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The goal of the project is to demonstrate the production of suitable FRC target plasmas for later MTF (Magnetized Target Fusion) implosion experiments which will first be carried out at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in a few years' time. Expected plasma parameters in the 4 cm diameter, 30 cm long FRC are ne{approx}1017 cm-3, T{approx}100-300 eV, at 4-5 Tesla fields, with a lifetime of {approx}20 microseconds. The system includes a 0.5 T bias field, 70 kV 250 kHz ringing pre-ionization, and a 1.5 MA, 200 kJ main-theta coil bank. Maxwell rail gap plasma switches are used to start the PI bank, the main theta coil bank, and to crowbar the main bank. Initial results using the first diagnostic set of excluded flux loops, B-dot probes, visible light diodes, a fiber-optically coupled gated intensified visible spectrometer, and a 3.3 micron quadrature interferometer are presented. Future diagnostics include end-on bolometry, Thomson scattering, and a multi-chord fanned HeNe side-on interferometer. Multi-turn cusp and guide coils will be added later this year, to enable translation experiments into a cylindrical metal liner.

  15. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  16. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (?1 m), high-current (?1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields in between plasma shots to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ?5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  17. Present and future status of thermochemical cycles applied to fusion energy sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, L.A.; Cox, K.E.; Krakowski, R.A.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the status of current research on thermochemical hydrogen production cycles and identifies the needs for advanced cycles and materials research. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) bismuth sulfate thermochemical cycle is characterized, and fusion reactor blanket concepts for both inertial and magnetic confinement schemes are presented as thermal energy sources for process heat applications.

  18. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  19. White Paper on A New Approach for the Magnetic Fusion Program Dale M. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a widely available, environmentally benign energy supply. The present justification for fusion research years, and therefore fusion will be acceptable even at costs several times that of present energy supplies. Over the past twenty years, the other energy technologies have had their own innovation programs

  20. THE PATH TOWARD MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY DEMONSTRATON AND THE ROLE OF ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    /chemical/mechanical/electromagnetic interactions. Nuclear components are located inside the vacuum vessel where tolerance for failure is low to enable a transition to fusion energy demonstration (DEMO). Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST energy system. FNST development requires DT plasma-based testing facilities in which the main loading

  1. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Stephen O

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress and Policy is traced over the approximately 55 year history of the U. S. Fusion Program. The classified beginnings of the effort in the 1950s ended with declassification in 1958. The effort struggled during the 1960s, but ended on a positive note with the emergence of the tokamak and the promise of laser fusion. The decade of the 1970s was the 'Golden Age' of fusion, with large budget increases and the construction of many new facilities, including the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Shiva laser. The decade ended on a high note with the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, overwhelming approved by Congress and signed by President Carter. The Act called for a '$20 billion, 20 year' effort aimed at construction of a fusion Demonstration Power Plant around the end of the century. The U. S. Magnetic Fusion Energy program has been on a downhill slide since 1980, both in terms of budgets and the construction of new facilities. The Inertial Confinement Fusion program, funded by Department of Energy Defense Programs, has faired considerably better, with the construction of many new facilities, including the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  2. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion - the process that powers the sun - offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITE R fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world's population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES ) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW's task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.) This Report presents a portfolio of research activities for US research in magnetic fusion for the next two decades. It is intended to provide a strategic framework for realizing practical fusion energy. The portfolio is the product of ten months of fusion-community study and discussion, culminating in a Workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland, from June 8 to June 12, 2009. The Workshop involved some 200 scientists from Universities, National Laboratories and private industry, including several scientists from outside the US. Largely following the Basic Research Needs model established by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES ), the Report presents a collection of discrete research activities, here called 'thrusts.' Each thrust is based on an explicitly identified question, or coherent set of questions, on the frontier of fusion science. It presents a strategy to find the needed answers, combining the necessary intellectual and hardware tools, experimental facilities, and computational resources into an integrated, focused program. The thrusts should be viewed as building blocks for a fusion program plan whose overall structure will be developed by OFES , using whatever additional community input it requests. Part I of the Report reviews the issues identified in previous fusion-community studies, which systematically identified the key research issues and described them in considerable detail. It then considers in some detail the scientific and technical means that can be used to address these is sues. It ends by showing how these various research requirements are organized into a set of eighteen thrusts. Part II presents a detailed and self-contained discussion of each thrust, including the goals, required facilities and tools for each. This Executive Summary focuses on a survey of the ReNeW thrusts. The following brief review of fusion science is intended to provide context for that survey. A more detailed discussion of fusion science can be found in an Appendix to this Summary, entitled 'A Fusion Primer.'

  3. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for an Extended Strand Conformation of the Membrane-Bound HIV-1 Fusion Peptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for an Extended Strand Conformation of the Membrane-Bound HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Jun Yang, Charles M. Gabrys, and David P. Weliky* Department of ChemistryVed May 4, 2001 ABSTRACT: Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied

  4. Lower Hybrid antennas for nuclear fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillairet, Julien; Bae, Young-Soon; Bai, X; Balorin, C; Baranov, Y; Basiuk, V; Bcoulet, A; Belo, J; Berger-By, G; Brmond, S; Castaldo, C; Ceccuzzi, S; Cesario, R; Corbel, E; Courtois, X; Decker, J; Delmas, E; Delpech, L; Ding, X; Douai, D; Ekedahl, A; Goletto, C; Goniche, M; Guilhem, D; Hertout, P; Imbeaux, F; Litaudon, X; Magne, R; Mailloux, J; Mazon, D; Mirizzi, F; Mollard, P; Moreau, P; Oosako, T; Petrzilka, V; Peysson, Y; Poli, S; Preynas, M; Prou, M; Saint-Laurent, F; Samaille, F; Saoutic, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear fusion research goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. In order to achieve the conditions similar to those expected in an electricity-generating fusion power plant, plasmas with a temperature of several hundreds of millions of degrees must be generated and sustained for long periods. For this purpose, RF antennas delivering multi-megawatts of power to magnetized confined plasma are commonly used in experimental tokamaks. In the gigahertz range of frequencies, high power phased arrays known as "Lower Hybrid" (LH) antennas are used to extend the plasma duration. This paper reviews some of the technological aspects of the LH antennas used in the Tore Supra tokamak and presents the current design of a proposed 20 MW LH system for the international experiment ITER.

  5. Moment free toroidal magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, Peter (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A toroidal magnet for confining a high magnetic field for use in fusion reactor research and nuclear particle detection. The magnet includes a series of conductor elements arranged about and fixed at its small major radius portion to the outer surface of a central cylindrical support each conductor element having a geometry such as to maintain the conductor elements in pure tension when a high current flows therein, and a support assembly which redistributes all or part of the tension which would otherwise arise in the small major radius portion of each coil element to the large major radius portion thereof.

  6. The LLNL HFTF (High-Field Test Facility): A flexible superconducting test facility for fusion magnet development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.R.; Chaplin, M.R.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.

    1987-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) is a flexible and, in many ways, unique facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for providing the test capabilities needed to develop the superconducting magnet systems of the next generation fusion machines. The superconducting coil set in HFTF has been operated successfully at LLNL, but in its original configuration, its utility as a test facility was somewhat restricted and cryogenic losses were intolerable. A new cryostat for the coil set allows the magnet system to remain cold indefinitely so the system is available on short notice to provide high fields (about 11 T) inside a reasonably large test volume (0.3-m diam). The test volume is physically and thermally isolated from the coil volume, allowing test articles to be inserted and removed without disturbing the coil cryogenic volume, which is maintained by an on-line refrigerator. Indeed, with the proper precautions, it is even unnecessary to drop the field in the HFTF during such an operation. The separate test volume also allows reduced temperature operation without the expense and complication of subcooling the entire coil set (about 20-t cold mass). The HFTF has thus become a key facility in the LLNL magnet development program, where the primary goal is to demonstrate the technology for producing fields to 15 T with winding-pack current densities of 40 A.mm/sup -2/ in coils sized for fusion applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Summary of the US Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.

    1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ESECOM has completed a recent assessment of the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) compared to present and future fission energy sources giving particular emphasis to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics. By consistently applying a set of economic and safety models to a set of MFE concepts using a wide range of possible material choices, power densities, power conversion methods, and fuel cycles, ESECOM finds that several different MFE concepts have the potential to achieve costs of electricity comparable to those of fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Observation of strong electromagnetic fields around laser-entrance holes of ignition-scale hohlraums in inertial-confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA 2 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 USA 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM) experiments utilizing ignition-scaled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A striking

  9. Beyond ITER: Neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R., E-mail: roy.mcadams@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  10. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorbom, B N; Palmer, T R; Mangiarotti, F J; Sierchio, J M; Bonoli, P; Kasten, C; Sutherland, D A; Barnard, H S; Haakonsen, C B; Goh, J; Sung, C; Whyte, D G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design study aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q_p~13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ~63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ~23 T peak field on coil with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External cu...

  11. Reviewers Comments on the 5th Symposium and the Status of Fusion Research 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R F

    2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Better to understand the status of fusion research in the year 2003 we will first put the research in its historical context. Fusion power research, now beginning its sixth decade of continuous effort, is unique in the field of scientific research. Unique in its mixture of pure and applied research, unique in its long-term goal and its promise for the future, and unique in the degree that it has been guided and constrained by national and international governmental policy. Though fusion research's goal has from the start been precisely defined, namely, to obtain a net release of energy from controlled nuclear fusion reactions between light isotopes (in particular those of hydrogen and helium) the difficulty of the problem has spawned in the past a very wide variety of approaches to the problem. Some of these approaches have had massive international support for decades, some have been pursued only at a ''shoestring'' level by dedicated groups in small research laboratories or universities. In discussing the historical and present status of fusion research the implications of there being two distinctly different approaches to achieving net fusion power should be pointed out. The first, and oldest, approach is the use of strong magnetic fields to confine the heated fuel, in the form of a plasma and at a density typically four or five orders of magnitude smaller than the density of the atmosphere. In steady state this fusion fuel density is still sufficient to release fusion energy at the rate of many megawatts per cubic meter. The plasma confinement times required for net energy release in this regime are long--typically a second or more, representing an extremely difficult scientific challenge --witness the five decades of research in magnetic fusion, still without having reaching that goal. The second, more recently initiated approach, is of course the ''inertial'' approach. As its name implies, the ''confinement'' problem is solved ''inertially,'' that is by compressing and heating a tiny pellet of frozen fusion fuel in nanoseconds, such that before disassembly the pellet fuses and releases its energy as a micro-explosion. The first, and most thoroughly investigated means to create this compression and heating is to use multiple laser beams, with total energies of megajoules, focused down to impinge uniformly on the pellet target. To illustrate the extreme difference between the usual magnetic confinement regime at that of inertial fusion, there are twenty orders of magnitude in fusion power density (ten orders of magnitude in plasma density) between the two regimes. In principle fusion power systems could operate at any density between these extremes, if means were to be found to exploit this possibility.

