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1

Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A major campaign to quantify the magmatic carbon discharge in cold groundwaters around Mammoth Mountain volcano in eastern California was carried out from 1996 to 1999. The total water flow from all sampled cold springs was >=1.8_107 m3/yr draining an area that receives an estimated

2

Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

waters contain magmatic helium with 3He4He ratios as high as 4.5 times the atmospheric ratio, and a magmatic component in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can be identified in...

3

Carbon nanostructures production by AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon nanostructures have received much attention for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we produced carbon nanostructures by decomposition of benzene using AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure. Discharge was carried out ...

Shenqiang Zhao; Ruoyu Hong; Zhi Luo; Haifeng Lu; Biao Yan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Response to Freshwater Discharge into the North Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of a coupled climate–carbon cycle model to discharge of freshwater into the North Atlantic is investigated with regard to cold reversals caused by meltwater from northern continental ice sheets such as the Younger Dryas during the ...

Atsushi Obata

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Particles This invention pertains to a highly effective arc-based synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene particles using catalysts in the form of wires made from ion group alloys instead of commonly used catalyst powders. The catalyst wire can be introduced into the discharge either from the anode or cathode regions or into the inter-electrode gap. The catalyst introduction can be done automatically and controlled using feedback based on the ablation of the graphite electrode. To maintain simplicity and attractiveness for industrial applications, it is desirable that the catalyst composition be contained in a single wire alloy. No.: M-808 Inventor(s): Yevgeny Raitses

6

Holocene Magmatic Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Holocene Magmatic Geothermal Region (Redirected from Holocene Magmatic) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Holocene Magmatic Geothermal Region Details...

7

Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Mechanism of Synthesis of Ultra-Long Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Arc Discharge Plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this project fundamental issues related to synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which is relationship between plasma parameters and SWNT characteristics were investigated. Given that among plasma-based techniques arc discharge stands out as very advantageous in several ways (fewer defects, high flexibility, longer lifetime) this techniques warrants attention from the plasma physics and plasma technology standpoint. Both experimental and theoretical investigations of the plasma and SWNTs synthesis were conducted. Experimental efforts focused on plasma diagnostics, measurements of nanostructures parameters, and nanoparticle characterization. Theoretical efforts focused to focus on multi-dimensional modeling of the arc discharge and single wall nanotube synthesis in arc plasmas. It was demonstrated in experiment and theoretically that controlling plasma parameters can affect nanostucture synthesis altering SWNT properties (length and diameter) and leading to synthesis of new structures such as a few-layer graphene. Among clearly identified parameters affecting synthesis are magnetic and electric fields. Knowledge of the plasma parameters and discharge characteristics is crucial for ability to control synthesis process by virtue of both magnetic and electric fields. New graduate course on plasma engineering was introduced into curriculum. 3 undergraduate students were attracted to the project and 3 graduate students (two are female) were involved in the project. Undergraduate student from Historically Black University was attracted and participated in the project during Summer 2010.

Keidar, Michael [George Washington University] [George Washington University

2013-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Investigation of lithium-air battery discharge product formed on carbon nanotube and nanofiber electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, ...

Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Rates of tectonic and magmatic processes in the North Cascades continental magmatic arc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continental magmatic arcs are among the most dynamic. geologic systems, and documentation of the magmatic, thermal, and tectonic evolution of arcs is essential for understanding the processes of magma generation, ascent ...

Matzel, Jennifer E. Piontek, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments  

SciTech Connect

A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica" Rocasolano" C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L' Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

2007-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic Field From Seismic Tomographic Imaging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal...

13

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Claritas Rise, Mars- Pre-Tharsis Magmatism? | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Claritas Rise, Mars- Pre-Tharsis Magmatism? Claritas Rise, Mars- Pre-Tharsis Magmatism? Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Claritas Rise, Mars- Pre-Tharsis Magmatism? Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Abstract Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo

15

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

16

Carbon dioxide laser with an e-beam-initiated discharge produced in the working gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure CO{sub 2} laser with a discharge initiated by an electron beam of sub-nanosecond duration in the laser gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm is fabricated. For the 20-ns pulses the energy from the active volume {approx} 4 cm{sup 3} amounted to 40 mJ. The laser operation at a pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz is demonstrated. In the gas mixture CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:He = 1:1:6 at a pressure 5 atm, the specific energy deposition of {approx} 0.07 J cm{sup -3} atm{sup -1} is obtained in the process of a non-self-sustained discharge with ionisation amplification.

Orlovskii, Viktor M; Alekseev, S B; Tarasenko, Viktor F [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic Field From Seismic Tomographic Imaging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic Field From Seismic Tomographic Imaging Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The 3-D P-wave velocity and P- to S-wave velocity ratio structure of the Yellowstone volcanic field, Wyoming, has been determined from local earthquake tomography using new data from the permanent Yellowstone seismic network. We selected 3374 local earthquakes between 1995 and 2001 to invert for the 3-D P-wave velocity (Vp) and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) structure. Vp anomalies of small size (15_15 km) are reliably

18

Possible Magmatic Input to the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Possible Magmatic Input to the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, and Possible Magmatic Input to the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, and Implications for District-Scale Resource Exploration, Inferred from Magnetotelluric (MT) Resistivity Surveying Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Possible Magmatic Input to the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, and Implications for District-Scale Resource Exploration, Inferred from Magnetotelluric (MT) Resistivity Surveying Abstract Magnetotelluric (MT) profiling in northwestern Nevadais used to test hypotheses on the main sources of heat andhydrothermal fluid for the Dixie Valley-Central NevadaSeismic Belt area. The transect reveals families of resistivitystructures commonly dominated by steeply-dipping features,some of which may be of key geothermal significance. Mostnotably, 2-D inversion

19

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal alteration and the active vapor-dominated geothermal system at The Geysers, CA are related to a composite hypabyssal granitic pluton emplaced beneath the field 1.1 to 1.2 million years ago. Deep drill holes provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modern-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modern vapor-dominated regime at 0.25 to 0.28 Ma. Maximum

20

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism  

SciTech Connect

Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at [approximately]1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

Keller, G.R. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

1957-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

Simulating the thermochemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of Venus's mantle and lithosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mode of heat loss is magmatic heat pipe, which requires massive magmatism and produces very thick crust modes, with a viscosity profile that is Earth-like but shifted to higher values. The basalt densityW/m2 . If widespread melting occurs then a mag- matic "heat pipe" mechanism, as is commonly thought

Tackley, Paul J.

24

GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus utilized in introducing tritium gas into envelope of a gas discharge device for the purpose f maintaining the discharge path in ionized condition is described. ln addition to the cathode and anode, the ischarge device contains a zirconium or tantalum ilament arranged for external excitation and a metallic seed containing tritium, and also arranged to have a current passed through it. Initially, the zirconium or tantalum filament is vaporized to deposit its material adjacent the main discharge region. Then the tritium gas is released and, due to its affinity for the first released material, it deposits in the region of the main discharge where it is most effective in maintaining the discharge path in an ionized condition.

Jefferson, S.

1958-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

25

Silane discharge ion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Silane dc, rf, and dc proximity discharges have been studied using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. Qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges have been developed from experimental measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane have been measured and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He , Ne , and Ar with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane have been measured as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. A detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge has been developed by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that have been gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

Chatham, R.H. III

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Jump to: navigation,...

27

PERIODIC GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT TIME: Jan 11 2014 11:29:09:000PM Power Supply ON/OFF Status OFF Power Supply Fault Status FAULT Power Supply Standby Status ON Power Supply Interlock Status NOT OK HV Power Resistors Status NORMAL Power Supply Voltage 52.00 Power Supply Current -71.00 Electrode 1 Voltage -15.00 Electrode 1 Current -79.00 Electrode 2 Voltage -14.00 Electrode 2 Current -70.00 ROSS 1 Status OPEN ROSS 2 Status OPEN ROSS 1 Common Line OPEN ROSS 2 Common Line OPEN IGBT1 Enable DISABLE IGBT2 Enable DISABLE

28

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Principles of Electrical Discharge Machining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...supplied to the clearance from a pulse power supply (approximately 60 to 300 V) to provide transient arc discharge (discharge retention time: 0.1 μs to 8 ms) at a high frequency so as to remove workpiece metal with a very dense energy provided by the discharge....

32

Powerful glow discharge excilamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

40Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And Hazards At  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And Hazards At Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And Hazards At Ruapehu Volcano, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And Hazards At Ruapehu Volcano, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: We have determined precise eruption ages for andesites from Ruapehu volcano in the Tongariro Volcanic Centre of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) using 40Ar/39Ar furnace step-heating of separated groundmass concentrates. The plateau ages indicate several eruptive pulses near 200, 134, 45, 22 and <15 ka and, based on our and previous field mapping confirm the lavas of the Te Herenga Formation as the oldest exposed part of the

34

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Deep drilling has allowed for the first time an examination of most of the shield stage of a Hawaiian volcano when it is centered over the hotspot and most of its volume is produced. We determined the lithologies, ages, geochemical characteristics and accumulation rates of rocks from the continuously cored, ~1.7 km deep Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) 1, which was drilled into Kilauea's East Rift Zone. The uppermost ~750 m of this hole contain relatively unaltered subaerially quenched lavas; the lower

35

Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota) Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural...

