Sample records for magnesium potassium sodium

  1. Effects of dietary potassium and sodium on magnesium and potassium balance in lambs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poe, Julie Hamilton

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of magnesium oxide and trace mineralized salt with either molasses, cottonseed meal, dry sugarcane or steamed bone meal was consumed by lactating beef cows at a significantly (P), 05) higher level than magnesium oxide and trace mineralized salt (1:1) alone...EFFECTS OF DIETARY POTASSIUM AND SODIUM ON MAGNESIUM AND POTASSIUM BALANCE IN LAMBS A Thesis by JULIE HAMILTON POE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  2. Effects of dietary potassium and sodium on magnesium and potassium balance in lambs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poe, Julie Hamilton

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Molasses in a 1:1 mixture with magnesium oxide (Horvath et al. , 1967) or magnesium acetate (Ross and Gibson, 1969) has prevented low serum Mg levels. Magnesium alloy bullets have been designed to lodge in the reticulo-rumen and slowly release Mg...

  3. Blood pressure and red blood cell magnesium, potassium, and calcium responses to dietary fats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrman, Noreen Elaine

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of hypertension. The role of dietary fats in blood pressure regulation is being studied more closely, with careful consideration to their actions on prostaglandin synthesis, membrane fluidity and permeability, and electrolyte balance. This study examined... Page 111 . V1 V11 . 1X Problem Identification. Electrolytes. Magnesium . The Role of Magnesium and Ion Transport . The Relationship Between Magnesium and Potassium. The Relationship Between Magnesium and Calcium. The Relationship Between...

  4. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in most of these soils. In a field experiment on Lakeland sand, ryegrass responded to applications of sulfur, but not to potassium or maqnesium, Soil profile analyses indicate that appli- cations of potassium caused magnesium to be displaced downward... the exchangeable potassium and magnesium in a Lakeland fine sand 4 Distribution of potassium, magnesium, and sulfate in a Lakeland fine sand. 48 Effect of fertilizer treatments on total yield of Coastal bermudagrass grown in the field in 1968. . 51 10 Effect...

  5. The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

  6. Blood pressure and red blood cell magnesium, potassium, and calcium responses to dietary fats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrman, Noreen Elaine

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Nutrition BLOOD PRESSURE AND RED BLOOD CELL MAGNESIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM RESPONSES TO DIETARY FATS A Thesis by NOREEN ELAINE WEHRMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial.... Edwards (Head of Department) August 1993 Major Subject: Nutrition ABSTRACT Blood Pressure and Red Blood Cell Magnesium, Potassium, and Calcium Responses to Dietary Fats, (August 1993) Noreen Elaine Wehrman, B. S. , Pennsylvania State University...

  7. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDy SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Submitted to the Graduate Collccje of Texas AFM Unive, sity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma 1969 Major Subject Soil Chemistr THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDY SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Approved...

  8. The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Manhar C

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

  9. Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, David Preston

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

  10. The feasibility of meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for sodium and potassium: a cross-national comparison study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.; Maillot, Matthieu; Mendoza, Alfonso; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of less frequently consumed potassium-rich foods, including beans, dark-green vegetables, dried fruits and fish. While simultaneously decreasing sodium and increasing potassium should be the long-term goal for populations, independently increasing...

  11. The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -oa:, cld c:t. r. p alit ir a. clans as inrluenced ty siagnesium ard s jiL I . -'?'g"rs f:ct:o" pi ants at weekls lr ti rvdls as it' flL1 reed oy Htdg;1. S1L'm dl. d s 'dium R eld ls. ? chlcr opr yl contet t 1;. inrlu?. . ced ty magnesium ard sc... 1 . au=? as ol m R La=. te carctencio cnt?nt c:r ir. flu reed by maga siu?m arid sc edt. S o LU'm 615 . be distr ibu" c rr c f day - Ld ccttcr pl Cd 10rs li. l;':LSS? Ci 30 at' s distr ibu7 ic. . cf 6G-day olo cct cn radgr. esrum ar. d...

  12. The use of sodium and/or potassium lactate to extend shelf-life and reduce sodium levels in precooked beef systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagach, Denise Ann

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology THE USE OF SODIUM AND/OR POTASSIUM LACTATE TO EXTEND SHELF-LIFE AND REDUCE SODIUM LEVELS IN PRECOOKED BEEF SYSTEMS A Thesis by DENISE ANN PAGACH... ABSTRACT The Use of Sodium and/or Potassium Lactate to Extend Shelf-Life and Reduce Sodium Levels in Precooked Beef Systems. (May 1992) Denise Ann Pagach, B. S. , Texas AdtM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. K. Miller Concern for food...

  13. Evaluation of frankfurters formulated with potassium lactate and sodium diacetate and innocualted with Listeria monocytogenes before and after irradiation treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Timothy David

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial safety and quality attributes were evaluated for frankfurters formulated with potassium lactate/sodium diacetate (0 or 3%) and inoculated with a four-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail before and after treatment with pasteurizing doses...

  14. Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt-binding macrobicycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt or potassium chloride as a contact ion-pair, is shown to effect- ively transport either salt across vesicle membranes. Sig- nificant transport is observed even when the transporter : phospholipid ratio is as low as 1

  15. The effect of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate on the microbial, sensory, color and chemical characteristics of vacuum-packaged beef top loin steaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar, Najia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beef strip loins were injected with potassium lactate (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%), sodium diacetate (0.1%), and combination of sodium diacetate (0.1%) with 1.5 or 2.0% potassium lactate. Top loin steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored for up to 49 days...

  16. Evaluation of frankfurters formulated with potassium lactate and sodium diacetate and innocualted with Listeria monocytogenes before and after irradiation treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Timothy David

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    the incorporation of lactate in combination with dipping frankfurters in various antimicrobial solutions. Nunez and others (2004a) investigated the effectiveness of potassium lactate in a frankfurter formulation at 3.3% in combination with dipping... throughout refrigerated storage (Nunez and others 2004b). Barmpalia and others (2004) used a combination of 1.8% sodium lactate and 0.25% sodium diacetate in frankfurters with dip solutions of 2.5% lactic or acetic acids. All treatments with lactate...

  17. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750{degree}C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/cm{sup 2}. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. results of these studies are presented. 15 refs.

  18. The effect of modifications of dietary fat, fiber and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and minerals, tissue and femur minerals and femur load force 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, Cathlyn Ann

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF MODIFICATIONS OF DIETARY FAT, FIBER AND SODIUM WITH MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY ON SERUM LIPIDS AND MINERALS, TISSUE AND FEMUR MINERALS AND FEMUR LOAD FORCE A Thesis by CATHLYN ANN HOWE "Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies oz..." Texas A&M University partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF MODIFICATIONS OF DIETARY FAT, FIBER AND SODIUM WITH MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY ON SERUM LIPIDS...

  19. An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON TALC SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEXING OF AQUEOUS MAGNESIUM IN SUPERCRITICAL HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN GRABMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... MAGNESIUM IN SUPERCRITICAL HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN GRABMAN Approved as to style and content by: ~A. Robert K. Popp (Ch of Commi ee) Andrew Haj sh, Jr. (Member) Brann J son (Me ) J Span (Head o Department) December 1989...

  20. Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U.S.A. Agrin Regulation of ? 3 Sodium-Potassiumis modulated by agrin regulation of ? 3 Na,K-ATPasegated sodium channels, capa- regulation of cardiac myocyte

  1. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Magnesium Silicate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Sodium Magnesium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Lithium Magnesium Silicate, Lithium Magnesium

  2. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  3. Potassium & Potassium Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Potassium & Potassium Management Carrie Laboski Department of Soil Science UW- Madison #12;Havlin Not irrigated #12;Environmental Factors Affecting K Availability to a Plant Soil moisture Low soil moisture moisture will increase K diffusion Increase soil moisture from 10 to 28 % can increase toatl K transport

  4. apical sodium-chloride cotransporter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 302 The...

  5. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  6. The Abundance Evolution of Oxygen, Sodium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-Poor Intermediate Mass Stars: Implications for the Self-Polution Scenario in Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel A. Denissenkov; Falk Herwig

    2003-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present full stellar evolution and parametric models of the surface abundance evolution of O16, Ne22, Na23 and the magnesium isotopes in an extremely metal-poor intermediate mass star M_ZAMS=5M_sun, Z=0.0001. O16 and Ne22 are injected into the envelope by the third dredge-up following thermal pulses on the asymptotic giant branch. These species and the initially present Mg24 are depleted by hot bottom burning (HBB) during the interpulse phase. As a result, Na23, Mg25 and Mg26 are enhanced. If the HBB temperatures are sufficiently high for this process to deplete oxygen efficiently, Na23 is first produced and then depleted during the interpulse phase. Although the simultaneous depletion of O16 and enhancement of Na23 is possible, the required fine tuning of the dredge-up and HBB casts some doubt on the robustness of this process as the origin of the O-Na anti-correlation observed in globular cluster stars. However, a very robust prediction of our models are low Mg24/Mg25 and Mg24/Mg26 ratios whenever significant O16 depletion can be achieved. This seems to be in stark contrast with recent observations of the magnesium isotopic ratios in the globular cluster NGC6752.

  7. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  8. The Abundance Evolution of Oxygen, Sodium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-Poor Intermediate Mass Stars: Implications for the Self-Polution Scenario in Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denissenkov, P A

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present full stellar evolution and parametric models of the surface abundance evolution of O16, Ne22, Na23 and the magnesium isotopes in an extremely metal-poor intermediate mass star M_ZAMS=5M_sun, Z=0.0001. O16 and Ne22 are injected into the envelope by the third dredge-up following thermal pulses on the asymptotic giant branch. These species and the initially present Mg24 are depleted by hot bottom burning (HBB) during the interpulse phase. As a result, Na23, Mg25 and Mg26 are enhanced. If the HBB temperatures are sufficiently high for this process to deplete oxygen efficiently, Na23 is first produced and then depleted during the interpulse phase. Although the simultaneous depletion of O16 and enhancement of Na23 is possible, the required fine tuning of the dredge-up and HBB casts some doubt on the robustness of this process as the origin of the O-Na anti-correlation observed in globular cluster stars. However, a very robust prediction of our models are low Mg24/Mg25 and Mg24/Mg26 ratios whenever signif...

  9. REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  10. aqueous potassium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 24...

  11. anhydrous magnesium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 16...

  12. aluminum sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 47...

  13. aerated sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 39 Evaluation...

  14. aqueous sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 58 Systematic...

  15. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  16. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Alexander F. (Cambridge, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations International Magnesium Association Founded in 1943, the mission of the International Magnesium Association (IMA) is to promote the use of the metal magnesium...

  18. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  19. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  20. Down-State Model of the Voltage-Sensing Domain of a Potassium Channel Eric V. Schow,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    traveling along nerve cells are propagated via action potentials generated by sodium and potassium ionsDown-State Model of the Voltage-Sensing Domain of a Potassium Channel Eric V. Schow, J. Alfredo changes upon membrane depolarization, from a down state when the channel is at rest to an up state, all

  1. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  2. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serquis, Adriana C. (Los Alamos, NM); Zhu, Yuntian T. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Frederick M. (Los Alamos, NM); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Liao, Xiao Zhou (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  3. accumulate magnesium protoporphyrin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    previous work that the exchangeable magnesium behaves similarly to exchangeable calcium. Daniel L. Gilbert 12 Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium...

  4. Coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains in a voltage-gated potassium channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    -dependent potassium (Kv), sodium (Nav), and calcium channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential, thus regulating cell excitability by controlling ion flow across the membrane, but it is generally accepted that, when the channel is closed, the VSDs adopt a "down-state" configuration in which

  5. Effects of variable nitrogen and phosphorus treatments with and without magnesium sulfate on the availability of soil nutrients and the percentage composition and yield of Coastal Bermuda grass forage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cain, Nathan Jackson

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF VARIABLE NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TREATMENTS WITH AND WITHOUT MAGNESIUM SULFATE ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL NUTRIENTS AND THE PERCENI'AGE COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS FORAGE A Thesis Nathan J ~ Cain Approved...'i~see o ' . ~lant tissue data IV. Analysis of variance of soil phosphorus (P) data V. Analysis of variance of' soil calcium (Ca) data VI. Analysis of variance of soil magnesium (Mg) data VII. Analysis of variance of scil potassium (K) data 34 35 36...

  6. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul C. (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Sergey L. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Petrovic, Cedomir (Ames, IA); Cunningham, Charles E. (Ames, IA); Lapertot, Gerard (Grenoble, FR)

    2003-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  7. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul C. (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Sergey L. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Petrovic, Cedomir (Ames, IA); Cunningham, Charles E. (Ames, IA); Lapertot, Gerard (Grenoble, FR)

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  8. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Jena, Puru [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup ?}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  9. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  10. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suplinskas, Raymond J. (Haverhill, MA); Finnemore, Douglas (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Serquei (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul (Ames, IA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  11. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  12. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leading magnesium producers and casting companies are working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to alleviate the global environmental threat of climate...

  13. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited...

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Washington in February of 2002. The paper briefly describes the issues surrounding climate change and the Magnesium Industry, and gives an overview of the SF6 Emission...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant Assessments Greenhouse Gas Protocol (PDF 190 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Paper written by Bill Palmer, Cheminfo Services, Inc. Molten magnesium and its alloys are volatile...

  16. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research...

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Work Plans

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnesium Association has developed a work plan for achieving the industry's Climate VISION commitment. Read the International Magnesium Association Work Plan (PDF 92 KB)...

  18. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium...

  19. Tissue magnesium and calcium concentration in relation to magnesium and calcium intake in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkham, Carrie Stanton

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , gestation, and lactation. The diets fed were as follows: low magnesium (200 mg Ng/kg and 5, 000 mg Ca/kg); calcium? supplemented (1, 200 mg Ng/kg and 16, 000 mg Ca/kg); low magnesium, calcium-supplemented (200 mg Ng/kg and 16, 000 mg Ca/kg); and control... was affected adversely by magnesium restriction; litter size was smaller and mortality rates the highest in animals fed the 1 cw magnesium diet. Pups of the magnesium ? restricted dams were lightest on Days 3 and 6 of lactation, while the pups of the dams...

  20. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W. (Albuquerque, NM); Leslie, William B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  1. Tolerance of spring wheat to a salt-fluxing residue containing potassium and magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahler, R.L.; Menser, H.A.; Lutcher, L.K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in Idaho in 1985 to document the maximum levels of a salt fluxing residue (slag) material that can be safely applied to agricultural soils without reducing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth. The slag material, which contains significant quantities of Mg and K, was applied to Mission (coarse-silty, mixed, frigid Andic Fragiochrepts) and Palouse (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxerolls) silt loam soils at rates ranging from 0 to 40,000 kg/ha. Parameters evaluated included: (1) germination, (2) plant vigor, (3) yield, and (4) soil and plant tissue K, Ca and Mg. Under field conditions slag application rates of 4000 and 8000 kg/ha reduced wheat stands and vigor; however, yields were not adversely affected when compared with the control. Application rates in excess of 8000 kg/ha resulted in reduced germination, plant vigor, and yield and are consequently not recommended. Greenhouse studies provided further evidence to substantiate the field results.

  2. Magnesium Front End Design and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by: Alan A. Luo and R. C. McCune Presented by: James Quinn, General Motors Unibody Architecture 3-piece Mg front end (bodyframe) USAMP AMD 603 - Magnesium Front End Design and...

  3. Magnesium Research and Technology Development: Project 48976

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advise DOE on criticalkey funding areas for Mg 3 z z Approach Approach Approach Increase automotive industry awareness in the use of Mg Develop and maintain the Magnesium R&D...

  4. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmosphere, SF6 will persist for 3,200 years and is more than 23,000 times as strong a global warming gas as carbon dioxide (CO2). Read the U.S. and International Magnesium...

  5. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  6. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium-Silicon and Magnesium-Tin Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    time curves have been researched in this thesis for fully reacted magnesium-silicide & magnesium-stannide green ingots with doping materials i.e. antimony, bismuth by different doping ratios. These ingots were ground by a high energy ball miller...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium-Silicon and Magnesium-Tin Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    time curves have been researched in this thesis for fully reacted magnesium-silicide & magnesium-stannide green ingots with doping materials i.e. antimony, bismuth by different doping ratios. These ingots were ground by a high energy ball miller...

  10. Hydrogen storage characteristics of nanograined free-standing magnesium–nickel films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    free-standing magnesium–nickel ?lms Matthew Rogers · StevenFree-standing magnesium–nickel (Mg–Ni) ?lms with extensivefree- standing magnesium–nickel ?lms. Magnesium hydride (MgH

  11. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  12. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  13. Texture Control by Selective Deformation Mechanism Activation in Magnesium Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, David Christopher

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for high strength, light weight structures in automotive and aerospace applications has driven a resurgence of interest in magnesium and its alloys. Unlike aluminum, wrought magnesium typically has a high degree of mechanical anisotropy...