  12. STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION BY A SINGLE WAVE IN A MAGNETIZED PLASMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, G.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach to thermonuclear fusion, initiated in the earlyapproaches to thermonuclear fusion by means of magnetic

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - activity fusion reactions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    condition E is energy confinement time Only three reactions can be used within a thermonuclear fusion... is energy confinement time Only three ... Source: Mauel,...

  14. 10 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Study of Magnetic Helicity Injection via Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Scott

    , spheromak. MAGNETIC helicity [1] is a quantity which describes the amount of twist or writhe in the magnetic-confined plasmas in fusion research (e.g., spheromaks) must be sustained somehow, i.e., via helicity injection a schematic of the experimental setup. A coaxial spheromak gun with large planar geometry is installed on one

  15. Fusion Engineering and Design 7579 (2005) 2932 First integrated test of the superconducting magnet systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Engineering and Design 75­79 (2005) 29­32 First integrated test of the superconducting of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Room 210 S.W., Mudd Building, New York, NY 10027, USA Available at the center of a 5 m diameter, 3 m tall vacuum chamber. The Floating coil (F-coil) is designed for a maximum

  16. The impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vujic, J.L. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plants will probably operate in a pulsed mode. The two different schemes, however, will have quite different time periods. Typical repetition rates for IFE power plants will be 1-5 Hz. MFE power plants will ramp up in current for about 1 hour, shut down for several minutes, and repeat the process. Traditionally, activation calculations for IFE and MFE power plants have assumed continuous operation and used either the ``steady state`` (SS) or ``equivalent steady state`` (ESS) approximations. It has been suggested recently that the SS and ESS methods may not yield accurate results for all radionuclides of interest. The present work expands that of Sisolak, et al. by applying their formulae to conditions which might be experienced in typical IFE and MFE power plants. In addition, complicated, multi-step reaction/decay chains are analyzed using an upgraded version of the ACAB radionuclide generation/depletion code. Our results indicate that the SS method is suitable for application to MFE power plant conditions. We also find that the ESS method generates acceptable results for radionuclides with half-lives more than a factor of three greater than the time between pulses. For components that are subject to 0.05 Hz (or more frequent) irradiation (such as coolant), use of the ESS method is recommended. For components or materials that are subject to less frequent irradiation (such as high-Z target materials), pulsed irradiation calculations should be used.

  17. Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, L.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.

  18. Mirror-based fusion: some possible new directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R F., LLNL

    1998-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines some possible areas for the study of new approaches to fusion research, ones that employ magnetic confinement systems based on open-ended field topology and employing the magnetic mirror principle. In the spirit of encouraging a wider look at possibilities, some unconventional approaches are suggested. These approaches, involving long linear systems having ion injectors and direct converters at their ends, attempt to exploit some inherent advantages of open-ended systems for fusion. The results of analysis, calculations and preliminary cost estimates for long linear systems of this type that utilize the magnetic mirror effect to achieve their operating regimes will be presented. The approaches suggested, when examined in greater depth, may not stand the test of time, but they might encourage thinking in new areas.

  19. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy.

  20. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  1. Snowmass 2002: The Fusion Energy Sciences Summer Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Sauthoff; G. Navratil; R. Bangerter

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Summer Study 2002 will be a forum for the critical technical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program, and will provide crucial community input to the long-range planning activities undertaken by the DOE [Department of Energy] and the FESAC [Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee]. It will be an ideal place for a broad community of scientists to examine goals and proposed initiatives in burning plasma science in magnetic fusion energy and integrated research experiments in inertial fusion energy. This meeting is open to every member of the fusion energy science community and significant international participation is encouraged. The objectives of the Fusion Summer Study are three: (1) Review scientific issues in burning plasmas to establish the basis for the following two objectives and to address the relations of burning plasma in tokamaks to innovative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) confinement concepts and of ignition in inertial fusion energy (IFE) to integrated research facilities. (2) Provide a forum for critical discussion and review of proposed MFE burning plasma experiments (e.g., IGNITOR, FIRE, and ITER) and assess the scientific and technological research opportunities and prospective benefits of these approaches to the study of burning plasmas. (3) Provide a forum for the IFE community to present plans for prospective integrated research facilities, assess present status of the technical base for each, and establish a timetable and technical progress necessary to proceed for each. Based on significant preparatory work by the fusion community prior to the July Snowmass meeting, the Snowmass working groups will prepare a draft report that documents the scientific and technological benefits of studies of burning plasmas. The report will also include criteria by which the benefits of each approach to fusion science, fusion engineering/technology, and the fusion development path can be assessed. Finally, the report will present a uniform technical assessment of the benefits of the three approaches. The draft report will be presented and extensively discussed during the July meeting, leading to a final report. This report will provide critical fusion community input to the decision process of FESAC and DOE in 2002-2003, and to the review of burning plasma science by the National Academy of Sciences called for by FESAC and Energy Legislation which was passed by the House of Representatives [H.R. 4]. Members of the fusion community are encouraged to participate in the Snowmass working groups.

  2. Thermonuclear Fusion Research Progress and the Way to the Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Raymond [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Royal Military Academy, Association EURATOM - Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the progress of fusion research and its prospects for electricity generation. It starts with a reminder of the principles of thermonuclear fusion and a brief discussion of its potential role in the future of the world energy production. The reactions allowing energy production by fusion of nuclei in stars and on earth and the conditions required to sustain them are reviewed. At the high temperatures required for fusion (hundred millions kelvins), matter is completely ionized and has reached what is called its 4th state: the plasma state. The possible means to achieve these extreme temperatures is discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the most promising of these approaches, magnetic confinement. The operating principles of the presently most efficient machine of this type -- the tokamak -- is described in some detail. On the road to producing energy with fusion, a number of obstacles have to be overcome. The plasma, a fluid that reacts to electromagnetic forces and carries currents and charges, is a complex medium. Fusion plasma is strongly heated and is therefore a good example of a system far from equilibrium. A wide variety of instabilities can grow in this system and lead to self-organized structures and spontaneous cycles. Turbulence is generated that degrades the confinement and hinders easy achievement of long lasting hot plasmas. Physicists have learned how to quench turbulence, thereby creating sort of insulating bottles inside the plasma itself to circumvent this problem. The recent history of fusion performance is outlined and the prospect of achieving power generation by fusion in a near future is discussed in the light of the development of the 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' project ITER.

  3. Bold Step by the World to Fusion Energy: ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE DESIGN OF ITER · ITER PROJECT & ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES · PATH FROM ITER TO PRACTICAL FUSION POWER #12;Elements of a D-T Fusion Energy System ~ D-Li Plasma Heating Drivers or Confinement Balance of PlantD = nT = n TOTAL THERMAL ENERGY IN FUSION FUEL, DEFINE "ENERGY CONFINEMENT TIME", E ENERGY BALANCE dW d

  4. Fusion neutron generation computations in a stellarator-mirror hybrid with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology', Akademichna St. 1, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Division of Electricity, Box 534, SE-7512 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In the paper [Moiseenko V.E., Noack K., Agren O. 'Stellarator-mirror based fusion driven fission reactor' J Fusion Energy 29 (2010) 65.], a version of a fusion driven system (FDS), i.e. a sub-critical fast fission assembly with a fusion plasma neutron source, is proposed. The plasma part of the reactor is based on a stellarator with a small mirror part. Hot ions with high perpendicular energy are assumed to be trapped in the magnetic mirror part. The stellarator part which connects to the mirror part and provides confinement for the bulk (deuterium) plasma. In the magnetic well of the mirror part, fusion reactions occur from collisions between a of hot ion component (tritium) with cold background plasma ions. RF heating is one option to heat the tritium. A more conventional method to sustain the hot ions is neutral beam injection (NBI), which is here studied numerically for the above-mentioned hybrid scheme. For these studies, a new kinetic code, KNBIM, has been developed. The code takes into account Coulomb collisions between the hot ions and the background plasma. The geometry of the confining magnetic field is arbitrary for the code. It is accounted for via a numerical bounce averaging procedure. Along with the kinetic calculations the neutron generation intensity and its spatial distribution are computed.

  5. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) FINAL REPORT September 1990 Report of the Technical Panel on Magnetic Fusion of the Energy Research Advisory Board Washington, D .C. 20585 #12;#12;Fusion Policy of your Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. It presents a fusion policy that the Committee believes

  6. Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science.After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

  7. Field-induced confined states in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriyama, Satoshi, E-mail: MORIYAMA.Satoshi@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Morita, Yoshifumi [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju [Nanotechnology Innovation Station, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an approach to confine the carriers in single-layer graphene, which leads to quantum devices with field-induced quantum confinement. We demonstrated that the Coulomb-blockade effect evolves under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene device. Our experimental results show that field-induced quantum dots are realized in graphene, and a quantum confinement-deconfinement transition is switched by the magnetic field.

  8. PLT scaling laws for thermonuclear fusion power multiplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L.R.; Strachan, J.D.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While present experiments are evaluated on the basis of confinement time, it is the fusion power multiplication factor, Q, and the fusion power which will be the parameters that measure the performance of ignition experiments and fusion reactors. We have determined the relationship of Q to tau/sub E/ and the Lawson number, n tau/sub e/, for ohmically heated plasmas from the Princeton Large Tokamak (PLT). Q, tau/sub E/, and n tau/sub E/ all increase with density at low densities. Above anti n/sub e/ approx. = 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, tau/sub Ee/ approx. = 30 msec, or anti n/sub e/ tau/sub Ee/ approx. = 1.5 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/s, Q saturates. Q scaling has also been obtained on PLT as a function of toroidal magnetic field, plasma current, and auxiliary heating power.

  9. Fusion Lecture Summary Eugene S. Evans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    March 31, 2010 2 / 15 #12;National Ignition Facility (NIF) location: Lawrence Livermore National. Evans (2010) Fusion Lecture Summary March 31, 2010 1 / 15 #12;Outline 1 Overview of NIF Specifications Timeline Goals 2 Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) 3 Science at NIF 4 Fusion and the Future Laser Inertial

  10. Recent results and challenges in development of metallic Hall sensors for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?uran, Ivan; Mulek, Radek; Kova?k, Karel [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Sentkerestiov, Jana [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehov 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Kohout, Michal [Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 1999/2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Viererbl, Ladislav [Research Centre Rez, Hlavn 130, 250 68 Husinec-?e (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable and precise diagnostic of local magnetic field is crucial for successful operation of future thermonuclear fusion reactors based on magnetic confinement. Magnetic sensors at these devices will experience an extremely demanding operational environment with large radiation and thermal loads in combination with required long term, reliable, and service-free performance. Neither present day commercial nor laboratory measurement systems comply with these requirements. Metallic Hall sensors based on e.g. copper or bismuth could potentially satisfy these needs. We present the technology for manufacturing of such sensors and some initial results on characterization of their properties.

