National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for magnesium aluminum silicon

  1. DEGRADATION OF SM2ZR2O7 THERMAL BARRIER COATING CAUSED BY CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON OXIDE (CMAS) DEPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Honglong; Sheng, Zhizhi; Tarwater, Emily; Zhang, Xingxing; Dasgupta, Sudip; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2015-03-16

    Rare earth zirconates are promising materials for use as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engines. Among the lanthanide zirconate materials, Sm2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure has lower thermal conductivity and better corrosion resistance against calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicon oxide (CMAS). In this work, after reaction with CMAS, the pyrochlore structure transforms to the cubic fluorite structure and Ca2Sm8(SiO4)6O2 forms in elongated grain.

  2. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  3. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  4. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  5. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Presentation given ...

  6. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  7. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  8. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC andmore » under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.« less

  9. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC and under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.

  10. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [GM China Lab] [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  11. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  12. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David T.; Troup, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

  13. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

  14. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Silicon Solar Cells with Front Hetero-Contact and Aluminum Alloy Back Junction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.-C.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.; Branz, H. M.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    We prototype an alternative n-type monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell structure that utilizes an n/i-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) front hetero-contact and a back p-n junction formed by alloying aluminum (Al) with the n-type Si wafer.

  16. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  17. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  18. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  19. Method of making highly porous, stable aluminum oxides doped with silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khosravi-Mardkhe, Maryam; Woodfield, Brian F.; Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Huang, Baiyu

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to a method for making high surface area and large pore volume thermally stable silica-doped alumina (aluminum oxide) catalyst support and ceramic materials. The ability of the silica-alumina to withstand high temperatures in presence or absence of water and prevent sintering allows it to maintain good activity over a long period of time in catalytic reactions. The method of preparing such materials includes adding organic silicon reagents to an organic aluminum salt such as an alkoxide in a controlled quantity as a doping agent in a solid state, solvent deficient reaction followed by calcination. Alternatively, the organic silicon compound may be added after calcination of the alumina, followed by another calcination step. This method is inexpensive and simple. The alumina catalyst support material prepared by the subject method maintains high pore volumes, pore diameters and surface areas at very high temperatures and in the presence of steam.

  20. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_powell.pdf More Documents & Publications Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals - Cast FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals-Cast

  1. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  2. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  3. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  4. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1999) | Department of Energy Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) PDF icon autoroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: US DRIVE Materials Technical Team Roadmap Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications Enabling Production of Lightweight Magnesium Parts for Near-Term Automotive Applications ITP Aluminum:

  5. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  6. Phosphorus and aluminum gettering - investigation of synergistic effects in single-crystal and multicrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, W.K.; Gee, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Synergistic effects from simultaneous phosphorus-diffusion/aluminium alloy gettering are investigated in three different crystalline- silicon substrates. The silicon materials, experimental design, characterization, and analysis are presented. Some evidence for synergism is observed in the finished cells on all three substrates types. These results are combined with complementary observations of the effects of oxidation on bulk properties of previously gettered substrates to suggest a high volume, low cost, process implementation which could give up to 9% relative increase in efficiency.

  7. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  8. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While ...

  9. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  10. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  11. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  12. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  13. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  14. Thermodynamics of copper-nickel alloys containing aluminum, silicon, titanium, and chromium relative to their use in ceramic brazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.O.

    1984-11-01

    By varying the copper-to-nickel ratio the activity coefficients of Al, Si, Ti, and Cr can be varied over a wide range. Thus to a degree one can tailor the behavior of such alloys for usefulness in brazing ceramics. Further, considerable amounts of these active elements can be present while the ability of carbon to reduce the surface oxide film in a high-vacuum system is retained. The critical aluminum concentrations required to prevent the formation of SiO/sub 2/, TiO, or Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by reaction with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are calculated. The simultaneous presence of the four active additions will presumably promote wetting without making the surface deoxidation more difficult.

  15. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  16. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  17. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alumvision.pdf More ...

  18. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  19. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Alexander F. (Cambridge, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  20. Aluminum for bonding Si-Ge alloys to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggemann, Robert V.

    1976-01-13

    Improved thermoelectric device and process, comprising the high-temperature, vacuum bonding of a graphite contact and silicon-germanium thermoelectric element by the use of a low void, aluminum, metallurgical shim with low electrical resistance sandwiched therebetween.

  1. Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

  2. Method to decrease loss of aluminum and magnesium melts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Calaway, Jr., Wallis F. (Woodridge, IL); Moore, Jerry F. (Naperville, IL); Krumdick, Gregory K. (Crete, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method to minimize oxidation of metal during melting processes is provided, the method comprising placing solid phase metal into a furnace environ-ment, transforming the solid-phase metal into molten metal phase having a molten metal surface, and creating a barrier between the surface and the environment. Also provided is a method for isolating the surface of molten metal from its environment, the method comprising confining the molten metal to a controlled atmos-phere, and imposing a floating substrate between the surface and the atmosphere.

  3. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  4. Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Aluminum U.S. aluminum producers recognize that energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. The aluminum industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources that can help to increase energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production,

  5. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    16_quinn.pdf More Documents & Publications Magnesium Front End Development (AMD 603/604/904) Magnesium Front End Development (AMD 603/604/904) Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604

  6. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) PDF icon autoroadmap.pdf More Documents ...

  7. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  8. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  9. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap PDF icon al_roadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) Overview of Recycling Technology R&D

  10. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  11. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  12. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  13. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  14. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  15. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  16. Composition, process, and apparatus, for removal of water and silicon mu-oxides from chlorosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.

    1991-10-15

    A scavenger composition having utility for removal of water and silicon mu-oxide impurities from chlorosilanes, such scavenger composition comprising: (a) a support; and (b) associated with the support, one or more compound(s) selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula: R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x wherein: M is a metal selected from the group consisting of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, and potassium; the divalent metals magnesium, strontium, barium, and calcium; and the trivalent metal aluminum; R is alkyl; a is a number equal to the valency of metal M; and x is a number having a value from 0 to a, inclusive; and wherein said compound(s) of the formula R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x have been activated for impurity-removal service by a reaction scheme selected from those of the group consisting of: (i) reaction of such compound(s) with hydrogen chloride to form a first reaction product therefrom, followed by reaction of the first reaction product with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4"y Cl.sub.y, wherein y is a number having a value of from 1 to 3, inclusive; and (ii) reaction of such compound(s) with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y wherein y is a number having a value of 1 to 3, inclusive. A corresponding method of making the scavenger composition, and of purifying a chlorosilane which contains oxygen and silicon mu-oxide impurities, likewise are disclosed, together with a purifier apparatus, in which a bed of the scavenger composition is disposed. The composition, purification process, and purifier apparatus of the invention have utility in purifying gaseous chlorosilanes which are employed in the semiconductor industry as silicon source reagents for forming epitaxial silicon layers.

  17. Process for removal of water and silicon mu-oxides from chlorosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.

    1992-03-10

    A scavenger composition having utility for removal of water and silicon mu-oxide impurities from chlorosilanes, such scavenger composition comprising: (a) a support; and (b) associated with the support, one or more compound(s) selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula: R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x wherein: M is a metal selected from the group consisting of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, and potassium; the divalent metals magnesium, strontium, barium, and calcium; and the trivalent metal aluminum; R is alkyl; a is a number equal to the valency of metal M; and x is a number having a value of from 0 to a, inclusive; and wherein said compound(s) of the formula R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x have been activated for impurity-removal service by a reaction scheme selected from those of the group consisting of: (i) reaction of such compound(s) with hydrogen chloride to form a first reaction product therefrom, followed by reaction of the first reaction product with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y, wherein y is a number having a value of from 1 to 3, inclusive; and (ii) reaction of such compound(s) with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y wherein y is a number having a value of 1 to 3, inclusive. A corresponding method of making the scavenger composition, and of purifying a chlorosilane which contains oxygen and silicon mu-oxide impurities, likewise are disclosed, together with a purifier apparatus, in which a bed of the scavenger composition is disposed. The composition, purification process, and purifier apparatus of the invention have utility in purifying gaseous chlorosilanes which are employed in the semiconductor industry as silicon source reagents for forming epitaxial silicon layers.