  14. Texture Control by Selective Deformation Mechanism Activation in Magnesium Alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, David Christopher

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for high strength, light weight structures in automotive and aerospace applications has driven a resurgence of interest in magnesium and its alloys. Unlike aluminum, wrought magnesium typically has a high degree of mechanical anisotropy...

  15. AMD 601 High Integrity -Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    601 High Integrity -Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC) AMD 601 High Integrity -Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  16. The magnesium nutrition of American upland and Egyptian cottons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmy, Hussein

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 19 ~ ~ ~ SS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S7 LIST OF TABLES Page Effect of magnesium on stem he1ghts . . . 52 Relation of magnesium supply to average fresh and dry weight of cotton plants at 45 days ~ ~ \\ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 55 Relation of magnesium supply... to average fresh and dry weight of cotton plants at 85 days ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 54 Relation of magnesium supply to average number of flowers produced per plant 1n three day intervals, percentage shedding, percentage boll-set and rel- ative...

  17. Electrodeposition of aluminium, aluminium/magnesium alloys, and magnesium from organometallic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of aluminum, magnesium, and the combination of these metals from nonaqueous media is discussed. Plating baths for depositing Al/Mg alloys or for plating essentially pure Mg were developed. These solutions contain alkali meal fluoride or quaternary ammonium halide/aluminium alkyl complexes and dialkyl magnesium dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons. Alloy deposits over the whole composition range can be plated from these solutions by varying the relative quantities of the aluminium and magnesium alkyls and by changing the bath-operating parameters. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  18. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  19. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  20. Excess consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sodium in children and adolescents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Victoria; Dankiewicz, Cheryl

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NARs Dependent Protein Riboflavin Vitamin D Magnesium Zincadequate intake of protein, riboflavin, B-12, magnesium and

  1. Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P.; Szekely, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.

  2. The Influence of Spray Water Quality on Herbicide www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese, sodium, potassium, cesium, and lithium can influence be difficult. When the spray tank is not cleaned properly, leftover traces of the herbicide can contaminate

  3. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nester, Dean [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company - CHPRC (United States); Crocker, Ben [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [IMPACT Services, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  4. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  5. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Bergum, John W. (Concord, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  6. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [GM China Lab] [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  7. antenatal magnesium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was reduced by 30 % at 48 hours of the treatment. Results. After magnesium sulfate infusion, 90 % prolonged their pregnancy for>48 hours. Combination therapy was effective in 95...

  8. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols The Magnesium Industry Partnership's SF6 emissions tracking and reporting software tool (Excel based) can be accessed by visiting the Partnership's...

  9. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information The magnesium industry directly emits SF6 from its primary metal production, parts casting, and recycling operations. In 2005, the industry's SF6 emissions were...

  10. Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and sheet forming Improved high-volume manufacturing techniques for joining and corrosion protection of magnesium structures. Improved knowledge base in Mg...

  11. Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high volume manufacturing techniques for joining of Mg - Large- scale joining and corrosion protection of magnesium structures. * Corrosion: Durability of Mg-intensive...

  12. AMD 601 High Integrity -Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutral or Less Than Current Aluminum Components USAMP AMD 601 - High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC) edm2@chrysler.com February 28, 2008 Approach Scientific...

  13. az31 wrought magnesium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MgOTiB2. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The stoichiometric Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) thermite reaction involving magnesium oxide...

  14. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. The...

  15. An electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated potassium chloride crystals doped with sodium nitroprusside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayers, Richard Ralph

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (CN) 15NO'2H20, turns the quintet into a triplet. This shows that the observed paramagnetic species is genetically connected with the NO d'sp"aced by irradi- ation from its position in the nitroprusside ion. Nuniz and Danon located eight quintets which...AN ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OF IRRADIATED POTASSIUiv, . CHLORIDE CRYSTALS DOPED MITE SODIUN NITROPRUSSID A Thesis by Richard Ralph iviayers Submitted to the Gradus. e College of Texas AS-. N University in partial fulfillzent...

  16. Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiemer, Jason [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Withers, Ray L., E-mail: withers@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K{sub x}Na{sub 1-x}NbO{sub 3} (KNN x) 'solid solution' system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0]{sub p} Low-Asterisk (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0]{sub p} direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0]{sub p} and [0 0 1]{sub p} directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0]{sub p}* and [0 0 1]{sub p}* directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0]{sub p} and [0 0 1]{sub p} axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0]{sub p} direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [-3,0.-1]p zone axis EDP of K{sub 0.46}Na{sub 0.54}NbO{sub 3} indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Sodium and Potassium Activated Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    on their chemical composition. The Na-GPs with ratio 3 have a highest compressive strength and Young‘s modulus of 39 MPa and 7.9 GPa, respectively. The results of mechanical testing are discussed in more detail in this thesis and linked to structural properties...

  18. Mechanical Properties of Sodium and Potassium Activated Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Geopolymers (GPs) are a new class of inorganic polymers that have been considered as good candidate materials for many applications, including fire resistant and refractory panels, adhesives, and coatings, waste encapsulation material, etc. The aim...

  19. A first principles pseudopotential in the calculation of the phonon limited resistivity of sodium and potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of properties of aluminum and lithium. It is obtained from the induced electron density around an ion propriétés de l'aluminium et du lithium. Il s'obtient à partir de la densité électronique induite autour d potential and from this, the phonons to calculate the electron-phonon interaction to predict the resistivity

  20. Sodium and potassium monolayers on Be(0001) investigated by photoemission and electronic structure calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellsing, Bo

    is oscillatory. The boundary conditions are thus favorable for realizing simple metal quantum wells with all character to the layer over an increasing area as the coverage is increased making the film homogeneous the mono- layer coverage range and also observed low energy electron diffraction LEED patterns at full

  1. Roderick MacKinnon and Ion Channels - Potassium Channels and Sodium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15 toAdvancesRock Physics

  2. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnesium Sheet AMD 602 Project Team * OEM's - Chrysler, Ford , GM * Contracts - Troy Tooling Technologies - Materials Suppliers * Magnesium Elektron * POSCO * Thyssen * CSIRO *...

  3. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    mccarty13.pdf More Documents & Publications Warm Forming of AluminumAMD 307 Magnesium Front End Research And Development (AMD604) Magnesium Front End Design And Development...

  4. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University] [Case Western Reserve University

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

  5. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 HgPromising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Promising

  6. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  7. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  8. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  9. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  10. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  11. Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grones, Kelly Leann

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10°C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

  12. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  13. An EPR study of ¹?O? on magnesium oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Ning-Bew

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EPR STUDY OF 0 ON MAGNESIUM OXIDE A Thesis by NING-SEW WONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Chemistry AN EPR... STUDY OF 0 ON MAGNESIUM OXIDE A Thesis by NING-BEN WONG Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) May 1971 ABSTRACT 17 An EPR Study of 0 on Magnesium Oxide (May, 1971) Ning-Bew Wong, B...

  14. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the sol-gel based sorbents. The results of the tests conducted with various dolomite-based sorbent indicate that the reactivity of the modified dolomite sorbent increases with increasing potassium concentration, while higher calcination temperature adversely affects the sorbent reactivity. Furthermore, the results indicate that as long as the absorption temperature is well below the equilibrium temperature, the reactivity of the sorbent improves with increasing temperature (350-425 C). As the temperature approaches the equilibrium temperature, because of the significant increase in the rate of reverse (i.e., regeneration) reaction, the rate of CO{sub 2} absorption decreases. The results of cyclic tests show that the reactivity of the sorbent gradually decreases in the cyclic process. To improve long-term durability (i.e., reactivity and capacity) of the sorbent, the sorbent was periodically re-impregnated with potassium additive and calcined. The results indicate that, in general, re-treatment improves the performance of the sorbent, and that, the extent of improvement gradually decreases in the cyclic process. The presence of steam significantly enhances the sorbent reactivity and significantly decreases the rate of decline in sorbent deactivation in the cyclic process.

  15. Equation of state of sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, J.N.; Olinger, B.

    1984-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume of sodium in the bcc structure was measured at 293 K to 9 GPa using a high pressure, x-ray diffraction technique. The compression of NaF was used as the pressure gauge. These data, the shock compression data of Rice and Bakanova et al., and the melting curve data of Luedemann and Kennedy, and Ivanov et al., are all used to establish a model for the equation of state of sodium.

  16. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  17. az91 magnesium alloy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  18. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6...

  19. An investigation of magnesium production in silicon by neutron transmutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Freddie Joe

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION IN SILICON BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION A Thesis by FREDDIE JOE DAVIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ron R. Har t (Chair of Committee) Donald L... University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . Ron R. Hart An investigation of the production of' magnesium in silicon by neutron tr ansmutation is r eported. A 20 mil silicon wafer was irradiated at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center...

  20. Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for combining magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate to form an inexpensive compactible ceramic to stabilize very low solubility metal oxides, ashes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast, and to reinforce and strengthen the ceramics formed by the addition of fibers to the initial ceramic mixture.

  1. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  2. Pilot plant for CO2 capture with aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate , Gary T. Rochelle1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Pilot plant for CO2 capture with aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate Eric Chen1 , Gary pilot for CO2 capture was successfully operated using potassium carbonate promoted with piperazine, potassium carbonate, piperazine Introduction Several amine-promoted potassium carbonate solvents have been

  3. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  4. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  5. Performance of MHD insulating materials in a potassium environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Park, J.H.; Rink, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Thomas, C.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the compatibility of the MHD insulating materials boron nitride and silicon nitride in a potassium environment at temperatures of 1000 and 1400{degrees}F (538 and 760{degrees}C, respectively) and to measure the electrical conductivities of the specimens before and after exposure to potassium. Based on the test results, an assessment is to be made of the suitability of these materials for application as insulator materials in an MHD channel.

  6. Potassium sources and availability in three East Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hons, F. M

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -flow or displacement, centrifugation, compaction or compressi. on, molecular adsorption, and suction. According to Pearson (1971), displacement is the preferred method as it presents less chance for altering the composition of the soil solution. In this procedure... LITERATURE REVIEW MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling Site and Procedure Soil pH Determinations Soil Solution Displacement Exchangeable Cations Exchangeable and Solution Aluminum Mineralogy Total Potassium Feldspar Potassium 10 10 11 12 13 14 15...

  7. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

  8. anticoagulant sodium citrate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure-velocity boundary ... Huh, Kang Yul 1982-01-01 38 Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy...

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of an environmentally friendly conversion coating for magnesium alloys using optical measurement techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, David

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium alloys have one of the highest specific strengths of all construction metals used. Specifically, magnesium alloy castings are used in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aerospace vehicles. Coating systems must be employed...

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of an environmentally friendly conversion coating for magnesium alloys using optical measurement techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, David

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium alloys have one of the highest specific strengths of all construction metals used. Specifically, magnesium alloy castings are used in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aerospace vehicles. Coating systems must be employed...

  11. Formation and structural characterization of potassium titanates and the potassium ion exchange property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qiang, E-mail: wulihe@postech.ac.kr [Department of Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, POSTECH, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Guo Zhanhu [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Chung, Jong Shik [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, POSTECH, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, POSTECH, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, K{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} and K{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} are synthesized by solid state method. Their structures and morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. The binding energies of K, Ti and O in potassium titanates were then evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with those in K/TiO{sub 2}. Finally the corresponding K ion exchange properties are investigated by synthesizing NO oxidation catalysts with Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursor. It is found that the binding energy of K in K{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} is much higher than those in K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} and K{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, and because of which, it shows quite different catalytic performances. Compared with other potassium titanates, the K in K{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} is much easier to be exchanged out.

  12. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Yingbing Luo, George Luckey * GM - Paul Krajewski, Ravi Verma Contracts * Troy Tooling Technologies - Dennis Cedar * Materials Suppliers - Magnesium Elektron - POSCO -...

  13. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate performed to determine the area per surfactant molecule at various temperatures (20-50ºC) and the adsorption

  14. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  15. PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

    PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE corrosion of the magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B combined with different coatings on steel bolts was investigated in field corrosion tests carried out by Volvo Car Corporation. Light metals like magnesium

  16. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large of magnesium hydride. Keywords: A. hydrogen storage materials, thin films; C. EXAFS, NEXAFS, X-ray diffraction

  17. Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    . Magnesium and its alloys, with one quarter of the density of steel and only two thirds that of aluminium of the prerequisites for all these applications. The corrosion behaviour of cast magnesium±aluminium alloys couldEvaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Rajan Ambat

  18. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the determination of low Z impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) is a prerequisite for gaining an understanding of the effects of chemical imperfections on the physical, metallurgical, and chemical properties of magnesium (2). The purpose of this study... of nitrogen was accomplished with a 7. 8 MeV Be beam and 9 3 some modifications of the preceeding He procedure were necessary due to the nature of the ion beam. Sam les and Standards Eleven magnesium ingots were received from Dow Chemical Co. , Texas...

  19. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  20. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  1. A Life Cycle Assessment of a Magnesium Automotive Front End

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Dubreuil, Alain [Natural Resources Canada; Bushi, Lindita [GreenhouseGasMeasurement.com; Tharumarajah, Ambalavanar [CSIRO/CAST-CRC

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobile. The goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North America built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS with the standard carbon steel based design. This LCA uses the 'cradle-to-grave' approach by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. Furthermore, the LCA results for aluminum based front end autopart are presented. While weight savings result in reductions in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions during the use of the car, the impacts of fabrication and recycling of lightweight materials are substantial in regard to steel. Pathways for improving sustainability of magnesium use in automobiles through material management and technology improvements including recycling are also discussed.

  2. The magnesium nutrition of American upland and Egyptian cottons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmy, Hussein

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of phosphate, it is believed to be involved 1n phospholipM formation and in the synthesis of nucleo-proteins 1n plant cells accord- ing to Trucg gt al . (56). Bear et sic (4) found that oily seeds are especially h1gh in magnesium indicating some close...

  3. The Microstructure of Mechanically Alloyed Nanocrystalline Aluminium-Magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    The Microstructure of Mechanically Alloyed Nanocrystalline Aluminium-Magnesium Jen Gubicza1, mechanical alloying, nanocrystalline Al-Mg alloys Abstract. The effect of the nominal Mg content and the milling time on the microstructure of mechanically alloyed Al(Mg) solid solutions is studied

  4. Solid electrolyte based sensor for monitoring the magnesium level during reclamation of aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fergus, J.W.; Hui, S. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Materials Research and Education Center

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum alloy scrap often contains excess magnesium which must be removed during recycling by a process referred to as demagging. The efficiency of this process could be improved with an in-situ magnesium sensor, which could be used to optimize the process parameters to the changing magnesium content. The sensor developed in this work consists of a galvanic cell with a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) solid electrolyte and a molten magnesium reference electrode. The voltage output of the sensor changes by about 100 mV for the change in magnesium content which occurs during the demagging process (5 wt% to 0.1 wt%) and is in excellent agreement with thermodynamic measurements using molten chloride electrolytes. This paper focuses on the effect of silicon, which is a common alloying element in aluminum alloys, on the output of an electrochemical magnesium sensor.

  5. Potassium Fixation and Supply by Soils with Mixed Clay Minerals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, Billy W.

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B-1090 December 1969 1 potassium Fixation and Supply By Soils With Misd Clay Minerals I KUS A&M UNIVERSITY Tcrv Agricultural Experiment Station r i 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Summary to the plants while Cameron clay... of the soils n-j Laredo si 1 supplied 3.29 me K/me of exchangeable K increased by the addition of K fertilizer after nme ;- Yotassium Pixation and 3upgly By Soils Witb Mixed Clay Ad111t1;: Bill] " ' " HE POTASSIUM STATUS OF SOILS of the Midwest, North...

  6. Adsorption of Potassium on the MoS2(100) Surface: A First-Principles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potassium on the MoS2(100) Surface: A First-Principles Investigation. Adsorption of Potassium on the MoS2(100) Surface: A First-Principles Investigation. Abstract: Periodic density...

  7. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyrial, Paul M.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

  8. The effect of a prolonged magnesium restriction on the humoral immune response in maternal rats and their offspring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohill, Diane T

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and to observe alteration in these effects resulting from magnesium supplementation during gestation and lactation. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were provided diets containing adequate (1200 mg Mg/kg diet) or inadequate (200 mg Mg/kg diet) magnesium...), was lower in the magnesium-restricted dams, In the group which had been magnesium restricted during growth but then received supplemental magnesium during gestation and lactation, dams had an improved immune r esponse; but pups did not lt was conc...

  9. Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate Geoffrey B. Saupe, Chad C. Waraksa. Revised Manuscript Received March 27, 2000 The exfoliation of acid-exchanged K4Nb6O17 with tetra formed early in the exfoliation process, which are found only as flat sheets. Tubules in colloidal

  10. Marcus Douglas Hilliard Thermodynamics of Aqueous Piperazine/Potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    /Potassium Carbonate/Carbon Dioxide Characterized by the Electrolyte NRTL Model within Aspen Plus® by Marcus Douglas Characterized by the Electrolyte NRTL Model within Aspen Plus® APPROVED BY SUPERVISING COMMITTEE T. Rochelle The Electrolyte Nonrandom Two Liquid (NRTL) Activity Coefficient model within Aspen Plus

  11. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis was to study the relative merits (or liabilities) of these two catalysts in coal char gasification. This work

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. Modeling.................................................................................................................................. 11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  13. active potassium absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    active potassium absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CO2 Capture by Absorption...