36

Study on CO2 Reforming of CH4 by Dielectric Barrier Discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article it is demonstrated that DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) is an effective tool to convert CH4 and CO2 to synthesis gas (syngas, H2/CO) at low temperature and ambient pressure. The DBD is performed in the co-axial quartz cube by using ... Keywords: methane, carbon dioxide, syngas, dielectric barrier discharge

Zhao Yuhan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Evolution of the quaternary magmatic system, Mineral Mountains, Utah: Interpretations from chemical and experimental modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The evolution of silicic magmas in the upper crust is characterized by the establishment of chemical and thermal gradients in the upper portion of magma chambers. The chemical changes observed in rhyolite magmas erupted over a period of 300,000 years in the Mineral Mountains are similar to those recorded at Twin Peaks, Utah, and in the spatially zoned Bishop Tuff from Long Valley, California. Chemical and fluid dynamic models indicate that cooling of a silicic magma body from the top and sides can result in the formation of a roof zone above a convecting region which is chemically and thermally stratified, as well as highly fractionated and water rich. Crystallization experiments have been performed with sodium carbonate solutions as an analog to crystallization in magmatic systems. Top and side cooling of a homogeneous sodium carbonate solution results in crystallization along the top and sides and upward convection of sodium carbonate-depleted fluid. A stably stratified roof zone, which is increasingly water rich and cooler upwards, develops over a thermally and chemically homogeneous convecting region. Crystallization at the top ultimately ceases, and continued upward convection of water-rich fluid causes a slight undersaturation adjacent to the roof despite cooler temperatures. By analogy, crystallization at the margins of a magma chamber and buoyant rise of the fractionated boundary layer into the roof zone can account for the chemical evolution of the magma system at the Mineral Mountains. To produce compositionally stratified silicic magmas requires thermal input to a silicic system via mafic magmas. The small volume, phenocryst-poor rhyolite magma which persisted for at least 300,000 years in the Mineral Mountains requires the presence of a continued thermal input from a mafic magma source. The presence of silicic lavas signifies that there is a substantial thermal anomaly both in the crust and upper mantle. The production of silicic lavas requires (1) the heating of the lower crust to near the solidus for silicic melts, (2) partial fusion by the additional convective transfer of heat from the mantle by injection of the basaltic magma, (3) continued input of heat in excess of the conductive and convective heat loss to allow the crustal melt to grow to some critical size so that it can rise buoyantly into the upper crust. In the Mineral Mountains there has been an inadequate prolonged thermal flux to produce caldera-forming eruptions. Moreover, the distributed extension in the Basin and Range allows for the propagation of small volumes of magma upward probably in dike-like bodies parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal compressive stress. The erupted lavas represent a highly differentiated and presumably small fraction of the total volume of silicic magma which is contained at considerable depth.

Nash, W.P.; Crecraft, H.R.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Microsoft Word - Groundwater Discharge Permit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State Renews Groundwater Discharge Permit for WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., September 11, 2008 - The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has renewed the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) groundwater discharge permit until 2013. The permit regulates the discharge of water from WIPP facilities and operations to lined ponds, which protect groundwater resources. The permit allows WIPP to discharge domestic wastewater, non-hazardous wastewater and storm water into 13 on-site, synthetically-lined ponds. The new permit also provides for increased daily discharge volumes to allow more flexibility in plant operations. "This permit is the result of a positive year-long effort with the New Mexico Groundwater Quality Bureau," said Jody Plum, DOE Carlsbad Field Office Permitting and

40

DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

Josephson, V.

1960-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Industrial Discharge Permits (District of Columbia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All businesses and government agencies discharging process wastewater to the public sewer system must report their activities to DC Water's Pretreatment Center. Wastewater discharge permits are...

43

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Discharge Permit (Vermont) Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric Cooperative...

44

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting.

45

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA). Dept. of Geology

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

Simulating the thermo-chemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of1 Venus' mantle and lithosphere 1. two-dimensional models2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithospheric overturn. In stagnant lid convection the dominant mode11 of heat loss is magmatic heat pipe, which profile that is Earth-like but shifted to higher values. The basalt density inversion below the olivine-20 widespread melting is 20 mW/m2 . If39 widespread melting occurs, then a magmatic "heat pipe" mechanism

Tackley, Paul J.

49

Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Act (Oklahoma)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates facilities that discharge any pollutant into waters of the state. Permits must be acquired before the discharge of any pollutants into state waters...

50

Upward Electrical Discharges From Thunderstorm Tops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of storm top electrical discharges have been observed using several types of low-light imagers, film, and the human eye. Recently, a video recorded an unprecedented, bright blue upward discharge from a tropical thunderstorm top near ...

Walter A. Lyons; Thomas E. Nelson; Russell A. Armstrong; Victor P. Pasko; Mark A. Stanley

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCI and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in modifying a model in which the halogen (Cl and F) concentration in the mineral apatite in mid-crustal silicic plutonic systems can be used to make estimates of magmatic Cl and F concentrations at the time apatite was crystallizing is reviewed briefly. (MHR)

Piccoli, P.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine) Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine) Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection The wastewater discharge regulations require that a license be obtained for the discharge of wastewater to a stream, river, wetland, or lake of the

53

The Influence of Catalysts on Discharge and Charge Voltages of Rechargeable Li–Oxygen Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study revealed the strong influence of carbon, Au/C, and Pt/C catalysts on the charge and discharge voltages of rechargeable Li–O[subscript 2] batteries. Li–O[subscript 2] single-cell measurements showed that Au/C had ...

Gasteiger, Hubert A.

54

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depending on the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide. Most synthesis gas is produced by the steam reform reaction. Industrially, steam reforming is performed over a Ni/ Al2O3 catalyst.9 The typical problemSynthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K

Mallinson, Richard

55

Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards (Oklahoma) Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This program of the Water Quality Division of the Department of Environmental Quality sets the point source, biosolids (sewage sludge), and stormwater permitting standards for discharges to the waters of the State

56

Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

Gutsol, Alexander F. (San Ramon, CA); Fridman, Alexander (Marlton, NJ); Blank, Kenneth (Philadelphia, PA); Korobtsev, Sergey (Moscow, RU); Shiryaevsky, Valery (Moscow, RU); Medvedev, Dmitry (Moscow, RU)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

57

DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

1962-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush

Rollins, Andrew M.

59

Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes  

SciTech Connect

A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Beam discharge excited by distributed virtual cathode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of beam discharge, i.e., beam discharge with a distributed virtual cathode (VC) is proposed and considered by numerical simulation. The discharge is established during counter motion of high-current electron beams in a gas-filled equipotential cavity and is characterized by a state of hot dense electron plasma of primary electrons. The discharge temporal dynamics is studied. It is shown that the VC lifetime depends linearly from this sum in a wide range of the sum of beam currents, from the boundary current of two-beam instability to the critical current of Pierce instability. Generation of nonlinear electrostatic structures shaped as phase bubbles in the discharge is detected, and their dynamics is studied. The parameters are determined, at which the multiple coexistence of phase bubbles and their coalescence during collisions is observed.

Barabanov, V. N.; Dubinov, A. E.; Loiko, M. V.; Saikov, S. K.; Selemir, V. D. [All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Spontaneous discharge in nickel-zinc accumulations  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined discharge in nickel-zinc accumulators and monitored the gas. The measurements were made at room temperature with types having two layers of hydrated cellulose separators on the zinc electrodes and capron separators on the nickel oxide ones. There was a ratio of 2.5 between the active masses of the negative and positive electrodes. After three controlled cycles the accumulators were tested for spontaneous discharge. Then they determined the spontaneous discharge after use. The hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen in the gas were determined by a gasometric method in combination with gas chromatography. The zinc and the nickel oxide electrodes contribute to the self-discharge, which considerably exceeds the capacity loss determined from the hydrogen production. The zinc electrode corrosion indicated by the hydrogen production increases when the accumulator is operated. When a charged battery is stored, nitrogen is produced as well as hydrogen and oxygen. The nitrate accelerates the spontaneous discharge.

Dmitrenko, V.E.; Zubov, M.S.; Kuznetsova, L.N.; Okhlobystin, N.I.; Toguzov, B.M.; Tikhomirov, Yu.V.

1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about carbon tetrachloride.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Programmatic Points of Contact Carbon Storage Program Infrastructure Coordinator Carbon Storage...

65

Tectonic controls on magmatism in The Geysers--Clear Lake region: Evidence from new geophysical models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to study magmatism and geothermal systems in the Geysers-Clear Lake region, the authors developed a detailed three-dimensional tomographic velocity model based on local earthquakes. This high-resolution model resolves the velocity structure of the crust in the region to depths of approximately 12 km. The most significant velocity contrasts in The Geysers-Clear Lake region occur in the steam production area, where high velocities are associated with a Quaternary granite pluton, and in the Mount Hannah region, where low velocities occur in a 5-km-thick section of Mesozoic argillites. In addition, a more regional tomographic model was developed using traveltimes from earthquakes covering most of northern California. This regional model sampled the whole crust, but at a lower resolution than the local model. No large silicic magma chamber is noted in either the local or regional tomographic models. A three-dimensional gravity model also has ben developed in the area of the tomographic imaging. The gravity model demonstrates that all density contrasts can be accounted for in the upper 5--7 km of the crust. Two-dimensional magnetotelluric models of data from a regional east-west profile indicate high resistivities associated with the granitic pluton in The Geysers production area and low resistivities in the low-velocity section of Mesozoic argillites near Mount Hannah. No indication of midcrustal magma bodies is present in the magnetotelluric data. The geophysical models, seismicity patterns, distribution of volcanic vents, heat flow, and other data indicate that small, young intrusive bodies that were injected along a northeast trend from The Geysers to Clear Lake probably control the thermal regime.

Stanley, W.D.; Benz, H.M.; Villasenor, A.; Rodriguez, B.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center; Walters, M.A. [CalEnergy Corp., Ridgecrest, CA (United States)] [CalEnergy Corp., Ridgecrest, CA (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Nano-carbon materials for cold cathode applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nano-carbon thin film materials were obtained by chemical vapor deposition in dc discharge activated hydrogen-methane gas mixture. Film structure, surface morphology and phase composition was studied by Raman, electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy ... Keywords: CVD, carbon, field emission, nanostructures

A. N. Obraztsov; Al. A. Zakhidov; A. P. Volkov; D. A. Lyashenko

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nonthermal carbon monoxide plasma is known to produce a solid deposition which is thought to be a polymer of carbon suboxide (C3O2); however there are very few investigations of this deposition in the literature. This thesis contains an analysis of the theoretical thermodynamics and kinetics of carbon suboxide formation as well as experimental results. The theoretical analysis suggests that carbon suboxide may be an equilibrium product even at ambient conditions but favors lower temperatures; furthermore if solid carbon is considered to be kinetically limited, and therefore not a product, then carbon suboxide is more likely to be a product under these pseudo-equilibrium conditions. Experimentally, solid films were produced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) containing pure carbon monoxide. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the plasma and models of the emission spectra were created to determine the plasma temperatures. Deposition rates were determined to be on the order of 0.2 mg/min at a power of about 10W; it is expected however that these conditions are not optimized. The overall kinetics of carbon suboxide was analyzed and optimal conditions for operation can be estimated. Characterization of the solid depositions were carried out using Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS), and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-MS). The characteristics of the film are very comparable to hydrolyzed carbon suboxide polymer suggesting that carbon suboxide polymer were in fact created in the carbon monoxide plasma at atmospheric conditions.

Geiger, Robert

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Spark-plasma Sintering vs. High Voltage Electric Discharge ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High voltage electric discharge consolidation (HVEDC) includes high axial pressure and discharge of the electrical energy stored in capacitors, thus enabling a ...

69

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than...