  11. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H. [Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center XD22, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fimognari, Peter J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  12. Handling and archiving of magnetic fusion data at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanderLaan, J.F.; Miller, S.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Henline, P.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent modifications to the computer network at DIII-D enhance the collection and distribution of newly acquired and archived experimental data. Linked clients and servers route new data from diagnostic computers to centralized mass storage and distribute data on demand to local and remote workstations and computers. Capacity for data handling exceeds the upper limit of DIII-D Tokamak data production of about 4 GBytes per day. Network users have fast access to new data stored on line. An interactive program handles requests for restoration of data archived off line. Disk management procedures retain selected data on line in preference to other data. Redundancy of all components on the archiving path from the network to magnetic media has prevented loss of data. Older data are rearchived as dictated by limited media life.

  13. Thermonuclear fusion in dense stars: Electron screening, conductive cooling, and magnetic field effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the plasma correlation effects on nonresonant thermonuclear reactions of carbon and oxygen in the interiors of white dwarfs and liquid envelopes of neutron stars. We examine the effects of electron screening on thermodynamic enhancement of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas beyond the linear mixing rule. Using these improved enhancement factors, we calculate carbon and oxygen ignition curves in white dwarfs and neutron stars. The energy balance and ignition conditions in neutron star envelopes are evaluated, taking their detailed thermal structure into account. The result is compared to the simplified "one-zone model," which is routinely used in the literature. We also consider the effect of strong magnetic fields on the ignition curves in the ocean of magnetars.

  14. accelerator fusion research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering 17 Research Needs Workshop for Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Physics...

  15. association fusion research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering 18 Research Needs Workshop for Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Physics...

  16. Electron Bernstein wave current drive modeling in toroidal plasma confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, Joan, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady-state confinement of tokamak plasmas in a fusion reactor requires non-inductively driven toroidal currents. Radio frequency waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) range of frequencies can drive localized currents ...

  17. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons and certify the stockpile without nuclear testing. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) extends HEDP under extreme conditions that approach the high energy density (HED) environments found in a nuclear

  18. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapons without nuclear testing. The program provides this capability models that are used to assess and certify the stockpile without nuclear testing. The National Ignition that approach the high-energy density (HED) environments found in a nuclear explosion. Virtually all

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    advanced science and technology portfolio, the Office of ICF is working to produce thermonuclear burn conditions in the laboratory, to develop laboratory capabilities that will...

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for planningtoA Journey Inside the Introduction

  1. Inertial confinement fusion | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for planningtoA Journey Inside the IntroductionInertial

  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Inertial confinement fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for4-16 FOR Primary Author Last Nameenergyiter ITER is

  3. Alternative pathways to fusion energy (focus on Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative pathways to fusion energy (focus on Department of Energy Innovative Confinement for a restructured fusion energy science program [5] 1996 | FESAC: Opportunities in Alternative Confinement Concepts, suggests program for Innovative Concepts [1] 1995 | OTA TPX and the Alternates [2] 1995 | PCAST (given flat

  4. Fusion power production in TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 9.3 MW of fusion power has been produced from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The total fusion yield from a single plasma pulse has reached 6.5 MJ. The experiments in TFTR with deuterium-tritium plasmas fueled and heated by neutral beam injection span wide ranges in plasma and operating conditions. Through the use of lithium pellet conditioning to control the edge recycling, the plasma confinement in TFTR has been improved to the point where the stability of the plasma to pressure driven modes is limiting the fusion power for plasma currents up to 2.5 MA. The central energy and fusion power densities in these plasmas are comparable to those expected in a thermalized DT reactor, such as ITER.

  5. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  6. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritz, A.; Keyes, D.

    2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  7. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large portion of national program efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. Substantial efforts to develop integrated plasma modeling codes are also underway in the U.S., Europe and Japan. As a result of the highly collaborative nature of FES research, the community is facing new and unique challenges. While FES has a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of available tools. The NFC Project was initiated to address these challenges by creating and deploying collaborative software tools. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES 'Grid' (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  8. Second Symposium on ``Current trends in international fusion research: review and assessment`` Chairman`s summary of session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This session began with a keynote speech by B. Coppi of M.I.T., entitled: ``Physics of Fusion Burning Plasmas, Ignition, and Relevant Technology Issues.`` It continued with a second paper on the tokamak approach to fusion, presented by E. Mazzucato of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, entitled ``High Confinement Plasma Confinement Regime in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear.`` The session continued with three talks discussing various aspects of the so-called ``Field Reversed Configuration`` (FRC), and concluded with a talk on a more general topic. The first of the three FRC papers, presented by J. Slough of the University of Washington, was entitled ``FRC Reactor for Deep Space Propulsion.`` This paper was followed by a paper by S. Goto of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Osaka University in Japan, entitled ``Experimental Initiation of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Toward Helium-3 Fusion.`` The third of the FRC papers, authored by H. Mimoto and Y. Tomito of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan, and presented by Y. Tomita was entitled ``Helium-3 Fusion Based on a Field-Reversed Configuration.`` The session was concluded with a paper presented by D. Ryutov of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entitled: ``A User Facility for Research on Fusion Systems with Dense Plasmas.``

  9. Role of atomic collisions in fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

  10. VISUALIZATION OF MAGNETICALLY CONFINED PLASMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University, Depart- ment of Theoretical Physics, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia 1 #12; 1 Introduction Modern

  11. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  12. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  13. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  14. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Pulsed Power Sciences Center

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  15. An important challenge in magnetic fusion research is to obtain high energy confinement in a stationary plasma that will be co

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes Laboratory Site| Department ofAn

  16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  17. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William M. Tang

    2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e.g., Climate Modeling), the FSP will need to develop software in close collaboration with computers scientists and applied mathematicians and validated against experimental data from tokamaks around the world. Specific examples of expected advances needed to enable such a comprehensive integrated modeling capability and possible "co-design" approaches will be discussed. __________________________________________________

  18. Component Framework for Coupled Integrated Fusion Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion Successful simulation of the complex physics that affect magnetically confined fusion plasma remains an important target milestone towards the development of viable fusion energy. Major advances in the underlying physics formulations, mathematical modeling, and computational tools and techniques are needed to enable a complete fusion simulation on the emerging class of large scale capability parallel computers that are coming on-line in the next few years. Several pilot projects are currently being undertaken to explore different (partial) code integration and coupling problems, and possible solutions that may guide the larger integration endeavor. In this paper, we present the design and implementation details of one such project, a component based approach to couple existing codes to model the interaction between high power radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) aspects of the burning plasma. The framework and component design utilize a light coupling approach based on high level view of constituent codes that facilitates rapid incorporation of new components into the integrated simulation framework. The work illustrates the viability of the light coupling approach to better understand physics and stand-alone computer code dependencies and interactions, as a precursor to a more tightly coupled integrated simulation environment.

  19. Paths to fusion energy The next 30 years, the next 10 years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paths to fusion energy The next 30 years, the next 10 years S. Prager The fusion era A roadmap to fusion energy discussed in US present GA PPPL MIT Plasma confinement research program #12;Issues for a fusion roadmap · Trade

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative fusion concepts Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Floating Magnet? James Riordon... alternatives to current reactor designs (see sidebar). Thermonuclear fusion is the engine that powers the sun... heads the Advanced Fusion...

  1. Dynamic Formation of a Hot Field Reversed Configuration with Improved Confinement by Supersonic Merging of Two Colliding High-{beta} Compact Toroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Guo, H. Y.; Tuszewski, M.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Barnes, D.; Rostoker, N.; Anderson, M. G.; Andow, R.; Bonelli, L.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Bystritskii, V.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Post Office Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hot stable field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the C-2 experiment by colliding and merging two high-{beta} plasmoids preformed by the dynamic version of field-reversed {theta}-pinch technology. The merging process exhibits the highest poloidal flux amplification obtained in a magnetic confinement system (over tenfold increase). Most of the kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy with total temperature (T{sub i}+T{sub e}) exceeding 0.5 keV. The final FRC state exhibits a record FRC lifetime with flux confinement approaching classical values. These findings should have significant implications for fusion research and the physics of magnetic reconnection.

  2. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  3. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 (2002) 15811607 PII: S0741-3335(02)35590-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    the confinement quality, as measured by, for example, the plasma total energy content at fixed heating powerINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion rotational transform a, the confinement quality of plasmas in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator

  4. Fusion alpha-particle losses in a high-beta rippled tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunno, M.; Nakamura, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tani, K. [Nippon Advanced Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)] [Nippon Advanced Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In tokamak plasmas, the confinement of energetic ions depends on the magnetic field structure. If the plasma pressure is finite, the equilibrium current (i.e., the Pfirsch-Schlter current and diamagnetic current) flows in the plasma to maintain the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. These plasma currents generate poloidal and toroidal magnetic field and alter the field structure. Moreover, if we consider the non-axisymmetry of magnetic field structures such as toroidal field (TF) ripples, the non-axisymmetric component of the equilibrium current can alter TF ripples themselves. When the plasma beta becomes high, the changes in the field structure due to the equilibrium current might affect the confinement of energetic ions significantly. We intend to clarify how these currents alter the field structure and affect the confinement of alpha particles in high-beta plasma. The MHD equilibrium is calculated using VMEC and the orbits of fusion alpha particles are followed by using the fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte Carlo code. In relatively low-beta plasma (e.g., the volume-averaged beta value ?2%), the changes in the magnetic field component due to the plasma current negligibly affect the confinement of alpha particles except for the Shafranov shift effect. However, for ?3%, the diamagnetic effect reduces the magnetic field strength and significantly increases alpha-particle losses. In these high-beta cases, the non-axisymmetric field component generated by the equilibrium current also increases these losses, but not as effectively as compared to the diamagnetic effect.