  18. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World | Department of Energy Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alum_vision.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production

  19. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  20. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  1. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  2. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  3. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  4. The influence of aluminum grain size on alumina nanoporous structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, A. F.; Costa, M. V. da; Amaral, L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Migowski, P.; Dupont, J.; Machado, G.; Peripolli, S. B.

    2010-01-15

    An approach to control the interpore distances and nanopore diameters of 150-nm-thick thin aluminum films is reported here. The Al thin films were grown by sputtering on p-type silicon substrate and anodized with a conventional anodization process in a phosphoric acid solution. It was found that interpore distance and pore diameter are related to the aluminum grain size and can be controlled by annealing. The grain contours limit the sizes of alumina cells. This mechanism is valid for grain sizes supporting only one alumina cell and consequently only one pore.

  5. CMI Affiliates | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INFINIUM has demonstrated its process across a broad range of metals, including magnesium, titanium, tantalum, dysprosium, neodymium, solar-grade silicon and aluminum, enabling ...

  6. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  7. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  8. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  9. Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-04-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopyenergy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

  10. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  11. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  12. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for...

  13. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Authors: Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Zhu, Qiang ; ...

  14. New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Beyond ... Technology Marketing Summary Magnesium ion batteries present a viable alternative to ...

  15. Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of Al{sub 7}C{sub 3}N{sub 3}-homeotypic aluminum silicon oxycarbonitride, (Al{sub 7-x}Si{sub x})(O{sub y}C{sub z}N{sub 6-y-z}) (x{approx}1.2, y{approx}1.0 and z{approx}3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urushihara, Daisuke; Kaga, Motoaki; Asaka, Toru; Nakano, Hiromi; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2011-08-15

    A new aluminum silicon oxycarbonitride, (Al{sub 5.8}Si{sub 1.2})(O{sub 1.0}C{sub 3.5}N{sub 1.5}), has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc and unit-cell dimensions a=0.322508(4) nm, c=3.17193(4) nm and V=0.285717(6) nm{sup 3}. The atom ratios of Al:Si and those of O:C:N were, respectively, determined by EDX and EELS. The initial structural model was successfully derived from the XRPD data by the direct methods and further refined by the Rietveld method. The crystal is most probably composed of four types of domains with nearly the same fraction, each of which is isotypic to Al{sub 7}C{sub 3}N{sub 3} with space group P6{sub 3}mc. The existence of another new oxycarbonitride (Al{sub 6.6}Si{sub 1.4})(O{sub 0.7}C{sub 4.3}N{sub 2.0}), which must be homeotypic to Al{sub 8}C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, has been also demonstrated by XRPD and TEM. - Graphical abstract: A new oxycarbonitride discovered in the Al-Si-O-C-N system, (Al{sub 7-x}Si{sub x})(O{sub y}C{sub z}N{sub 6-y-z}) (x{approx}1.2, y{approx}1.0 and z{approx}3.5). The crystal is composed of four types of domains (I, II, III and IV), and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. Individual crystal structures can be regarded as layered structures, which consist of A-type [(Al, Si){sub 4}(O, C, N){sub 4}] unit layers and B-type [(Al, Si)(O, C, N){sub 2}] single layers. Highlights: > (Al{sub 5.8}Si{sub 1.2})(O{sub 1.0}C{sub 3.5}N{sub 1.5}) as a new aluminum silicon oxycarbonitride. > Crystal structure is determined and represented by a split-atom model. > Existence of another new oxycarbonitride (Al{sub 6.6}Si{sub 1.4})(O{sub 0.7}C{sub 4.3}N{sub 2.0}) is demonstrated. > Both new materials are formed by oxidation and nitridation of (Al, Si){sub 6}(O, C){sub 5}.

  18. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  19. SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

  20. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  1. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  2. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  3. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  4. Aluminum processing energy benchmark report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-02-01

    Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58 percent decrease in energy utilization.

  5. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a chemical reaction - is a primary function in determining nanoaluminum combustion burn rates. "It's been long understood that nanoscale aluminum particles, 110 nanometers and...

  6. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  7. ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry | Department of Energy ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry PDF icon aluminum.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies TTWG Licensing Guide EIS-0333: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of Al{sub 4}Si{sub 2}C{sub 5}-homeotypic aluminum silicon oxycarbide, (Al{sub 6-x}Si{sub x})(O{sub y}C{sub 5-y}) (x{approx}0.8 and y{approx}1.6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaga, Motoaki; Urushihara, Daisuke; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Sugiura, Keita [Department of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nakano, Hiromi [Cooperative Research Facility Center, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Fukuda, Koichiro, E-mail: fukuda.koichiro@nitech.ac.j [Department of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    We have prepared a new layered oxycarbide, [Al{sub 5.25(5)}Si{sub 0.75(5)}][O{sub 1.60(7)}C{sub 3.40(7)}], by isothermal heating of (Al{sub 4.4}Si{sub 0.6})(O{sub 1.0}C{sub 3.0}) at 2273 K near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer. The crystal structure was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The title compound is trigonal with space group R3m (centrosymmetric), Z=3, and hexagonal cell dimensions a=0.32464(2) nm, c=4.00527(14) nm and V=0.36556(3) nm{sup 3}. The atom ratios Al:Si were determined by EDX, and the initial structural model was derived by the direct methods. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three types of Al/Si sites. The reliability indices were R{sub wp}=4.45% (S=1.30), R{sub p}=3.48%, R{sub B}=2.27% and R{sub F}=1.25%. The crystal is composed of three types of domains with nearly the same fraction, one of which has the crystal structure of space group R3-bar m. The crystal structure of the remaining two domains, which are related by pseudo-symmetry inversion, is noncentrosymmetric with space group R3m. - Graphical Abstract: A new aluminum silicon oxycarbide, (Al{sub 6-x}Si{sub x})(O{sub y}C{sub 5-y}) (x{approx}0.8 and y{approx}1.6). The crystal is composed of three types of domains (I, II and III), and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. Individual crystal structures can be regarded as layered structures, which consist of A-type [(Al,Si){sub 4}(O,C){sub 4}] unit layers and B-type [(Al,Si)(O,C){sub 2}] single layers.

  9. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  10. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  11. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  12. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  13. Manufacturing of SiCp Reinforced Magnesium Composite Tubes by Hot Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw [National Sun Yat-Sen University-Department of Mechanical and Electro-mechanical Engineering, No.70, Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Song-Jeng; Huang, Yu-San [National Chung Cheng University-Department of Mechanical Engineering, 168 University Rd. Ming-Hsiung, ChiaYi, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-04

    Magnesium alloys have higher specific strength compared with other metals, such as aluminum, copper and steel. Nevertheless, their ductility is still not good for further metal forming and their strength is not large enough for real structure applications. The aim of this paper is to develop magnesium alloy composite tubes reinforced with SiC particulates by the stir-casting method and hot extrusion processes. At first, AZ61/SiCp composite ingots reinforced with 5 wt% SiC particulates are fabricated by the melt-stirring technique. Then, finite element simulations are conducted to analyze the plastic flow of magnesium alloy AZ61 within the die and the temperature distribution of the products. AZ61/SiCp composite tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion using a specially designed die-set for obtaining uniform thickness distribution tubes. Finally, the mechanical properties of the reinforced AZ61/SiCp composite and Mg alloy AZ61 tubes are compared with those of the billets to manifest the advantages of extrusion processes and reinforcement of SiC particulates. The microstructures of the billet and extruded tubes are also observed. Through the improvement of the strength of the tube product, its life cycle can be extended and the energy consumption can be reduced, and eventually the environmental sustainability is achieved.

  14. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Authors: ...

  15. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ... Title: Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ...

  16. Surface modification of silicon nitride powder with aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.R.; Lim, C.S.; Hong, M.J.; Choi, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Surface modification of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with alumina was tried. It was achieved by simply mixing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with an alumina sol up to {approximately}2 wt% as alumina in an aqueous medium, dried, and followed by calcination at 400 C for 1 h. A TEM micrograph showed a coating layer of {approximately} 15 nm thickness. The isoelectric point of the modified Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with porous alumina was at 0H 7.8, which is different from 5.8 and 8.6 for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and amorphous alumina, respectively.