70

Environmental constituents of Electrical Discharge Machining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional process that uses no mechanical forces to machine metals. It is extremely useful in machining hard materials. With the advantages EDM has to offer and its presence ...

Cho, Margaret H. (Margaret Hyunjoo), 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experiments were performed on the disk surface of a ball-on-rotating-disk apparatus; using a glass disk and a Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) ball arrangement, and a polyester disks and a diamondlike carbon (DLC) coated steel ball arrangement. The capacitive probe is designed to perform highly resolved measurements, which is sensitive to relative change in charge density on the probed surface. For glass and Teflon arrangement, electrical measurements show that the ball track acquires non-uniform charging. Here not only the increase in charge density, but interestingly, increase in number of highly charged regions on the ball track was resolved. Threefold increase in the number of such highly charged regions per cycle was detected immediately before the gas breakdown-like incidences compared to that of other charge/discharge incidences at a fixed disk rotation speed. We are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly indicate that the wear and friction (sliding without charging) on the surface can be discarded from inducing such a deoxidation effect.

Singh, S. V.; Kusano, Y. [Department of Wind Energy, Section of Composites and Materials Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, Risoe Campus, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Morgen, P. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark); Michelsen, P. K. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.

CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; NIKROO, A

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

74

Carbon Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

75

Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

Sharma, Amit K. (Richland, WA); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson, Gary B. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

Sharma, Amit K. (Plainsboro, NJ); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson; Gary B. (Richland, WA)

2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

77

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes. Sponsored by: TMS Electronic, Magnetic and Photonic Materials Division Date and Time: Sunday, February 13, 2005 ~ 8:30 am-5:00 pm

78

Carbon Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... The graphene film was spin-coated using carbon nanotubes to form the cathode of the field emission device. A phosphor coated graphene-PET ...

79

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NETL: Carbon Storage - Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSLF Carbon Storage Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum CSLF Logo The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) is a voluntary climate initiative of industrially developed and...

82

Study of Methane Reforming in Warm Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilization of natural gas in remote locations necessitates on-site conversion of methane into liquid fuels or high value products. The first step in forming high value products is the production of ethylene and acetylene. Non-thermal plasmas, due to their unique nonequilibrium characteristics, offer advantages over traditional methods of methane reforming. Different kinds of non-thermal plasmas are being investigated for methane reforming. Parameters of these processes like flow rate, discharge size, temperature and other variables determine efficiency of conversion. An efficient process is identified by a high yield and low specific energy of production for the desired product. A study of previous work reveals that higher energy density systems are more efficient for methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons as compared to low energy density systems. Some of the best results were found to be in the regime of warm discharges. Thermal equilibrium studies indicate that higher yields of ethylene are possible with an optimal control of reaction kinetics and fast quenching. With this idea, two different glow discharge reactor systems are designed and constructed for investigation of methane reforming. A counter flow micro plasma discharge system was used to investigate the trends of methane reforming products and the control parameters were optimized to get best possible ethylene yields while minimizing its specific energy. Later a magnetic glow discharge system is used and better results are obtained. Energy costs lower than thermal equilibrium calculations were achieved with magnetic glow discharge systems for both ethylene and acetylene. Yields are obtained from measurements of product concentrations using gas chromatography and power measurements are done using oscilloscope. Energy balance and mass balances are performed for product measurement accuracy and carbon deposition calculations. Carbon deposition is minimized through control of the temperature and residence time conditions in magnetic glow discharges. Ethylene production is observed to have lower specific energies at higher powers and lower flow rates in both reactors. An ethylene selectivity of 40 percent is achieved at an energy cost of 458MJ/Kg and an input energy cost of 5 MJ/Kg of methane.

Parimi, Sreekar

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Micro Electro Discharge Machining of Electrically Nonconductive Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EDM is a known process for machining of hard and brittle materials. Due to its noncontact and nearly forceless behaviour, it has been introduced into micro manufacturing and through constant development it is now an important means for producing high-precision micro geometries. One restriction of EDM is its limitation to electrically conducting materials.Today many applications, especially in the biomedical field, make use of the benefits of ceramic materials, such as high strength, very low wear and biocompatibility. Common ceramic materials such as Zirconium dioxide are, due to their hardness in the sintered state, difficult to machine with conventional cutting techniques. A demand for the introduction of EDM to these materials could so far not be satisfied because of their nonconductive nature.At the Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer IWU, investigations in the applicability of micro-EDM for the machining of nonconductive ceramics are being conducted. Tests are undertaken using micro-EDM drilling with Tungsten carbide tool electrodes and ZrO{sub 2} ceramic workpieces. A starting layer, in literature often referred to as 'assisting electrode' is used to set up a closed electric circuit to start the EDM process. Combining carbon hydride based dielectric and a specially designed low-frequency vibration setup to excite the workpiece, the process environment can be held within parameters to allow for a constant EDM process even after the starting layer is machined. In the experiments a cylindrical 120 {mu}m diameter Tungsten carbide tool electrode and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} worpieces are used. The current and voltage signals of the discharges within the different stages of the process (machining of the starting layer, machining of the base material, transition stage) are recorded and their characteristics compared to discharges in metallic material. Additionally, the electrode feed is monitored. The influences of the process parameters are analysed with regard to the discharge type, electrode wear and process speed.Using the found parameters, micro geometries can be successfully machined into nonconductive Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} ceramic by means of micro-EDM.

Schubert, A. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Wolf, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Review of Positive and Bipolar Lightning Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of lightning discharges that transport either positive charge or both positive and negative charges to the ground are reviewed. These are termed positive and bipolar lightning discharges, respectively. Different types of positive ...

V. A. Rakov

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Seasonal Predictability of European Discharge: NAO and Hydrological Response Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the skill of seasonal prediction of river discharge and how this skill varies between the branches of European rivers across Europe is assessed. A prediction system of seasonal (winter and summer) discharge is evaluated using 1) ...

M. F. P. Bierkens; L. P. H. van Beek

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Experimental investigation of electron multipactor discharges at very high frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multipactor discharges are a resonant condition in which electrons impact a surface in phase with an alternating electric field. The discharge is sustained by electron multiplication from secondary emission. As motivation, ...

Graves, Timothy P. (Timothy Paul)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electronic High-Intensity Discharge Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update addresses the most promising controllable energy efficient light source electronic high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting. Business and technical market factors (Chapter 2) explain the upcoming growth of the HID lamp and electronic HID ballast market. Future technical improvements are emphasized along with discussion of the importance of utility involvement in helping their customers make the switch from magnetically-ballasted HID lighting to higher efficiency electronic HID l...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Generation of hydrogen-rich gas using non equilibrium plasma discharges.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation investigates Non equilibrium plasma discharges, particularly gliding arc plasma discharge and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as alternative techniques to thermal or catalytic conversion… (more)

Odeyemi, Olufela O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable  

SciTech Connect

A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

Hendricks, Terry Joseph (Arvada, CO); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of temporal variability. An additional 34 platforms were sampled one time. The 50 sampled platforms were scattered throughout the hypoxic zone to give an estimate of spatial variability. Each platform was sampled for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN]), and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). In addition to these parameters, each sample was monitored for pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature. The sampling provided average platform concentrations for each parameter. Table ES-1 shows the mean, median, maximum, and minimum for the sampled parameters. For some of the parameters, the mean is considerably larger than the median, suggesting that one or a few data points are much higher than the rest of the points (outliers). Chapter 4 contains an extensive discussion of outliers and shows how the sample results change if outliers are deleted from consideration. A primary goal of this study is to estimate the mass loading (lb/day) of each of the oxygen-demanding pollutants from the 50 platforms sampled in the study. Loading is calculated by multiplying concentrations by the discharge volume and then by a conversion factor to allow units to match. The loadings calculated in this study of 50 platforms represent a produced water discharge volume of about 176,000 bbl/day. The total amount of produced water generated in the hypoxic zone during the year 2003 was estimated as 508,000 bbl/day. This volume is based on reports by operators to the Minerals Management Service each year. It reflects the volume of produced water that is generated from each lease, not the volume that is discharged from each platform. The mass loadings from offshore oil and gas discharges to the entire hypoxic zone were estimated by multiplying the 50-platform loadings by the ratio of total water generated to 50-platform discharge volume. The loadings estimated for the 50 platforms and for the entire hypoxic zone are shown in Table ES-2. These estimates and the sampling data from 50 platfo

Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A.; Rechner, A. C.

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Print E-mail U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program The U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, in consultation with the Carbon Cycle...

94

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

95

General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and Procedures and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and Procedures and Criteria for Issuing Water Discharge Permits (Connecticut) General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and Procedures and Criteria for Issuing Water Discharge Permits (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

96

Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

Yao, Neng-Ping (Hinsdale, IL); Walsh, William J. (Naperville, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

98

Carbon particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Highly ionized atoms in tokamak discharges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tokamak discharges are characterized by electron densities usually approximately 0.3 to 1.0 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and temperatures from a few hundred eV to several keV. In addition to the working gas (H or He), the plasma normally contains some light impurities (approximately 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ O or C) that are completely stripped except at the outer periphery, and heavier elements from the vacuum wall and current-aperture limiter (Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Mo and others, approximately 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/) that remain partly stripped, hence relatively strongly radiating, throughout the discharge. Other elements, especially noble gases, may be deliberately added for diagnostic purposes. Resonance lines of Fe and Ar in the beryllium and lithium sequences, of Fe, Kr, and Mo in the magnesium and sodium sequences, and of Mo and Xe in the zinc and copper sequences have been used for rough determination of plasma composition. Since crucial plasma characteristics such as temperature and confinement time are sensitively affected by the local composition, it is essential to improve the available atomic data necessary for more accurate analysis: wavelengths, transition probabilities, excitation, ionization and recombination rates, especially for the heavier elements.