  5. Free magnetized knots of parity-violating deconfined matter in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. N. Chernodub

    2010-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the local parity violation in the quark-gluon plasma supports existence of free (meta)stable knots of deconfined hot quark matter stabilized by superstrong magnetic fields. The magnetic field in the knots resembles the spheromak plasma state of the magnetic confinement approach to nuclear fusion. The size of the knot is quantized, being inversely proportional to the chiral conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma. The parity symmetry is broken inside the knot. Particles produced in the decays of the knots have unusual azimuthal distribution and specific flavor content. We argue that these knots may be created in noncentral heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Free magnetized knots of parity-violating deconfined matter in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernodub, M N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the local parity violation in the quark-gluon plasma supports existence of free (meta)stable knots of deconfined hot quark matter stabilized by superstrong magnetic fields. The magnetic field in the knots resembles the spheromak plasma state of the magnetic confinement approach to nuclear fusion. The size of the knot is quantized, being inversely proportional to the chiral conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma. The parity symmetry is broken inside the knot. Particles produced in the decays of the knots have unusual azimuthal distribution and specific flavor content. We argue that these knots may be created in noncentral heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 26. No. 4, pp. 589 to 602, 1984 0741-3335r84$3.00 + .OF Printed in Great Britain. @ 1984institute o?Wysics and Pergamon Press Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    . INTRODUCTION WAVEheating of magnetically confined plasma has become a major focus of numerous plasma physicsPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 26. No. 4, pp. 589 to 602, 1984 0741-3335r84$3.00 + .OF is produced (300 and 50 eV) with 500 kW of r.f. power coupled into a 5 x 10" cm-3 plasma. Power is coupled

  8. The ITERThe ITER eraera : the 10: the 10 yearyear roadmaproadmap for the French fusion programmefor the French fusion programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -2035 : The Fusion Energy Era of magnetic fusion research ITER thermonuclear plasmasITER thermonuclear plasmasThe ITERThe ITER eraera : the 10: the 10 yearyear roadmaproadmap for the French fusion programmefor the French fusion programme E. Tsitrone1 on behalf of IRFM and Tore Supra team 1 : CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint

  9. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Krommes

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-? theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  10. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies. Technical progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are to (1) conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) serve as a national and international center for information exchange by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; and (3) train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. During FY 1995, a number of significant scientific advances were achieved at the IFS, both in long-range fundamental problems as well as in near-term strategic issues, consistent with the Institute`s mandate. Examples of these achievements include, for example, tokamak edge physics, analytical and computational studies of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulent transport, alpha-particle-excited toroidal Alfven eigenmode nonlinear behavior, sophisticated simulations for the Numerical Tokamak Project, and a variety of non-tokamak and non-fusion basic plasma physics applications. Many of these projects were done in collaboration with scientists from other institutions. Research discoveries are briefly described in this report.

  11. HIGH-ENERGY HEAVY-ION BEAMS AS IGNITERS FOR COMMERCIAL-SCALE INTERTIAL-FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judd, D.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    confined controlled thermonuclear fusion has been David L.steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of smallwas the detonation of thermonuclear bombs. I t was proposed

  12. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 (2006) B153B163 doi:10.1088/0741-3335/48/12B/S15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -drive). If the thermonuclear fuel is ignited and a burn wave propagates through the dense core, the fusion energy produced canINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion for direct-drive and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion R Betti1,2,3 , K Anderson1,3 , T R Boehly3

  13. Macron Formed Liner Compression as a Practical Method for Enabling Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slough, John

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. The main impediment for current nuclear fusion concepts is the complexity and large mass associated with the confinement systems. To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of magnetic fusion, an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. The very compact, high energy density plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) provides for an ideal target for this purpose. To make fusion with the FRC practical, an efficient method for repetitively compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. A novel approach to be explored in this endeavor is to remotely launch a converging array of small macro-particles (macrons) that merge and form a more massive liner inside the reactor which then radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target FRC plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining liner significantly lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. With the momentum flux being delivered by an assemblage of low mass, but high velocity macrons, many of the difficulties encountered with the liner implosion power technology are eliminated. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to evaluate the feasibility achieving fusion conditions from this simple and low cost approach to fusion. During phase I the design and testing of the key components for the creation of the macron formed liner have been successfully carried out. Detailed numerical calculations of the merging, formation and radial implosion of the Macron Formed Liner (MFL) were also performed. The phase II effort will focus on an experimental demonstration of the macron launcher at full power, and the demonstration of megagauss magnetic field compression by a small array of full scale macrons. In addition the physics of the compression of an FRC to fusion conditions will be undertaken with a smaller scale MFL. The timescale for testing will be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of other facilities at MSNW where the target FRC will be created and translated inside the MFL just prior to implosion of the MFL. Experimental success would establish the concept at the â??proof of principleâ? level and the following phase III effort would focus on the full development of the concept into a fusion gain device. Successful operation would lead to several benefits in various fields. It would have application to high energy density physics, as well as nuclear waste transmutation and alternate fission fuel cycles. The smaller scale device could find immediate application as an intense source of neutrons for diagnostic imaging and non-invasive object interrogation.

  14. Electromagnetic confinement and movement of thin sheets of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus capable of producing a combination of magnetic fields that can retain a metal in liquid form in a region having a smooth vertical boundary including a levitation magnet that produces low frequency magnetic field traveling waves to retain the metal and a stabilization magnet that produces a high frequency magnetic field to produce a smooth vertical boundary. As particularly adapted to the casting of solid metal sheets, a metal in liquid form can be continuously fed into one end of the confinement region produced by the levitation and stabilization magnets and removed in solid form from the other end of confinement region. An additional magnet may be included for support at the edges of the confinement region where eddy currents loop.

  15. An innovative accelerator-driven inertial electrostatic confinement device using converging ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental physics issues facing development of fusion power on a small-scale are assessed with emphasis on the idea of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). The authors propose a new concept of accelerator-driven IEC fusion, termed Converging Beam Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CB-IEC). CB-IEC offers a number of innovative features that make it an attractive pathway toward resolving fundamental physics issues and assessing the ultimate viability of the IEC concept for power generation.

  16. IOP PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 055018 (13pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/49/5/055018

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    IOP PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 055018 experimental and theoretical status of the most basic issues of FRC stability, confinement, and current drive field line linear systems as fusion reactors. We also develop scaling relations for extrapolation from

  17. Ceramics for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

  18. Some applications of mirror-generated electric potentials to alternative fusion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient electrical potentials can be generated in plasmas by utilizing impulsive mirror-generated forces acting on the plasma electrons together with ion inertia to cause momentary charge imbalance. In the Mirrortron such potentials are generated by applying a rapidly rising (tens of nanoseconds) localized mirror field to the central region of a hot-electron plasma confined between static mirrors. Because of the loss-cone nature of the electron distribution the sudden appearance of the pulsed mirror tends to expel electrons, whereas the ion density remains nearly constant. The quasi-neutrality condition then operates to create an electrical potential the equipotential surfaces of which can be shown theoretically to be congruent with surfaces of constant B. An alternative way of generating transient potentials is to apply a pulse of high-power microwaves to a plasma residing on a magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient. This technique resembles one employed in the Pleiade experiments. At gigawatt power levels, such as those produced by a Free Electron Laser, the production of very high transient potentials is predicted. Fusion-relevant applications of these ideas include heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion, and the possibility of employing these techniques to enhance the longitudinal confinement of fusion plasmas in multiple-mirror systems. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Experimental validation of Mueller-Stokes theory and investigation of the influence of the Cotton-Mouton effect on polarimetry in a magnetized fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Peebles, W. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Carter, T. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States); Hyatt, A. W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mueller-Stokes theory can be used to calculate the polarization evolution of an electromagnetic (EM) wave as it propagates through a magnetized plasma. Historically, the theory has been used to interpret polarimeter signals from systems operating on fusion plasmas. These interpretations have mostly employed approximations of Mueller-Stokes theory in regimes where either the Faraday rotation (FR) or the Cotton-Mouton (CM) effect is dominant. The current paper presents the first systematic comparison of polarimeter measurements with the predictions of full Mueller-Stokes theory where conditions transition smoothly from a FR-dominant (i.e., weak CM effect) plasma to one where the CM effect plays a significant role. A synthetic diagnostic code, based on Mueller-Stokes theory accurately reproduces the trends evident in the experimentally measured polarimeter phase over this entire operating range, thereby validating Mueller-Stokes theory. The synthetic diagnostic code is then used to investigate the influence of the CM effect on polarimetry measurements. As expected, the measurements are well approximated by the FR effect when the CM effect is predicted to be weak. However, the code shows that as the CM effect increases, it can compete with the FR effect in rotating the polarization of the EM-wave. This results in a reduced polarimeter response to the FR effect, just as observed in the experiment. The code also shows if sufficiently large, the CM effect can even reverse the handedness of a wave launched with circular polarization. This helps to understand the surprising experimental observations that the sensitivity to the FR effect can be nearly eliminated at high enough B{sub T} (2.0 T). The results also suggest that the CM effect on the plasma midplane can be exploited to potentially measure magnetic shear in tokamak plasmas. These results establish increased confidence in the use of such a synthetic diagnostic code to guide future polarimetry design and interpret the resultant experimental data.

  20. Magnetic Braids Anthony Yeates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundee, University of

    flux function Main result Conclusion 2. Thermonuclear confinement devices. ITER (Internat'l Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Inside the KSTAR tokamak. Correspond to periodic magnetic braids. 4 / 22

  1. A comparison of mainline and alternate approaches to fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayman, P.W.; Roth, J.R.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tokamak and tandem mirror concepts are compared with alternate confinement concepts using the criteria established in DOE/ET-0047, ''An Evaluation of Alternate Magnetic Fusion Concepts 1977.'' The concepts are evaluated and rated in each of three broad categories: confidence in physics and technology, and reactor desirability. The STARFIRE and MARS reactors are used as a basis for comparing the mainline tokamak and tandem mirror concepts with the alternate concepts evaluated in DOE/ET-0047. Two recent alternate concepts, the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) and the compact reversed field pinch reactor (CRFPR), are also evaluated. Results indicate that the physics of the mainline tokamaks and tandem mirrors is better understood than that of most alternate concepts. Both mainline concepts rank near the middle for technology requirements, and both rank near or at the bottom when compared with the reactor desirability of alternate concepts.

  2. Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Confined Fast Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Confined Fast Ions Paul Woskov1, S. B. Korsholm1,2, H. W. Oosterbeek4, J. Hoekzema4, F. Leuterer5, D.Wagner5 1MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center 2RisøMax Planck IPP ITPA Diagnostics Meeting, Princeton, March 26 - 30, 2007 #12;CTS Diagnostic Features

  3. IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · W IS C O N SIN · FUSION·T E CHNOLOGY · INSTITUTE FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY Isotopes Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement B.B. Cipiti Fusion Technology Institute University N was created using the 16 O(p,)13 N reaction from the oxygen in the water. Approximately 1.0 n

  4. The 2008 Public Release of the International Multi-tokamak Confinement Profile Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, C M [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Walters, M [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Murakami, Masanori [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the public release PR08 of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database, which should be of particular interest to the magnetic confinement fusion community. Data from a wide variety of interesting discharges from many of the world's leading tokamak experiments are now made available in PR08, which also includes predictive simulations of an initial set of operating scenarios for ITER. In this paper we describe the discharges that have been included and the tools that are available to the reader who is interested in accessing and working with the data. Most discharge descriptions refer to more detailed previous publications. In addition, we review physics analyses that have already made use of the profile database discharges. Public access to PR08 data is unconditional, but this paper should be cited by any publication that makes use of PR08 data.