  17. Devices capable of removing silicon and aluminum from gaseous atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spengler, Charles J.; Singh, Prabhakar

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical device is made of a containment vessel (30) optional ceramic material within the containment vessel and including one or more electrochemical cells (10), the cells containing a porous exposed electrode (11) in contact with a solid electrolyte, where at least one of the exposed electrode, the containment vessel, and the optional ceramic material contains a deposit selected from metal oxide and metal salt capable of forming a metal oxide upon heating, where the metal is selected from the group consisting of Ce, Sm, Mg, Be, Ca, Sr, Ti, Zr, Hf, Y, La, Pr, Nb, Pm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U, and their mixtures.

  18. Oxide Film and Porosity Defects in Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rhee, Hongjoo [Mississippi State University (MSU); Felicelli, Sergio D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Berry, John T. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation in magnesium alloy AZ91. Microstructure analysis was performed on several samples obtained from gravity-poured ingots in graphite plate molds. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. Tensile tests and conventional four point bend tests were also conducted on specimens cut from the cast plates. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure on the fracture surface of the specimens. The results of this study revealed the existence of abundant oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. Remnants of oxide films were detected on some pore surfaces, and folded oxides were observed in fracture surfaces indicating the presence of double oxides entrained during pouring.

  19. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  20. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  1. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, M.; Kaun, T.

    1984-01-20

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical c

  2. Magnesium Front End Design and Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm_21_quinn.pdf More Documents & Publications Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604 Magnesium Front End Development (AMD 603/604/904) Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604

  3. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  4. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  5. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  6. Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.

    1984-12-10

    A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

  7. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  8. Liquid-phase-deposited siloxane-based capping layers for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith-Wolf, Boris; Wang, Jianhui; Hannu-Kuure, Milja; Chen, Ning; Hadzic, Admir; Williams, Paul; Leivo, Jarkko; Karkkainen, Ari; Schmidt, Jan

    2015-02-02

    We apply non-vacuum processing to deposit dielectric capping layers on top of ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) films, used for the rear surface passivation of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. We examine various siloxane-based liquid-phase-deposited (LPD) materials. Our optimized AlO{sub x}/LPD stacks show an excellent thermal and chemical stability against aluminum metal paste, as demonstrated by measured surface recombination velocities below 10 cm/s on 1.3 Ωcm p-type silicon wafers after firing in a belt-line furnace with screen-printed aluminum paste on top. Implementation of the optimized LPD layers into an industrial-type screen-printing solar cell process results in energy conversion efficiencies of up to 19.8% on p-type Czochralski silicon.

  9. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chen, Zhizhang; Doshi, Parag

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  10. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, I.A.

    2005-12-01

    In the first phase of our study, we focused on the use of simple organics to raise the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in high alkaline aqueous solvents. In a limited survey of common organic acids, we determined that citric acid had the highest potential to achieve our goal. However, our subsequent investigation revealed that the citric acid appeared to play two roles in the solutions: first, raising the concentration of aluminum in highly alkaline solutions by breaking up or inhibiting ''seed'' polycations and thereby delaying the nucleation and growth of particles; and second, stabilizing nanometer-sized particles in suspension when nucleation did occur. The results of this work were recently published in Langmuir: D.M. Dabbs, U. Ramachandran, S. Lu, J. Liu, L.-Q. Wang, I.A. Aksay, ''Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid'' Langmuir, 21, 11690-11695 (2005). The second phase of our work involved the solvation of silicon, again in solutions of high alkalinity. Citric acid, due to its unfavorable pKa values, was not expected to be useful with silicon-containing solutions. Here, the use of polyols was determined to be effective in maintaining silicon-containing particles under high pH conditions but at smaller size with respect to standard suspensions of silicon-containing particles. There were a number of difficulties working with highly alkaline silicon-containing solutions, particularly in solutions at or near the saturation limit. Small deviations in pH resulted in particle formation or dissolution in the absence of the organic agents. One of the more significant observations was that the polyols appeared to stabilize small particles of silicon oxyhydroxides across a wider range of pH, albeit this was difficult to quantify due to the instability of the solutions.

  11. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications Enabling Production of Lightweight Magnesium Parts for Near-Term Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications Enabling Production of Lightweight Magnesium Parts for Near-Term Automotive Applications

  12. Aluminum industry applications for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.S.; Leshaw, D.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Sprouse, A.M.; Thiagarajan, V.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the program is to study the integration issues which must be resolved to realize the market potential of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power for the aluminum industry. The study established, as a baseline, an OTEC plant with an electrical output of 100 MWe which would power an aluminum reduction plant. The reduction plant would have a nominal annual output of about 60,000 metric tons of aluminum metal. Three modes of operation were studied, viz: 1. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant moored offshore supplying energy by cable. 2. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant at sea supplying energy by means of an ''energy bridge.'' 3. A floating reduction plant on the same platform as the OTEC power plant. For the floating OTEC/aluminum plantship, three reduction processes were examined. 1. The conventional Hall process with prebaked anodes. 2. The drained cathode Hall cell process. 3. The aluminum chloride reduction process.

  13. Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-02-01

    The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.

  14. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  15. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  16. Transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.

    1984-11-29

    A transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes a thin layer of metal, such as aluminum or other low work function metal, coated on the amorphous silicon with an antireflective layer coated on the metal. A transparent substrate, such as glass, is positioned on the light reflective layer. The metallic layer is preferably thin enough to transmit at least 50% of light incident thereon, yet thick enough to conduct electricity. The antireflection layer is preferably a transparent material that has a refractive index in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 and is approximately 550A to 600A thick.

  17. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  18. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  19. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  20. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Charles D.; Bergum, John W.

    1994-01-01

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  1. Purified silicon production system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  2. Red-emitting manganese-doped aluminum nitride phosphor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Harvey, Nicholas M.; Aberg, Daniel; Seeley, Zachary M.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Tran, Ich C.; Zhou, Fei; Martinez, H. Paul; Demeyer, Jessica M.; et al

    2016-02-10

    Here, we report high efficiency luminescence with a manganese-doped aluminum nitride red-emitting phosphor under 254 nm excitation, as well as its excellent lumen maintenance in fluorescent lamp conditions, making it a candidate replacement for the widely deployed europium-doped yttria red phosphor. Solid-state reaction of aluminum nitride powders with manganese metal at 1900 °C, 10 atm N2 in a reducing environment results in nitrogen deficiency, as revealed diffuse reflectance spectra. When these powders are subsequently annealed in flowing nitrogen at 1650 °C, higher nitrogen content is recovered, resulting in white powders. Silicon was added to samples as an oxygen getter tomore » improve emission efficiency. NEXAFS spectra and DFT calculations indicate that the Mn dopant is divalent. From DFT calculations, the UV absorption band is proposed to be due to an aluminum vacancy coupled with oxygen impurity dopants, and Mn2+ is assumed to be closely associated with this site. In contrast with some previous reports, we find that the highest quantum efficiency with 254 nm excitation (Q.E. = 0.86 ± 0.14) is obtained in aluminum nitride with a low manganese doping level of 0.06 mol.%. The principal Mn2+ decay of 1.25 ms is assigned to non-interacting Mn sites, while additional components in the microsecond range appear with higher Mn doping, consistent with Mn clustering and resultant exchange coupling. Slower components are present in samples with low Mn doping, as well as strong afterglow, assigned to trapping on shallow traps followed by detrapping and subsequent trapping on Mn.« less

  3. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  4. Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

    2006-08-25

    Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

  5. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap PDF icon alumina.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

  6. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnable, George L.; Wu, Chung P.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  7. MAGNESIUM-BASED METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND DEVICES - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Abstract: An aspect of the present invention is an electrical device, where the device includes a current collector and a porous...

  8. Shear Rolling of Magnesium Sheet for Automotive, Defense, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear Rolling of Magnesium Sheet for Automotive, Defense, and Energy Applications Citation ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  9. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m ... SEDIMENTS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SURFACE WATERS; WATER brine; dust; magnesium chloride; ...

  10. Shear Rolling of Magnesium Sheet for Automotive, Defense, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Shear Rolling of Magnesium Sheet for Automotive, Defense, and Energy Applications Authors: Muralidharan, Govindarajan 1 ; Muth, Thomas R 1 ; Peter, William H 1 ; ...