  14. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous.................................................................................................................................... 8 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  15. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing...................................................................................................................................11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  16. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing.................................................................................................................................. 10 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. In Campaign.................................................................................................................................... 9 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  18. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  19. A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

  20. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  1. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  2. Electrical transport behavior of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatak, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Sinha, M. [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Meikap, A.K., E-mail: meikapnitd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the direct current conductivity, alternate current conductivity and dielectric properties of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite below room temperature. The frequency exponent (s) of conductivity shows an anomalous temperature dependency. The magnitude of the temperature exponent (n) of dielectric permittivity strongly depends on frequency and its value decreases with increasing frequency. The grain boundary contribution is dominating over the grain contribution in conduction process and the temperature dependence of resistance due to grain and grain boundary contribution exhibits two activation regions. The ferrite shows positive alternating current magnetoconductivity. The solid state processing technique was used for the preparation of nanocrystalline ferrite powder from oxides of magnesium, zinc and iron. The X-ray diffraction methods were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained ferrite, while multimeter, impedance analyzer, liquid nitrogen cryostat and electromagnet were used in the study of conducting and dielectric properties of ferrite.

  3. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  4. Managing Soil Salinity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    both surface water and groundwater often are a combina- tion of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlo- rides, nitrates, sulfates, bicarbonates and carbonates (Table 1). These salts often originate from the earth?s crust. They also can result from... Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 Gypsum Calcium sulfate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Street salt Calcium chloride CaCl 2 2H 2 O Muriate of potash Potassium chloride KCl Muriate of sulfate Potassium sulfate K2SO 4 seen. Fortunately, plants take up many salts in the form...

  5. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  6. An examination of the relationship between calcium and magnesium and hypertension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georghiades, Mary Elizabeth

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    !ae thr ee blood parameter s best corre)ated with the dietary intake of calcium and magnesium. No i gni f i cant cor r el at i ons (p (0. 05) were ob . , envs d between the calcium, magnesium, or ca)cium/magnesium ratio of the diet and blood tissues... in alterations in the calcium/magnesium ratio. This topic merits Further investigation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express her appreciation to Dr. Karen S. Kubena, her advisory committee chairman. For- pr oper guidance, constructive criticism...

  7. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower f eed intake s than did rats from other dietary treatments. During lactation, dai ly feed consumpt ion was lower in an ima1 s depr ived of magnesium. Approximately 24 hr postpartum, in dams who consumed a magnesium-deficient diet, the heart... and kidney contained significantly more calcium, 150'% and 300% respectively. During lactation, mild magnesium restriction resulted in increased weight loss by dams and decreased weight gain by pupa. In the of f spring of rats dep1 et ed o f magnesium...

  8. Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Potassium recommendations applicable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Potassium recommendations applicable for methods used 15 10 APPLES 150 140 130 120 110 105 100 95 90 80 75 BEANS, GREEN 120 110 100 90 80 75 70 65 60 50 40 BEANS, LIMA 120 110 100 90 80 75 70 65 60 50 40 BEANS, PINTO 120 110 100 90 80 75 70 65 60 50 40 BEETS

  9. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

  10. SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been...

  11. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  12. Minerals to Dairy Cows with Focus on Calcium and Magnesium Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minerals to Dairy Cows with Focus on Calcium and Magnesium Balance Cecilia Kronqvist Faculty;Minerals to Dairy Cows with Focus on Calcium and Magnesium Balance Abstract Both clinical and subclinical decreased plasma calcium levels and activated the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. However, there were

  13. SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1 , C, Geesthacht, Germany Keywords: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Stress Simulation Abstract A visco-plastic deformation model is used to predict thermal stresses during casting of binary Mg-Al alloys. The predictions

  14. Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medraj, Mamoun

    Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings Haider Al-Kazzaz1, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Canada Laser welding is a promising joining method for magnesium alloys. The process reliability of 2-mm ZE41A-T5 butt joints welded by a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser

  15. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys Xuenan Gu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys Xuenan Gu a , Yufeng Zheng a Corrosion In vitro Cytotoxicity Hemocompatibility a b s t r a c t As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities

  16. Electroless iron plating on pure magnesium for biomedical applications Xingkai Zhang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    : Biomaterials Deposition Corrosion Thin films a b s t r a c t Electroless nickel plating is usually adopted geometries. Electroless nickel plating [10] is usually used to protect the magnesium alloy from corrosionElectroless iron plating on pure magnesium for biomedical applications Xingkai Zhang a , Wei Han a

  17. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  18. Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

  19. Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important.

  20. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  1. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Weigel, Scott Jeffrey (Allentown, PA); Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Macungie, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  2. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Allylation of Cyclic Imines with Potassium Allyltrifluoroborates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hepburn, Hamish B.; Chotsaeng, Nawasit; Luo, Yunfei; Lam, Hon Wai

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Article presents further examples of the enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed addition of potassium allyltrifluoroborates to cyclic imines. A wide range of substituted allyltrifluoroborates are compatible with this ...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous potassium hypochlorite Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ions such as potassium, chloride, and bromide show... in aqueous electrolyte supercapacitor systems. Significance Molecular level understanding of ion diffusivity Source:...

  4. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  5. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  6. Report on Energy Deposition Calculations on the Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Links for the Cold Powering System Deliverable: D6.6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignami, A; Santini, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report on Energy Deposition Calculations on the Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Links for the Cold Powering System

  7. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coarse ground beef was mixed with sodium lactate (0, 3, or 4%) alone or in combination with sodium propionate (0. 1 or 0. 2%). The mixtures were then re-ground and formed into hamburger patties, which were placed in Styrofoam meat trays and overwrapped... sodium lactate tended to be sweeter than control patties. Hamburger patties with sodium lactate were springier. more cohesive. and less crumbly than the control patties. Treatments containing 0. 2% sodium propionate were more juicy than the control...

  8. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  9. Laser cooling and trapping of potassium at magic wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Safronova; U. I. Safronova; Charles W. Clark

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We carry out a systematic study of the static and dynamic polarizabilities of the potassium atom using a first-principles high-precision relativistic all-order method in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric-dipole matrix elements. Static polarizabilities of the 4s, 4p_j, 5s, 5p_j, and 3d_j states are compared with other theory and experiment where available. We use the results of the polarizability calculations to identify magic wavelengths for the 4s-np transitions for $n = 4, 5$, i.e. those wavelengths for which the two levels have the same ac Stark shifts. These facilitate state-insensitive optical cooling and trapping. The magic wavelengths for the $4s-5p$ transitions are of particular interest for attaining a quantum gas of potassium at high phase-space density. We find 20 such wavelengths in the technically interest region of 1050-1130 nm. Uncertainties of all recommended values are estimated.

  10. Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil Fan Liu1 of cutans on potassium forms and their transformations were investigated for a Western Australian grey clay soil. Cutans and matrix soil had similar clay mineral associations with kaolinite, smectite and illite

  11. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems thermodynamic models. The range in CO2 solubility measured from 100 ­ 120 o C for K+ /PZ mixtures was from (0 and Technology to expand the thermodynamic data of for potassium carbonate/piperazine/CO2 with measurements of CO

  12. Solvent Reclaiming by Crystallization of Potassium Sulfate Qing Xu, B. S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    = - - . The solubility data were also correlated with the electrolyte-NRTL model in Aspen Plus®. Potassium sulfate with Aspen Plus®, and the staffs at the University of Texas at Austin for helping with other instruments. A simulation of the reclaiming process by potassium sulfate crystallization was done in Aspen Plus®. Mass

  13. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 230C/234-5Z. The magnesium hydroxide process control software Rev 0 is being updated to include control programming for a second hot plate. The process control programming was performed by the system administrator. Software testing for the additional hot plate was performed per PFP Job Control Work Package 2Z-00-1703. The software testing was verified by Quality Control to comply with OSD-Z-184-00044, Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process.

  14. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  15. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  16. Sodium hypochlorite Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteel CorporationSocovoltaic Systems JumpSodiumSodium

  17. Sampling and analytical testing of groundwater and surface water at the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute (CSMRI) has been conducted on a quarterly basis since early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is being consumed, changing the water chemistry, and leading to lower uranium concentrations with flow, Th-230, Th-232, and uranium), and metals (arsenic, barium calcium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and analytical testing for radium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, uranium, and zinc will continue

  18. Occupancy and site distribution of europium in barium magnesium aluminate Eu Mossbauer spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    Occupancy and site distribution of europium in barium magnesium aluminate by 151 Eu Mo¨ssbauer Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy. Analysis of the Mo¨ssbauer line shapes reveals a pentamodal or higher site

  19. Effect of Texture on Formability and Mechanical Anisotropy of a Severe Plastically Deformed Magnesium Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modarres Razavi, Sonia

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium and its alloys have been considered as alternatives to aluminum alloys and steels for structural applications in automotive and aerospace applications due to their superior specific strength and light-weight. However, they have hexagonal...

  20. High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi

    The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

  1. Magnesium Silicate Dissolution Investigated by 29Si MAS, 1H-29Si...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicate Dissolution Investigated by 29Si MAS, 1H-29Si CP MAS, 25Mg QCPMG, and 1H-25Mg CP QCPMG NMR. Magnesium Silicate Dissolution Investigated by 29Si MAS, 1H-29Si CP MAS, 25Mg...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Long-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Magnesium and Carbon Fiber)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office supports research into magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced composites, which could reduce the weight of some components by 50-75 percent in the long-term.

  3. az91d magnesium alloy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  4. az91d magnesium alloys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  6. Effect of Texture on Formability and Mechanical Anisotropy of a Severe Plastically Deformed Magnesium Alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modarres Razavi, Sonia

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium and its alloys have been considered as alternatives to aluminum alloys and steels for structural applications in automotive and aerospace applications due to their superior specific strength and light-weight. However, they have hexagonal...

  7. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SU S AN ELA I NE EDGAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Nutrition MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYS ICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SUSAN ELAINE EDGAR Approved as to style and content by: 'KAREN...

  8. The oxidative dimerization of methane over promoted and unpromoted magnesium oxide monoliths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aigler, Jane Marie

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Chemistry THE OXIDATIVE DIMERIZATION OF METHANE OVER PROMOTED AND UNPROMOTED MAGNESIUM OxiDE MONOLITHS A Thesis by JANE MARIE AIGLER Approved as to style and content by: uns or (Chair of Commi... ee) os e (Member) nt ony (Member) a (Head of Department) May 1989 ABSTRACT The Oxidative Dimerization of Methane over Promoted and Unpromoted Magnesium Oxide Monoliths. (May 1989) Jane Marie Aigier, B. S. , Pennsylvania State University...

  9. A study of the role of calcium and magnesium in casein micellar structure in human milk 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallaway, Sheila Ann

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Karen . Kubena (Member) Wa ne L. R&cko11 (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT A Study of the Role of Calcium and Magnesium in Casein Micellar Structure in Human Milk. (December 1988) Sheila Ann Gallaway, B, S.... , Texas ASM University; M. S. , Texas ASM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. W. Dill The effects of EDTA, phosphatase hydrolysis, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride on human casein micelles were observed using electron microscopy...

  10. Magnesium deficiency and type of protein during gestation and lactation in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Kathryn Ellen Hughes

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY AND TYPE OF PROTEIN DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION IN RATS A Thesis by KATHRYN ELLEN HUGHES HOLMES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Nutrition MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY AND TYPE OF PROTEIN DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION IN RATS A Thesis by KATHRYN ELLEN HUGHES HOLMES Approved as to style and content by: Karen S. Kubena (Chair...

  11. An examination of the relationship between calcium and magnesium and hypertension 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georghiades, Mary Elizabeth

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EXAMINATION QF Tl-IE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALCILIM AND MAGNESIUM AND HYPERTENSION A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH GEORGHIADES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial Fulfillment of the requirements For the degree... of MASTER QF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject. : Nutrition AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM AND HYPERTENSION A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH GEORGH I ADES Approved as to style and content by: Karen S. Kubena (Chair...

  12. Mechanical Flow Response and Anisotropy of Ultra-Fine Grained Magnesium and Zinc Alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Maharbi, Majid H.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MECHANICAL FLOW RESPONSE AND ANISOTROPY IN ULTRA-FINE GRAINED MAGNESIUM AND ZINC ALLOYS A Dissertation by MAJID AL MAHARBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Materials Science and Engineering MECHANICAL FLOW RESPONSE AND ANISOTROPY IN ULTRA-FINE GRAINED MAGNESIUM AND ZINC ALLOYS A Dissertation by MAJID AL...

  13. Determination of the concentrations of magnesium and aluminum in alloys by laser produced atomic emission spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashe, William Monroe

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MAGNESIUM AND ALUiiINUM IN ALLOYS BY LASER PRODUCED ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by WILLIAM MONROE ASHE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the reqmrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Physics DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MAGNESIUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS BY LASER PRODUCED ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by WILLIAM MONROE ASHE...

  14. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  15. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  16. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

  17. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

  18. Poster created by: Syracuse University Food Services This is an example of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    , Riboflavin, Folate, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium Fun Facts: In traditional Chinese medicine, rhubarb roots

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1.2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  20. Experimental evaluation and modeling of a turbine blade with potassium evaporative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Jessica Lee

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of turbine blade cooling, the Return Flow Cascade, has been developed in which vaporization of a liquid metal such as potassium is used to maintain the blade surface at a nearly uniform temperature. Turbine ...

  1. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. C. , Reactivity of ozone on solid potassium iodide.and mechanisms of aqueous ozone reactions with bromide,for Dry Deposition of Ozone to Seawater Surfaces. Journal of

  2. Aqueous alteration of potassium-bearing aluminosilicate minerals: from mechanism to processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorina, Taisiya

    The anticipated increase in demand for potassium fertilizers and alumina from developing nations experiencing a high-rate of population growth brings a global sustainability concern. Most of these countries do not have ...

  3. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Potassium Alkenyltrifluoroborates to Cyclic Imines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Yunfei; Carnell, Andrew J.; Lam, Hon Wai

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclic imines, in which the C[DOUBLE BOND]N bond is constrained in the Z?geometry, have been identified as highly effective substrates for enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed additions of potassium alkenyltrifluoroborates. Not only is the alkene...

  4. Nested potassium hydroxide etching and protective coatings for silicon-based microreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Mas, Nuria

    We have developed a multilayer, multichannel silicon-based microreactor that uses elemental fluorine as a reagent and generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct. Nested potassium hydroxide etching (using silicon nitride ...

  5. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  6. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  7. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  8. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

  9. The determination of exchangeable potassium in the canine with the aid of whole body counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Followill, David

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW vi vii vi i 1 Isotope Dilution Principle Tracer properties of 4 K and 43K Exchangeable Potassium Determination METHODS AND MATERIALS 3 17 20 23 Research Subjects and Radioactive Potassium Administration... fluid compartments, pools and spaces, as well as electrolyte volume have been made possible by various radio- isotope techniques. The isotope dilution method is one of the techniques that has been used in measuring total body constituents...

  10. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  11. Influence of recycled fine aggregates on the resistance of mortars to magnesium sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Tae [Department of Civil Engineering, Kunsan National University, 68 Miryong-dong, Kunsan, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: stlee@kunsan.ac.kr

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of recycled fine aggregates, which had been reclaimed from field-demolished concretes, on the resistance of mortar specimens to magnesium sulfate attack was investigated. Mortar specimens were prepared with recycled fine aggregates at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of natural fine aggregate by mass). The mortar specimens were exposed to 4.24% magnesium sulfate solution for about 1 year at ambient temperature, and regularly monitored for visual appearance, compressive strength loss and expansion. Additionally, in order to identify products of magnesium sulfate attack, mortar samples incorporating 0%, 25% and 100% replacement levels of the recycled fine aggregates were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Experimental results confirmed that the use of recycled fine aggregates up to a maximum 50% replacement level is effective under severe magnesium sulfate environment, irrespective of type of recycled fine aggregates. However, the worse performance was observed in mortar specimens incorporating 100% replacement level. It was found that the water absorption of recycled fine aggregates affected deterioration of mortar specimens, especially at a higher replacement level. XRD results indicated that the main cause of deterioration of the mortar specimens was primarily due to the formation of gypsum and thaumasite by magnesium sulfate attack. In addition, it appeared that the conversion of C-S-H into M-S-H by the attack probably influenced mechanical deterioration of mortar specimens with recycled fine aggregates.