Hinnov, E.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Dissolved organic matter discharge in the six largest arctic rivers-chemical composition and seasonal variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vulnerability of the Arctic to climate change has been realized due to disproportionately large increases in surface air temperatures which are not uniformly distributed over the seasonal cycle. Effects of this temperature shift are widespread in the Arctic but likely include changes to the hydrological cycle and permafrost thaw, which have implications for the mobilization of organic carbon into rivers. The focus of this research was to describe the seasonal variability of the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the six largest Arctic rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie, Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) using optical properties (UV-Vis Absorbance and Fluorescence) and lignin phenol analysis. We also investigated differences between rivers and how watershed characteristics influence DOM composition. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations followed the hydrograph with highest concentrations measured during peak river flow. The chemical composition of peak-flow DOM indicates a dominance of freshly leached material with elevated aromaticity, larger molecular weight, and elevated lignin yields relative to base-flow DOM. During peak flow, soils in the watershed are still frozen and snowmelt water follows a lateral flow path to the river channels. As the soils thaw, surface water penetrates deeper into the soil horizons leading to lower DOC concentrations and likely altered composition of DOM due to sorption and microbial degradation processes. The six rivers studied here shared a similar seasonal pattern and chemical composition. There were, however, large differences between rivers in terms of total carbon discharge reflecting the differences in watershed characteristics such as climate, catchment size, river discharge, soil types, and permafrost distribution. The large rivers (Lena, Yenisei), with a greater proportion of permafrost, exported the greatest amount of carbon. The Kolyma and Mackenzie exported the smallest amount of carbon annually, however, the discharge weighted mean DOC concentration was almost 2-fold higher in the Kolyma, again, indicating the importance of continuous permafrost. The quality and quantity of DOM mobilized into Arctic rivers appears to depend on the relative importance of surface run-off and extent of soil percolation. The relative importance of these is ultimately determined by watershed characteristics.

Rinehart, Amanda J.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge

103

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting. Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas

104

Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Construction Transportation Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environment and Natural Resources This rule requires permits for control of sources of water pollution by providing the requirements and procedures for application and issuance of state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for a discharge from an outlet, point source, or disposal system discharging to the surface waters of the state, and for the construction, entering a contract for construction, and operation of treatment works with such a

105

Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

106

Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices  

SciTech Connect

A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Circuit arrangement for starting and operating a gas discharge laser  

SciTech Connect

A circuit arrangement is described for starting and operating a gas discharge laser having a starting phase and an operating phase. It consists of two supply lines for supplying a direct current to the gas discharge laser, a ballast resistor connected in at least one of the supply lines, and circuit means in shunt with the ballast resistor through which a starting current flows during the starting phase of the gas discharge laser.

Bolhuis, P.J.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960" Categories: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

109

Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Unavailable Author(s): Unknown Published: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Date Unknown Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Source: View Original Document Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Notice_of_Intent_(NOI)_for_Storm_Water_Discharges_Associated_with_Construction_Activities_under_TPDES_General_Permit_(TXR150000)&oldid=598006"

110

High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation of Tantalum Powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The high voltage electric discharge consolidation (HVEDC) is a promising method of the volumetric-porous body manufacturing, which can be ...

111

(SPS) and High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation (HVEDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Inter-Particle Contact Phenomena in Spark-Plasma Sintering ( SPS) and High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation (HVEDC). Author(s) ...

112

(SPS) and High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation (HVEDC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Local Heat Balance in Spark-plasma Sintering (SPS) and High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation (HVEDC). Author(s), Eugene ...

113

Stress Effect on Charge and Discharge Rate and Energy Efficiency ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Stress Effect on Charge and Discharge Rate and Energy Efficiency of Li-alloy Electrodes. Author(s), Yifan Gao, Min Zhou. On-Site Speaker

114

State Surface Water Discharge Permits (New Hampshire) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Information New Hampshire Program Type Environmental Regulations Rules apply to the discharge of all...

115

Extreme-UV electrical discharge source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

Fornaciari, Neal R. (Tracey, CA); Nygren, Richard E. (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, NM); Ulrickson, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

117

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed climatologists because of possible catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar (Photosynthesis) energy, and genetic engineering. Some exciting new developments in genetic engineering will be touched on together with established bio-engineering-aquaculture, hydroponics, yeast, pharmaceutical production, fermentation, single cell protein, etc. A 'bio-factory' will be described, with a feed stream of carbon dioxide, water, nutrients containing sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements, and living culture interacting with light under controlled conditions to yield food and raw materials. Candidate products will be suggested and a few of the problems anticipated. Engineering and logistic requirements will be outlined and the economic impact assessed.

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Alternative Minimum Levels for Utility Aqueous Discharges: Chemical Analytical Measurement Guide for National Pollutant Discharge El imination System (NPDES) Permits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act requires the electric utility industry to monitor their wastewater discharges to ensure compliance with discharge permit limits. EPRI developed a new definition of quantitation level appropriate to water quality compliance monitoring and used data from its previous studies on trace element analysis of utility wastewaters to calculate Alternative Minimum Levels (AMLs). The approach developed in this report will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits to meet effluen...

1997-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

120

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

122

Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs  

SciTech Connect

I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed that the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes commonly contain dissolved CO{sub 2} that originated from the volcanoes. This volcanic CO{sub 2} component is readily identified from carbon-14 measurements of the water. Carbon-14 analyses of the Fall River samples indicate that at least 27% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the springs was derived from a volcanic CO{sub 2} source. Such a large volcanic CO{sub 2} flux requires that the groundwater supplying flow to the Fall River Springs must originate from a volcano where magma degassing is actively occurring. Given the hydrogeologic configuration of the Fall River aquifer system, it appears that the Medicine Lake Volcano is the only likely source of the volcanic CO{sub 2}. These data independently confirm the Medicine Lake highlands as a significant recharge source for the Fall River Springs. Moreover, these data indicate that groundwater recharge occurring on Medicine Lake Volcano must interact with a CO{sub 2} volatile phase derived from the geothermal system beneath the volcano. The lack of hot springs on Medicine Lake Volcano suggests that the geothermal system underlying the volcano is relatively tightly sealed. Nevertheless, it is probable that the geothermal fluid originates from precipitation falling on the volcanic edifice. This is the same water that supplies an important fraction of the Fall River Spring discharge. The source of the geothermal fluid can be evaluated using stable isotopes. The oxygen isotope signature of the geothermal fluid may have been modified by high temperature oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding rock, but the hydrogen isotope signature should still be diagnostic of the origin of the fluid. Although the geothermal system appears to be largely decoupled from the shallow groundwater system that supplies the Fall River Springs, it is uncertain what impact the development of the geothermal system as an energy resource would have on groundwater circulation patterns on the volcano. Given the importance of the Fall River Springs as a water resource for the

Rose, T

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed that the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes commonly contain dissolved CO{sub 2} that originated from the volcanoes. This volcanic CO{sub 2} component is readily identified from carbon-14 measurements of the water. Carbon-14 analyses of the Fall River samples indicate that at least 27% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the springs was derived from a volcanic CO{sub 2} source. Such a large volcanic CO{sub 2} flux requires that the groundwater supplying flow to the Fall River Springs must originate from a volcano where magma degassing is actively occurring. Given the hydrogeologic configuration of the Fall River aquifer system, it appears that the Medicine Lake Volcano is the only likely source of the volcanic CO{sub 2}. These data independently confirm the Medicine Lake highlands as a significant recharge source for the Fall River Springs. Moreover, these data indicate that groundwater recharge occurring on Medicine Lake Volcano must interact with a CO{sub 2} volatile phase derived from the geothermal system beneath the volcano. The lack of hot springs on Medicine Lake Volcano suggests that the geothermal system underlying the volcano is relatively tightly sealed. Nevertheless, it is probable that the geothermal fluid originates from precipitation falling on the volcanic edifice. This is the same water that supplies an important fraction of the Fall River Spring discharge. The source of the geothermal fluid can be evaluated using stable isotopes. The oxygen isotope signature of the geothermal fluid may have been modified by high temperature oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding rock, but the hydrogen isotope signature should still be diagnostic of the origin of the fluid. Although the geothermal system appears to be largely decoupled from the shallow groundwater system that supplies the Fall River Springs, it is uncertain what impact the development of the geothermal system as an energy resource would have on groundwater circulation patterns on the volcano. Given the importance of the Fall River Springs as a water resource for the

Rose, T

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

Model of Gamma Frequency Burst Discharge Generated by Conditional Backpropagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doiron, Brent, Andre´ Longtin, Ray W. Turner, and Leonard Maler. Model of gamma frequency burst dischargeModel of Gamma Frequency Burst Discharge Generated by Conditional Backpropagation BRENT DOIRON,1 ANDRE´ LONGTIN,1 RAY W. TURNER,2 AND LEONARD MALER3 1 Physics Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa

Longtin, André

125

LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LANL achieves milestone on wastewater discharge LANL achieves milestone on wastewater discharge LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge Industrial wastewater will be recycled as the result of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. January 20, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email Improved compliance while recycling millions of gallons of industrial wastewater LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, January 20, 2012-Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater will be recycled at Los Alamos National Laboratory as the result of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, which issues permits for

126

Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Construction Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Siting and Permitting The rules in this Subchapter apply to all persons proposing to construct, alter, extend, or operate any sewer system, treatment works, disposal system, contaminates soil treatment system, animal waste management system, stormwater management system or residual disposal/utilization system which does not discharge to surface waters of the state, including systems which discharge waste onto or below land surface.

127

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Radio frequency discharge with control of plasma potential distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A RF discharge plasma generator with additional electrodes for independent control of plasma potential distribution is proposed. With positive biasing of this ring electrode relative end flanges and longitudinal magnetic field a confinement of fast electrons in the discharge will be improved for reliable triggering of pulsed RF discharge at low gas density and rate of ion generation will be enhanced. In the proposed discharge combination, the electron energy is enhanced by RF field and the fast electron confinement is improved by enhanced positive plasma potential which improves the efficiency of plasma generation significantly. This combination creates a synergetic effect with a significantly improving the plasma generation performance at low gas density. The discharge parameters can be optimized for enhance plasma generation with acceptable electrode sputtering.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Dudnikov, A. [BINP, Novosibirsk 63090 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

Pinnaduwage, L.A.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

Pinnaduwage, Lal A. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture. Author(s), Stephen C. Hawkins,  ...

133

Low-Temperature Fluorination of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons for a High-Power Lithium/Carbon Fluoride Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soft-templated mesoporous carbons and activated mesoporous carbons were fluorinated using elemental fluorine between room temperature and 235 C. The mesoporous carbons were prepared via self-assembly synthesis of phloroglucinol formaldehyde as a carbon precursor in the presence of triblock ethylene oxide propylene oxide ethylene oxide copolymer BASF Pluronic F127 as the template. The F/C ratios ranged from 0.15 to 0.75 according to gravimetric, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Materials have mesopore diameters up to 11 nm and specific surface areas as high as 850 m2 g 1 after fluorination as calculated from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 196 C. Furthermore, the materials exhibit higher discharge potentials and energy and power densities as well as faster reaction kinetics under high current densities than commercial carbon fluorides with similar fluorine contents when tested as cathodes for Li/CFx batteries.

Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Adcock, Jamie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Carbon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations...Vancouver Island, BC, Canada Rural marine 13 0.5 Detroit, MI Industrial 14.5 0.57 Fort Amidor Pier, CZ Marine 14.5 0.57 Morenci, MI Urban 19.5 0.77 Potter County, PA Rural 20 0.8 Waterbury, CT Industrial 22.8 0.89 State College, PA Rural 23 0.9 Montreal, QC, Canada Urban 23 0.9 Durham, NH Rural 28 1.1...

135

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

136

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon: systems for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct electrochemical conversion of carbon involves discharge of suspensions of reactive carbon particles in a molten salt electrolyte against an oxygen (air) cathode. (Figure 1). The free energy and the enthalpy of the oxidation reaction are nearly identical. This allows theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H) to approach 100% at temperatures from 500 to 800 C. Entropy heat losses are therefore negligible. The activities of the elemental carbon and of the carbon dioxide product are uniform throughout the fuel cell and constant over discharge time. This stabilizes cell EMF and allows full utilization of the carbon fuel in a single pass. Finally, the energy cost for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is generally very low compared with that of steam reforming or water gas reactions. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon might be compared with molten carbonate fuel cell using carbon rather than hydrogen. However, there are important differences. There is no hydrogen involved (except from trace water contamination). The mixture of molten carbonate and carbon is not highly flammable. The carbon is introduced in as a particulate, rather than as a high volume flow of hydrogen. At the relatively low rates of discharge (about 1 kA/m{sup 2}), the stoichiometric requirements for carbon dioxide by the cathodic reaction may be met by diffusion across the thin electrolyte gap. We report recent experimental work at LLNL using melt slurries of reactive carbons produced by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. We have found that anodic reactivity of carbon in mixed carbonate melts depends strongly on form, structure and nano-scale disorder of the materials, which are fixed by the hydrocarbon starting material and the conditions of pyrolysis. Thus otherwise chemically pure carbons made by hydrocarbon pyrolysis show rates at fixed potentials that span an order of magnitude, while this range lies 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the current density of graphite plate electrodes. One carbon materials was identified which delivered anode current densities of 1 kA/m{sup 2} at 0.8 V (i.e., 80% efficiency, based on the standard enthalpy of carbon/oxygen reaction, and assuming full conversion), which we believe to be sufficiently great to allow practical application in fuel cell arrays. Since the hydrocarbon starting materials are ''ash free,'' entrainment of ash into the melt is not limiting. Finally, the use of fine carbon particulates in slurries avoids cost and logistics of carbon electrode manufacture and distribution.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Krueger, R

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Regulations for the Rhode Island Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations aim to protect surface water from pollutant discharges. They describe allowable discharges in the state that are subject to permits, discharges which may be made without permits,...

138

River Discharge into the Mediterranean Sea: Climatology and Aspects of the Observed Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

River discharge across the Mediterranean catchment basin is investigated by means of an extensive dataset of historical monthly time series to represent at-best discharge into the sea. Results give an annual mean river discharge into the ...

Maria Vittoria Struglia; Annarita Mariotti; Angelo Filograsso

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations and Water Quality Certification (Mississippi) Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations and Water Quality Certification (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential

140

Optical Emission of Dusty RF Discharges: Experiment and Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral emission of argon atoms in a dusty radio frequence (RF) discharge has been investigated experimentally and in simulations. It was observed that the spatially and temporally resolved emission of the argon atoms in the dusty discharge was increased compared to the dust-free case during sheath expansion. The corresponding simulations have revealed that the dust trapped in the sheath of the discharge leads to a small, but important, increase of the amount of high-energy electrons that in turn leads to an increased argon emission.

Melzer, A.; Lewerentz, L.; Schneider, R. [Institute of Physics, University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Huebner, S. [Institute of Physics, University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Technical University Eindhoven, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Matyash, K. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Ikkurthi, V. R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Ghandinagar, Gujarat (India)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Storm Water Discharge Permits (Wisconsin) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storm Water Discharge Permits (Wisconsin) Storm Water Discharge Permits (Wisconsin) Storm Water Discharge Permits (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info Start Date 08/2004 State Wisconsin Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin's storm water runoff regulations include permitting requirements for construction sites and industrial facilities, including those

142

Direct Conversion of Carbon Fuels in a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anodes of elemental carbon may be discharged in a galvanic cell using a molten carbonate electrolyte, a nickel-foam anode-current collector, and a porous nickel air cathode to achieve power densities of 40-100 mW/cm{sup 2}. We report cell and anode polarization, surface area, primary particle size and a crystallization index for nine particulate carbon samples derived from fuel oil, methane, coal, charred biological material and petroleum coke. At 800 C, current densities of 50-125 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured at a representative cell voltage of 0.8 V. Power densities for cells with two carbon-anode materials were found to be nearly the same on scales of 2.8- and 60 cm{sup 2} active area. Constant current operation of a small cell was accompanied by constant voltage during multiple tests of 10-30 hour duration. Cell voltage fell off after the carbon inventory was consumed. Three different cathode structures are compared, indicating that an LLNL fabricated porous nickel electrode with <10 {micro}m pores provides improved rates compared with nickel foam with 100-300 {micro}m pores. Petroleum coke containing substantial sulfur and ash discharges at a slightly lower rate than purified petroleum coke. The sulfur leads to degradation of the anode current collector over time. A conceptual model for electrochemical reactivity of carbon is presented which indicates the importance of (1) bulk lattice disorder, which continually provides surface reactive sites during anodic dissolution and (2) electrical conductivity, which lowers the ohmic component of anode polarization.

Cherepy, N J; Fiet, K J; Krueger, R; Jankowski, A F; Cooper, J F

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

144

Photophysics of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

Samsonidze, Georgii G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

146

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon ...  

This technology describes methods to fabricate supercapacitors using aligned carbon nanotubes that are decorated with metal oxide or nitride ...

148

DOE Carbon Sequestration Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Program Charles E. Schmidt Carbon Sequestration Product Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory David J. Beecy Director, Office of Environmental Systems...

149

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

150

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon

151

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.1 July.6 Monitoring 8 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 8 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 9 3. Carbon sequestration 10 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 10 3.2 Carbon baseline 10 3.3 Carbon leakage 11 3.4 Project

152

Permit Program Regulating Discharge of Nondomestic Wastewater into a POTW (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Any significant industrial user is required to apply for and obtain an individual indirect discharge permit if they discharge water or waste into a publicly owned treatment works.

153

Forecasting the Anomalous Discharge of the Caroní River, Venezuela  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study develops methods for the extended-range forecasting of the February–March minimum of water discharge of the Caroní River in eastern Venezuela, a watershed providing more than 70% of the hydroelectric power for the country. The ...

Stefan Hastenrath; Lawrence Greischar; Esperanza Colón; Alfredo Gil

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Estimates of Freshwater Discharge from Continents: Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual and monthly mean values of continental freshwater discharge into the oceans are estimated at 1° resolution using several methods. The most accurate estimate is based on streamflow data from the world's largest 921 rivers, supplemented with ...

Aiguo Dai; Kevin E. Trenberth

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

Wilde, Edward W. (1833 Pisgah Rd., North Augusta, SC 29841); Benemann, John R. (2741 O' Harte, San Pablo, CA 94806); Weissman, Joseph C. (2086 N. Porpoise Pt. La., Vero Beach, FL 32963); Tillett, David M. (911-3 Coquina La., Vero Beach, FL 32963)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

Dylla, H.F.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN [total Kjeldahl nitrogen]) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

Parker, M. E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division; ExxonMobil Production Co.; Shell Offshore

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

PARTICLE TRACKING ANALYSIS & ANIMATIONS DEPICTING MOVEMENT OF THE CARBON TETRACHLORIDE PLUME REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the hydraulic particle tracking animation files is to show where carbon tetrachloride that reached groundwater from the known discharge facilities would have been likely to travel fin the groundwater, and from where carbon tetrachloride presently observed in the aquifer likely would have started. These analyses support the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit activity to identify sources of carbon tetrachloride currently observed in groundwater or locations where carbon tetrachloride may have entered the groundwater. The animation files show travel paths (both forward and backward in time) for hypothetical particles of carbon tetrachloride carried in the groundwater. The travel paths represent the movement of the carbon tetrachloride at the average groundwater velocity. The particles only represent an estimation of where the carbon tetrachloride would be expected to be (or have come from) and do not indicate or imply what the concentration in the groundwater would be.

MCMAHON, W.J.; ROHAY, V.J.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Onion-Like Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors Simulations explain experimental results for electrical storage devices June 1, 2012 JiangCummingsCoverLarge.gif Capacitance and geometry effects revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. The OLC and the ionic liquid that were the basis of the simulation are shown in the lower left. (Guang Feng, De-en Jiang, Peter T. Cummings, © ACS Publications) The two most important electrical storage technologies are batteries and capacitors. Batteries can store a lot of energy, but have slow charge and discharge rates. Capacitors generally store less energy but have very fast (nearly instant) charge and discharge rates, and last longer than rechargeable batteries. Developing technologies that combine the optimal

163

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Guiding of 35 TW laser pulses in ablative capillary discharge waveguides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ablatively driven capillary discharge plasma waveguide has been used to demonstrate guiding of 30 fs, 35 TW laser pulses over distances up to 3 cm with incident intensity in excess of 4x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The plasma density range over which good guiding was observed was 1-3x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The quality of the laser spot at the exit mode was observed to be similar to that at the entrance and the transmitted energy was {approx}25% at input powers of 35 TW. The transmitted laser spectrum typically showed blueshifting due to ionization of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the capillary plasma by the high intensity laser pulse. The low plasma density regime in which these capillaries operate makes these devices attractive for use in single stage electron accelerators to multi-GeV energies driven by petawatt class laser systems.

McGuffey, C.; Matsuoka, T.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Levin, M.; Zigler, A. [Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Discharge to Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discharge to Ocean Discharge to Ocean Fact Sheet - Discharge to Ocean Past Practices In early offshore oil and gas development, drilling wastes were generally discharged from the platforms directly to the ocean. Until several decades ago, the oceans were perceived to be limitless dumping grounds. During the 1970s and 1980s, however, evidence mounted that some types of drilling waste discharges could have undesirable effects on local ecology, particularly in shallow water. When water-based muds (WBMs) were used, only limited environmental harm was likely to occur, but when operators employed oil-based muds (OBMs) on deeper sections of wells, the resulting cuttings piles created impaired zones beneath and adjacent to the platforms. At some North Sea locations, large piles of oil-based cuttings remain on the sea floor near the platforms. Piles of oil-based cuttings can affect the local ecosystem in three ways: by smothering organisms, by direct toxic effect of the drilling waste, and by anoxic conditions caused by microbial degradation of the organic components in the waste. Current regulatory controls minimize the impacts of permitted discharges of cuttings.