  5. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  6. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Hill, D. N. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Porter, G. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm{sup 2}), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm{sup -1}) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman {beta} transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer {alpha} emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  7. STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION BY A SINGLE WAVE IN A MAGNETIZED PLASMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, G.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diffusion An approach to thermonuclear fusion, initiated intemperature, or for a given thermonuclear output too largemagnetic confinement Q = thermonuclear output v systems in

  8. ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS Power Plant based on toka- mak confinement concept. It is obvious that the Fusion Demo should demonstrate that a commercial fusion power plant would be accepted by utility and industry (i

  9. Confinement of Coulomb balls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Klindworth, M.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the confinement of the recently discovered Coulomb balls is proposed. These spherical three-dimensional plasma crystals are trapped inside a rf discharge under gravity conditions and show an unusual structural order in complex plasmas. Measurements of the thermophoretic force acting on the trapped dust particles and simulations of the plasma properties of the discharge are presented. The proposed model of confinement considers thermophoretic, ion-drag, and electric field forces, and shows excellent agreement with the observations. The findings suggest that self-confinement does not significantly contribute to the structural properties of Coulomb balls.

  10. Fusion Power Associates 34th Annual Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /symmetry on the NIF #12;This is the time to promote innovation in achieving ignition and gain in the laboratory understanding what is required to demonstrate ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) · Direct drive is a viable option for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition ­ relatively modest improvements to the NIF

  11. Power of the Sun: NERSC and Fusion Energy Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), established in 1974 as the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center and later renamed the National Magnetic Fusion...

  12. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  13. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  14. Production of large volume, strongly magnetized laser-produced plasmas by use of pulsed external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertazzi, B. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Beard, J.; Billette, J.; Portugall, O. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS-UFJ-UPS-INSA, 31400 Toulouse (France); Ciardi, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France); Vinci, T.; Albrecht, J.; Chen, S. N.; Da Silva, D.; Hirardin, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Simond, S.; Veuillot, E.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Burris-Mog, T.; Dittrich, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kroll, F.; Nitsche, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of strongly magnetized laser plasmas, of interest for laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion studies, is presented. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system, which generates a magnetic field by means of a split coil, with the ELFIE laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In order to influence the plasma dynamics in a significant manner, the system can generate, repetitively and without debris, high amplitude magnetic fields (40 T) in a manner compatible with a high-energy laser environment. A description of the system and preliminary results demonstrating the possibility to magnetically collimate plasma jets are given.

  15. Fusion energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  16. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  17. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall. It will address the origins and structure of the plasma electric field, rotation, the L-H transition, and the wide variety of pedestal relaxation mechanisms. The Whole Device Model will predict the entire discharge evolution given external actuators (i.e., magnets, power supplies, heating, current drive and fueling systems) and control strategies. Based on components operating over a range of physics fidelity, the WDM will model the plasma equilibrium, plasma sources, profile evolution, linear stability and nonlinear evolution toward a disruption (but not the full disruption dynamics). The plan assumes that, as the FSP matures and demonstrates success, the program will evolve and grow, enabling additional science problems to be addressed. The next set of integration opportunities could include: 1) Simulation of disruption dynamics and their effects; 2) Prediction of core profile including 3D effects, mesoscale dynamics and integration with the edge plasma; 3) Computation of non-thermal particle distributions, self-consistent with fusion, radio frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) sources, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and short-wavelength turbulence.

  18. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio [Unit Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, 00044 RM (Italy); Phillips, Cynthia K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion burn may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to demo and fusion power plant. A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of power to the plasma while minimizing the interaction between the plasma and launching structures. These potentially harmful interactions between the plasma and the vessel and launching structures are challenging: (i) significant and variable loss of power in the edge regions of confined plasmas and surrounding vessel structures adversely affect the core plasma performance and lifetime of a device; (ii) the launcher design is partly trial and error, with the consequence that launchers may have to be reconfigured after initial tests in a given device, at an additional cost. Over the broader frequency range, another serious gap is a quantitative lack of understanding of the combined effects of nonlinear wave-plasma processes, energetic particle interactions and non-axisymmetric equilibrium effects on determining the overall efficiency of plasma equilibrium and stability profile control techniques using RF waves. This is complicated by a corresponding lack of predictive understanding of the time evolution of transport and stability processes in fusion plasmas.

  19. Linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

    2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for particle electric dipole moments (edm) represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known $\\overrightarrow{v}\\times \\overrightarrow{E}$ field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect (Commins, ED; Am. J. Phys. \\QTR{bf}{59}, 1077 (1991), Pendlebury, JM \\QTR{em}{et al;} Phys. Rev. \\QTR{bf}{A70}, 032102 (2004)). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic form for the velocity auto-correlation function which determines the velocity-position correlation function which in turn determines the behavior of the frequency shift (Lamoreaux, SK and Golub, R; Phys. Rev \\QTR{bf}{A71}, 032104 (2005)) and show how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also discuss some additional issues.

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  1. First Observations of Nonhydrodynamic Mix at the Fuel-Shell Interface in Shock-Driven Inertial Confinement Implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amendt, P.

    A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with [superscript 3]He gas. These ...

  2. Fusion pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    objectives for FIRE are to address the critical burning plasma issues of an attractive magnetic fusion power plant as envisioned by the Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Studies (ARIES). The FIRE Design study. institutions, and is managed through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology. The technical work on FIRE has been

  4. Confined Brownian ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets (CBR) could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.

  5. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 (1997) A275A283. Printed in the UK PII: S0741-3335(97)81172-4 Alpha-particle physics in the tokamak fusion test reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 (1997) A275­A283. Printed in the UK PII: S0741-3335(97)81172-4 Alpha-particle physics in the tokamak fusion test reactor DT experiment S J Zwebena , V Arunasalama fusion test reactor. Alpha particles are generally well confined in MHD-quiescent discharges, and alpha

  6. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  7. IOP PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013) 085015 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0741-3335/55/8/085015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angles, University of

    IOP PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013) 085015), single-crystal LaB6 cathode to inject a low-voltage electron beam into a strongly magnetized, cold

  8. From topological insulators to superconductors and Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Cristina Diamantini; Pasquale Sodano; Carlo A. Trugenberger

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological matter in 3D is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. We show that, in 3D, there is another marginal term that must be added to the action in order to fully determine the physical content of the model. The quantum phase structure is governed by three parameters that drive the condensation of topological defects: the BF coupling, the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability of the material. For intermediate levels of electric permittivity and magnetic permeability the material is a topological insulator. We predict, however, new states of matter when these parameters cross critical values: a topological superconductor when electric permittivity is increased and magnetic permeability is lowered and a charge confinement phase in the opposite case of low electric permittivity and high magnetic permeability. Synthetic topological matter may be fabricated as 3D arrays of Josephson junctions.

  9. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, R [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  10. A time-delay approach for the modeling and control of plasma instabilities in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipahi, Rifat

    1 A time-delay approach for the modeling and control of plasma instabilities in thermonuclear for thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Indeed, advanced plasma confinement scenarios, such as the ones considered

  11. Starpower: The U.S. and the International Quest for Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this report) #12;. Foreword Fusion research, offering the hope of an energy technology with an essentially un with the requirements for develop- ment of a usefuI energy technology. The report does not analyze inertial confinement

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 056319 (2011) Influence of initial mean helicity on homogeneous turbulent shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?cole Normale Supérieure

    of central importance in the context of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasma [1]. Historically

  13. RECENT PROGRESS IN HEAVY ION SOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    beams of hydrogen into thermonuclear fusion reactors. Ain magnetic confinement thermonuclear devices, such as

  14. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 (2007) 4367 doi:10.1088/0741-3335/49/1/004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaun, André

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion profile to access regimes with an improved confinement and detecting instabilities for plasma diagnostics plasmas A Jaun1,4 , E R Tracy2 and A N Kaufman3 1 NADA, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm

  15. Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thévenaz, Jacques

    Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems Maximal Parabolics Results Minimal Fusion Systems Ellen Henke University of Birmingham Ellen Henke Minimal Fusion Systems #12;Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems Maximal Parabolics Results Contents 1 Introduction 2 Minimal Fusion Systems 3 Maximal Parabolics 4 Results Ellen

  16. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Provide mission need report for the proposed OMEGA Extended Performance project. · October 2002: NNSA November 21, 2003 #12;2 Statements to FESAC IFE panel 10/28/03 · Ignition is a major goal for NNSA supports OFES's mission and OFES use of NNSA's ICF facilities is accepted · Defense Programs reserves right

  17. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imploding pellet Expanding blowoff 2. Compression 1. Irradiation 3. Thermonuclear ignition Compressed pellet.5MJ,1~ #12;80 m The OMEGA laser is designed to achieve high irradiation uniformitywithflexiblepulse-beam smoothing is critical to ICF ignition I1771 EO phase modulator Grating Amplifiers Grating Focusing optics

  18. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October-December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, J.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The articles in this issue report progress on: Supernova Hydrodynamics Experiments on the Nova Laser; Characterization of Laser-Driven Shock Waves Using Interferometry; Absolute Equation of State Measurements of Compressed Liquid Deuterium Using Nova; Low-Density-Foam Shells; Tetrahedral Hohlraums; The Rosseland Mean Opacity of a Composite Material at High Temperatures.

  19. LANL | Physics | Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfraredJeffersonJonathanMultimaterial2Recovery Act JobPhysics Inertial

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area.Portaldefault Sign In AboutIn theIndustry @

  1. Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Sze, Dai-Kai [University of California, San Diego; Sokolov, Mikhail [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose principal functions are extraction of heat and tritium. Thus it is crucial to clarify the potentiality for controlling heat and tritium flow throughout the first wall, blanket and out-of-vessel recovery systems. The TITAN project continues the JUPITER-II activity but extends its scope including the first wall and the recovery systems with the title of 'Tritium and thermofluid control for magnetic and inertial confinement systems'. The objective of the program is to clarify the mechanisms of tritium and heat transfer throughout the first-wall, the blanket and the heat/tritium recovery systems under specific conditions to fusion such as irradiation, high heat flux, circulation and high magnetic fields. Based on integrated models, the breeding, transfer, inventory of tritium and heat extraction properties will be evaluated for some representative liquid breeder blankets and the necessary database will be obtained for focused research in the future.