  12. Analysis of the flow imbalance on the profile shape during the extrusion of thin magnesium sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gall, Sven [Forschungszentrum Strangpressen, Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin, 13355, Germany, and Metallische Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, Berlin, 10587 (Germany); Müller, Sören [Forschungszentrum Strangpressen, Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin, 13355 (Germany); Reimers, Walter [Metallische Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, Berlin, 10587 (Germany)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The extrusion process facilitates the production of magnesium sheets featuring a very thin thickness as well as excellent surface properties by using a single process step only. However, the extrusion of the magnesium sheets applying not optimized process parameters, e.g. low billet temperature or/ and poorly deformable magnesium alloy, produce pronounced buckling and waving of the extruded sheets as well as a variation of accuracy in profile shape along the cross section. The present investigation focuses on the FEM-simulation of the extrusion of magnesium sheets in order to clarify the origin of the mentioned effects. The simulations identify the flow imbalance during extrusion as the main critical factor. Due to the flow imbalance after passing the die a large compression stress zone is formed causing the buckling and waving of the thin sheets. Furthermore, the simulations of the magnesium sheet extrusion reveal that the interaction of the material flow gradients along the width and along the thickness direction near the die orifice lead to the variation of the accuracy in profile shape.

  13. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

  14. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  15. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, Robert W. [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gregory, Duncan H., E-mail: Duncan.Gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  16. Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohig, W. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  18. Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    alloys weigh $35% lower than their aluminium counterparts at equal stiness [1]. In addition, these alloys of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. In AZ91, magnesium and the principal alloying element aluminium, have91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

  19. Desiccation resistance and root growth rate of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze 'Floratam') as influenced by potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiPaola, J. M

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and turfgrass quality of Floratam St. Augustinegrass were investigated in both field and greenhouse experiments. Both studies evaluated the influence of potassium on root growth and turfgrass quality from the establishment of sod, through an imposed water... in the fall field experiment, while no improvement was noted in the spring greenhouse study. The daily root growth rates were not influenced by potassium in the field study, while increased potassium fertilization rates resulted in greater daily root...

  20. The Sodium Content of Your Food.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are usually processed without added salt. However, starchy vegetables such a s lima beans and peas frequently are sorted in brine before freezing. Frozen vegetables with added sauces, mushrooms or nuts are higher in sodium than plain varieties. Canned... ............................ Canned iced Powdaed. mn-flawred iced. sugarsweetened ......................... Low-calorie iced ....................... Thirst Quencher 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 8 fl oz Dairy...

  1. Efficacy of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the in-situ immobilisation of uranium."Environmental Chemistry 4:293-300. Authors: DM Wellman EM Pierce MM Valenta...

  2. aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

  3. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  4. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

  5. INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA ELECTROLYTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, L.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundaries. XBB 804 4130 2B Degradation initiation at 300 C,the Proceedings INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINEs w a m INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE SODIUM-

  6. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    together to establish design goals and high-level requirements for sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes; identify common safety principles and key technical innovations to...

  7. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  8. Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys M.G. POKORNY, C.A. MONROE made for aluminum alloys.[6­8] Recently, Mathier and co-workers[9,10] performed a detailed com- parison between measured and predicted forces in the mush during solidification of dilute aluminum alloys

  9. Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K of the plates were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The TIG arc was also used to deposit welding beads on some of the thin plates. No cracking was found in the butt joints. However, hot cracking

  10. The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution of Magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    of Magnesium Jie Pan¹, supervised by Mehdi Sanjari¹ and Prof. Stephen Yue¹ ¹Department of Mining and Materials and neodymium additive samples were acquired then subsequently rolled at different temperatures (300°C and 450°C of the precipitate which led to a less pinning effect. ·The neodymium samples have longer grain growth period than

  11. Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

  12. The effect of cooling rate on thermophysical properties of magnesium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medraj, Mamoun

    been in widespread use in the automotive industry processed mainly by casting. In designing cast automotive compo- nents, it is important to know how these alloys solidify at different cross sections magnesium and aluminum. The samples were cut and mechanically polished to remove any possible contaminated

  13. Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauck II, Steven A.

    Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling December 2012. [1] We have conducted petrologic modeling of MESSENGER-derived compositions and analog-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling, J. Geophys. Res

  14. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  15. RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

  16. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B. [SCB Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Churchill, J.K. [Quantic-Holex, Hollister, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  17. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  18. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  19. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleason, M.H. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Columbia, MD (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eykholt, G.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than the performance of sodium bentonite for either the clay-amended sand or the GCL application, and was substantially worse than the performance of sodium bentonite in the bentonite-cement mixture. A drained angle of internal friction of 21{degree} was measured for calcium bentonite, compared to 10{degree} for sodium bentonite. Except for a larger drained shear strength, no advantage of calcium bentonite over sodium bentonite could be identified from the results of this study.

  20. Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters

  1. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Loper, L. [Alabama Electric Coopreative, Leroy, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  2. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  3. The effect of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate on the microbial, sensory, color and chemical characteristics of vacuum-packaged beef top loin steaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar, Najia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across and to whom I owe a great debt. Thanks is also extended to his son, Mohammad Ahmad, for helping me in so many ways. I am also grateful to my Uncle and Aunt, Mr. and Mrs. Mohammad A. Abbasi in Houston, and my cousins, Qaiser, Asad and Mohsin...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

  5. The effect of modifications of dietary fat, fiber and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and minerals, tissue and femur minerals and femur load force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, Cathlyn Ann

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : of the filtered phosphorus load is reabsorbed. Increased levels of PTH inhibit reabsorption of phosphorus (47). Nagnesium deficiency has aJ so been report. ed to affect zinc status. Hurley et al (54) reported a decrease in zinc status in the fetus...

  6. An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 0. 539 0. 0308 0. 0017 0. 0009 0. 0032 0. 0011 0. 0109 0. 0048 0. 0139 0. 0066 0. 0095 0. 0143 0. 0229 0. 0070 0. 0128 0. 0255 0. 00 1. 17 1. 26 1. 09 1. 98 2. 43 1. 99 3. 08 3. 22 0. 00 3. 78 3. 93 5. 34 4. 71 5. 98 6... NaCl at 500'C Figure 4. Plot of mMg species versus NaCI at 500'C Figure S. Plot of Mgr versus NaCI at 600'C Figure 6. Plot of log mMg, ?versus log ag, ct* at 600'C Figure 7. Plot of log mMg, ?versus log act- at 600'C Figure 8. Plot of mMg species...

  7. Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Trisha R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

  8. Potassium permeation through the KcsA channel: a density functional study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    ; Streptomyces lividans; Ab initio electronic structure calculation; Ionic selectivity; Electronic polarization of the electronic structure for potassium permeation, we have here under- taken a first principles Density-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics [19] and hybrid CPMD/MM calculations [20]. Our investigation is carried out in two steps

  9. Spatial distribution of the chemical species generated under rubbing from ZDDP and dispersed potassium triborate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    triborate associated with ZDDP has a positive effect on wear prevention. KEY WORDS: boundary lubrication the formulation of lubricant additives. Thus, other additives might replace the ZDDP content of oil partially by dispersed potassium triborate in engine oil was studied. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the phosphorus

  10. Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein Molten salt synthesis Bovine serum albumin Adsorption a b s t r a c t The bioactivity of a material may-containing calcium phosphate bioceramic microparticles were manufac- tured by molten salt synthesis. The effects

  11. Irradiation and Potassium Sorbate Compared as Preservation Treatments for Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irradiation and Potassium Sorbate Compared as Preservation Treatments for Atlantic Cod, Gadus for seafood applications pending approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Various chemicals of these two seafood preserva- tion methods (irradiation vs. sorbate ABSTRACT-Treatments offresh Atlantic cod

  12. Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

  13. Experimental investigations on sodium plugging in narrow flow channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momozaki, Y.; Cho, D. H.; Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the potential for plugging of narrow flow channels of sodium by impurities (e.g., oxides). In the first phase of the experiments, clean sodium was circulated through the test sections simulating flow channels in a compact diffusion-bonded heat exchanger such as a printed circuit heat exchanger. The primary objective was to see if small channels whose cross sections are semicircles of 2, 4, and 6 mm in diameter are usable in liquid sodium applications where sodium purity is carefully controlled. It was concluded that the 2-mm channels, the smallest of the three, could be used in clean sodium systems at temperatures even as low as 100 to 110 C without plugging. In the second phase, sodium oxide was added to the loop, and the oxygen concentration in the liquid sodium was controlled by means of varying the cold-trap temperature. Intentional plugging was induced by creating a cold spot in the test sections, and the subsequent plugging behavior was observed. It was found that plugging in the 2-mm test section was initiated by lowering the cold spot temperature below the cold-trap temperature by 10 to 30 C. Unplugging of the plugged channels was accomplished by heating the affected test section.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by INFINIUM, Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about scale-up of magnesium...

  15. An approach to modeling the cost-strength-weight tradeoff in aluminum and magnesium extrusions for automotive applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komander, Johann Kasper

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of volatile fuel prices and tightening emissions regulations, automobile manufacturers have been increasingly considering the use of light-weight magnesium in their efforts to improve fuel economy. While mainly ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by INFINIUM, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about scale-up of magnesium...

  17. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphateto identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 infacilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified

  18. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Magnesium Based Coordination Networks in Different Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Banerjee; J Finkelstein; A Smirnov; P Forster; L Borkowski; S Teat; J Parise

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three magnesium based metal-organic frameworks, Mg{sub 3}(3,5-PDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 3} {center_dot} DMF [1], Mg(3,5-PDC)(H{sub 2}O) {center_dot} (H{sub 2}O) [3], and Mg{sub 4}(3,5-PDC){sub 4}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} {center_dot} 2DMF {center_dot} 4.5H{sub 2}O [4], and a 2-D coordination polymer, [Mg(3,5-PDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] [2] [PDC = pyridinedicarboxylate], were synthesized using a combination of DMF, methanol, ethanol, and water. Compound 1 [space group P2{sub 1}/n, a = 12.3475(5) {angstrom}, b = 11.1929(5) {angstrom}, c = 28.6734(12) {angstrom}, {beta} = 98.8160(10){sup o}, V = 3916.0(3) {angstrom}{sup 3}] consists of a combination of isolated and corner-sharing magnesium octahedra connected by the organic linkers to form a 3-D network with a 12.2 {angstrom} x 4.6 {angstrom} 1-D channel. The channel contains coordinated and free DMF molecules. In compound 2 [space group C2/c, a = 9.964(5) {angstrom}, b = 12.0694(6) {angstrom}, c = 7.2763(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 106.4970(6){sup o}, V = 836.70(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}], PDC connects isolated seven coordinated magnesium polyhedra into a layered structure. Compound 3 [space group P6{sub 1}22, a = 11.479(1) {angstrom}, c = 14.735(3) {angstrom}, V = 1681.7(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}] (previously reported) contains isolated magnesium octahedra connected by the organic linker with each other forming a 3D network. Compound 4 [space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 13.7442(14) {angstrom}, b = 14.2887(15) {angstrom}, c = 14.1178(14) {angstrom}, {beta} = 104.912(2){sup o}, V = 2679.2(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}] also exhibits a 3D network based on isolated magnesium octahedra with square cavities containing both disordered DMF and water molecules. The structural topologies originate due to the variable coordination ability of solvent molecules with the metal center. Water molecules coordinate with the magnesium metal centers preferably over other polar solvents (DMF, methanol, ethanol) used to synthesize the coordination networks. Despite testing multiple desolvation routes, we were unable to measure BET surface areas greater than 51.9 m{sup 2}/g for compound 1.

  19. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Magnesium Based Coordination Networks in Different Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Finkelstein, Jeffrey; Smirnov, A.; Forster, Paul M.; Borkowski, Lauren A.; Teat, Simon J.; Parise, John B. (UNLV); (SUNYB); (LBNL)

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Three magnesium based metal-organic frameworks, Mg{sub 3}(3,5-PDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 3} {center_dot} DMF [1], Mg(3,5-PDC)(H{sub 2}O) {center_dot} (H{sub 2}O) [3], and Mg4(3,5-PDC)4(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} {center_dot} 2DMF {center_dot} 4.5H{sub 2}O [4], and a 2-D coordination polymer, [Mg(3,5-PDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] [2] [PDC = pyridinedicarboxylate], were synthesized using a combination of DMF, methanol, ethanol, and water. Compound 1 [space group P2{sub 1}/n, a = 12.3475(5) {angstrom}, b = 11.1929(5) {angstrom}, c = 28.6734(12) {angstrom}, {beta} = 98.8160(10){sup o}, V = 3916.0(3) {angstrom}{sup 3}] consists of a combination of isolated and corner-sharing magnesium octahedra connected by the organic linkers to form a 3-D network with a 12.2 {angstrom} x 4.6 {angstrom} 1-D channel. The channel contains coordinated and free DMF molecules. In compound 2 [space group C2/c, a = 9.964(5) {angstrom}, b = 12.0694(6) {angstrom}, c = 7.2763(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 106.4970(6){sup o}, V = 836.70(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}], PDC connects isolated seven coordinated magnesium polyhedra into a layered structure. Compound 3 [space group P6{sub 1}22, a = 11.479(1) {angstrom}, c = 14.735(3) {angstrom}, V = 1681.7(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}] (previously reported) contains isolated magnesium octahedra connected by the organic linker with each other forming a 3D network. Compound 4 [space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 13.7442(14) {angstrom}, b = 14.2887(15) {angstrom}, c = 14.1178(14) {angstrom}, {beta} = 104.912(2){sup o}, V = 2679.2(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}] also exhibits a 3D network based on isolated magnesium octahedra with square cavities containing both disordered DMF and water molecules. The structural topologies originate due to the variable coordination ability of solvent molecules with the metal center. Water molecules coordinate with the magnesium metal centers preferably over other polar solvents (DMF, methanol, ethanol) used to synthesize the coordination networks. Despite testing multiple desolvation routes, we were unable to measure BET surface areas greater than 51.9 m{sup 2}/g for compound 1.

  20. The interaction of nitrogen and magnesium deficiences in certain aspects of the physiology of the cotton plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Debabrata

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INTERACTION OF NITROGEN AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES IN CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE COTTON PLANT A Thesis By DEBABRATA GHOSH Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject: plant physiology THE INTERACTION OF NITROGEN AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES IN CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE COTTON PLANT A Thesis By DEBABRATA...

  1. The determination of the bioavailability and the site of absorption in lambs fed different sources of magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Leigh Anne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the animal influences Ng avail- ability. Grace (1972) found that older cows exhibited a sharper decrease in plasma Ng than did younger cows in the early stages of lactation. Magnesium Supplementation The adequacy of dietary Mg levels is probably...THE DETERMINATION OF THE BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE SITE OF ABSORPTION IN LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM A Thesis I, EIGH ANNE HURLEY Submitted to the Of f ice of Graduate Studies Texas AAM UniversitY in partial fulfillment...

  2. Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Mozammel

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASH, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF THE METACARPUS OF HEREFORD COWS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS A Thesis By MOZAMMEL HAQUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... centages of Calcium, Phosphorus snd Magnesium in Bone Ash for Cows Gi;en Different Treatments During Pre- And Post-Partum Periods 22 10 Analysis of Variance oi Calcium in Bone Ash Dun an's )tultiple tvange Test 1'or Calcium in Bone Ash. Analy...

  3. The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Thuy Huong

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND DIETARY FAT ON CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, IRON, AND ZINC ON SELECTED TISSUES IN RATS A Thesis by THUY HUONG NGUYEN Approved as to style... and content by: Karen S. ubena (Chair of Committee) L. yne Greene (Member) Barbara C. O' Brien (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT The Effects of Exercise and Dietary Fat on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc...

  4. The effects of a suboptimal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on parturition, growth, and viability in the rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Sonja D'Awn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % casein or 20% soy concentrate as the protein source, and supplemented with 700 ppm, 650 ppm, 75 ppm or 0 ppm magnesium. The experiment was conducted from growth throughout lactation. Maternal performance postpartum was adversely affected by sub... prompted research of soy products (23). Few have reported on the effects of feeding rats a suboptimal level of magnesium in a diet based on casein or soy protein concentrate from weanling through gestation and lactation. The objectives of this study...

  5. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  6. THE SUITABILITY OF SODIUM PEROXIDE FUSION FOR PRODUCTION-SCALE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion is a method that offers significant benefits to the processing of high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) materials. Those benefits include reduction in dissolution cycle time, decrease in residual solids, and reduction of the potential for generation of a flammable gas mixture during dissolution. Implementation of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion may also increase the PuO{sub 2} throughput in the HB-Line dissolving lines. To fuse a material, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} is mixed with the feed material in a crucible and heated to 600-700 C. For low-fired and high-fired PuO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} reacts with PuO{sub 2} to form a compound that readily dissolves in ambient-temperature nitric acid without the use of potassium fluoride. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated the feasibility of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion and subsequent dissolution for the processing of high-fired PuO{sub 2} materials in HB-Line. Testing evaluated critical dissolution characteristics and defined preliminary process parameters. Based on experimental measurements, a dissolution cycle can be complete in less than one hour, compared to the current processing time of 6-10 hours for solution heating and dissolution. Final Pu concentrations of 30-35 g/L were produced without the formation of precipitates in the final solution.

  7. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  8. Sol-Gel Preparation Of Lead Magnesium Ni Obate (Pmn) Powdersand Thin Films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg.sub.1/3 Nb.sub.2/3)O.sub.3, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films.