  11. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  12. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Doshi, Parag; Tate, John Keith; Mejia, Jose; Chen, Zhizhang

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  13. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  14. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  15. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  16. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  17. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  18. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  19. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  20. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore » (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.« less

  1. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  2. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  3. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwam, David

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

  4. Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings Innovative Material Saves Energy and Extends Product Life In Aluminum Die-Casting Components In aluminum die-casting, molten aluminum is forced under high pressure into a die cavity. First a "shot" of molten aluminum is ladled into a shot sleeve and the shot of molten aluminum is forced by a plunger through the shot sleeve

  5. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  6. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  7. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  8. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  9. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement MECS 2006 - Glass

  10. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells PDF icon ultrahi-eff_aluminum.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production WA_98_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap

  11. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  12. Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » News & Publications » NERSC News » Science News » Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? After running simulations at NERSC researchers believe it's possible May 2, 2016 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, 510.495.2402 Graphical Abstract AlN Sci Rep no logo cropped This graphic illustrates an engineered nitrogen vacancy in aluminum nitride. Quantum computers have the potential to break common cryptography techniques, search huge datasets and

  13. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  14. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced structural color generation in ...

  15. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  16. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  17. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions...

  18. Silicon micro-mold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  19. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  20. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the

  1. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-12-10

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

  2. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert A.; Seager, Carleton H.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face 15 (patterned silicon plate's surface) and the silicon wafer 17 it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands 19 that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face 15. The islands 19 may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face 15 and wafer 17 contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands 19 are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face 15, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands 19, together with at least one hole 12 bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas.

  3. ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inert Anodes Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap PDF icon inertroad.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells

  4. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  5. SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storchhelm, S.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

  6. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  7. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations (April 2006) More Documents & Publications Metal and ...

  8. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific ...

  9. Composite-Reinforced Aluminum Conductor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    annealed trapezoidal-shaped conductive aluminum wires. Compared with a conventional steel core cable, the new core allows for up to 28% more conductive aluminum to be wrapped...

  10. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  11. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  12. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  13. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits, and Current Practices. PDF icon U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production (February 2007) More Documents & Publications Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World

  14. Improved Magnesium Molding Process (Thixomolding) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Magnesium Molding Process (Thixomolding) Improved Magnesium Molding Process (Thixomolding) Improved Die Casting Process Substantially Reduces Energy, Waste, and Operating Costs Traditionally, die-cast molding results in product yields of 50% and creates waste - scrap, slag, and dross. The Thixomolding process, developed and demonstrated by Thixomat, Inc., with the help of a NICE3 grant, improves product yields to 90% while eliminating waste and loss of product to melting. The process is

  15. Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2004-08-17

    A new method for combining magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate to form an inexpensive compactible ceramic to stabilize very low solubility metal oxides, ashes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast, and to reinforce and strengthen the ceramics formed by the addition of fibers to the initial ceramic mixture.

  16. Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 18, 2015, Research Highlights Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode Powder diffraction of oxyfluoridecathode with intercalated Mg and capacities of oxyfluorideand oxide cathodes Scientific Achievement Magnesium was reversibly intercalated at room temperature into an oxyfluoride cathode without the co-intercalation of electrolytes or protons and without the formation of unwanted side-products that commonly plague oxide

  17. Interface-Induced Renormalization of Electrolyte Energy Levels in Magnesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 17, 2016, Research Highlights Interface-Induced Renormalization of Electrolyte Energy Levels in Magnesium Batteries Renormalization of solvent HOMO (green lines) and LUMO (red lines) levels due to interactions with Mg (0001) and MgO (001). The shaded region in the center of the figure represents the electrochemical window of a hypothetical 4V magnesium battery Scientific Achievement Interface-induced changes to the stability of

  18. BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear

  19. Silicone-containing composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  20. Method for producing silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-07-23

    Silicon carbide/silicon nitride composites are prepared by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and optionally crsytalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen.

  1. Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kova?evi?, Goran Pivac, Branko

    2014-01-28

    The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

  2. Antifuse with a single silicon-rich silicon nitride insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habermehl, Scott D.; Apodaca, Roger T.

    2013-01-22

    An antifuse is disclosed which has an electrically-insulating region sandwiched between two electrodes. The electrically-insulating region has a single layer of a non-hydrogenated silicon-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) silicon nitride SiN.sub.X with a nitrogen content X which is generally in the range of 0aluminum and silicon. Arrays of antifuses can also be formed.

  3. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-10-27

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  4. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Cedar, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-11-05

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  5. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert E.; Downie, Craig M.; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George H.; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Eaglesham, David

    2016-01-19

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  6. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride – Technology and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckel, C. Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-21

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33}.

  7. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  8. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  9. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  11. A scanning Kelvin probe analysis of aluminum and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, D.C.; Grecsek, G.E.; Roberts, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    A scanning Kelvin probe was used to determine a correlation between work function measurements in air and corrosion potential measurements in solution of pure metals. Test panels of AA2024-T3 treated with various surface preparations and primer/coatings were also analyzed using this technique. Filiform corrosion was observed on a scribed panel that had been exposed to a humid environment, whereas on a non-scribed and non-exposed test panel, holidays in the coating were observed and clearly defined. Work function (wf) analysis yielded more noble values for areas within the scribe mark and more active values were observed for areas adjacent to the scribe mark where delamination of the coating and filiform corrosion was observed. The tips of corrosion filaments were found to be anodic in relation to the body of the filament, with areas of activity extending away from the filaments themselves. Measurements made on an aircraft access panel resulted in the detection of a potential gradient within the repair area. These results indicate that the scanning Kelvin probe is a useful non-destructive technique for the detection of delamination and disbanding of coatings, coating anomalies and corrosion susceptibility of coatings on aluminum aircraft alloys.

  12. The Unexpected Discovery of the Mg(HMDS)2/MgCl2 Complex as a Magnesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 2, 2015, Research Highlights The Unexpected Discovery of the Mg(HMDS)2/MgCl2 Complex as a Magnesium Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries NMR confirms formation of new species Scientific Achievement A simple mixture of magnesium compounds: magnesium hexamethyldisilazide (Mg(HMDS)2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was prepared to achieve reversible Mg deposition/dissolution, a wide

  13. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  15. Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

    1988-10-20

    Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

  16. Tangshan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Tangshan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Tangshan, Hebei Province, China Product: Chinese silicon producer developing a 1000t silicon plant in Tangshan, Hebei Province. It has...

  17. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, ... To create an electric field within a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell, two ...

  18. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45, -45, and ...

  19. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pump utilizing porous silicon Title: Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region ...

  20. Longi Silicon Materials Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longi Silicon Materials Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longi Silicon Materials Corp Place: Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China Zip: 710065 Product: A monocrystalline silicon...

  1. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  2. The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  3. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) Manufacturing

  4. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products Portal

    Electricity

  5. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  6. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  7. Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures and High Temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium ...

  8. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  9. A Lewis Acid-free and Phenolate-based Magnesium Electrolyte for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research March 2, 2015, Research Highlights A Lewis Acid-free and Phenolate-based Magnesium Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries X-ray single crystal isolated from the electrolyte containing the prototype [Mg2Cl3(THF)6]+ cation Scientific Achievement A novel Lewis acid-free all magnesium electrolyte containing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenoxidemagnesium chloride ((DTBP)MgCl + MgCl2) has been deliberately developed. The

  10. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A. [Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted primarily of radioactive wastes containing a very high aluminum concentration. Based on initial laboratory testing and previous sludge characterization, aluminum in this sludge could be dissolved at low temperature (no more than 65 deg. C) in a concentrated caustic solution. The amount of aluminum predicted to dissolve under these conditions ranged from 25% to 80%. An opportunity existed to remove a significant amount of aluminum prior to vitrification in DWPF and increase the level of understanding of the effects of caustic dissolution of aluminum at lower temperatures. This paper presents the results of a real waste laboratory demonstration and full-scale implementation of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process which should be considered as a viable means to reduce radioactive sludge mass and reduce the amount of waste to be vitrified. (authors)

  11. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  12. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  13. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1986-01-01

    Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

  14. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide ...