  2. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  3. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  4. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53ReferenceRegarding Confinement Resonances

  5. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53ReferenceRegarding Confinement

  6. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53ReferenceRegarding ConfinementRegarding

  7. Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); SwissScientific, chemin Diodati 10, CH-1223 Cologny (Switzerland)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

  8. THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION of the best methods in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is the concept of central spark ignition, consisting of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel

  9. MIT Plasma Fusion Sciences Center IAP Seminar! Jan 10th, 2012!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Plasma Fusion Sciences Center IAP Seminar! Jan 10th, 2012! ! ! ! ! ! Otto Landen! Associate-07NA27344 Inertial Confinement Fusion Physics and Challenges*! #12;The NIF ignition experiments-degenerate fuel Spherical collapse of the shell produces a central hot spot surrounded by cold, dense main fuel

  10. Fusion Power Associates Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    experiments ­ Further work on inertial fusion energy technology ­ Take advantage of opportunities in HEDP on several smaller experiments ­ Further work on inertial fusion energy technology · Focus IFE first wall

  11. IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, D.K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the superconducting magnets and the plasma is the first wall. The first wall is a stand-alone structure with no coolant connection and is cooled by Flibe at the atmospheric pressure. There is also no need of the primary coolant loop. The design is expected to improve the safety, reliability, and maintainability aspects of the fusion system.

  12. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammash, Terry [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tang, Ricky [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust.

  13. Fusion Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenneth Intriligator

    1991-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss when and how the Verlinde dimensions of a rational conformal field theory can be expressed as correlation functions in a topological LG theory. It is seen that a necessary condition is that the RCFT fusion rules must exhibit an extra symmetry. We consider two particular perturbations of the Grassmannian superpotentials. The topological LG residues in one perturbation, introduced by Gepner, are shown to be a twisted version of the $SU(N)_k$ Verlinde dimensions. The residues in the other perturbation are the twisted Verlinde dimensions of another RCFT; these topological LG correlation functions are conjectured to be the correlation functions of the corresponding Grassmannian topological sigma model with a coupling in the action to instanton number.

  14. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 (2004) 121 PII: S0741-3335(04)82842-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidbrink, William W.

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion.1088/0741-3335/46/1/. . . Abstract Hydrogenic fast-ion populations are common in toroidal magnetic fusion AQ1 devices, especially compared with the signals from the injected neutrals, the warm (halo) neutrals and the cold edge neutrals

  15. Confinement of neutral fermions by a pseudoscalar double-step potential in (1+1) dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio S. de Castro; Wiliam G. Pereira

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of confinement of neutral fermions in two-dimensional space-time is approached with a pseudoscalar double-step potential in the Dirac equation. Bound-state solutions are obtained when the coupling is of sufficient intensity. The confinement is made plausible by arguments based on effective mass and anomalous magnetic interaction.

  16. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li2DT is found to be about 10 21 /k 2, where

  17. The Path to Fusion Energy for Concepts Currently at the Concept Exploration Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    confinement concepts · Spheromak · FRC Concepts operating in a very different parameter space · Magnetized") · Electrostatic confinement · Others #12;EBH 1/13/03 Development plan for toroidal confinement ­ spheromak Status of spheromaks This wide range of reactor visions offers opportunities for a better reactor, but the development

  18. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  19. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  20. Molybdenum and carbon atom and carbon cluster sputtering under low-energy noble gas plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyarzabal, Eider

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the controlled thermonuclear fusion. Plasmabaseda grid. In controlled thermonuclear fusion, electromagneticand magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion). In any case,

  1. Implementation of scattering pinhole diagnostic for detection of fusion products on CR-39 at high particle fluence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, David, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments use solid-state nuclear track detector CR-39 as a means to detect different types of nuclear products. Until recently, it was difficult to use CR-39 in experiments with ...

  2. INL Fusion Safety Program - Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brad Merrill Fusion Safety Program Group Leader Group Leader for the Fusion Safety Program. Technical lead for computer code development for fusion safety. Work in licensing,...

  3. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer W. Kuehne

    2006-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  4. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuehne, R W

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  5. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  6. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Dale M. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Consulting General Atomics Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Step Magnetic Fusion Experiment is Needed. ......A necessary next major scientific step-scale machines using different concepts to explore this scientific frontier. Thus, the program confronts

  7. MagLab - Magnets and Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    needed for everything from magnets for fusion, high energy physics, MRI, to electric power transmission lines and transformers. ASC and MS&T have particularly strong...

  8. Funding for nuclear fusion Expensive Iteration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    producing more energy than is put in. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor became plain ITER aims to produce energy by fusing together the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, confined in a magnetic field. Initial projections in 2006 put its price at 10 billion ($13 billion): 5 billion to build and another 5

  9. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer Seth Davidovits and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer Seth Davidovits and Nathaniel J. Fisch Princeton Plasma Physics ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate

  10. ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK A271 ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. The General Atomics (GA) Advanced Fusion Technology Program seeks to advance the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these technologies. GA's Advanced Fusion Technology program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the GA DIII-D program, the DIII-D facility and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and the ICF Target Fabrication facility.

  11. Plasma asymmetry due to the magnetic filter in fusion-type negative ion sources: Comparisons between two and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fubiani, G., E-mail: gwenael.fubiani@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Boeuf, J. P. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously reported 2D Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) simulations of negative ion sources under conditions similar to those of the ITER neutral beam injection system have shown that the presence of the magnetic filter tends to generate asymmetry in the plasma properties in the extraction region. In this paper, we show that these conclusions are confirmed by 3D PIC-MCC simulations and we provide quantitative comparisons between the 2D and 3D model predictions.

  12. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  13. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  14. ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of thermonuclear-fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of "points" highlighting the strategic-political and military-technical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and fo...

  15. Next-Step scientific objectives, targets, and parameters for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion energy (MFE) systems: Preliminary thoughts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; DiMarco, J.N.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is the quantitative definition of objectives, targets, and parameters of the Next-Step device to follow the present RFX experiment; this device is given the name RFXNS. Although developed over five years ago, much of the material distilled into the 1988 RFP tactical plan is useful in establishing the goals and parameters of RFXNS. This earlier plan established tentative parameters of an RFP next step based on: predictions of RFP ignition and commercial-reactor devices; and the assumed successful operation of highly complementary RFP experiments RFX and ZTH/CPRF. Programmatic changes and evolution that have occurred since 1988 strongly impact the role and characteristics of an RFXNS: the Los Alamos ZTH/CPRF project and fusion program was terminated in mid-construction for reasons of MFE cost savings and concept focusing; great progress has been made in launching ITER; and reactor projections for the tokamak have increased in detail and variety, but not in commercial promise and competitiveness. A brief status of and perspective from each of the above three points is necessary before the key issues and their implementation to form the basis of the RFXNS definition are given.

  16. Fusion Technology Working Group Presented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Snowmass Fusion Technology Working Group Summary Presented by M. Abdou, S. Milora Snowmass July 23, 1999 #12;Technology Working Group Subgroup # 1 Subgroup # 2 Solid Walls Ulrickson / Mattas Liquid Walls / Ying Chamber Technology Abdou / Ulrickson Heating/CD/Fueling Swain / Temkin Magnets Schultz / Woolley

  17. Recent EFDA work on Pulsed DEMO, August 2012, TOFE T N Todd Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) · Start-up power requirements, energy storage strategy · Energy storage systems available Energy, Oxfordshire The Future of Nuclear Power: Fusion Recent EFDA work on pulsed DEMO The UK fusion experimental demonstrations of simultaneous HH, N etc... But is ITB OK in DEMO (sustainable)? Alpha confinement

  18. Magnetic domain walls driven by interfacial phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emori, Satoru

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A domain wall in a ferromagnetic material is a boundary between differently magnetized regions, and its motion provides a convenient scheme to control the magnetization state of the material. Domain walls can be confined ...

  19. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  20. Fusion Plasmas Martin Greenwald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenwald, Martin

    . Despite the cold war, which raged for another 30 years, controlled fusion research became a modelFusion Plasmas Martin Greenwald Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, John Webster - editor, published by John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999) #12;Controlled Fusion For half a century

  1. How much laser power can propagate through fusion plasma?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel M. Lushnikov; Harvey A. Rose

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of intense laser beams is crucial for inertial confinement fusion, which requires precise beam control to achieve the compression and heating necessary to ignite the fusion reaction. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), where fusion will be attempted, is now under construction. Control of intense beam propagation may be ruined by laser beam self-focusing. We have identified the maximum laser beam power that can propagate through fusion plasma without significant self-focusing and have found excellent agreement with recent experimental data, and suggest a way to increase that maximum by appropriate choice of plasma composition with implication for NIF designs. Our theory also leads to the prediction of anti-correlation between beam spray and backscatter and suggests the indirect control of backscatter through manipulation of plasma ionization state or acoustic damping.

  2. Organic materials for fusion-reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, G.F.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic materials requirements for fusion-reactor magnets are described with reference to the temperature, radiation, and electrical and mechanical stress environment expected in these magnets. A review is presented of the response to gamma-ray and neutron irradiation at low temperatures of candidate organic materials; i.e. laminates, thin films, and potting compounds. Lifetime-limiting features of this response as well as needed testing under magnet operating conditions not yet adequately investigated are identified and recomendations for future work are made.

  3. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  4. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either D or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. We conclude that the financial and energy investments needed to produce such amounts of antiprotons would confine applications of antimatter triggered thermonuclear devices to the military domain.

  5. CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUFTY J W

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  6. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 Plasma Injector 10 people $3M 1 year #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 8 Density people $3.5M 14 months #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 11 Plasma Compression ExperimentsFusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011

  8. 50 Years of Fusion Research Fusion Innovation Research and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , .... · Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion had great potential ­ Uncontrolled Thermonuclear fusion demonstrated in 19521 50 Years of Fusion Research Dale Meade Fusion Innovation Research and Energy® Princeton, NJ SOFE 2009 June 1, 2009 San Diego, CA 92101 #12;2 #12;2 #12;3 Fusion Prior to Geneva 1958 · A period of rapid

  9. Status and Prospects of the Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, M H

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast ignition is an alternate concept in inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for easier ignition and greater energy multiplication. If realized it could improve the prospects for inertial fusion energy. It poses stimulating challenges in science and technology and the research is approaching a key stage in which the feasibility of fast ignition will be determined. This review covers the concepts, the state of the science and technology, the near term prospects and the challenges and risks involved in demonstrating high gain fast ignition.