  9. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 23OC/234-52. This CSWD describes hardware and PFP/FFS developed software for control of Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation process located in room 230, 234-52. The Honeywell and Plant Scape software generate limited configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, Solutions Stabilization Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

  10. Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applicatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu.2012."Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications."Nano Letters 12(7):37833787....

  11. Title of dissertation: HYDROMAGNETIC TURBULENT INSTABILITY IN LIQUID SODIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: HYDROMAGNETIC TURBULENT INSTABILITY IN LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENTS Daniel R. Sisan, Doctor of Philosophy, 2004 Dissertation directed by: Professor Daniel P. Lathrop Department of Physics This dissertation describes the observation of magnetically-induced instabil- ities

  12. aged sodium borophosphate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ultraviolet flux will produce a similar variation in the column of neutral sodium for a fixed mass flux and density. However, if the cold gas is in pressure equilibrium with a hot...

  13. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Past and Future | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Past and Future June 16, 2015 10:00AM to 11:00AM Presenter Taek K. Kim (NE), Principal Nuclear Engineer and Department Manager Location Building 205,...

  14. acidified sodium chlorite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying...

  15. Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

  16. Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denman, Matthew R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

  17. Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

  18. A Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Computational Study of Sodium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The global minimum of Na3Au3 - has a bent-flake structure lying 0.077 eV below a more compact structure. The global minima of the sodium auride clusters are confirmed by the...

  19. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate and Alkaten as buffers in beef cattle diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boerner, Benedict Joseph

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A Thesis by BENED ICT JOSEP H BOERNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University im partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC IENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A thesis by BENEDICT JOSEPH BOERNER Approved as to style and content by: Flo M. Byers (Chairma of Committee) ~r( Gerald T. Schelling (Member...

  1. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

  2. Yield Asymmetry Design of Magnesium Alloys by Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ahzi, Said

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to microstructure, characterized by texture and grain size. Modified intermediate phi-model, a polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry by thermomechanical processing. In some texture, for example, rolled texture, CYS/TYS is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In some texture, for example, extruded texture, asymmetry is large along normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, the asymmetry will increased to close to 1 along rolling direction after compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our model shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Besides texture control, grain refinement can also optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreased to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 since CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  3. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using a regenerable magnesium hydroxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Stevens, Jr., Robert W

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for CO.sub.2 separation using a regenerable Mg(OH).sub.2 sorbent. The process absorbs CO.sub.2 through the formation of MgCO.sub.3 and releases water product H.sub.2O. The MgCO.sub.3 is partially regenerated through direct contact with steam, which acts to heat the magnesium carbonate to a higher temperature, provide heat duty required to decompose the magnesium carbonate to yield MgO and CO.sub.2, provide an H.sub.2O environment over the magnesium carbonate thereby shifting the equilibrium and increasing the potential for CO.sub.2 desorption, and supply H.sub.2O for rehydroxylation of a portion of the MgO. The mixture is polished in the absence of CO.sub.2 using water product H.sub.2O produced during the CO.sub.2 absorption to maintain sorbent capture capacity. The sorbent now comprised substantially of Mg(OH).sub.2 is then available for further CO.sub.2 absorption duty in a cyclic process.

  4. Classification : Original Article VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS POTENTIATE THE INVASIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms

  5. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  6. publication 348-827 Sodium is a necessary part of our diet. Sodium helps our bodies keep the right

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    amount of water, but we only need a little bit. The most common form of sodium is found in table salt-fashioned oatmeal Pasta and rice Peas, beans, and lentils Plain popcorn Pudding Seeds Unsalted nuts Whole

  7. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing fusion as an energy source will dramatically reduce energy costs, global warming, and radioactive waste. Cheaper and more efficient medical MRI devices could lower examination costs, find potential health problems earlier, and thus also benefit society as a whole. Other potential commercial applications for this material are devices for the generation and storage of electrical power, thus lowering the cost of delivered electricity.

  8. Contribution of potassium channels to myogenic response in skeletal muscle arterioles: effects of age and fiber type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Se Jeong

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    channels and voltage-dependent (Kv) potassium channels; these channels have a role in the negativefeedback pathways that modulate depolarization and myogenic constriction. We tested the hypothesis that increased KCa channel and Kv channel activity...

  9. Identification of genes from pattern formation, tyrosine kinase, and potassium channel families by DNA amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamb, A.; Weir, M.; Rudy, B.; Varmus, H.; Kenyon, C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of gene family members has been aided by the isolation of related genes on the basis of DNA homology. The authors have adapted the polymerase chain reaction to screen animal genomes very rapidly and reliably for likely gene family members. Using conserved amino acid sequences to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers, they have shown that the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains sequences homologous to many Drosophila genes involved in pattern formation, including the segment polarity gene wingless (vertebrate int-1), and homeobox sequences characteristic of the Antennapedia, engrailed, and paired families. In addition, they have used this method to show that C. elegans contains at least five different sequences homologous to genes in the tyrosine kinase family. Lastly, they have isolated six potassium channel sequences from humans, a result that validates the utility of the method with large genomes and suggests that human potassium channel gene diversity may be extensive.

  10. Potassium Rankine cycle nuclear power systems for spacecraft and lunar-mass surface power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potassium Rankine cycle has high potential for application to nuclear power systems for spacecraft and surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of Rankine cycle space power systems was carried out in the 1960`s. That effort is summarized and the status of the technology today is presented. Space power systems coupling Rankine cycle power conversion to both the SP-100 reactor and thermionic reactors as a combined power cycle are described in the paper.

  11. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Makoto, E-mail: waseda.ogawa@gmail.com [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Morita, Masashi, E-mail: m-masashi@y.akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Igarashi, Shota, E-mail: uxei_yoshi_yoshi@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sato, Soh, E-mail: rookie_so_sleepy@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

  12. Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small Potassium sulfate K2SO4 Small Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 Small Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Very Small concentration as related to the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and 3 Irrigation Water Quality Standards Na2SO4 Moderate to large Calcium chloride CaCl2 Moderate Calcium sulfate (gypsum) CaSO4 2H2O Moderate

  13. Is Your Dairy Management Program Ready for The Summer Heat? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    - eral supplementation during periods of heat stress include: ? 1.5 to 1.6 percent potassium ? .45 to .60 percent sodium ? .35 to .40 percent magnesium Feeding management. Feed intake is the key to lactation performance at any time of the year... Water Availability. Water is indisputably the most important nutrient for lactation, and it becomes even more essential when cows are under heat stress. In the lactating cow, water is necessary both for dissipating excess body heat and as a large...

  14. Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009/December/01120901.asp[12/2/2009 12:27:18 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009 Links Tools Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture 01 December 2009 US chemists have shown and selectively capture carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases and subsequently release it using little energy

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1, suppliment au no 4, Tome 38, Avril 1977, page C1-207 KINETICS OF THE CATION REDISTRIBUTION IN MAGNESIUM FERRITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    OF THE CATION REDISTRIBUTION IN MAGNESIUM FERRITES V. A. M. BRABERS and J. KLERK Department of Physics distribution des ions Mg2+et Fe3+sur les sites tetrakdriques et octakdriquesde ferrites de magnesium est Ctudi octahedral and tetrahedral sites in Mg ferrites has been studiedwith dilatometricmeasurements

  16. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  17. Magnesium deficiency and type of protein during gestation and lactation in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Kathryn Ellen Hughes

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the irregular schedule of cage clean1ng. 13 Animals were observed for physical signs of magnesium deficiency. Upon parturition the stainless steel grids were removed from the cages, and dams and pups were maintained on the wood-chip bedding... in a machine designed for this pur- pose. Clean cages with fresh wood-chip bedding were provided as needed, and clean feeders were provided weekly. All other instruments and glassware used in the study were acid-washed in 10% nitric acid or soaked...

  18. Effect of dietary magnesium and calcium on blood lipids and minerals in tissues in rats fed a high fat diet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy-Downs, Jean

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND MINERALS ZN TISSUES IN BATS FED A HIGH FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DONNS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPZDS AND MZNERALS ZN TISSUES IN RATS FED A BIGS FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DOWNS Approved as to style...

  19. The determination of the bioavailability and the site of absorption in lambs fed different sources of magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Leigh Anne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine. Fecal excretions and apparent absorptions of Mg increased (P&. 05) 43 and 320'4 respectively, as Ng intakes increased (P&. 05) from . 96 to 1. 85 g/d intake. Apparent Ng absorptions were . 17, . 51...'% with and average of . 10% in order to meet daily Hg requirements . $0 Magnesium Losses Magnesium is lost from the body by three main zoutes: milk, urine and feces (Allczoft and Burns, 1968). The main route of Ng excretion is by way of the feces (Todd, 1976...

  20. Effect of dietary magnesium and calcium on blood lipids and minerals in tissues in rats fed a high fat diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy-Downs, Jean

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND MINERALS ZN TISSUES IN BATS FED A HIGH FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DONNS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPZDS AND MZNERALS ZN TISSUES IN RATS FED A BIGS FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DOWNS Approved as to style...

  1. The effects of a marginal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on growth, gestation, and lactation in the rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Cynthia Anne

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19B6 Major Subject: Nutrrtion THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Approved...

  2. Determination of thorium, uranium, and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Tzortzis; Haralabos Tsertos

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils throughout the accessible area of Cyprus using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 115 soil samples was collected from all over the bedrock surface of the island based on the different lithological units of the study area. The soil samples were sieved through a fine mesh, sealed in 1000-mL plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory in terms of their gamma radioactivity for a counting time of 18 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, elemental concentrations were determined for thorium (range from 2.5x10^-3 to 9.8 micro g g-1), uranium (from 8.1x10^-4 to 3.2 micro g g-1) and potassium (from 1.3x10^-4 to 1.9 %). The Arithmetic mean values (A.M. +- S.D.) calculated are (1.2 +- 1.7) micro g g-1, (0.6 +- 0.7) micro g g-1, and (0.4 +- 0.3) %, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively, which are by a factor of three to six lower than the world average values of 7.4 micro g g-1 (Th), 2.8 micro g g-1 (U) and 1.3 % (K) derived from all data available worldwide. The best-fitting relation between the concentrations of Th and K versus U, and also of K versus Th, is essentially of linear type with a correlation coefficient of 0.93, 0.84, and 0.90, respectively. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th ratios (slopes) calculated are equal to 2.0, 2.8x10^3,and 1.4x10^3, respectively.

  3. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  4. Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  5. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Randy A

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7/NBCn1 pulled down syntrophin c2 and con- versely GST/syntrophin c2 pulled down NBCn1. Moreover normally moves Na+ and HCO3 Ã? into cells and protects intracel- lular pH (pHi) from falling below normal

  6. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  8. Compatibility Assessment of Advanced Stainless Steels in Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type 316L stainless steel capsules containing commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS (austenitic, 14Cr-16Ni), NF-616 (ferritic/martensitic, 9Cr-2W-0.5Mo), or 316L (austenitic, 17Cr-10Ni-2Mo) stainless steel were exposed at 600 or 700 C for 100 and 400 h as a screening test for compatibility. Using weight change, tensile testing, and metallographic analysis, HT-UPS and 316L were found to be largely immune to changes resulting from sodium exposure, but NF-616 was found susceptible to substantial decarburization at 700 C. Subsequently, two thermal convection loops (TCLs) constructed of 316L and loaded with commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS and 316L were operated for 2000 h each one between 500 and 650 C, the other between 565 and 725 C at a flow rate of about 1.5 cm/s. Changes in specimen appearance, weight, and tensile properties were observed to be very minor in all cases, and there was no metallographic evidence of microstructure changes, composition gradients, or mass transfer resulting from prolonged exposure in a TCL. Thus, it appears that HT-UPS and 316L stainless steels are similarly compatible with commercially pure sodium under these exposure conditions.

  9. Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Duane

    and sodium. Two soil amendments were applied to plots furrowirrigated with wastewater. The amendments were gypsum (11 Mg ha-1), and PAM added to irrigation water at rates of 25 mg L-1 PAM applications were made during every irrigation and during every second...

  10. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  11. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state suggests that there are preferred Si <100> interstitial splits. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C-SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C-SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8±0.4×10e-19 m2/sec.

  12. Manufacture of gradient micro-structures of magnesium alloys using two stage extrusion dies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Huang, Tze-Hui [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naimark, Oleg Borisovich [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation); Jeng, Yeau-Ren [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to manufacture magnesium alloy metals with gradient micro-structures using hot extrusion process. The extrusion die was designed to have a straight channel part combined with a conical part. Materials pushed through this specially-designed die generate a non-uniform velocity distribution at cross sections inside the die and result in different strain and strain rate distributions. Accordingly, a gradient microstructure product can be obtained. Using the finite element analysis, the forming temperature, effective strain, and effective strain rate distributions at the die exit were firstly discussed for various inclination angles in the conical die. Then, hot extrusion experiments with a two stage die were conducted to obtain magnesium alloy products with gradient micro-structures. The effects of the inclination angle on the grain size distribution at cross sections of the products were also discussed. Using a die of an inclination angle of 15°, gradient micro-structures of the grain size decreasing gradually from 17 ?m at the center to 4 ?m at the edge of product were achieved.

  13. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  14. Ferroelectric domain gratings and Barkhausen spikes in potassium lithium tantalate niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, X.; Yariv, A.; Zhang, M. [California Institute of Technology, Caltech 128-95, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Caltech 128-95, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Agranat, A.J. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Hofmeister, R.; Leyva, V. [Ortel Corporation, Alhambra, California 91803 (United States)] [Ortel Corporation, Alhambra, California 91803 (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of Barkhausen current spikes during the recording of volume phase holograms in potassium lithium tantalate niobate is reported on. These spikes are due to the ferroelectric domain reversal induced by photorefractive space charge fields. Both {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} (1 nA) and {open_quotes}large{close_quotes} (100 nA) spikes are observed, which correspond to micro and macro domain reversal, respectively. The diffraction efficiency can change as much as 50{percent} during a single macrodomain switching. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38?nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8?12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  16. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (18) a 5. 3 (84) a 4. 8 (76) a 4. 2 (66) a 3. 8 (61) a 5. 2 (82) a 4. 1 (64) a 5. 0 (80) a *Duncan's Multiple Range Test. ? = . 05. Differences in yield due to rate of applied lime material followed by the same letter are not significantly...CEMENT KILN FLUE DUST AS A SOURCE OF LIME AND POTASSIUM IN FOUR EAST TEXAS SOILS A Thesis by WARREN DAVID POOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  17. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  18. Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... and...

  20. Teaching Sodium Fast Reactor Technology and Operation for the Present and Future Generations of SFR Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Teaching Sodium Fast Reactor Technology and Operation for the Present and Future Generations of SFR or development of sodium fast reactors and related experimental facilities. The sum of courses provided by CEA on sodium fast reactor design, technology, safety and operation experience, decommissioning aspects

  1. Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb A Christensen Submitted of Philosophy Abstract The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23

  2. Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

  3. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    , conventional solid-state-reaction (SSR), sol-gel, spray drying (atomization) and organic gel-assisted citrateMagnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique Lim Rooi Pinga,1 , Abdul-Majeed Azadb, *, Teng Wan Dunga a Ceramics Technology Center, SIRIM Berhad, 1 Persiaran

  4. A Comparison of Magnesium and Beryllium Acceptors in GaN Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Tom

    as a function of substrate temperature and dopant flux for Ga-polarity and N-polarity GaN. Incorporation GaN templates on (0001) sapphire substrates. The doped layers were grown at a rate of 0.25 µmA Comparison of Magnesium and Beryllium Acceptors in GaN Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam

  5. Measurement of Ultra-Low Potassium Contaminations with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Dong

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Levels of trace radiopurity in active detector materials is a subject of major concern in low-background experiments. Among the radio-isotopes, $\\k40$ is one of the most abundant and yet whose signatures are difficult to reject. Procedures were devised to measure trace potassium concentrations in the inorganic salt CsI as well as in organic liquid scintillator (LS) with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), giving, respectively, the $\\k40$-contamination levels of $\\sim 10^{-10}$ and $\\sim 10^{-13}$ g/g. Measurement flexibilities and sensitivities are improved over conventional methods. The projected limiting sensitivities if no excess of potassium signals had been observed over background are $8 \\times 10^{-13}$ g/g and $3 \\times 10^{-17}$ g/g for the CsI and LS, respectively. Studies of the LS samples indicate that the radioactive contaminations come mainly in the dye solutes, while the base solvents are orders of magnitude cleaner. The work demonstrate the possibilities of measuring naturally-occurring isotopes with the AMS techniques.

  6. Measurement of Ultra-Low Potassium Contaminations with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, K J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Levels of trace radiopurity in active detector materials is a subject of major concern in low-background experiments. Among the radio-isotopes, $\\k40$ is one of the most abundant and yet whose signatures are difficult to reject. Procedures were devised to measure trace potassium concentrations in the inorganic salt CsI as well as in organic liquid scintillator (LS) with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), giving, respectively, the $\\k40$-contamination levels of $\\sim 10^{-10}$ and $\\sim 10^{-13}$ g/g. Measurement flexibilities and sensitivities are improved over conventional methods. The projected limiting sensitivities if no excess of potassium signals had been observed over background are $8 \\times 10^{-13}$ g/g and $3 \\times 10^{-17}$ g/g for the CsI and LS, respectively. Studies of the LS samples indicate that the radioactive contaminations come mainly in the dye solutes, while the base solvents are orders of magnitude cleaner. The work demonstrate the possibilities of measuring naturally-occurring isoto...