  15. Fluoroethylene carbonate and %22silicon oxide%22 on silicon anodes:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    modeling SEI reaction mechanisms. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Fluoroethylene carbonate and %22silicon oxide%22 on silicon anodes: modeling SEI reaction mechanisms. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluoroethylene carbonate and %22silicon oxide%22 on silicon anodes: modeling SEI reaction mechanisms. Abstract not provided. Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1115631 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3743C 479901 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  16. Silicon Cells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a low cost method of processing silicon to produce a new generation of high energy density batteries. References: Silicon Cells1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  17. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  18. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  19. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  20. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  1. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  2. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  3. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H. [Graduate School of Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan); Haga, T. [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya Asahiku Osaka city 535-8585 (Japan); Watari, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda Midoriku Yokohama city 226-8502 (Japan); Kumai, S. [Gunma University, 1-5-1 tenjin cho Kiryu city 376-8515 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  4. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

  5. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  6. Designing aluminum sealing glasses for manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacic, L.; Crowder, S.V.; Brow, R.K.; Bencoe, D.N.

    1993-12-31

    Manufacturability issues involved in the development of new sealing glasses include tailoring glass compositions to meet material and component requirements and determining the optimum seal processing parameters. For each of these issues, statistical analysis can be used to shorten the time between concept and product in the development of what is essentially a new manufacturing technology. We use the development of our new family of phosphate-based glasses for aluminum/stainless steel and aluminum/CuBe hermetic sealing, the ALSG family, to illustrate the statistical approach.

  7. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  8. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  9. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of...

  10. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

  11. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  12. Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Beck, Theodore R.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2003-07-16

    Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

  13. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  14. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory describes a new aluminum joining process and the industry partnership that enabled its use for mass auto production

  15. High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm044_smith_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Temperature Aluminum Alloys (Agreement ID:24034) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Rapidly Solidified High Temperature Aluminum Alloys

  16. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur; Johansen, Kai

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  17. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how Commonwealth Industries (now Aleris Rolled Products) conducted plant-wide energy assessments at its aluminum sheet rolling mills in Lewisport, Kentucky, and Uhrichsville, Ohio, to improve process and energy efficiency.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  19. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  20. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  1. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band M. B. McGarry 1,a) , P. Franz 2 , D. J. Den Hartog 1 , J. A. Goetz 1 and J. Johnson 1 a) Electronic mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 096105 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894656 Abstract Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the

  2. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  3. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  4. Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Antireflective (AR) coatings on solar cells increase the efficiency of the cells by suppressing reflection, which allows more photons to enter a silicon (Si) wafer and increases the flow of electricity. Traditional AR coatings however, add significant cost to the solar cell manufacturing process. NREL scientists

  5. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  6. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  7. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Bowman, Kenneth A. (Leechburg, PA); Mazgaj, Robert M. (Lower Burrell, PA); Cochran, C. Norman (Oakmont, PA)

    1983-10-25

    A method for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm.

  8. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.

    1983-10-25

    A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.

  9. Making silicon stronger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-11-01

    Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

  10. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  11. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  12. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  13. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  14. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  15. MOxST Magnesium Recycling Concept Definition Project Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap DOE Award Number DE-EE0003454 Project Period: August 1, 2010 - December 31, 2011 Principal Investigator: Adam C. Powell, IV (781) 898-3430 apowell@moxst.com Recipient Organization: Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. 11 Michigan Drive, Natick, MA 01760-1334 Other Project Team Members: MOxST: Soobhankar Pati, Steve Derezinski, John Strauss Boston University: Uday Pal, Peter Zink, Xiaofei Guan

  16. Designing Solvation in Magnesium Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Research June 18, 2014, Research Highlights Designing Solvation in Magnesium Electrolytes (Left) Electrochemical properties of Mg(BH4)2-glyme system which increase with chain length of glymes. (Right) The chemical shift of 25Mg NMR spectra shift negatively from DME through diglyme to triglyme, which is due to the interaction between Mg and oxygen atoms in glymes through electron donation from oxygen; but the chemical shift moves back for tetraglyme, which is explained as the high

  17. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  18. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1991-05-21

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  19. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=58 GPa, T=1400K2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  20. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  1. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  2. Black Silicon Etching - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Black Silicon Etching Award-winning, efficient, and inexpensive ... Black Silicon Etching has been proven to be 16.8% efficient for single-crystalline silicon ...

  3. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular ...

  4. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High ...

  5. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory:...

  6. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  7. Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    _ of Energy Washington, DC 20565 Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America 100 Technical Drive Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069-0001 Dear Mr. Jackson: At,the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and with the consent of your company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a radiological survey of the former ALCOA Research Labo,ratory at 600 Freeport Road in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Three copies of the radiological survey report are enclosed for your information and use. An additional

  8. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  9. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  10. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  11. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  12. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarrick, H. Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Araujo, D.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Miller, A.; Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Tucker, C.; Bradford, K.; Che, G.; Cantor, R.; Day, P.; Leduc, H.; Mauskopf, P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 266 ?K?(s)

  13. Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using UV micro-Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Sukwon; Griffin, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-06

    Localized stress variation in aluminum nitride (AlN) sputtered on patterned metallization has been monitored through the use of UV micro-Raman spectroscopy. This technique utilizing 325 nm laser excitation allows detection of the AlN E2(high) phonon mode in the presence of metal electrodes beneath the AlN layer with a high spatial resolution of less than 400 nm. The AlN film stress shifted 400 MPa from regions where AlN was deposited over a bottom metal electrode versus silicon dioxide. Thus, across wafer stress variations were also investigated showing that wafer level stress metrology, for example using wafer curvature measurements, introduces large uncertaintiesmore » for predicting the impact of AlN residual stress on the device performance.« less

  14. Longwei Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Co Ltd Place: Liancheng, Fujian Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese sillicon metal producer who also produce 4N-6N silicon for solar use. Coordinates:...

  15. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment ...

  16. Silicon Crystals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 95742 Product: Supplier of semi-conductor grade silicon for applications that demand unusual shapes and sizes. References: Silicon Crystals Inc1 This article is a stub....

  17. Silicon Border Development LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Border Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Border Development LLC Place: Poway, California Zip: 92064 Sector: Solar Product: US-based developer of...

  18. Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 1 R&D 100 Entry Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 2 R&D 100 Entry Submitting Organization ...

  19. Silicon Chemical Corp SCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp SCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Chemical Corp (SCC) Place: Vancouver, Washington State Zip: 98687 Product: US manufacturer of polysilicon and silicon chemical...

  20. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  1. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  2. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  3. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  4. Silicon Carbide JFET Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5kV Enhancement-Model Silicon Carbide JFET Switch The novel 6.5kV SiC device and power module represent the world's highest-voltage module based on reliable, normally-off SiC JFETs. It reduces switching losses over that of Si-IGBTs by a factor of 20 and exhibits the fastest turn- on and turn-off of any 6.5kV-rated power module. Another major aspect of what makes this product unique is USCi's development and manufacturing approach. JFETs are simple transistor switches, yet for SiC materials, a

  5. Silicon Solar Cells with Front Hetero-contact and Aluminum Alloy Back Junction (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.-C.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.; Branz, H. M.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to apply industrial back Al process in efficient n-wafer cells with a-Si:H front surface passivation; and (2) to evaluate the surface recombination velocity (SRV) of the a-Si:H passivated front surface with different surface preparation procedures.

  6. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  7. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  8. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  9. THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NATIVE AND DEPOSITED THIN ALUMINUM OXIDE LA'YERS ON ALUMINUM:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NATIVE AND DEPOSITED THIN ALUMINUM OXIDE LA'YERS ON ALUMINUM: HYDRATION EFFECTS J. P. Sullivan, J. C. Barbour, R G. Dunn, L A . Son, L. P. Montes, N. Missed, and R. G. Copeland Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 871 85 ABSTRACT The electronic defect density of native, anodic, and synthetic Al oxide layers on Al were studied by solid state electrical measurement as a function of hydration o F the oxide. The non-hydrated synthetic Al oxide layers, which

  10. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  11. High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm075_hovanski_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks Vehicle Technologies Office

  12. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  13. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... At Kaiser Aluminum, energy efficiency is a high priority in keep- ing with the company's emphasis on Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma methodologies. The Save Energy Now assessment ...