167

Fluid-inclusion gas composition from an active magmatic-hydrothermal system: a case study of The Geysers, California geothermal field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal alteration and the active vapor-dominated geothermal system at The Geysers, CA are related to a composite hypabyssal granitic pluton emplaced beneath the field 1.1 to 1.2 million years ago. Deep drill holes provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modem-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modem vapor-dominated regime at 0.25 to 0.28 Ma. Maximum temperatures and salinities ranged from 440 C and 44 wt. percent NaCl equivalent in the biotite hornfels adjacent to the pluton to 305 C and 5 wt. percent NaCl equivalent at distances of 1730 m from the intrusive contact. The major, minor, and noble gas compositions of fluid inclusions in the hydrothermally altered rocks were integrated with microthermometric and mineralogic data to determine their sources and the effects of mixing and boiling. Major and minor gaseous species were released from the inclusions by crushing or thermal decrepitation; noble gases were released by crushing. The samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The analyses document the presence of magmatic, crustal, and meteoric components in the trapped fluids. Hydrothermal fluids present during the liquid-dominated phase of the system contained gaseous species derived mainly from crustal and magmatic sources. At The Geysers, N-2/Ar ratios greater than 525 and He-3/He-4 ratios of 6-10.7 Ra are diagnostic of a magmatic component. Crustal gas has CO2/CH4 ratios less than 4, N-2/Ar ratios between 45 and 525, and low 3He/4He ratios (0.5 Ra). Meteoric fluids have CO2/CH4 ratios greater than 4 and N2/Ar ratios between 38 (air-saturated water) and 84 (air). However, N-2/Ar ratios between 15 and 110 can result from boiling. Ratios less than 15 reflect the incorporation of N-2 into NH3-bearing clay minerals. In the central Geysers, the incursion of meteoric fluids occurred during the transition from the liquid- to vapor-dominated regime. Variations in the relative CH4, CO2, and H-2 contents of the gas analyses demonstrate that boiling took place under open-system conditions. The gas data indicate that the inclusions have remained closed to the diffusion of He and H-2 since their formation.

Moore, Joseph N.; Norman, David I.; Kennedy, B. Mack.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

169

Mechanomutable Carbon Nanotube Arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Polymer Nanocomposites. Presentation Title, Mechanomutable Carbon ...

170

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 ? mAh ? g ? 1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 ? mA ? g ? 1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance

Rui Huang; Xing Fan; Wanci Shen; Jing Zhu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon Sequestration: The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a carbon sink through biological or physical processes. Carbon Sink: ...

175

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Carbon Capture and Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration...

176

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum

Chorowski, M

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites. Summary: Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs ...

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Rules and Regulations Pertaining to a User Fee System for Point Source Dischargers that Discharge Pollutants into the Waters of the State (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations establish a user fee system for point source dischargers that discharge pollutants into the surface waters of the State. The funds from such fees are used by the Department of...

179

Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon Fibers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Fibers in Lightweight Systems for Wind Energy and Automotive Applications: Availability and Challenges for the Future Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon...

180

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Developmen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

182

Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

183

Carbon Management and Carbon Dioxide Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Gas Stream Component Analysis Techniques and Strategies for Carbon Capture Systems from Oxy-Fuel Combustion (An Overview).

184

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) Projects (4584), 4/11/2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) Projects (4584) Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) Projects (4584) Program or Field Office: Y -12 Site Office Location(s) (Citv/Countv/State): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee Proposed Action Description: Submit by E-mail The proposed action is to installation of oil submerged Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) for development and production use. Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: 81.31 -Installation or relocation of machinery and equipment For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, including the full text of each categorical exclusion, see Subpart D of 10 CFR Part 1021. Regulatory Requirements in 10 CFR 1021.410(b): (See full text in regulation) [{Jrhe proposal fits within a class of actions that is listed in Appendix A orB to 10 CFR Part 1021, Subpart D.

185

Metallic carbon materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

NETL: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RCSP Carbon Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded cooperative agreements to seven Regional Carbon Sequestration...

187

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The Li-O2 chemistry in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes and the underneath reason of its limited reversibility was exhaustively investigated. The discharge products collected from the air cathode in a Li-O2 battery at different depth of discharge (DOD) were systematically analyzed with X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, independent of the discharge depth, lithium alkylcarbonate (either lithium propylenedicarbonate - LPDC, or lithium ethylenedicarbonate - LEDC, with other related derivatives) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are always the main products, obviously originated from the electrolyte solvents propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC). These lithium alkylcarbonates are obviously generated from the single-electron reductive decomposition of the corresponding carbonate solvents initiated by the attack of superoxide radical anions. On the other hand, neither lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nor lithium oxide (Li2O) is detected. More significantly, from in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy it is found that Li2CO3 and Li2O cannot be oxidized even when charged up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+, while LPDC, LEDC and Li2O2 are readily able to, with CO2 and CO released with the re-oxidation of LPDC and LEDC. It is therefore concluded that the quasi-reversibility of Li-O2 chemistry observed hitherto in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte is actually reliant on the formation of lithium alkylcarbonates through the reductive decomposition of carbonate solvents during discharge process and the subsequent oxidation of these same alkylcarbonates during charge process. It is the poor oxidizability of these alkylcarbonate species that constitutes the obstruction to an ideal rechargeable Li-O2 battery.

Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

For State Administration Of The National Pollutant For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Arkansas) Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant

190

Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS/sub 2/ and NiS/sub 2/ in about equal molar amounts along with about 2 to 20 mole % of the reaction product Li/sub 2/S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

Redey, L.

1986-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

High-power pulse modulator with ignitron discharger  

SciTech Connect

The high-power pulse modulator described here is used to produce spatial gaseous discharges and has an improved, controllable charging circuit, which permits a type ITR-4 ignitron discharger to be employed in a frequency mode as the basic commutator. The modulator is utilized in two modes: at a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz pulses are formed that have a duration of 25 usec and energies up to 3.5 kJ and at a frequency of 200 Hz, the pulses have a duration of -2 usec and energies up to 600 J. In all conditions the modulator operated stably with a wide range of load changes.

Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Artemov, V.A.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Kalinin, V.P.; Nikonov, V.P.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist.

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

NETL: Carbon Storage Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-571KB has been posted. 08.27.2013 Publications August 2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-1.1MB has been posted. 08.15.2013 News Ancient...

196

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

197

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

198

Carbon Footprint and Carbon Deficit Analysis of Iron and Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title ... Study on Capture, Recovery and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide.

199

Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010 ... Polymer Nanocomposites: Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Program ...

200

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carbon Mitigation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sustainable technologies such as CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS ... property diagnostic tools (under realistic conditions for carbon capture from ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

202

Big Sky Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership, Big Sky [BSCSP; ,

203

Electrocatalysts on Carbon Nanoparticles  

Carbon nanostructures offer extremely high surface areas and so are attractive candidates to support dispersed catalysts. These nanostructures, ...

204

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

land-use changes. When biofuel production increases, land ison carbon releases. If biofuel production does not result in

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Microstructural Characteristics and Charge-Discharge Behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Magnesium-carbon powders and Magnesium-lithium .... of Mg- Zn-Y Alloys Containing Quasicrystal Phase for Isotropic High Strength and ...

206

Effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical characteristics of pyrolytic carbon for anodes of lithium-ion secondary batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrochemical properties of new disordered carbon materials obtained by a gas-phase reaction of LPG (liquid propane gas) have been studied. Pyrolysis of LPG was performed in the temperature range 900 to 1,200 C. The lithium storage mechanism in these disordered carbons has been investigated by the charge-discharge tester, cyclic voltammeter, X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). As the synthesis temperature decreases, the reversible capacity of the disordered carbons increases and exceeds that of graphite (372 mAh/g) in the case of those synthesized below 1,100 C. A large hysteresis in the charge-discharge potential profiles is observed, but it disappears with an increase of the synthesis temperature. Cyclic voltammetric curves show that the charging current peak near 0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and the discharging current peak at ca. 1.1 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} increase gradually with a decrease of the synthesis temperature, these peaks correspond to the plateaus observed in the charge-discharge potential profiles. Micropores are observed in the disordered carbon synthesized below 1,000 C by HRTEM. The size of the micropores increases from 0.5 to 1 nm as the synthesis temperature decreases. XRD patterns and NMR spectra suggest that the high capacity and large hysteresis of these disordered carbons are due to the storage of lithium in the micropores.

Han, Y.S.; Yu, J.S.; Park, G.S.; Lee, J.Y.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Literature Review: Response of Fish to Thermal Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review of literature on the responses of fish species to thermal discharges was prepared from information contained in the EPRI Cooling System Effects Data Base. Tables of field and laboratory data on selected temperature variables for some 60 fish species are presented. Where possible, comparisons between field and laboratory observations are made.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

1982-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

209

Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system are described for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulic and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge. 4 figures.

Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.; Tillett, D.M.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

Argumentation-based framework for industrial wastewater discharges management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daily operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in unitary sewer systems of industrialized areas is of special concern. Severe problems can occur due to the characteristics of incoming flow. In order to avoid decision that leads to hazardous ... Keywords: Agents, Argumentation, Industrial discharge management, River basin management, Urban wastewater system, Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

M. Aulinas; P. Tolchinsky; C. Turon; M. Poch; U. Cortés

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

J56: Electrical Discharge Consolidation with Stud Welding Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main characteristic of the EDC technology is its high speed, in the order of ... Two different configurations with discharge voltages of 200 and 800 V, and ... B3: Consolidation of Silica/Graphene Oxide Composite by Spark Plasma Sintering ..... J5: Phase Equilibria and Tie-line Compositions of the ? and (?, ?, ?) Phases in  ...