  7. Magnesium Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cyberinfrastructure projects and will be augmented by original research in Computer Science and Software Engineering towards the creation of large, distributed, autonomic and...

  8. A thermodynamic free energy function for potassium niobate Linyun Liang, Y. L. Li, Long-Qing Chen, S. Y. Hu, and Guang-Hong Lu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    A thermodynamic free energy function for potassium niobate Linyun Liang, Y. L. Li, Long-Qing Chen://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;A thermodynamic free energy function for potassium niobate Linyun Liang,1 Y. L. Li,2 Long A thermodynamic free energy function in the form of an eighth-order polynomial has been developed for bulk

  9. Model for the Binding of the Inactivation N-Terminal to the Ion Pore of Shaker Potassium Channel: Both Electrostatic Attraction and Covalent Linkage Are Required for Rapid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Model for the Binding of the Inactivation N-Terminal to the Ion Pore of Shaker Potassium Channel; In Final Form: December 21, 2001 A model is presented for relating the binding of the inactivation N-terminal to the ion pore of the Shaker potassium channel (ShB) to the bimolecular binding of the N-terminal peptide

  10. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant.

  11. Effects of soil treatments supplemented with two rates of magnesium sulfate on the availability of soil nutrients and on the yield and chemical composition of coastal Bermuda grass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evatt, Nathan S

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ZATZ ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL NUTRIENTS AND ON TH YIELD AND CHENICAL COMPOSITICN GF CO. iSTAL BERNUDA GHASS INTRODUCTION It is known that magnesium is one of' the elements essential for plant growth; however much is to be learned concerning its specific functions... within the plant, Host Texas soils are not deficient, in magnesium (23). Magnesium is reported to be a carrier of the phos- phorus used by the plant. It is entirely possible that the failure to obtain crops of higher phosphorus content upon...

  12. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  13. Punchless Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet under Cold Condition and its Computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, Minoru [Center for Advanced Die Engineering and Technology, Gifu University, Yanagido Gifu, 501-1193 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Gifu University, ditto. (Japan); Sato, Joji [Research Institute for Machinery and Materials, Gifu Prefectural Government, 1288 Oze Seki, 501-3265 (Japan)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The punchless drawing with Maslennikov's technique was applied to the circular cup drawing of magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet under cold condition. The elastic rubber ring was used instead of the 'hard' punch, where the compressed ring dragged the sheet inward the die cavity. Attainable circumferential strain of the blank was increased by this technique with repetitive drawing operation. Thickness of the rubber pad affected little the attainable strain. The shape appearance became better when a harder rubber was used. The cup forming by single drawing operation was also tested using a small die shoulder radius. The LDR of 1.250 was obtained with the straight cup wall. Further, the computation of the punchless drawing was also conducted for the single drawing operation. The computed deformation pattern was well consistent with the corresponding experimental result.

  14. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  15. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  16. First-exposure performance of the bentonite component of a GCL in a low-pH, calcium-enriched environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Gabr, M.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Bowders, J.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing was conducted on the bentonite portion of a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for application to an environment characterized as having high concentrations of dissolved calcium ions. This environment presents conditions that might affect the long-term hydraulic function of the GCL as a component in a barrier system. Experiments were conducted to investigate first-exposure compatibility of a sodium bentonite GCL subject to the affects of acidic groundwater and second from the combined affects of acidic groundwater enriched with calcium. Relationships between the ionic exchange of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium species in the bentonite, and changes in hydraulic conductivity and electrical conductance are reported and discussed.

  17. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  18. Analyses of Adsorption Kinetics Using a Stirred-Flow Chamber: II. Potassium-Calcium Exchange on Clay Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Analyses of Adsorption Kinetics Using a Stirred-Flow Chamber: II. Potassium-Calcium Exchange to be measuredwith the stirred-flowtech- nique, while exchange rates on vermiculite could be ascertained. Adsorption and comparing different ki- netic methods have not been solved. Kinetics of K adsorption on clay minerals have

  19. Absorption spectrum in the wings of the potassium second resonance doublet broadened by helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Shindo; James F. Babb; Kate Kirby; Kouichi Yoshino

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the reduced absorption coefficients occurring in the wings of the potassium 4S-5P doublet lines at 404.414 nm and at 404.720 nm broadened by helium gas at pressures of several hundred Torr. At the experimental temperature of 900 K, we have detected a shoulder-like broadening feature on the blue wing of the doublet which is relatively flat between 401.8 nm and 402.8 nm and which drops off rapidly for shorter wavelengths, corresponding to absorption from the X doublet Sigma+ state to the C doublet Sigma+ state of the K-He quasimolecule. The accurate measurements of the line profiles in the present work will sharply constrain future calculations of potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moments correlating to the asymptotes He-K(5p), He-K(5s), and He-K(3d).

  20. Effect of intracellular diffusion on current-voltage curves in potassium channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreucci, D; Cirillo, E N M; Marconi, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of intracellular ion diffusion on ionic currents permeating through the cell membrane. Ion flux across the cell membrane is mediated by special proteins forming specific channels. The structure of potassium channels have been widely studied in recent years with remarkable results: very precise measurements of the true current across a single channel are now available. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of the behavior of the channel is still lacking, though molecular dynamics and kinetic models have provided partial insights. In this paper we demonstrate, by analyzing the KcsA current-voltage currents via a suitable lattice model, that intracellular diffusion plays a crucial role in the permeation phenomenon. The interplay between the selectivity filter behavior and the ion diffusion in the intracellular side allows a full explanation of the current-voltage curves.

  1. Detection of frozen salt in pipes using gamma-ray spectrometry of potassium self-activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grena, Roberto; Scafe, Raffaele; Pisacane, Fabrizio; Pilato, Renzo; Crescenzi, Tommaso; Mazzei, Domenico [ENEA, Casaccia Research Centre, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar plants that use molten salts as heat transfer fluid need careful control to avoid the freezing of the salt in the pipes; if such a problem occurs, a diagnostic instrument to localize where is the frozen salt plug and to determine its length is useful. If the salt contains potassium (as is the case of the most common mixture used in solar plants, NaNO{sub 3}/KNO{sub 3} 60/40% by weight), the gamma decay of the natural unstable isotope {sup 40}K can be exploited to detect the frozen salt in a non-invasive way. Simulations and experimental results regarding the detectability of such plugs with different masses/lengths are presented. (author)

  2. Potassium Rankine cycle power conversion systems for lunar-Mars surface power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potassium Rankine cycle has good potential for application to nuclear power systems for surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of the power conversion was carried out in the 1960`s which demonstrated successful operation of components made of stainless steel at moderate temperatures. This technology could be applied in the near term to produce a 360 kW(e) power system by coupling a stainless steel power conversion system to the SP-100 reactor. Improved performance could be realized in later systems by utilizing niobium or tantalum refractory metal alloys in the reactor and power conversion system. The design characteristics and estimated mass of power systems for each of three technology levels are presented in the paper. 8 refs.

  3. Mineral interactions and absorption in the equine digestive tract: calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium interaction with aluminum, and calcium digestibility of alfalfa in ponies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapusniak, Linda J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MINERAL INTERACTIONS AND ABSORPTION IN THE EQUINE DIGESTIVE TRACT: CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND MAGNESIUM INTERACTION WITH ALUMINUM, AND CALCIUM DIGESTIBILITY OF ALFALFA IN PONIES A Thesis by LINDA J. KAPUSN IAK Subnitted to the Graduate College... of Texas ARM University. in partial fulfillment of the requirenent for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition MINERAL INTER4CTIONS AND ABSORPTION IN THE EQUINE DIGESTIVE TR4CT: C4LCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND MAGNESIUM...

  4. Displacement of the proton in hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride by beryllium and magnesium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Sean A. C. [Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus (Barbados)

    2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement of the proton by a beryllium ion and by a magnesium ion from hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride, of varying hydrogen bond strengths, was investigated theoretically using ab initio methods. Stable metal-containing species were obtained from all of the hydrogen-bonded complexes regardless of the strength of the hydrogen bond. It was found that the beryllium ion was energetically very effective in displacing the proton from hydrogen bonds, whereas the magnesium ion was unable to do so. The high stability of the beryllium-containing complexes is mainly due to the strong electrostatic bonding between the beryllium and fluoride atoms. This work supports the recent finding from a multidisciplinary bioinorganic study that beryllium displaces the proton in many strong hydrogen bonds.

  5. Abnormal macropore formation during double-sided gas tungsten arc welding of magnesium AZ91D alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Jun [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com; You Guoqiang; Long Siyuan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan Fusheng [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major concerns during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of cast magnesium alloys is the presence of large macroporosity in weldments, normally thought to occur from the presence of gas in the castings. In this study, a double-sided GTA welding process was adopted to join wrought magnesium AZ91D alloy plates. Micropores were formed in the weld zone of the first side that was welded, due to precipitation of H{sub 2} as the mushy zone freezes. When the reverse side was welded, the heat generated caused the mushy zone in the initial weld to reform. The micropores in the initial weld then coalesced and expanded to form macropores by means of gas expansion through small holes that are present at the grain boundaries in the partially melted zone. Macropores in the partially melted zone increase with increased heat input, so that when a filler metal is used the macropores are smaller in number and in size.

  6. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  7. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Moysan, J., E-mail: joseph.moysan@univ-amu.fr; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Jeannot, J. P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  8. Interaction Between Trace Metals, Sodium and Sorbents in Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, O.L.; Davis, S.

    1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

  9. Practical features of illumination with high pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corth, R.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of concerns raised about the health effects of high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are discussed. The notion of a ''natural'' human photic environment based on sunlight is disputed. Humans are better adapted to the ''greenish'' spectral composition of forest light than to direct sunlight. It is ironic that the artificial light source which has received the most disapproval, cool white flourescent lamp, has a spectral composition similar to that of forest light. HPS is also available in a full range of colors. Some successful examples of HPS--from North Division High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to museum exhibits at National Geographic in Washington--are listed.

  10. DRESDYN - A new facility for MHD experiments with liquid sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefani, F; Gerbeth, G; Giesecke, A; Gundrum, Th; Steglich, C; Weier, T; Wustmann, B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is intended as a platform both for large scale experiments related to geo- and astrophysics as well as for experiments related to thermohydraulic and safety aspects of liquid metal batteries and liquid metal fast reactors. The most ambitious projects in the framework of DRESDYN are a homogeneous hydromagnetic dynamo driven solely by precession and a large Taylor-Couette type experiment for the combined investigation of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. In this paper we give a short summary about the ongoing preparations and delineate the next steps for the realization of DRESDYN.

  11. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd ofEvaluations in Covered Facilities |List ofSodium-Beta Batteries

  12. Sodium hypochlorite Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteel CorporationSocovoltaic Systems JumpSodium

  13. Electrochemical properties of magnesium doped LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material prepared by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Baek, Dong-Ho; Manuel, James; Heo, Min-Yeong; Yang, Rong [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jong Keun; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Ki-Won [Department of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwon-Koo, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 600-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium doped Li{sub 1?2x}Mg{sub x}FePO{sub 4}/C (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) cathode materials were synthesized by sol–gel method, and the effect of magnesium doping as well as its content on the electrochemical properties for lithium batteries was also investigated{sub .} Their morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope and Li{sub 1?2x}Mg{sub x}FePO{sub 4} materials showed the olivine phase without impurities. The thin carbon layer of Li{sub 1?2x}Mg{sub x}FePO{sub 4}/C was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The magnesium doped Li{sub 1?2x}Mg{sub x}FePO{sub 4}/C particles were smaller than those undoped. The Li{sub 1?2x}Mg{sub x}FePO{sub 4}/C materials showed better cycling behavior than undoped LiFePO{sub 4}, especially at high C-rate in which Li{sub 0.94}Mg{sub 0.03}FePO{sub 4}/C composition exhibited the best electrochemical properties.

  14. Effect of Sodium on the Catalytic Properties of VOx/CeO2 Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dehydrogenation (ODH) of methanol. The effect of sodium on the surface structure, redox properties, and surface aciditybasicity of VOxCeO2 was investigated using hydrogen...

  15. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared a EIS that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of treatment and management of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Modeling Study of Proposed Field Calibration Source Using K-40 Source and High-Z Targets for Sodium Iodide Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Jeremy 1987-

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    isotope potassium-40 (40K) are not subject to these restrictions. Potassium-40’s beta spectrum and 1460.8 keV gamma ray can be used to induce K-shell fluorescence x rays in high-Z metals between 60 and 80 keV. A gamma ray calibration source is thus...

  17. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  18. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O. [AREVA (France); Dalle, F. [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  19. Non-LTE Abundances of Magnesium, Aluminum and Sulfur in OB Stars Near the Solar Circle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Daflon; K. Cunha; V. V. Smith; K. Butler

    2002-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-LTE abundances of magnesium, aluminum and sulfur are derived for a sample of 23 low-v \\sin i stars belonging to six northern OB associations of the Galactic disk within 1 kpc of the Sun. The abundances are obtained from the fitting of synthetic line profiles to high resolution spectra. A comparison of our results with HII region abundances indicates good agreement for sulfur while the cepheid abundances are higher. The derived abundances of Mg show good overlap with the cepheid results. The aluminum abundances for OB stars are significantly below the cepheid values. But, the OB star results show a dependence with effective temperature and need further investigation. The high Al abundances in the cepheids could be the result of mixing. A discussion of the oxygen abundance in objects near the solar circle suggests that the current mean galactic oxygen abundance in this region is 8.6-8.7 and in agreement with the recently revised oxygen abundance in the solar photosphere. Meaningful comparisons of the absolute S, Al and Mg abundances in OB stars with the Sun must await a reinvestigation of these elements, as well as the meteoritic reference element Si, with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres for the Sun. No abundance gradients are found within the limited range in galactocentric distances in the present study. Such variations would be expected only if there were large metallicity gradients in the disk.

  20. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  1. Polymer Stable Magnesium Nanocomposites Prepared by Laser Ablation for Efficient Hydrogen Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makridis, S S; Panagakos, G; Kikkinides, E S; Stubos, A K; Wagener, P; Barcikowski, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy carrier that can potentially facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to sources of clean energy because of its prominent advantages such as high energy density (142 MJ per kg), great variety of potential sources (for example water, biomass, organic matter), and low environmental impact (water is the sole combustion product). However, due to its light weight, the efficient storage of hydrogen is still an issue investigated intensely. Various solid media have been considered in that respect among which magnesium hydride stands out as a candidate offering distinct advantages. Recent theoretical work indicates that MgH2 becomes less thermodynamically stable as particle diameter decreases below 2 nm. Our DFT (density functional theory) modeling studies have shown that the smallest enthalpy change, corresponding to 2 unit-cell thickness (1.6 {\\AA} Mg/3.0{\\AA} MgH2) of the film, is 57.7 kJ/molMg. This enthalpy change is over 10 kJ per molMg smaller than that of the bulk...

  2. Salt index of potassium phosphate fertilizers and its relation to germination and early plant growth of field crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeouf, Jerry Allen

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    determined by the displacement of soil solutions that are in equilibrium with applied fertilizer salts. This procedure is time consuming and requires extraction of large quantities of soil in leaching columns to obtain the soil solution. Although... SALT INDEX OF POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS AND ITS RELATION TO GERMINATION AND EARLY PLANT GROWTH OF FIELD CROPS A Thesis by JERRY ALLEN FREEOUF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  3. Physiological changes in cultured Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cells in response to induced water stress: osmotic potential, relative water content, carbohydrates, organic acids, potassium, and amino acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diquez, Ricardo

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UUZEZCLUUZCRL CIIEUEE IE CULTURED ~8OR ICE RICCICR IL ) MOBMCH CELLS IE RESPONSE TO INDUCED WATER STRESS OSMOTIC POTEMTZAL E RELATIVE WATER CONTENT E CARBOHYDRATES U ORGANIC ACIDS@ POTASSIUM E AED AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by RICARDO DIQUEZ... ZN RESPONSB TO IHDUCBD WATBR STRESS'- OSMOTIC POTENTIAL~ RELATIVE WATER CONTENT~ CARBOHYDRATES, ORGANIC ACIDS, POTASSIUM, AND AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by RICARDO DIQUEZ Approved as to style and content by: Roberta H. Smith (Chair of Committee...