  10. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2011 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 1 for the DOE/NNSA Slide 2 Some MIF-IFE reactor considerations #12;A Wide Range of Driver/Target Combinations for the DOE/NNSA S. A. Slutz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) A. G. Lynn, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 81

  11. COLLOQUIUM: Magnetized Target Fusion Work at General Fusion | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy, science,Principles of CollectivePrinceton

  12. Achievement of a record electron temperature for a magnetic mirror device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagryansky, P A; Lizunov, A A; Maximov, V V; Prikhodko, V V; Shalashov, A G; Soldatkina, E I; Solomakhin, A L; Yakovlev, D V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate plasma discharges with extremely high temperature of bulk electrons at the large axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). According to Thomson scattering measurements, the on-axis electron temperature averaged over several sequential shots is 660 $\\pm$ 50 eV with peak values exceeding 900 eV in few shots. This corresponds to at least threefold increase as compared to previous experiments both at the GDT and at other comparable machines, thus demonstrating the maximum quasi-stationary (~1 ms) electron temperature achieved in open traps. The breakthrough is made possible with application of sophisticated electron cyclotron resonance heating in addition to standard heating by neutral beams. The reported increase of the electron temperature along with previous experiments, which demonstrated high-density plasma confinement with $\\beta\\approx$ 60%, provide a firm basis for extrapolating to fusion relevant applications of open magnetic systems.

  13. Image Fusion for MR Bias Stochastic Systems Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    We can target T1 and T2 through appropriate selection of TE and TR. #12;Image Reconstruction The MRImage Fusion for MR Bias Correction Ayres Fan Stochastic Systems Group Joint work with W. Wells, J. Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A. Willsky, B. Mulkern #12;Magnetic Resonance The magnetic resonance (MR

  14. Fusion Engineering and Design 41 (1998) 393400 Economic goals and requirements for competitive fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    optimization and selection in mind, tradeoffs among system power density, recirculating power, plant and methodology of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants have been near- term research and development programs, for fu- sion and other advanced generation systems

  15. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 NOVEMBER 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2795 A long-pulse high-confinement plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China, 2Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., PO Box 7010, Rancho Santa energy source with an abundant fuel supply. One of the most promising approaches to harnessing fusion degrees Celsius) plasma state with sufficient density and energy confinement time. Significant progress

  16. After many years of fusion research, the conditions needed for a DT fusion reactor have been approached on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). For the first time the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    , is observed to increase in D­T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the n i (0) T i (0) t E product by 55 supershot and limiter­H­mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time. Demonstrating the production of »10 MW of fusion power. In this paper, a brief description will be given

  17. Distributed Error Confinement Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patt-Shamir, Boaz

    . These algorithms can serve as building blocks in more general reactive systems. Previous results in exploring locality in reactive systems were not error confined, and relied on the assump- tion (not used in current, that seems inherent for voting in reactive networks; its analysis leads to an interesting combinatorial

  18. The European Fusion Programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

  19. Indecomposable Fusion Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Horst G. Kausch

    1996-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the fusion products of certain representations of the Virasoro algebra for c=-2 and c=-7 which are not completely reducible. We introduce a new algorithm which allows us to study the fusion product level by level, and we use this algorithm to analyse the indecomposable components of these fusion products. They form novel representations of the Virasoro algebra which we describe in detail. We also show that a suitably extended set of representations closes under fusion, and indicate how our results generalise to all (1,q) models.

  20. Fusion Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017 The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Production Computing and...

  1. Path toward fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief history of the fusion research program is given. Some of the problems that plagued the developmental progress are described. (MOW)

  2. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard.

  3. Fusion reactor theory and conceptual design. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and conceptual aspects of fusion reactor physics and designs. A variety of fusion reactors is discussed, including Tokamak, experimental, commercial, tandem mirror, and superconducting magnetic. Topics also include fusion reactor materials, Tokamak devices, blanket design, divertors, fusion plasma production, superconducting magnets, and cryogenic systems. (Contains a minimum of 159 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D A; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Latkowski, J F

    2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  5. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Petti; Susana Reyes; Lee C. Cadwallader; Jeffery F. Latkowski

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  6. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the U.S. Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  7. Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, Nolan Lee

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    little attention. Experimental work needs to be conducted on detonation diffraction into a confined volume to better understand how the interaction of the diffracted shock wave with a confining wall impacts the detonation diffraction process. Therefore, a...

  8. Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries Adil Meziane1 , Jean-Pierre E 40 71 08 #12;2 Abstract The thermal behaviour of carbon tetrachloride confined in silica gels

  9. Buoyant jet behavior in confined regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, David J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous confined jet studies have emphasized the behavior of non-buoyant jets inside ducts or near plane boundaries (Coanda effect). Buoyancy, however, is a major factor in the confined jet behavior experienced in many ...

  10. Liquid Vortex Shielding for Fusion Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardet, Philippe M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Supiot, Boris F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Peterson, Per F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Savas, Oemer [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Swirling liquid vortices can be used in fusion chambers to protect their first walls and critical elements from the harmful conditions resulting from fusion reactions. The beam tube structures in heavy ion fusion (HIF) must be shielded from high energy particles, such as neutrons, x-rays and vaporized coolant, that will cause damage. Here an annular wall jet, or vortex tube, is proposed for shielding and is generated by injecting liquid tangent to the inner surface of the tube both azimuthally and axially. Its effectiveness is closely related to the vortex tube flow properties. 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is being conducted to precisely characterize its turbulent structure. The concept of annular vortex flow can be extended to a larger scale to serve as a liquid blanket for other inertial fusion and even magnetic fusion systems. For this purpose a periodic arrangement of injection and suction holes around the chamber circumference are used, generating the layer. Because it is important to match the index of refraction of the fluid with the tube material for optical measurement like PIV, a low viscosity mineral oil was identified and used that can also be employed to do scaled experiments of molten salts at high temperature.

  11. Transition from order to chaos, and density limit, in magnetized plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Carati; M. Zuin; A. Maiocchi; M. Marino; E. Martines; L. Galgani

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that a plasma in a magnetic field, conceived microscopically as a system of point charges, can exist in a magnetized state, and thus remain confined, inasmuch as it is in an ordered state of motion, with the charged particles performing gyrational motions transverse to the field. Here we give an estimate of a threshold, beyond which transverse motion become chaotic, the electrons being unable to perform even one gyration, so that a breakdown should occur, with complete loss of confinement. The estimate is obtained by the methods of perturbation theory, taking as perturbing force acting on each electron that due to the so--called microfield, i.e., the electric field produced by all the other charges. We first obtain a general relation for the threshold, which involves the fluctuations of the microfield. Then, taking for such fluctuations the fomula given by Iglesias, Lebowitz and MacGowan for the model of a one component plasma with neutralizing background, we obtain a definite formula for the threshold, which corresponds to a density limit increasing as the square of the imposed magnetic field. Such a theoretical density limit is found to fit pretty well the empirical data for collapses of fusion machines.

  12. ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the Nuclear Weapons Proliferation Implications of Thermonuclear-Fusion Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andr Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of points highlighting the strategic-political and militarytechnical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and foster further nuclear proliferation throughout the world. The safety and environmental problems related to the operation of largescale fusion facilities such as ITER (which contain massive amounts of hazardous and/or radioactive materials such as tritium, lithium, and beryllium, as well as neutron-activated structural materials) are not addressed in this paper.

  13. Fusion Chamber Technology Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    1. Abdou, M.A., The APEX Team, Ying, A., Morley, N., Gulec, K., Smolentsev, S., Kotschenreuther, M-248, 2001. 2. Mohamed Abdou and the APEX Team, Exploring novel high power density concepts for attractive fusion systems, Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 45, pp. 145-167, 1999. 3. Abdou, M. A., Ying, A., Lu

  14. Confinement of monopole field lines in a superconductor at T {ne} 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardoso, Marco [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bicudo, Pedro [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sacramento, Pedro D. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: pdss@cfif.ist.utl.pt

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the confinement of a monopole-antimonopole pair in a superconductor. This is related to the problem of a quark-antiquark pair bound by a confining string, consisting of a colour-electric flux tube, dual to the magnetic vortex of type-II superconductors. We study the confinement of the field lines due to the superconducting state and calculate the effective potential between the two monopoles. The monopoles can be simulated in a real experiment inserting two long and thin magnetic rods. At short distances the potential is Coulombic and at large distances the potential is linear, as previously determined solving the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The magnetic field lines and the string tension are also studied as a function of the temperature T. Because we take into account the explicit fermionic degrees of freedom, this work may open new perspectives to the breaking of chiral symmetry or to colour superconductivity.

  15. | International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Fusion Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 043016 (8pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/54/4/043016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    | International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Fusion Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 043016 (8pp) doi:10. Hassanein Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University the developed volume-of-fluid magnetohydrodynamic code. The effects of plasma velocity and magnetic field

  16. Deriving confinement via RG decimations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. T. Tomboulis

    2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the general framework and building blocks of a recent derivation of the fact that the SU(2) LGT is in a confining phase for all values of the coupling $0 < \\beta < \\infty$, for space-time dimension $d \\leq 4$. The method employs approximate but explicitly computable RG decimations that are shown to constrain the exact partition function and order parameters from above and below, and flow from the weak to the strong coupling regime without encountering a fixed point.

  17. Uniformity of fuel target implosion in Heavy Ion Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawata, S; Suzuki, T; Karino, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Ma, Y Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confinement fusion the target implosion non-uniformity is introduced by a driver beams' illumination non-uniformity, a fuel target alignment error in a fusion reactor, the target fabrication defect, et al. For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the requirement for the implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion uniformity should be less than a few percent. A study on the fuel hotspot dynamics is also presented and shows that the stagnating plasma fluid provides a significant enhancement of vorticity at the final stage of the fuel stagnation. Then non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are also briefly discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF a wobbling he...

  18. Three Dimensional Confinement : WKB Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anjana Sinha

    2003-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternate formalism is developed to determine the energy eigenvalues of quantum mechanical systems, confined within a rigid impenetrable spherical box of radius $r_0$, in the framework of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Instead of considering the Langer correction for the centrifugal term, the approach adopted here is that of Hainz and Grabert : The centrifugal term is expanded perturbatively (in powers of $\\hbar$), decomposing it into 2 terms -- the classical centrifugal potential and a quantum correction. Hainz and Grabert found that this method reproduced the exact energies of the hydrogen atom, to the first order in $\\hbar$, with all higher order corrections vanishing. In the present study, this formalism is extended to the case of radial potentials under hard wall confinement, to check whether the same argument holds good for such confined systems as well. As explicit examples, 3 widely known potentials are studied, which are of considerable importance in the theoretical treatment of various atomic phenomena involving atomic transitions, viz., the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the Hulthen potential.