212

Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

Pleasance, Lyn D. (Livermore, CA); Murray, John R. (Danville, CA); Goldhar, Julius (Walnut Creek, CA); Bradley, Laird P. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Acoustic detection of partial discharges in insulation oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we performed an insulation diagnosis technique for oil-immersed power transformers by an acoustic detection method. Electrode system such as needle to plane electrode was fabricated to simulate a defect of power transformers. In addition, ... Keywords: acoustic detection, frequency component, insulation diagnostic, partial discharge, positioning

Dae-Won Park; Sang-Wook Cha; Gyung-Suk Kil

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Modelling the sensitivity to various factors of shipborne pollutant discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the marine pollution attributable to ship actions is associated with the illicit discharge of oily residues or ballast water, in what is commonly termed operational pollution. In the particular case of ballast water, careless disposal can lead ... Keywords: Ebro delta, Moving sources, Numerical modelling, Shipborne pollution

Marc Mestres; Joan Pau Sierra; César Mösso; Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

In situ electrochemical dilatometry of carbide-derived carbons  

SciTech Connect

The long life durability and extraordinary stability of supercapacitors are ascribed to the common concept that the charge storage is purely based on double-layer charging. Therefore the ideal supercapacitor electrode should be free of charge induced microscopic structural changes. However, recent in-situ investigations on different carbon materials for supercapacitor electrodes have shown that the charge and discharge is accompanied by dimensional changes of the electrode up to several percent. This work studies the influence of the pore size on the expansion behavior of carbon electrodes derived from titanium carbide-derived carbons with an average pore size between 5 and 8 Using tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, the swelling of the electrodes was measured by in situ dilatometry. The experiments revealed an increased expansion on the negatively charged electrode for pores below 6 , which could be described with pore swelling.

Hantel, M M [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Gogotsi, Yury [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

In-situ Electrochemical Dilatometry of Carbide-derived Carbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long life durability and extraordinary stability of supercapacitors are ascribed to the common concept that the charge storage is purely based on double-layer charging. Therefore the ideal supercapacitor electrode should be free of charge induced microscopic structural changes. However, recent in-situ investigations on different carbon materials for supercapacitor electrodes have shown that the charge and discharge is accompanied by dimensional changes of the electrode up to several percent. This work studies the influence of the pore size on the expansion behavior of carbon electrodes derived from titanium carbide-derived carbons with an average pore size between 5 and 8 Å. Using tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, the swelling of the electrodes was measured by in situ dilatometry. The experiments revealed an increased expansion on the negatively charged electrode for pores below 6 Å, which could be described with pore swelling.

Hantel, M. M.; Presser, V.; Kotz, R.; Gogotsi, Y.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

220

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

Das, Suman

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Effects of Geometry on the Corona-to-Streamer Discharge Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric spark discharge has been studied for hundreds of years, yet many details of the phenomenon remain elusive. One particular area in the field of spark discharges that has yet to be explored in depth is the transition region between the corona and the streamer discharge. The parameters that characterize the transition region are purely geometric for a given potential difference applied between two electrodes. For the case of a point-to-plane electrode geometry, the transition between the oscillating corona discharge and the rapidly-growing streamer discharge is determined by the radius of curvature of the anode. In this contribution, the transition radius of curvature is found analytically using simplified models of each discharge and the principle of least action. For a sufficiently small anode, the corona discharge is also shown to be energetically more favorable at all radii of curvature, supporting the general claim that corona discharges are most readily produced on thin wires.

Humbird, Kelli D

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Rules for the Discharge of Non-Sanitary Wastewater and Other...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the Discharge of Non-Sanitary Wastewater and Other Fluids To or Below the Ground Surface (Rhode Island) Rules for the Discharge of Non-Sanitary Wastewater and Other Fluids To...

223

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discharge Water Management for Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development Final Report Start Date: October 1, 2009 End Date: March 31, 2012 Authors: Paul Ziemkiewicz, PhD Jennifer Hause Raymond Lovett, PhD David Locke Harry Johnson Doug Patchen, PG Report Date Issued: June 2012 DOE Award #: DE-FE0001466 Submitting Organization: West Virginia Water Research Institute West Virginia University PO Box 6064 Morgantown, WV 26506-6064 FilterSure, Inc. PO Box 1277 McLean, VA 22101 ShipShaper, LLP PO Box 2 Morgantown, WV 26507 2 | P a g e Acknowledgment "This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FE0001466." Disclaimer "This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States

227

Analyses of MTI Imagery of Power Plant Thermal Discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MTI images of thermal discharge from three power plants are analyzed in this paper with the aid of a 3-D hydrodynamic code. The power plants use different methods to dissipate waste heat in the environment: a cooling lake at Comanche Peak, ocean discharge at Pilgrim and cooling canals at Turkey Point. This paper shows that it is possible to reproduce the temperature distributions captured in MTI imagery with accurate code inputs, but the key parameters change from site to site. Wind direction and speed are the most important parameters at Pilgrim, whereas air temperatures and dewpoint temperatures are most important at Comanche Peak and Turkey Point. This paper also shows how the combination of high-resolution thermal imagery and hydrodynamic simulation lead to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat is dissipated in the environment.

Garrett, A.J.

2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ArcSafe® ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  Joint Submitters Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1181 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1181 USA Larry Schneider Phone: (505) 845-7135 Fax: (505) 845-7685 Email: lxschne@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate represen- tation of this product. (Signature)______________________________________ Astronics-Advanced Electronic Systems, Inc. 9845 Willows Rd NE City: Redmond State: WA Zip/Postal: 98052-2540 USA Contact Name: Michael Ballas, Program Manager Phone: (425) 895-4304 Fax: (425)702.4930 Email: michael.ballas@astronics.com

229

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for producing an energetic gas arc discharge employing the use of gas-fed hollow cathode and anode electrodes is reported. The rate of feed of the gas to the electrodes is regulated to cause complete space charge neutralization to occur within the electrodes. The arc discharge is closely fitted within at least one of the electrodes so tint the gas fed to this electrode is substantially completely ionized before it is emitted into the vacuum chamber. It is this electrode design and the axial potential gradient that exists in the arc which permits the arc to be operated in low pressures and at volthges and currents that permit the arc to be energetic. The use of the large number of energetic ions that are accelerated toward the cathode as a propulsion device for a space vehicle is set forth.

Bell, P.R.; Luce, J.S.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Low energy neutral spectroscopy during pulsed discharge cleaning in PLT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The efflux of neutral hydrogen from PLT during discharge cleaning has been measured using a time-of-flight spectrometer. During high ionization pulsed discharge cleaning (PDC), the flux in the energy range of 5 to 1000 eV varies from 10/sup 14/ H/sup 0//cm/sup 2/xs to 10/sup 16/ H/sup 0//cm/sup 2/xs and the average energy from 10 to 80 eV. The energy distributions are nearly single temperature Maxwellians. Low ionization PDC (Taylor-type) produces a 1000 times lower fluence in the same energy range; however, a flux of 10/sup 16/ H/sup 0//cm/sup 2/xs at energies less than 5 eV is inferred. The detailed submillisecond time variation of these parameters with the fill gas pressure and state of cleanliness of the machine is presented. Comparisons with UV spectroscopy, bolometric measurements, and residual gas analysis are made.

Ruzic, D.; Cohen, S.; Denne, B.; Schivell, J.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Redox reactions with empirical potentials: Atomistic battery discharge simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Batteries are pivotal components in overcoming some of today's greatest technological challenges. Yet to date there is no self-consistent atomistic description of a complete battery. We take first steps toward modeling of a battery as a whole microscopically. Our focus lies on phenomena occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface which are not easily studied with other methods. We use the redox split-charge equilibration (redoxSQE) method that assigns a discrete ionization state to each atom. Along with exchanging partial charges across bonds, atoms can swap integer charges. With redoxSQE we study the discharge behavior of a nano-battery, and demonstrate that this reproduces the generic properties of a macroscopic battery qualitatively. Examples are the dependence of the battery's capacity on temperature and discharge rate, as well as performance degradation upon recharge.

Dapp, Wolf B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high-energy, high-efficiency, long pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The apparatus has been demonstrated with rare gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

Sze, R.C.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

1979-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

238

High energy XeBr electric discharge laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

240

Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

243

High energy KrCl electric discharge laser  

SciTech Connect

A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

The Use of DC Glow Discharges as Undergraduate Educational Tools  

SciTech Connect

Plasmas have a beguiling way of getting students excited and interested in physics. We argue that plasmas can and should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum as both demonstrations and advanced investigations of electromagnetism and quantum effects. Our device, based on a direct current (DC) glow discharge tube, allows for a number of experiments into topics such as electrical breakdown, spectroscopy, magnetism, and electron temperature.

Stephanie A. Wissel and Andrew Zwicker, Jerry Ross, and Sophia Gershman

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

An ultraviolet barrier-discharge OH molecular lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy and spectral parameters of a barrier discharge in a mixture of argon with hydroxyl {sup .}OH are studied experimentally. A sealed lamp with the radiation intensity maximum at {lambda} = 309.2 nm, an emitting surface area of {approx}700 cm{sup 2}, and a radiant excitance of 1.5 mW cm{sup -2} has been fabricated. The radiant power of the lamp is 1.1 W. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Avdeev, S M; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Panarin, V A; Skakun, V S; Tarasenko, Viktor F; Shitts, D V [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

247

Black hole discharge in massive electrodynamics and black hole disappearance in massive gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define and calculate the "discharge mode" for a Schwarzschild black hole in massive electrodynamics. For small photon mass, the discharge mode describes the decay of the electric field of a charged star collapsing into a black hole. We argue that a similar "discharge of mass" occurs in massive gravity and leads to a strange process of black hole disappearance.

Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

249

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

250

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

251

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

252

Mesoporous carbon materials  

SciTech Connect

The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

254

Stochastic fluctuations of dust particle charge in RF discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition to RF oscillations, intrinsic stochastic fluctuations due to the discreteness of electrons and ions could be important to the charging of a dust particle in RF discharges. These fluctuations are studied in the present work for three cases [M. Bacharis et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 19, 025002 (2010)] relevant to RF discharges employing a recently proposed model [B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 83, 066403 (2011)] valid for stochastic charging at nonstationary states. The cases are concerned with a time varying electron number density relevant to sheaths, a time varying electric field relevant to the bulk plasma, and a time-dependent bi-Maxwellian distribution of electrons in a low pressure discharge. Two dust particles with different sizes are individually studied in each case. The radius of one is ten times larger than the radius of the other. In all of the cases, for the larger dust particle, the root-mean-squre of charge stochastic fluctuations is about an order of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of RF charge oscillations, while for the smaller dust particle, they are comparable in magnitude.