  4. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  6. Volume regulatory potassium transport in rabbit and human sickle erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Rohil, N.S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to the therapy of sickle cell anemia is to decrease the hemoglobin concentration by inducing a slight swelling of the cell to retard the rate of hemoglobin polymerization. We found that a prolonged incubation of rabbit or human SS red cell in hypotonic medium caused an inactivation of the inactivation of swelling-stimulated potassium transport. The inactivation may have important practical consequences for the therapy of sickle cell anemia. Large cytoskeleton-free vesicles were prepared in order to study the possible role of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton in the swelling-stimulated and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated transport. NEM pretreatment stimulated {sup 86}Rb efflux in vesicles by a factor of 2.4 + 0.55 (mean {plus minus} S.D.). The NEM effect on {sup 86}Rb efflux was specific in that the {sup 22}Na efflux into a Na medium was not stimulated but actually inhibited. The {sup 86}Rb efflux from the vesicles was not stimulated by hypotonic media. This finding is consistent with a role of the membrane skeleton in the detection and/or transduction of the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport.

  7. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, E W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure.

  8. Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is critically important in the translocation of death receptor to the cell surface. Moreover, sodium arsenite and further down-regulates cFLIP levels in melanoma cells. We have evaluated the effects of sequentialSequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL

  9. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

  10. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric Titration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric States ABSTRACT: We report on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto functionalized graphene-to- oxygen ratio of 18, monolayer adsorption of SDS on FGS reaches full surface coverage by 12 M SDS

  11. Challenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , AREVA, and EDF have an extensive experience and significant expertise in sodium-cooled fast reactorsChallenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors Mathieu CHASSIGNET1;Ã , Sebastien DUMAS1 , Christophe PENIGOT1 , Ge´rard PRELE2 , Alain CAPITAINE2

  12. 4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

  13. Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina David A. Litton March 1998; accepted 21 October 1998) Sodium silicate intergranular films (IGF) in contact. The results were compared to previous simulations of calcium silicate and sol-gel silica IGF's in contact

  14. Volume 33, number 2 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS May 1980 THE PROCESS OF ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEENEXCITED SODIUM ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud Jr., Carlos R.

    Volume 33, number 2 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS May 1980 THE PROCESS OF ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEENEXCITED SODIUM ATOMS J. KRASINSKI, T. STACEWICZ Institute of Experimental Physics WarsawUniversity, 00681 Warsaw,Poland(nX) denotes the sodium atom in one of the higher excited states. The energy difference AE is supplied

  15. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Art (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Lambert, John (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Hayes, Steven (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting. Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Idaho Falls, ID); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  16. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  17. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  18. Some aspects of materials development for sodium heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, P.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development program was undertaken to support the materials selection for steam generator piping and IHX which are to be used in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Four major topics were reviewed, describing the results obtained as well as the direction of future tests. These topics are: carbon transport in sodium, effect of carbon loss/gain upon materials in the reactor Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS), corrosion fatigue and aqueous corrosion. The results support the initial assumptions made in specifying the use of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo as the construction material for the evaporator and superheater and Type 316 piping of the IHT system. Future direction of the experimental programs is to further verify the materials choice and to also obtain information which will be essential during the plant installation, operation and reliability of the components.

  19. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  20. Impact of Sodium Layer variations on the performance of the E-ELT MCAO module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, L; Arcidiacono, C; Pfrommer, T; Holzlöhner, R; Lombini, M; Hickson, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems based on sodium Laser Guide Stars may exploit Natural Guide Stars to solve intrinsic limitations of artificial beacons (tip-tilt indetermination and anisoplanatism) and to mitigate the impact of the sodium layer structure and variability. The sodium layer may also have transverse structures leading to differential effects among Laser Guide Stars. Starting from the analysis of the input perturbations related to the Sodium Layer variability, modeled directly on measured sodium layer profiles, we analyze, through a simplified end-to-end simulation code, the impact of the low/medium orders induced on global performance of the European Extremely Large Telescope Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics module MAORY.

  1. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  2. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  3. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FOR SINGLE STAGE FORMATION OF CB CHONDRULES BY COLLIDING PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Mia B.; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark)] [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mechanism. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope data for 10 skeletal olivine chondrules from the Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237) chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrules. The {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg ratios of individual chondrules are positively correlated to their stable Mg-isotope composition (?{sup 25}Mg), indicating that the correlated variability was imparted by a volatility-controlled process (evaporation/condensation). The mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition (?{sup 26}Mg*) of chondrules is consistent with single stage formation from an initially homogeneous magnesium reservoir if the observed ?{sup 25}Mg variability was generated by non-ideal Rayleigh-type evaporative fractionation characterized by a ? value of 0.5142, in agreement with experimental work. The magnitude of the mass-dependent fractionation (?300 ppm) is significantly lower than that suggested by the increase in {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg values, indicating substantial suppression of isotopic fractionation during evaporative loss of Mg, possibly due to evaporation at high Mg partial pressure. Thus, the Mg-isotope data of skeletal chondrules from HH237 are consistent with their origin as melts produced in the impact-generated plume of colliding planetesimals. The inferred ?{sup 26}Mg* value of –3.87 ± 0.93 ppm for the CB parent body is significantly lower than the bulk solar system value of 4.5 ± 1.1 ppm inferred from CI chondrites, suggesting that CB chondrites accreted material comprising an early formed {sup 26}Al-free component.

  4. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  5. In vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos as related to carbohydrate source and pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Jonathan Walker

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a refrigerator at 4'C for a maximum of 6 months. 18 Table 4. Com osition of stock solutions used in Wood Plant Medium. Stock Solution g/L ml/L Final concentration m Macro Stock: Ammonium nitrate: ~NOq Calcium nitrate: Ca(NOq)s. 4HtO... Magnesium sulfate: MgSO4 . 7HsO Calcium chloride: CaClq. 2HsO Potassium Stock: Potassium sulfate: Kq SO4 Potassium phosphate: KHzPO& Micro Stock: Boric acid: HqBOs Sodium molybdate: NapMo04. 2HtO Manganous sulfate: MnSO4. HsO Zinc sulfate: ZnSO4...

  6. Sodium-Beta Batteries for Grid-Scale Storage: Planar Sodium-Beta Batteries for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: EaglePicher is developing a sodium-beta alumina (Na-Beta) battery for grid-scale energy storage. High-temperature Na-Beta batteries are a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but existing approaches are expensive and unreliable. EaglePicher has modified the shape of the traditional, tubular-shaped Na-Beta battery. It is using an inexpensive stacked design to improve performance at lower temperatures, leading to a less expensive overall storage technology. The new design greatly simplifies the manufacturing process for beta alumina membranes (a key enabling technology), providing a subsequent pathway to the production of scalable, modular batteries at half the cost of the existing tubular designs.

  7. Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

  8. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, C.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  9. Mesoscale Modeling and Validation of Texture Evolution during Asymmetric Rooling and Static Recrystallization of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Stoica, Grigoreta M [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the present research is to develop an integrated deformation and recrystallization model for magnesium alloys at the microstructural length scale. It is known that in magnesium alloys nucleation of recrystallized grains occurs at various microstructural inhomogeneities such as twins and localized deformation bands. However, there is a need to develop models that can predict the evolution of the grain structure and texture developed during recrystallization and grain growth, especially when the deformation process follows a complicated deformation path such as in asymmetric rolling. The deformation model is based on a crystal plasticity approach implemented at the length scale of the microstructure that includes deformation mechanisms based on dislocation slip and twinning. The recrystallization simulation is based on a Monte Carlo technique that operates on the output of the deformation simulations. The nucleation criterion during recrystallization is based on the local stored energy and the Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the growth of the nuclei due to local stored energy differences and curvature. The model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained through electron backscatter analysis and neutron diffraction.

  10. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin [Leeds University/Nexia Solutions URA in Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Patel, Ashok [British Nuclear Group, Reactor Sites, Berkeley Centre, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, GL13 9PB (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  11. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  12. Impact of mineralogy on potassium dynamics and retention behavior in Bangladesh soils used in rice cropping systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswas, Sumitra Bose

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal. 2 Most soils in the IGP, including those in Bangladesh, are usually regarded as high in K due to high rainfall, irrigation water and release from K-rich clay minerals (Dobermann et al., 1996a, 1996b, 1999). Potassium removal is large... of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains in India is derived from K feldspars and micas (Sidhu, 1984). Microcline and orthoclase are representative of K feldspars in these soils. Mica minerals present are muscovite and biotite in the coarser fractions...

  13. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  14. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  15. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  16. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  17. The development of potassium tantalate niobate thin films for satellite-based pyroelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherry, H B.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) pyroelectric detectors are expected to provide detectivities, of 3.7 x 10{sup 11} cmHz {sup {1/2}}W{sup {minus}1} for satellite-based infrared detection at 90 K. The background limited detectivity for a room-temperature thermal detector is 1.8 x 10{sup 10} cmHz{sup {1/2}}W{sup {minus}1}. KTN is a unique ferroelectric for this application because of the ability to tailor the temperature of its pyroelectric response by adjusting its ratio of tantalum to niobium. The ability to fabricate high quality KTN thin films on Si-based substrates is crucial to the development of KTN pyroelectric detectors. Si{sub x}N{sub y} membranes created on the Si substrate will provide the weak thermal link necessary to reach background limited detectivities. The device dimensions obtainable by thin film processing are expected to increase the ferroelectric response by 20 times over bulk fabricated KTN detectors. In addition, microfabrication techniques allow for easier array development. This is the first reported attempt at growth of KTN films on Si-based substrates. Pure phase perovskite films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrRuO{sub 3}/Pt/Ti/Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si and SrRuO{sub 3}/Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si structures; room temperature dielectric permittivities for the KTN films were 290 and 2.5, respectively. The dielectric permittivity for bulk grown, single crystal KTN is {approximately}380. In addition to depressed dielectric permittivities, no ferroelectric hysteresis was found between 80 and 300 K for either structure. RBS, AES, TEM and multi-frequency dielectric measurements were used to investigate the origin of this apparent lack of ferroelectricity. Other issues addressed by this dissertation include: the role of oxygen and target density during pulsed laser deposition of KTN thin films; the use of YBCO, LSC and Pt as direct contact bottom electrodes to the KTN films, and the adhesion of the bottom electrode layers to Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si.

  18. Photoregulated potassium ion permeation through dihexadecyl phosphate bilayers containing azobenzene and stilbene surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Hurst, J.K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoresponsive asymmetrically organized systems based upon small unilamellar dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vehicles were constructed by entrapping high concentrations of potassium ion within the vesicular aqueous core and incorporating either an amphiphilic trans-azobenzene-containing phosphate monoester or an amphiphilic trans-stilbene-containing carboxylic acid into its membrane structure. Spectroscopic measurements indicated that the azobenzene derivative was molecularly dispersed in the hydrocarbon phase of the vesicle and that the extent of aggregation of the membrane-localized stilbene derivative was minor. Thermal K{sup +} leak rates from the doped vesicles were very low, with calculated permeability coefficients (P) of {approximately}4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm/s at 40 C for DHP vesicles containing 5.5 mol % of the trans-azobenzene derivative and {approximately}1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm/s at 38 C for vesicles containing 5.5 mol % of the trans-stilbene derivative; for comparison, P {approx_equal} 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm/s for undoped vesicles at 40 C. Photoexcitation of the azobenzene-doped vesicles at 360 nm caused >90% trans {r_arrow} cis photoisomerization over the measured temperature range (25--40 C), with complete reversion to the trans isomer upon photoexcitation at 450 nm. Photoexcitation of deoxygenated suspensions of the stilbene-doped vesicles at 315 nm gave {approximately}80% conversion to the cis isomer in the photostationary state, which was not reversible. At 25 C, K{sup +} leak rates for the isomeric azobenzene-doped vesicles were nearly identical; at 40 C, K{sup +} leakage for the DHP vesicles containing the cis-azobenzene isomer corresponded to P {approx_equal} 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm/s, 5-fold greater than that of the trans isomer. In trans {r_arrow} cis {r_arrow} trans photocycling experiments, K{sup +} leak rates alternately increased and decreased, indicating that the vesicles remained intact. At 40 C, K{sup +} leakage from the vesicles containing predominantly cis-stilbene was {approximately}2-fold greater than that from vesicles with the corresponding trans isomer. In electrochemical experiments, viologen-mediated reduction of the DHP-bound trans-azobenzene occurred at E < {minus}0.44 V, with hydrazobenzene reoxidation at E {approx_equal} {minus}0.16 V; addition of viologen radicals to aqueous suspensions of the trans-azobenzene-doped DHP vesicles caused immediate decolorization of the dye.

  19. Crystal Structures of Endotaxic Phases in Europium Potassium Silicate Having a Pellyite Unit Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K., E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Aksenov, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Taroev, V. K. [Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structures of three phases of the synthesized europium potassium silicate were determined by X-ray diffraction. Two of these phases crystallize in a new structural type. The chemical formulas of the phases were determined. The orthorhombic unit-cell parameters of all three phases are equal: a = 14.852(1) A, b = 15.902(1) A, c = 7.243(1) A, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (phase I) and sp. gr. Pbam (phases II and III). The structures were solved by direct methods and refined from X-ray diffraction data collected from one crystal to R = 0.0271, 0.0479, and 0.0582 based on 4370, 3320, and 2498 reflections, respectively, with |F| > 3{sigma}(F). The crystal- chemical formulas of the phases (Z = 4) are K{sub 3}Eu{sub 3+}[Si{sub 6}O{sub 15}] . 2H{sub 2}O, K{sub 3}Eu{sup 3+}[Si{sub 6}O{sub 13}(OH){sub 4}] . 2H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}Eu{sup 3+}[Si{sub 4}O{sub 9.5}(OH)](OH){sub 2}. 5.5H{sub 2}O. The structure of phase I consists of silicon-oxygen sheets [Si{sub 6}O{sub 15}] analogous to those found in the isostructural compound K{sub 3}Nd[Si{sub 6}O{sub 15}] . 2H{sub 2}O. In the structures of phases II and III, the ribbons [Si{sub 6}O{sub 17}] and [Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}] run along the shortest c axis and are linked together by Eu{sup 3+} octahedra and trigonal prisms to form three-dimensional layered and framework structures containing K atoms between the sheets and in the channels. The fragments are also linked through hydrogen bonds with the participation of OH groups and water molecules.

  20. Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitta, Christopher C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

  1. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Alan Edward

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

  2. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  3. Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

  4. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives toCurrent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 2 (2012):J. , Rojo, T. Na-ion Batteries, Recent Advances and Present

  5. The Beta-Neutrino Correlation in Sodium-21 and Other Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Paul A.; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Freedman, Stuart J.; Maruyama, Reina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RIA?INTproc?abetanu THE BETA-NEUTRINO CORRELATION IN SODIUM-electrons shaken off in beta decay. High detection ef?ciencyTOF template spectra for beta decays to 21 Ne + , are shown

  6. Application of the Technology Neutral Framework to Sodium-­Cooled Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C.

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG-1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  7. Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared........................................................................................... 6 Methane (or Natural Gas) as Reducing Agent remained the same since it became commercial in the 1950s and is based on synthetic pathways developed

  8. Ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms : interactions in sodium and lithium gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Caleb A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23 atomic gases were studied near a Feshbach resonance at high magnetic fields. The enhanced interactions between atoms in the presence ...

  9. An Evaluation of the Annular Fuel and Bottle-Shaped Fuel Concepts for Sodium Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew

    Two innovative fuel concepts, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel and the bottle-shaped fuel, were investigated with the goal of increasing the power density and reduce the pressure drop in the sodium-cooled ...

  10. Application of the technology neutral framework to sodium cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C. (Brian Carl)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG- 1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  11. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  12. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

  14. Development of an improved sodium exposure test cell experiment for characterization of AMTEC electrode performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Bradley Nelson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation into sources of inconsistencies in sodium exposure test cell (SETC) measurements, used to characterize AMTEC electrode performance, was conducted. Development of modifications to the SETC setup and operation ...

  15. Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

  16. aerobic nicotinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 189 XYLARIC...

  17. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  18. JOM Volume 63, Number 2 (2011): 48-52 High strain rate compressive response of magnesium-aluminum alloy/fly ash cenosphere composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and sound and vibration damping. Low strength of open and closed-cell foams containing gas porosity distribution in syntactic foams is usually much more uniform compared to the gas filled foams. Presence half of which is dumped in landfills. In the present work, a cast magnesium-aluminum alloy, AZ91D

  19. Electron-Atom Superelastic Scattering in Magnesium at Millielectron Volt Energies T. Baynard, A. C. Reber, R. F. Niedziela,| S. A. Darveau, B. Prutzman,# and R. S. Berry*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Electron-Atom Superelastic Scattering in Magnesium at Millielectron Volt Energies T. Baynard, A. C ReceiVed: July 17, 2007; In Final Form: September 16, 2007 The energy dependence of superelastic electron source to collide with excited atoms. Measurements are made at energies as low as 1.5 me

  20. Transport parameter determination and modeling of sodium and strontium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londergan, John Thomas

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSPORT PARAMETER DETERMINATION AND MODELING OF SODIUM AND STRONTIUM PLUMES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS LONDERGAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Geophysics TRANSPORT PARAMETER DETERMINATION AND MODELING OF SODIUM AND STRONTIUM PLUMES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS LONDERGAN Approved...

  1. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Approved as to style...

  2. The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, Gary Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  3. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  4. An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high pH and temperatures.