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 ...

  15. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings Using Rapid Infrared Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and industry partners, Queen City Forging Company and Infra Red Heating Technologies LLC, have developed a process for forging aluminum parts using infrared (IR) technology. ...

  16. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  17. Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    micro-Raman spectroscopy This content will become publicly available on January 6, 2017 Title: Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using UV micro-Raman ...

  18. Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-05-10

    Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

  19. Energy and Environmental Profile of the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Nancy

    1997-07-01

    This detailed report (PDF 2.5 MB) benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the aluminum industry.

  20. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of defect spins in ...

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Aluminum Co of America ...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Related to Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) PA.23-1 - DOE Letter; Williams to Jackson (ALCOA) concerning results of radiological surveys and elimination of the site from...

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Aluminum Concentrations in Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    guarantee its technical correctness. Title: Solid and Dissolved Phase Aluminum in Storm Water Runoff on the Pajarito Plateau, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES...

  3. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gndara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136,...

  4. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 ... FATIGUE; WEAR RESISTANCE; MATERIALS TESTING MOLD CASTING; CASTING OF ALUMINUM; ...

  5. Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-02-10

    This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  6. Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and cost challenges. Nowhere is this more evident than in the development of designs and manufacturing processes for cast aluminum engine blocks and cylinder heads. Increasing...

  7. Electrochemistry of Magnesium Electrolytes in Ionic Liquids for Secondary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 23, 2014, Research Highlights Electrochemistry of Magnesium Electrolytes in Ionic Liquids for Secondary Batteries Cyclic voltammograms of neat DEME-BF4 (light gray) and 100 mM Mg(BH4)2 in DEME-BF4 (black). CV scan limits are chosen to represent the electrochemical stability window. Inset: magnified view with voltage range restricted to -1.5 to 1.5 V vs. Mg/Mg2+. Scientific Achievement Ionic liquids (ILs) have wide electrochemical stability

  8. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  9. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  10. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Weigel, Scott Jeffrey; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  11. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  12. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  13. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  14. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  15. Silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to a sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia for enhanced toughness.

  16. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  17. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  18. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-10-15

    A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  19. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  20. BY SILICON CRYSTALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-.

  1. Amorphous silicon enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor contacts for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Cuevas, A.; Yan, D.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-10-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal-semiconductor contacts has become a significant obstacle to the further advancement of high-efficiency diffused-junction silicon solar cells. This paper provides the proof-of-concept of a procedure to reduce contact recombination by means of enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Lightly diffused n{sup +} and p{sup +} surfaces are passivated with SiO{sub 2}/a-Si:H and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-Si:H stacks, respectively, before the MIS contacts are formed by a thermally activated alloying process between the a-Si:H layer and an overlying aluminum film. Transmission/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to ascertain the nature of the alloy. Idealized solar cell simulations reveal that MIS(n{sup +}) contacts, with SiO{sub 2} thicknesses of ?1.55?nm, achieve the best carrier-selectivity producing a contact resistivity ?{sub c} of ?3 m? cm{sup 2} and a recombination current density J{sub 0c} of ?40 fA/cm{sup 2}. These characteristics are shown to be stable at temperatures up to 350?C. The MIS(p{sup +}) contacts fail to achieve equivalent results both in terms of thermal stability and contact characteristics but may still offer advantages over directly metallized contacts in terms of manufacturing simplicity.

  2. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon Title: Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a

  3. A silicon photomultiplier readout for time of flight neutron spectroscopy with {gamma}-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Gorini, G.; Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; De Pascale, M. P.; Reali, E.; Grazzi, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2009-09-15

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a recently developed photosensor used in particle physics, e.g., for detection of minimum ionizing particles and/or Cherenkov radiation. Its performance is comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes, but with advantages in terms of reduced volume and magnetic field insensitivity. In the present study, the performance of a gamma ray detector made of an yttrium aluminum perovskite scintillation crystal and a SiPM-based readout is assessed for use in time of flight neutron spectroscopy. Measurements performed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source demonstrate the feasibility of {gamma}-detection based on the new device.

  4. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  5. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  6. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  7. Gettering in multicrystalline silicon: A design-of-experiments approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, W.K.

    1994-07-01

    Design-of-experiment methods were used to study gettering due to phosphorus diffusion and aluminum alloying in four industrial multicrystalline silicon materials: Silicon-Film material from AstroPower, heat-exchanger method (HEM) material from Crystal Systems, edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) material from Mobil Solar, and cast material from Solarex. Time and temperature for the diffusion and alloy processes were chosen for a four-factor quadratic interaction experiment. Simple diagnostic devices were used to evaluate the gettering. Only EFG and HEM materials exhibited statistically significant gettering effects within the ranges used for the various parameters. Diffusion and alloying temperature were significant for HEM material; also there was a second-order interaction between the diffusion time and temperature. There was no interaction between the diffusion and alloying processes in HEM material. EFG material showed a first-order dependence on diffusion temperature and a second-order interaction between the diffusion temperature and the alloying time. Gettering recommendations for the HEM material were used to produce the best-yet Sandia cells on this material, but correlation with the gettering experiment was not strong. Some of the discrepancy arises from necessary processing differences between the diagnostic devices and regular solar cells. This issue and other lessons learned concerning this type of experiment are discussed.

  8. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  9. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  10. Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, China Product: A monocrystalline silicon...

  11. Jinzhou Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jinzhou Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: China Product: Chinese manufacturer of mono-crystalline silicon ingot....

  12. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  13. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  14. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  15. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  16. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm010_zaluzec_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604 Magnesium Front End Development (AMD 603/604/904) Department of Energy

    lm_19_quinn.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of

  17. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  18. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeet, Suninder Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-05-15

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40?nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450?nm attributes to 4f{sup 6} 5d ? 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  19. Appendix MgO: Magnesium Oxide as an Engineered Barrier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MgO-2014 Magnesium Oxide as an Engineered Barrier United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix MgO-2014 Table of Contents MgO-1.0 Introduction MgO-2.0 Description of the Engineered Barrier System MgO-2.1 Emplacement of MgO MgO-2.1.1 Supersacks MgO-2.1.2 Minisacks MgO-2.1.3 Use of Racks to Emplace Additional MgO MgO-2.1.4 Changes since the CRA-2009 MgO-2.2 MgO Vendors MgO-3.0

  20. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  1. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  2. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K.

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  4. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  5. Final Report- 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process.

  6. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

  7. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-07-23

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

  8. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  9. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm030_hovanski_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications FSW & USW Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Formability of Direct Cast Mg Sheet and Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Joining of Magnesium to Steel FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 9. Joining

  10. Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

  11. ThinSilicon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ThinSilicon Place: California Product: US-based developer of thin-film PV module manufacturing technology. References: ThinSilicon1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  12. Jiangshan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 134700 Product: Chinese metal silicon producer who is doing R&D to purify its silicon to 6N by UMG method Coordinates: 42.088902, 127.218193 Show Map Loading...

  13. Becancour Silicon Inc BSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Becancour Silicon Inc (BSI) Place: St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada Zip: H4M2M4 Sector: Solar Product: Canadian supplier of silicon metal for the...

  14. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2009-08-19

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

  15. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Koliwad, Krishna M.; Daud, Taher

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  16. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2014-06-03

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  17. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanostructured Diamond Silicon Carbide ... INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Pathways This project is focusing on reducing synthesis ...

  18. Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of this solar technology. Background Crystalline silicon PV cells are the most common solar cells used in commercially available solar panels, representing 87% of world PV cell

  19. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs;

  20. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2013-05-28

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  1. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  2. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  3. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBrKBrCsBrAlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBrKBrCsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  4. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  5. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  6. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  7. Method of Preparing Hydrous Hafnium, Cerium, or Aluminum Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cerium, or aluminum oxide microspheres was invented at ORNL. The invention is a type of sol-gel process that solidifies droplets of solution as they enter into a warm environment....

  8. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  9. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  10. Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

  11. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  12. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

  13. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-18

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon is described in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon. 1 fig.