  19. Physics Regimes in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Meade; S.C.Jardin; C.E. Kessel; M.A. Ulrickson; J.H. Schultz; P.H. Rutherford; J.A. Schmidt; J.C. Wesley; K.M. Young; N.A.Uckan; R.J. Thome; P. Heitzenroeder; B.E. Nelson; and C.C.Baker

    2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Burning plasma science is recognized widely as the next frontier in fusion research. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is a design study of a next-step burning plasma experiment with the goal of developing a concept for an experimental facility to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) self-heating, stability, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. This will require plasmas dominated by alpha heating (Q greater than or equal to 5) that are sustained for a duration comparable to characteristic plasma timescales (greater than or equal to 10) tau(subscript ''E''), approximately 4 tau(subscript ''He''), approximately 2 tau(subscript ''skin''). The work reported here has been undertaken with the objective of finding the minimum size (cost) device to achieve these physics goals.

  20. "50" Years of Fusion Research Fusion Innovation Research and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Classified US Program on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Project Sherwood) carried out until 1958 when"50" Years of Fusion Research Dale Meade Fusion Innovation Research and Energy® Princeton, NJ Fi P th SFusion Fire Powers the Sun "W d t if k f i k ""We need to see if we can make fusion work

  1. Detailed discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation) electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for electric dipole moment experiments (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for particle electric dipole moments represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known E x v field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect [9,10]). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic model for the correlation function which determines the behavior of the frequency shift [11], and show in detail how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also propose a method to directly measure ths correlation function under the exact conditions of a given experiment.

  2. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m{sup 2} and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings.

  3. Results from the Levitated Dipole Experiment MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    research: earth, Jupiter... · Dipole is simplest confinement field · Naturally occurring high- plasma ( ~ 2 lead naturally to breadth in science and technology · Example: Confinement in the field of a levitated (radiation belts) · Adriani et al. (2011): Discovery of geo- magnetically trapped cosmic-ray antiprotons #12

  4. Induced magnetism in Cu nanoparticles embedded in Co P. Swaminathan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    the effects of changing the nature of confinement to three dimensions by embedding Cu nanoparticles in a Co.1063/1.2806236 Nonmagnetic spacer layers grown between layers of magnetic materials exhibit an induced magnetic moment.1

  5. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion power has the long-range potential to serve as an abundant and clean source of energy and recommends

  6. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research for continued optimism. Nuclear fusion power relies on the energy released when two light atomic nuclei fuse

  7. Fusion Energy Program Presentation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Plasma Technologies Fusion Technologies Advanced MaterialsFusion Energy Program Presentation to Field Work Proposals Washington, D.C. N. Anne Davies Associate Director for Fusion energy Office of Energy Research March23, 1994 #12;FUSION ENERGY PROGRAM FYI

  8. High poloidal beta long-pulse experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    High poloidal beta long-pulse experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor* J. Kesner+ Plasma stability and confinement. As the current profile evolved, a significantly reduced beta limit was observed after the current ramp-down carried negative current. At later times in lower flN discharges, beta

  9. Annual Report of the EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Programme 2013 10 Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Inderwildi O R Energy & Environmental Science 6, 18 (2013) 2. The effect of ionization on the populations. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe Rieth M A Journal of Nuclear Materials 432, 482 (2013) 4. Comparison of hybrid and baseline ELMy H-mode confinement

  10. Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /4 = 40 µs cusp coil cusp coil mirror coils cusp coil cap. bank mirror coil cap. bank Electrical Circuit Current vs t Experimental SetupExperimental Setup 32.5 cm 36cm Pre-ionization Experimental Setup Pre-framing photography) Quantitative diagnostics: 1. Interferometry (side-on and end-on) 2. Studying electrical pulse

  11. MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY Zachary S Hartwig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @mit.edu Web: http://www.psfc.mit.edu/research/MFEFormulary GitHub: https on the web. Both licenses permit copying, redistributing, modifying, and deriving new works under

  12. COMMENTARIES ON CRITICISMS OF MAGNETIC FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -level-radioactive waste for disposal by shallow land burial, or even for recycling. Projected costs of electricity from in controlling the internal configuration of the plasma have led to the achievement of substantially improved

  13. A fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S.A.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-{sup 11}B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field-reversed configuration (FRC), anchored in a gas-dynamic trap (GDT). The plasma outflow on the open magnetic-field lines is cooled by radiation in the GDT, then channeled through a magnetic nozzle, promoting 3-body recombination in the expansion region. The resulting supersonic neutral exhaust stream flows through a turbine, generating electricity.

  14. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  15. Cylindrical confinement of semiflexible polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Vzquez-Montejo; Zachary McDargh; Markus Deserno; Jemal Guven

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Equilibrium states of a closed semiflexible polymer binding to a cylinder are described. This may be either by confinement or by constriction. Closed completely bound states are labeled by two integers, the number of oscillations, $n$, and the number of times it winds the cylinder, $p$, the latter a topological invariant. We examine the behavior of these states as the length of the loop is increased by evaluating the energy, the conserved axial torque and the contact force. The ground state for a given $p$ is the state with $n=1$; a short loop with $p=1$ is an elliptic deformation of a parallel circle; as its length increases it elongates along the cylinder axis, with two hairpin ends. Excited states with $n \\geq 2$ and $p=1$ posses $n$-fold axial symmetry. Short (long) loops possess energies $\\approx p E_0$ ($n E_0$), with $E_0$ the energy of a circular loop with same radius as the cylinder; in long loops the axial torque vanishes. Confined bound excited states are initially unstable; however, above a critical length they becomes stable: the folded hairpin cannot be unfolded. The ground state for each $p$ is also initially unstable with respect to deformations rotating the loop off the surface into the interior. A closed planar elastic curve aligned along the cylinder axis making contact with the cylinder on its two sides is identified as the ground state of a confined loop. Exterior bound states behave very differently, if free to unbind, as signaled by the reversal in the sign of the contact force. If $p=1$, all such states are unstable. If $p\\ge 2$, however, a topological obstruction to complete unbinding exists. If the loop is short, the bound state with $p=2$ and $n=1$ provides a stable constriction of the cylinder, partially unbinding as the length is increased. This motif could be relevant to an understanding of the process of membrane fission mediated by dynamin rings.

  16. RECENT PROGRESS IN HEAVY ION SOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of hydrogen into thermonuclear fusion reactors. A summary ofFusion Plasma Sources Other sources of high charge state ions include the dense plasma in magnetic confinement thermonuclear

  17. Theory of rheology in confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artem A. Aerov; Matthias Krger

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon e.g. applying shear. Often the former is less relevant, and (damped) Brownian particles are considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on the many particle diffusion equation, evaluated via classical density functional theory. We discuss the viscosity for the situation of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of wall-to-wall distance.

  18. How Fusion Energy Works

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As part of How Energy Works, we'll cover everything from fuel sources to plasma physics and beyond.

  19. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  20. Generalized Fusion Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofer Aharony

    1993-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, DiFrancesco and Zuber have characterized the RCFTs which have a description in terms of a fusion potential in one variable, and proposed a generalized potential to describe other theories. In this note we give a simple criterion to determine when such a generalized description is possible. We also determine which RCFTs can be described by a fusion potential in more than one variable, finding that in fact all RCFTs can be described in such a way, as conjectured by Gepner.

  1. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyganov, E. N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  2. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  3. Spontaneous brillouin scattering quench diagnostics for large superconducting magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Scott B

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large superconducting magnets used in fusion reactors, as well as other applications, need a diagnostic that can non-invasively measure the temperature and strain throughout the magnet in real-time. A new fiber optic sensor ...

  4. Fusion and Plasma Physics are at the Core of Nature's Most Intriguing Self-Driven Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nears a final answer · Glass physics: still not transparent · Solar magnetic field poses problems Accepted as the Primary Objective for a Next Step in Fusion Research · Grunder Panel (98) and Madison Forum that is fundamental to fusion-dominated plasma behavior (self-organization) · Energy and particle transport (extend

  5. Safeguard Requirements for Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston and Alexander Glaser

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to fissile materials can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production and diversion of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state openly produces fissile material in violation of international agreements. The degree of risk in each of these categories is assessed, taking into account both state and non-state actors, and it is found that safeguards are required for fusion energy to be highly attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. Specific safeguard requirements and R&D needs are outlined for each category of risk, and the technical capability of the ITER experiment, under construction, to contribute to this R&D is noted. A preliminary analysis indicates a potential legal pathway for fusion power systems to be brought under the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. "Vertical" proliferation risks associated with tritium and with the knowledge that can be gained from inertial fusion energy R&D are outlined.

  6. Antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. In the second part, the technologies for producing antiprotons with high energy accelerator systems and the means for manipulating and storing microgram amounts of antihydrogen are examined. While there seems to be no theoretical obstacles to the production of 10^{18} antiprotons per day (the amount required for triggering one thermonuclear bomb), the construction of such a plant involves several techniques which are between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude away from present day technology.

  7. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Katz, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Magoon, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Shoup, M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Ulreich, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Ashabranner, R. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carpenter, A. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khater, H. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKernan, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yeoman, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zacharias, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fletcher, K. [State Univ. of New York at Geneseo, NY (United States); Farrell, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jasion, D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Paguio, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  8. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  9. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  10. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  11. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

  12. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE · It was well recognized there were also critical materials and technology issues that needed to be addressed in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

  13. Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap Farrokh Najmabadi Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Director, Center for Energy Research UC San Diego International Fusion Road of emerging nations, energy use is expected to grow ~ 4 fold in this century (average 1.6% annual growth rate

  14. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  15. Fusion reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, D.A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma kinetic temperature and density changes, each per an injected fuel density rate increment, control the energy supplied by a thermonuclear fusion reactor in a power production cycle. This could include simultaneously coupled control objectives for plasma current, horizontal and vertical position, shape and burn control. The minimum number of measurements required, use of indirect (not plasma parameters) system measurements, and distributed control procedures for burn control are to be verifiable in a time dependent systems code. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has the need to feedback control both the fusion output power and the driven plasma current, while avoiding damage to diverter plates. The system engineering of fusion reactors must be performed to assure their development expeditiously and effectively by considering reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental impact, health and safety, and cost.

  16. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

    2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  17. Plasma Jet Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Security, LLC for NNSA LA-UR-11-07030 #12;Plasma jet experiments can provide cm National Security, LLC for NNSA Imploding plasma liner formed by 30 merging plasma jets with 1.5 MJ, LLC for NNSA MIF ICF Basko et al., Nucl. Fusion, 2000 Magnetic field reduces thermal transport

  18. Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, Allen R. [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute] [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the award for Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science. With this award our main efforts have been to develop and deploy visualization and analysis tools in three areas 1) magnetic field line analysis 2) query based visualization and 3) comparative visualization.

  19. Fusion technology status and requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

  20. data fusion 15 June 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    real world data fusion Fred Daum 15 June 2012 data fusion Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a trademark of Raytheon Company. 1 #12;PATRIOT