  6. A water displacement system for simulating the effects of reduced gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Alvin Winfred

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gang of Five Tanks in Operation. 10. Nitrogen Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 30 31 32 11. Calcium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. . . 33 12. Phosphorus Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine... and Feces 34 13. Magnesium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 35 14. Sodium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces 15. Potassium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 37 16. Urine Output. 38 17. Feces...

  7. Control and diagnosis of temperature, density, and uniformity in x-ray heated iron/magnesium samples for opacity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Loisel, G.; Hansen, S. B.; Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Mancini, R. C. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States)] [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental tests are in progress to evaluate the accuracy of the modeled iron opacity at solar interior conditions, in particular to better constrain the solar abundance problem [S. Basu and H. M. Antia, Phys. Rep. 457, 217 (2008)]. Here, we describe measurements addressing three of the key requirements for reliable opacity experiments: control of sample conditions, independent sample condition diagnostics, and verification of sample condition uniformity. The opacity samples consist of iron/magnesium layers tamped by plastic. By changing the plastic thicknesses, we have controlled the iron plasma conditions to reach (1) T{sub e}?=?167?±?3?eV and n{sub e}?=?(7.1?±?1.5)×?10{sup 21}?cm{sup ?3}, (2) T{sub e}?=?170?±?2?eV and n{sub e}?=?(2.0?±?0.2)?×?10{sup 22}?cm{sup ?3}, and (3) T{sub e}?=?196?±?6?eV and n{sub e}?=?(3.8?±?0.8)?×?10{sup 22}?cm{sup ?3}, which were measured by magnesium tracer K-shell spectroscopy. The opacity sample non-uniformity was directly measured by a separate experiment where Al is mixed into the side of the sample facing the radiation source and Mg into the other side. The iron condition was confirmed to be uniform within their measurement uncertainties by Al and Mg K-shell spectroscopy. The conditions are suitable for testing opacity calculations needed for modeling the solar interior, other stars, and high energy density plasmas.

  8. Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

  9. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  10. New precision mass measurements of neutron-rich calcium and potassium isotopes and three-nucleon forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Gallant; J. C. Bale; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; S. Ettenauer; A. Lennarz; D. Robertson; V. V. Simon; A. Chaudhuri; J. D. Holt; A. A. Kwiatkowski; E. Mané; J. Menéndez; B. E. Schultz; M. C. Simon; C. Andreoiu; P. Delheij; M. R. Pearson; H. Savajols; A. Schwenk; J. Dilling

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present precision Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich calcium and potassium isotopes in the vicinity of neutron number N=32. Using the TITAN system the mass of $^{51}$K was measured for the first time, and the precision of the $^{51,52}$Ca mass values were improved significantly. The new mass values show a dramatic increase of the binding energy compared to those reported in the atomic mass evaluation. In particular, $^{52}$Ca is more bound by 1.74 MeV, and the behavior with neutron number deviates substantially from the tabulated values. An increased binding was predicted recently based on calculations that include three-nucleon (3N) forces. We present a comparison to improved calculations, which agree remarkably with the evolution of masses with neutron number, making neutron-rich calcium isotopes an exciting region to probe 3N forces at neutron-rich extremes.

  11. A novel voltage-gated potassium ion channel gene (Kv5.1): Molecular cloning and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beisel, K.W.; Lofton, N.C.; Kelley, P.M. Jr. [Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage-activated potassium channels comprise a family of genes which play a role in the electrophysiological properties of neurosensory and neuronal tissue. We have recently identified a novel voltage-gated potassium ion channel (designated as Kv5.1) using the both RT-PCR with degenerative oligodeoxynucleotide primers and dideoxy sequence analyses. A full length sequence of the mature transcript was obtained by mRNA walking using gene-specific oligodeoxynucleotide primers. The deduced amino acid sequence suggested that this protein has six hydrophobic membrane spanning regions (S1-S6) and an ion-selective pore (P or H5) located between S5 and S6. This structural motif is found in other members of this gene family. Kv5.1 has an amino acid sequence homology of 55% with the Shab gene, Kv2.1, within the N-terminus and the membrane spanning regions. No sequence homology was found for the C-terminus. Northern analysis using mRNA isolated from a panel of rat tissues demonstrated that a 2.4 kb message was expressed in heart and cochlear tissue. Because of the low sequence homology and the unique tissue distribution, we have tentatively assigned the Kv5.1 gene as a new subfamily. Both the rat and human homologues were sequenced and the nucleotide and amino acid homologies were 88% and 96%, respectively. In the rat, the open reading frame encodes a 540-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 61,781 daltons. Interestingly, the human homologue is truncated by 83 residues in the C-terminus by a stop codon. We have recently isolated a human genomic {lambda} clone which contains the entire human gene and are now determining chromosomal location of Kv5.1 by in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrids.

  12. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

  13. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

  14. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  15. GIF sodium fast reactor project R and D on safety and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasile, A.; Sofu, T.; Jeong, H. Y.; Sakai, T. [CEA DEN Cadarache, DER, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Safety and Operation' project is started in 2009 within the framework of Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) research and development program. In the safety area, the project involves R and D activities on phenomenological model development and experimental programs, conceptual studies in support of the design of safety provisions, preliminary assessment of safety systems, framework and methods for analysis of safety architecture. In the operation area, the project involves R and D activities on fast reactors safety tests and analysis of reactor operations, feedback from decommissioning, in-service inspection technique development, under-sodium viewing and sodium chemistry. This paper presents a summary of such activities and the main achievements. (authors)

  16. Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

  17. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and transcription in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, M. Carmen [Department of Biophysics, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 70-253 Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Section of Environmental Toxicology, CINVESTAV, IPN, Mexico City (Mexico); Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Hiriart, Marcia [Department of Biophysics, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 70-253 Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mhiriart@ifc.unam.mx

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human studies have shown that chronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with a high prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are not well understood, and practically, there is no information available on the effects of arsenic on pancreatic {beta}-cells functions. Thus, since insulin secreted by the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, our aim was to determine if sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and mRNA expression in single adult rat pancreatic {beta}-cells. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 {mu}M sodium arsenite and incubated for 72 and 144 h. The highest dose tested (10 {mu}M) decreased {beta}-cell viability, by 33% and 83%, respectively. Insulin secretion and mRNA expression were evaluated in the presence of 1 and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite. Basal insulin secretion, in 5.6 mM glucose, was not significantly affected by 1 or 5 {mu}M treatment for 72 h, but basal secretion was reduced when cells were exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite for 144 h. On the other hand, insulin secretion in response to 15.6 mM glucose decreased with sodium arsenite in a dose-dependent manner in such a way that cells were no longer able to distinguish between different glucose concentrations. We also showed a significant decrease in insulin mRNA expression of cells exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite during 72 h. Our data suggest that arsenic may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus by impairing pancreatic {beta}-cell functions, particularly insulin synthesis and secretion.

  18. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  19. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  1. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel''. In addition to information concerning the background, purpose and need for the proposed action, and the National Environmental Policy Act process, this summary describes the characteristics of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, the proposed treatment methods, the proposed facilities, the alternatives considered, and the environmental consequences of these alternatives. A glossary is included at the end to assist the reader with some of the technical terms used in this document.

  2. L-sodium lactate in cooked beef top rounds: differing levels of incorporation and cookery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Lori Leigh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Animal Science L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Approved as to style and content by: R. K. Miller (Chair...

  3. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  4. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  5. The growth and chemical composition of soybeans as influenced by varying sulphur applications, varying soluble salts and varying calcium: sodium ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Doyle Burne

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X Ratio 8 . 814 , 0011 . 022 . 016 1 ~ 37 xmgnesium wms held constant. tlxroughout the various ratdosa The decrease in concentx'ation ie largely acoauabcd fox bg the linear component of vaxiance (Table ll) ~ Total uptake of magnesium decreased...

  6. Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Information ABSTRACT: Sodium (Na)-ion batteries offer an attractive option for low cost grid scale storage due to the abundance of Na. Tin (Sn) is touted as a high capacity anode for Na-ion batteries with a high theoretical

  7. Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron distributed in the silicate network and shares corner with silicate tetrahedra. The existence of a majority, such as the increase of the elastic modulus of sodium silicate glasses with increasing Fe-concentration. Our data

  8. F POWER MEASUREMENT FOR GENERATION IV SODIUM FAST R. COULON, S. NORMAND, M. MICHEL, L. BARBOT, T. DOMENECH,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .F-84500 Bollène, France. ABSTRACT The Phénix nuclear power plant has been a French Sodium Fast Reactor the research of power tagging agents. Then, simulation study has been done to evaluate measurability using high20 F POWER MEASUREMENT FOR GENERATION IV SODIUM FAST REACTORS R. COULON, S. NORMAND, M. MICHEL, L

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and technological point of view. For example, it is used as coolant in fast-breeding nuclear reactors, and in heatPHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first on the electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium at 400 K, calculated using density functional theory

  10. Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge iguez,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildirim, Taner

    Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge Íñiguez,1,2 T. Yildirim,1, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA (Received 2 June 2004; published 3 August 2004) We have studied the structure, energetics, and dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate NaAlH4 , focusing on the possibility

  11. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  12. Multipolar plasmon modes of sodium sphere: constrain on the minimal sphere radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multipolar plasmon modes of sodium sphere: constrain on the minimal sphere radius Krystyna Kolwas-668 Warsaw, Poland ABSTRACT We re-examine the usual expectations for multipolar plasmon modes of a simple the complex eigenfrequencies of plasmon modes can be attributed to the sphere of size larger than the minimum

  13. Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart storage system in the near future. Broader context With the rapid development of renewable energy sources

  14. Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Richard

    Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor Chien-Jung Loa,b , Yoshiyuki potential difference. It consists of an 50-nm rotor and up to 10 independent stators anchored to the cell of electrical and chemical potential. All 25 torque­speed curves had the same concave-down shape as fully

  15. determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oertner, Thomas

    determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta et al., 2007; Mathy et al., 2009) and may thereby mediate the direction and speed of learning in Purkinje cells (Mathy, apparently even down to the level of electrical synapses of the infe- rior olive (Lefler et al., 2014; Mathy

  16. indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    indirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES conmpounds yielded spectra that bore little resemblance to the coal spec- trum. For example, simulations

  17. Voltage, stability and diffusion barrier differences between sodium-ion and lithium-ion intercalation materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Voltage, stability and diffusion barrier differences between sodium-ion and lithium-ion-ion systems. Introduction Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries1­4 have become a mainstay of the digital), much research has targeted the development and optimization of lithium-ion batteries, in particular

  18. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Negro, Christopher A.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons and Respiratory excitability, which is inconsistent with a pacemaker-essential mechanism of respiratory rhythmogenesis evaluate here in the mamma- lian respiratory network. The cellular mechanisms that underlie respiratory

  19. Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep P. THIVEND, J.-P. JOUANY Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Four adult sheep had taken place in the rumen bacterial population (table 3). Overall digestive utilization of organic

  20. Hazard categorization and baseline documentation for the Sodium Storage Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1995-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazard Categorization evaluation has been performed in accordance with DOE-STD-1027 for the Sodium Storage Facility at FFTF and a determination of less than Category 3 or non-nuclear has been made. Hazard Baseline Documentation has been performed in accordance with DOE-EM-STD-5502 and a determination of ``Radiological Facility`` has been made.

  1. Development of an improved sodium exposure test cell experiment for characterization of AMTEC electrode performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Bradley Nelson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are attached to each electrode band and tltreaded through electricaHy insulated feedthroughs at the flange, Thermocouples are placed at the hot end of the chamber and in the sodium pool. Figure 4. 'rhe electrode test sample with connecting leads in an SETC...

  2. The sodium tail of the Moon M. Matta a,b,*, S. Smith a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendillo, Michael

    The sodium tail of the Moon M. Matta a,b,*, S. Smith a,1 , J. Baumgardner a,1 , J. Wilson a,1 , C was discovered soon after the 1998 Leonid meteor shower (Smith et al., 1999). On 19 November 1998, an all

  3. Predictors and outcome impact of perioperative serum sodium changes in a high risk population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinck, J.; McNeill, L.; Di Angelantonio, E.; Menon, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Predictors and outcome impact of perioperative serum sodium changes in a high risk population J Klinck 1 L McNeill 1 E Di Angelantonio 2 D Menon 1 1 Division of Perioperative Care, Box 93, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills...

  4. Atomic-Layer-Deposition Oxide Nanoglue for Sodium Ion Batteries Xiaogang Han,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Atomic-Layer-Deposition Oxide Nanoglue for Sodium Ion Batteries Xiaogang Han,, Yang Liu,, Zheng Jia ABSTRACT: Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) coatings have been increasingly used to improve battery performance/discharging. Battery tests in coin-cells further showed the ALD-Al2O3 coating remarkably boosts the cycling performance

  5. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

  6. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR-Award 0654118 Ion Cyclotron Resonance User Program Solid deposits and emulsions from crude oil can that contain carbons, hydrogens, and two oxygen atoms. #12;A major problem in oil production, both

  7. Equilibrium diagrams at 27 [degree]C of the water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dantas Neto, A.A.; Castro Dantas, T.N. de; Duarte, M.M.L.; Avelino, S. (Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amines are usually used in extracting tungsten from scheelite. Dodecylamine chloride in kerosene and octanol was used as an extracting agent in order to establish the phase diagram at 27C for water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride. Acetone was used to prevent emulsion formation. This procedure made it possible to achieve better partition coefficients; however, there appears to be a saturation region.

  8. Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamp, Tim

    Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure model and from failing human heart Carmen R. Valdivia, William W. Chu, Jielin Pu 1 , Jason D. Foell, Robert A December 2004 Abstract Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels in heart failure causes action

  9. Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspari, Mike

    Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest Michael- composition of pure cellulose by up to 50%, compared with stream water alone. These effects emerged after 134). We provide experimental evidence that Na shortage slows the carbon cycle. Because 80% of global

  10. ALZHEIMER'S AMYLOID-BETA PEPTIDE INHIBITS SODIUM/CALCIUM EXCHANGE MEASURED IN RAT AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALZHEIMER'S AMYLOID-BETA PEPTIDE INHIBITS SODIUM/CALCIUM EXCHANGE MEASURED IN RAT AND HUMAN BRAIN-beta1­40 (A 1­40) and A 25­35 reduced vesicular Ca2+ content. Both peptides produced a maximal reduction in Ca2+ content of approximately 50%. The peptides reduced Ca2+ content with similar potency and half

  11. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  12. Effects of amounts and types of sodium bicarbonate in wheat flour tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza Casso, Jessica Beatriz

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    with slower acting acids (van Wazer 1961). Fast acting acids are used as a leavener themselves (Le Baw 1982). 11 The chemical reactions of leavening acids that will be used in this study are as follows: 1) Sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), NaAl (SO 4 ) 2...

  13. Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

  14. CARACTRISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES TTRABENZOYLACTONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    415 CARACTÉRISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES TÉTRABENZOYLACÉTONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM des ions d'europium, terbium ou lanthane. On étudie les différentes transitions moléculaires et caractéristiques du chélate d'europium qui a donné l'effet laser. Abstract. 2014 A four-ligand rare-earth chelate

  15. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  16. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  17. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. DOE has identified electrometallurgical treatment as its Preferred Alternative for the treatment and management of all sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, except for the Fermi-1 blanket fuel. The No Action Alternative is preferred for the Fermi-1 blanket spent nuclear fuel.

  18. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc welded with a cadmium chloride flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.D. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, L.M. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn; Shen, Y.; Wang, L. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds were prepared on 5-mm thick plates of wrought magnesium AZ31B alloy, using an activated flux. The microstructural characteristics of the weld joint were investigated using optical and scanning microscopy, and the fusion zone microstructure was compared with that of the base metal. The elemental distribution was also investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests on small-scale specimens. The as-welded fusion zone prepared using a CdCl{sub 2} flux exhibited a larger grain size than that prepared without flux; the microstructure consisted of matrix {alpha}-Mg, eutectic {alpha}-Mg and {beta}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}. The HAZ was observed to be slightly wider for the weld prepared with a CdCl{sub 2} flux compared to that prepared without flux; thus the tensile strength was lower for the flux-prepared weld. The fact that neither Cd nor Cl was detected in the weld seam by EPMA indicates that the CdCl{sub 2} flux has a small effect on convection in the weld pool.

  19. Abnormal distribution of microhardness in tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Nan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen Jun, E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xie Weidong; Wang Linzhi; Wang Dan; Min Dong [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the effects of heat input on the distribution of microhardness of tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welded hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were investigated. The results show that with an increase of heat input, the distributions of microhardness at the top and bottom of the welded joints are different because they are determined by both the effect of grain coarsening and the effect of dispersion strengthening. With an increase of the heat input, the microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the top and bottom of welded joints and the fusion zone (FZ) at the bottom of welded joints decreased gradually, while the microhardness of the FZ at the top of welded joints decreased initially and then increased sharply. The reason for the abnormal distribution of microhardness of the FZ at the top of the welded joints is that this area is close to the heat source during welding and then large numbers of hard {beta}-Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12} particles are precipitated. Hence, in this case, the effect of dispersion strengthening dominated the microhardness.

  20. Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.