  14. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a thin polymer layer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Authors: Cheng, Fei ; Yang, Xiaodong ; Rosenmann, Daniel ; Stan, Liliana ; Czaplewski, David ; Gao, Jie Publication Date: 2015-09-18 OSTI Identifier: 1221855 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Type:

  15. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Authors: Cheng, Fei ; Gao, Jie ; Stan, Liliana ; Rosenmann, Daniel ; Czaplewski, David ; Yang, Xiaodong Publication Date: 2015-05-26 OSTI Identifier: 1222274 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 23;

  16. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  17. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas Publication Date: 2014-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1143066 Report Number(s): SAND2014-3282C 511744 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  18. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrodes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas S. Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1124475 Report Number(s): SAND2013-10810J 493199 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  19. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrodes. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes. This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active

  20. Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Materials Engineering | Energy Frontier Research Centers Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Home Author: J. Allison, M. Li, C. Wolverton, X. Su Year: 2006 Abstract: The automotive product design and manufacturing community is continually besieged by Hercule an engineering, timing, and cost challenges. Nowhere is this more evident than in the development of designs and manufacturing processes for cast aluminum

  1. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  2. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Invar (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and Invar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and Invar Authors: Chen, L ; Swift, D C ; Austin, R A ; Florando, J N ; Hawreliak, J ; Lazicki, A ; Saculla, M D ; Eakins, D ; Bernier, J V ; Kumar, M Publication Date: 2015-09-23 OSTI Identifier: 1239232 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-679036 DOE Contract

  4. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Improved System Increases Steelmaking Furnace Efficiency, Safety, and Productivity Hoods, roofs, and sidewall systems in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs) enable effluent gases in excess of 3000°F to be properly captured, cooled, and processed prior to delivery to the environmental control equipment. Traditionally, these carbon steel components

  5. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure

  6. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative

  7. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  8. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  9. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  10. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  11. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  12. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Basore, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-08-11

    A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

  13. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Stalford, Harold L.

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  14. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  15. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-03-28

    An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

  16. Photo-ionization of aluminum in a hot cavity for the selective production of exotic species project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, D. Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Calderolla, M.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Makhathini, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Grassi, D.

    2014-02-15

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) based accelerator facility that will be built in the Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratory (Italy), intended to provide intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams obtained by proton-induced fission of a uranium carbide (UCx) target. Besides this main target material, silicon carbide (SiC) will be the first to be used to deliver p-rich beams. This target will also validate the functionality of the SPES facility with aluminum beam as result of impinging SiC target with proton beam. In the past, off line studies on laser photoionization of aluminum have been performed in Pavia Spectroscopy Laboratory and in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; a XeCl excimer laser was installed in order to test the laser ionization in the SPES hot cavity. With the new Wien filter installed a better characterization of the ionization process in terms of efficiency was performed and results are discussed.

  17. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  18. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  19. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  20. Unusual behavior in magnesium-copper cluster matter produced by helium droplet mediated deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, S. B. Little, B. K.; Xin, Y.; Ridge, C. J.; Lindsay, C. M.; Buszek, R. J.; Boatz, J. A.; Boyle, J. M.

    2015-02-28

    We demonstrate the ability to produce core-shell nanoclusters of materials that typically undergo intermetallic reactions using helium droplet mediated deposition. Composite structures of magnesium and copper were produced by sequential condensation of metal vapors inside the 0.4 K helium droplet baths and then gently deposited onto a substrate for analysis. Upon deposition, the individual clusters, with diameters ∼5 nm, form a cluster material which was subsequently characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Results of this analysis reveal the following about the deposited cluster material: it is in the un-alloyed chemical state, it maintains a stable core-shell 5 nm structure at sub-monolayer quantities, and it aggregates into unreacted structures of ∼75 nm during further deposition. Surprisingly, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the copper appears to displace the magnesium at the core of the composite cluster despite magnesium being the initially condensed species within the droplet. This phenomenon was studied further using preliminary density functional theory which revealed that copper atoms, when added sequentially to magnesium clusters, penetrate into the magnesium cores.

  1. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  2. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D.; Kovacic, Larry; Brow, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  3. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  4. Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohig, W.; Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

    2009-02-01

    Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

  5. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  6. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  7. Aluminum and polymeric coatings for protection of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenares, C.; McCreary, T.; Monaco, S.; Walkup, C.; Gleeson, G.; Kervin, J.; Smith, R.L.; McCaffrey, C.

    1983-12-21

    Ion-plated aluminum films on uranium will not provide adequate protection for 25 years. Magnetron-plated aluminum films on uranium are much better than ion-plated ones. Kel-F 800 films on uranium can provide adequate protection for 25 years. Their use in production must be delayed until the following factors are sorted out: water permeability in Kel-F 800 must be determined between 30 and 60/sup 0/C; the effect of UF/sub 3/, at the Kel-F/metal interface, on the permeability of water must be assessed; and the effect of crystallinity on water permeability must be evaluated. Applying Kel-F films on aluminum ion-plated uranium provides a good interim solution for long term storage.

  8. Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

    2003-09-09

    A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

  9. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  10. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-04

    Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive. The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.

  11. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; et al

    2013-11-04

    Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive.more » The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.« less

  12. Development of a Thin-Wall Magnesium side door Inner Panel for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jekl, J.; Auld, J.; Sweet, C.; Carter, Jon; Resch, Steve; Klarner, A.; Brevick, J.; Luo, A.

    2015-05-17

    Cast magnesium side door inner panels can provide a good combination of weight, functional, manufacturing and economical requirements. However, several challenges exist including casting technology for thin-wall part design, multi-material incompatibility and relatively low strength vs steel. A project has been initiated, supported by the US Department of Energy, to design and develop a lightweight frame-under-glass door having a thin-wall, full die-cast, magnesium inner panel. This development project is the first of its kind within North America. Phase I of the project is now complete and the 2.0mm magnesium design, through casting process enablers, has met or exceeded all stiffness requirements, with significant mass reduction and part consolidation. In addition, a corrosion mitigation strategy has been established using industry-accepted galvanic isolation methods and coating technologies.

  13. Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blewer, Robert S.; Gullinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

  14. Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Joining Silicon Carbide to Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride to Silicon Nitride for Advanced Heat Engine Applications Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundberg, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques were developed to produce reliable silicon nitride to silicon nitride (NCX-5101) curved joins which were used to manufacture spin test specimens as a proof of concept to simulate parts such as a simple rotor. Specimens were machined from the curved joins to measure the following properties of the join interlayer: tensile strength, shear strength, 22 C flexure strength and 1370 C flexure strength. In parallel, extensive silicon nitride tensile creep evaluation of planar butt joins provided a sufficient data base to develop models with accurate predictive capability for different geometries. Analytical models applied satisfactorily to the silicon nitride joins were Norton's Law for creep strain, a modified Norton's Law internal variable model and the Monkman-Grant relationship for failure modeling. The Theta Projection method was less successful. Attempts were also made to develop planar butt joins of siliconized silicon carbide (NT230).

  15. Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ preparation and use in electrolysis process for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.C.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    A continuous process for producing aluminum sulfide and for electrolyzing the aluminum sulfide to form metallic aluminum in which the aluminum sulfide is produced from aluminum oxide and COS or CS/sub 2/ in the presence of a chloride melt which also serves as the electrolysis bath. Circulation between the reactor and electrolysis cell is carried out to maintain the desired concentration of aluminum sulfide in the bath.

  16. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  17. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  18. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  19. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  20. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  1. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A. J.

    1993-04-06

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  2. Method for fabricating pixelated silicon device cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2015-08-18

    A method, apparatus and system for flexible, ultra-thin, and high efficiency pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array fabrication is disclosed. A structure and method of creation for a pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array with interconnects is described using a manufacturing method that is simplified compared to previous versions of pixelated silicon photovoltaic cells that require more microfabrication steps.

  3. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  4. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment Findings December 19, 2014 Contact: Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 speedyelectrons In silicon, electrons attached to atoms in the crystal lattice can be mobilized into the conduction band by light or voltage. Berkeley scientists have taken snapshots of this very brief band-gap jump and timed it

  5. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl-

  6. Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures and High

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperatures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures and High Temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures and High Temperatures Authors: Stinton, G W ; MacLeod, S G ; Cynn, H ; Errandonea, D ; Evans, W J ; Proctor, J E ; Meng, Y ; McMahon, M I Publication Date: 2014-01-21 OSTI Identifier: 1188628 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-648674 DOE Contract Number:

  7. Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Abstract not provided. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ...

  8. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  9. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

  10. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1994-12-27

    An iron-based alloy is described containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100 C. 8 figures.

  11. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100.degree. C.

  12. Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Baishan, Jilin Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese solar-grade polysilicon producer using metallurgical method. Coordinates:...

  13. Sunsing Silicon Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunsing Silicon Inc Place: Liancheng, Fujian Province, China Zip: 366200 Product: A Chinese polysilicon manufacturer applying self-developed metallurgical method References:...

  14. Method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, from a tungsten or carbon foil heated to a temperature of about 1400.degree.-1600.degree. C., in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-6 to 19.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseos mixture onto a substrate independent of and outside said source of thermal decomposition, to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The presence of an ammonia atmosphere in the vacuum chamber enhances the photoconductivity of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film.

  15. Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its silicon materials and devices research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  16. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation- Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells Preprint Michael L. Bolen, Sachit Grover, Charles W. Teplin, Howard M. Branz, and Paul Stradins National...

  17. Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc. Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: CA 94086 Product: Manufactures biodiesel for the local diesel fuel...

  18. Process for Polycrystalline film silicon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for depositing polycrystalline silicon on substrates, including foreign substrates, occurs in a chamber at about atmospheric pressure, wherein a temperature gradient is formed, and both the atmospheric pressure and the temperature gradient are maintained throughout the process. Formation of a vapor barrier within the chamber that precludes exit of the constituent chemicals, which include silicon, iodine, silicon diiodide, and silicon tetraiodide. The deposition occurs beneath the vapor barrier. One embodiment of the process also includes the use of a blanketing gas that precludes the entrance of oxygen or other impurities. The process is capable of repetition without the need to reset the deposition zone conditions.

  19. Apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

    1986-05-20

    Apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

  20. Semipermeable Membranes for Micromachined Silicon Surfaces -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for lap-on-a-chip products Eases cost and complexity of manufacturing Robust Permeability control at time of manufacture Compatible with a wide range of silicon Applications...

  1. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Tracey, Dennis M.; Foley, Michael R.; Paille, Norman I.; Pelletier, Paul J.; Sales, Lenny C.; Willkens, Craig A.; Yeckley, Russell L.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic body comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa.

  2. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0silicon oxynitride dielectric layer.

  3. Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    214 Product: Oslo-based company with an upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) production process called the Stubergh method. Coordinates: 59.91228, 10.74998 Show Map Loading...

  4. Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Silicon Materials and Devices that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  5. Synthesis and tribological behavior of silicon oxycarbonitride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    poly(urea)methyl vinyl silazane. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and tribological behavior of silicon oxycarbonitride thin films derived from poly(urea)methy...

  6. Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific...

  7. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P. 08 HYDROGEN; 14...

  8. RSI Silicon Products LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    startup which is developing a process for solar-grade silicon manufacture at low energy intensity, spinoff from MIT. Coordinates: 47.237806, -121.179542 Show Map...

  9. Nano tech Silicon India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tech Silicon India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-tech Silicon India Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Product: Nano-tech Silicon is a manufacturer of PV...

  10. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact Sheet About Complete Scrap-to-Caster System Will Save Energy and Reduce Costs in the Aluminum Industry

  11. Microsoft Word - CBU-PIT-2004-00010_R1.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sodium 186.0 Aluminum 113.4 Silicon 34.3 Barium 3.9 Boron <.40 Fluoride 3.5 Calcium 17.0 Chromium 4.7 Lithium <.17 Copper 3.3 Magnesium 30.6 Iron 535.1 Molybdenum <0.062 Mercury ...

  12. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1,000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  13. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  14. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Jerry D.; Anderson, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

  15. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  16. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films Prev Next Title: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline...

  17. Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Place: Dawu County, Hubei Province, China Zip: 432800 Sector: Solar Product: Chinese polysilicon...

  18. Tianwei Sichuan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Tianwei Sichuan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Sichuan Province, China Product: A Chinese polysilicon manufacturer developing a 3000t silicon plant in Xinjin of Sichuan...

  19. Chengdu Jiayang Silicon Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiayang Silicon Technology Co Ltd Place: Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China Product: Chinese monocrystalline silicon ingots and wafers manufacturer Coordinates: 30.67,...

  20. Glory Silicon Energy Zhenjiang Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Energy (Zhenjiang) Co Ltd Place: Yangzhong, Jiangsu Province, China Product: Chinese manufacturer of silicon ingots and PV wafers; ingots are only for in-house use....

  1. Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon ...

  2. Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials (Book)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials Authors: Damewood, L ; ...

  3. Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials (Book)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials You are accessing a ...

  4. Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile Strain): ... Title: Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile ...

  5. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films:...

  6. Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide ...

  7. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Presentation ...

  9. The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films ...

  10. The Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment Authors: ...

  11. Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions for Latent Heat Storage Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions ...

  12. Zhenjiang Huantai Silicon Science Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huantai Silicon Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhenjiang Huantai Silicon Science & Technology Co Ltd Place: Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip:...

  13. Leshan Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Leshan Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province,...

  14. Sichuan Xinguang Silicon Business Science Technology Co Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xinguang Silicon Business Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sichuan Xinguang Silicon Business Science & Technology Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province,...

  15. GCL Solar Energy Technology Holdings formerly GCL Silicon aka...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GCL Silicon aka Jiangsu Zhongneng Polysilicon Jump to: navigation, search Name: GCL Solar Energy Technology Holdings (formerly GCL Silicon, aka Jiangsu Zhongneng Polysilicon)...

  16. Sino American Silicon Products Inc SAS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sino American Silicon Products Inc SAS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sino-American Silicon Products Inc (SAS) Place: Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan Product: Taiwan-based manufacturer...

  17. GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: GSMSolar (formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd) Place: Kunshan, Jiangsu...

  18. Jiangxi Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiangxi Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Shangrao, Jiangxi Province, China Product: A PV ingots and wafer...

  19. Jinzhou Rixin Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jinzhou Rixin Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Liaoning Province, China Product: A monosilicon manufacturer in China....

  20. Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Linzhou, Henan Province, China Product:...

  1. Shaanxi Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shaanxi Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Shaanxi Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese...

  2. Anhui Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Anhui Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Chaohu, Anhui Province, China Zip: 214192 Product: Polysilicon...

  3. Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province, China Product: A Chinese polysilicon...

  4. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon We ...

  5. ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial Jump to: navigation, search Name: ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial Place: Shaanxi Province, China Product: Shaaxi-based polysilicon maker...

  6. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  7. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Wiring up Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon ...

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program ...

  9. Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd Formerly Jiayuan Sunshine Guiyang...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd Formerly Jiayuan Sunshine Guiyang Hi New Sunshine Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd (Formerly Jiayuan...

  10. Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Place: Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Huhhot-based...

  11. Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Place: Wuhai City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 16030...

  12. Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH SST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH SST Jump to: navigation, search Name: Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH (SST) Place: Freudenstadt, Germany Zip: D-72250 Sector: Solar Product:...

  13. Ningxia Sunshine Silicon Business Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Business Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ningxia Sunshine Silicon Business Co Ltd Place: Shizuishan, Ningxia Autonomous Region, China Product: A JV project company...

  14. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphous silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.

  15. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphousmore » silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.« less

  16. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wimmer, M.; Felix, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Wippler, D.; Mueck, A.; Meier, M.; Huepkes, J.; Lozac'h, M.; Ueda, S.; Sumiya, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Baer, M.

    2013-07-08

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon 'window layer' (a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 {+-} 0.27) eV and (-3.37 {+-} 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  17. Preparation of silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    Silicon carbide fibers suitable for use in the fabrication of dense, high-strength, high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments are fabricated by a new, simplified method wherein a mixture of short-length rayon fibers and colloidal silica is homogenized in a water slurry. Water is removed from the mixture by drying in air at 120/sup 0/C and the fibers are carbonized by (pyrolysis) heating the mixture to 800 to 1000/sup 0/C in argon. The mixture is subsequently reacted at 1550 to 1900/sup 0/C in argon to yield pure ..beta..-SiC fibers.

  18. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  19. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  20. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.