Shotorban, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Recanati, Catherine

256

Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Electrically regenerated electrosorption process (carbon aerogel CDI) was developed by LLNL for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by numerous pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area (2-5.4x10{sup 6}ft{sup 2}lb{sup -1} or 400-1100 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and very low electrical resistivity ({le}40 m{Omega}). Ions are removed from the electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. It is concluded that carbon aerogel CDI may be an energy-efficient alternative to electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water ({le}5000 ppM). The intrinsic energy required by this process is about QV/2, where Q is the stored electrical charge and V is the voltage between the electrodes, plus losses. Estimated requirement for desalination of a 2000 ppM feed is -0.53-2.5 Wh/gal{sup -1} (0.5-2.4 kJ L{sup -1}), depending on voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, aerogel density, recovery ratio, etc. This assumes that 50-70% of the stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration (electrical discharge). Though the energy requirement for desalination of sea water is also low, this application will be much more difficult. Additional work will be required for desalination of streams that contain more than 5000 ppM total dissolved solids (2000 ppM will require electrochemical cells with extremely tight, demanding tolerances). At this present time, the process is best suited for streams with dilute impurities, as recently demonstrated during a field test at LLNL Treatment Facility C.

Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thomson, S.L.; May, S.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D Overview R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Justin "Judd" R. Swift Asst. Secretary for International Affairs Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy 2 nd U.S/China CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology Symposium May 28-29, 2008 Hangzhou, China Office of Fossil Energy Technological Carbon Management Options Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon  Renewables  Nuclear  Fuel Switching  Demand Side  Supply Side  Capture & Store  Enhance Natural Sinks Reduce Carbon Intensity All options needed to:  Affordably meet energy demand  Address environmental objectives Office of Fossil Energy DOE's Sequestration Program Structure Infrastructure Regional Carbon Sequestration

258

Activated carbon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

Evans, A. Gary (North Augusta, SC)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cement Production Refineries Etc.... C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 Carbon Sequestration Program Goals * Deliver technologies & best practices that validate:...

260

Carbon Sequestration - Public Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Meeting Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Public Meeting May 18, 2004 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Technology Manager Carbon Sequestration Program Overview * What is Carbon Sequestration * The Fossil Energy Situation * Greenhouse Gas Implications * Pathways to Greenhouse Gas Stabilization * Sequestration Program Overview * Program Requirements & Structure * Regional Partnerships * FutureGen * Sources of Information What is Carbon Sequestration? Capture can occur: * at the point of emission * when absorbed from air Storage locations include: * underground reservoirs * dissolved in deep oceans * converted to solid materials * trees, grasses, soils, or algae Capture and storage of CO 2 and other Greenhouse Gases that

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NETL: Carbon Storage - Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Carbon Storage Infrastructure The Infrastructure Element of DOE's Carbon Storage Program is focused on research and development (R&D) initiatives to advance geologic CO2 storage toward commercialization. DOE determined early in the program's development that addressing CO2 mitigation on a regional level is the most effective way to address differences in geology, climate, population density, infrastructure, and socioeconomic development. This element includes the following efforts designed to support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Click on Image to Navigate Infrastructure Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) - This

262

Carbon Capture & Sequestration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Learn about the Energy Department's work to capture and transport CO2 into underground geologic formations, also known as carbon capture and sequestration.

263

Carbon Storage Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel power plants as viable, clean sources of electric power. The program is focused on developing technologies that can achieve 99 percent of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage...

264

Carbon Fiber Electronic Interconnects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fiber is an emerging material in electrical and electronics industry. It has been used as contact in many applications, such as switch, potentiometer, and… (more)

Deng, Yuliang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Carbon Nanomaterials and Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... This presentation aims to capture those recent research efforts in synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes in Li-ion battery, bioelectronic ...

267

NETL: Carbon Storage FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does CCS really make a difference for the environment? Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several options, including the use of renewables, nuclear energy, alternative...

268

Smart infrastructure for carbon foot print analysis of Electric Vehicles V Suresh, G Hill, Prof P T Blythe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smart infrastructure for carbon foot print analysis of Electric Vehicles V Suresh, G Hill, Prof P of electric vehicles through on-road testing, user led trials and the analysis of the data collected from, trip profile, auxiliary loads and driving styles to determine how the battery discharges and recharges

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

269

NETL: Carbon Storage - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage Reference Shelf Below are links to Carbon Storage Program documents and reference materials. Each of the 10 categories has a variety of documents posted for easy access to current information - just click on the category link to view all related materials. RSS Icon Subscribe to the Carbon Storage RSS Feed. Carbon Storage Collage 2012 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas IV Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects Carbon Storage Technology Program Plan Carbon Storage Newsletter Archive Impact of the Marcellus Shale Gas Play on Current and Future CCS Activities Site Screening, Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geologic Formations Carbon Storage Systems and Well Management Activities Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

270

Operation features of a longitudinal-capacitive-discharge-pumped CuBr laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequency and energy characteristics of a capacitive-discharge-pumped CuBr laser are investigated. Processes proceeding in the discharge circuit of lasers pumped in this way, in particular, pumped without an external storage capacitor are analysed. It is shown that, depending on the pumping circuit, laser levels are excited either during the charge current flow or during the discharge of electrode capacitances. The differences in the influence of the active HBr addition on the characteristics of the discharge and lasing compared to the case of a usual repetitively pulsed high-current discharge with internal electrodes are established. (lasers)

Gubarev, F A; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Evtushenko, Gennadii S [Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sukhanov, V B

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan, phase 2 module 4 report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) established the new water quality-based discharge criteria for mercury (Hg), thereby increasing the need for many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in the region to lower the mercury in their effluents. Information on deployable technologies to satisfy these requirements for industrial and municipal dischargers in the Great lakes region is scarce. Therefore, BP funded Purdue University Calumet and Argonne to identify deployable Hg removal technologies to meet the GLI discharge criterion at its Whiting Refinery in Indiana. The joint PUC/Argonne project was divided into 2 phases. Results from Phase I and Phase II Modules 1-3 have been previously reported. This report summarizes the work done in Phase 3 Module 4, which consisted of the pilot scale testing of Hg removal technologies previously selected in Module 3. The pilot testing was an Argonne/PUC jointly directed project that was hosted at and funded by the BP refinery in Whiting, IN. As two organizations were involved in data analysis and interpretation, this report combines two independent sets of evaluations of the testing that was done, prepared respectively by Argonne and Purdue. Each organization retains sole responsibility for its respective analysis conclusions and recommendations. Based on Module 3 bench testing with pre-Effluent To Lake (pre-ETL) and clarifier effluent (CE) samples from the Whiting refinery, three different technologies were chosen for pilot testing: (1) Ultrafiltration (using GE ZeeWeed(reg sign) Technology, 0.04 {mu}m pore size and made up of PVDF) for particulate mercury removal; (2) Adsorption using Mersorb(reg sign) LW, a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, for dissolved mercury removal if present and (3) The Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration process for both particulate and dissolved (if present) mercury removal. The ultrafiltration and the Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration pilot studies were done simultaneously at the BP Whiting refinery using a slipstream of wastewater taken just prior to the Effluent to lake (pre-ETL) outfall. It was the intention of this pilot testing to demonstrate proof of concept, i.e. can the discharge limits obtained at bench scale be consistently met at the pilot scale. Although Mersorb(reg sign) LW was selected for dissolved mercury removal testing, this technology was not pilot tested because of a lack of dissolved mercury in the test wastewater during the pilot study. The overall objective of this pilot testing was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the tested technologies with continuous and varying feed conditions to meet the GLI criterion (1.3 ppt). Optimization for full-scale design was outside of the scope of this work. In addition to demonstrating whether the Hg criterion can be met, information on residue generation rate, frequency of backwashing and other maintenance issues were collected to better understand the implications for a full-scale system.

Negri, M.C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun-Demirtas, M.; Nnanna, G.; Yu, J.; Jannotta, I, (Energy Systems); (Purdue University Calumet)

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fabrication of carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes nanocomposite by sol-gel method for anode in lithium ion battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method followed by a carbonization process. Silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes (Si-CNT) nanohybrids were produced by a wet-type beadsmill method. To obtain Si-CNT nanocomposites with spherical morphologies, a silica precursor (tetraethylorthosilicate, TEOS) and polymer (PMMA) mixture was employed as a structure-directing medium. Thus the Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer microspheres were prepared by an acid catalyzed sol-gel method. Then a carbon precursor such as polypyrrole (PPy) was incorporated onto the surfaces of pre-existing Si-CNT/silica-polymer to generate Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer-PPy microspheres. Subsequent thermal treatment of the precursor followed by wet etching of silica produced Si-CNT-C microcapsules. The intermediate silica/polymer must disappear during the carbonization and etching process resulting in the formation of an internal free space. The carbon precursor polymer should transform to carbon shell to encapsulate remaining Si-CNT nanocomposites. Therefore, hollow carbon microcapsules containing Si-CNT nanocomposites could be obtained (Si-CNT-C). The successful fabrication was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These final materials were employed for anode performance improvement in lithium ion battery. The cyclic performances of these Si-CNT-C microcapsules were measured with a lithium battery half cell tests. - Graphical Abstract: Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method. Highlights: > Polymeric microcapsules containing Si-CNT transformed to carbon microcapsules. > Accommodate volume changes of Si NPs during Li ion charge/discharge. > Sizes of microcapsules were controlled by experimental parameters. > Lithium storage capacity and coulombic efficiency were demonstrated. > Use of sol-gel procedure as intermediate reaction.

Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yong-In City 446-712, Gyeong-Gi Province (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

ORNL DAAC GLOBAL RIVER DISCHARGE, 1807-1991, V. 1.1 (RIVDIS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data > Regional/Global > River Discharge (RIVDIS) > Guide Data > Regional/Global > River Discharge (RIVDIS) > Guide Document GLOBAL RIVER DISCHARGE, 1807-1991, V. 1.1 (RIVDIS) Get Data Global River Discharge, 1807-1991, V. 1.1 (RivDIS) Summary: The Global Monthly River Discharge Data Set contains monthly averaged discharge measurements for 1018 stations located throughout the world. The period of record varies widely from station to station with a mean of 21.5 years. The data are derived from the published UNESCO archives for river discharge and checked against information obtained from the Global Runoff Center in Koblenz, Germany, through the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. Citation: Cite this data set as follows (citation revised on September 20, 2002): Vorosmarty, C. J., B. M. Fekete, and B. A. Tucker. 1998. Global River

275

GRR/Section 14-UT-b - Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-UT-b - Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System GRR/Section 14-UT-b - Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-UT-b - Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 14UTBUtahPollutantDischargeEliminationSystemPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Utah Division of Water Quality Utah Department of Environmental Quality United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies R317-2-3 Antidegradation Policy R317-8 Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (UPDES) Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14UTBUtahPollutantDischargeEliminationSystemPermit.pdf 14UTBUtahPollutantDischargeEliminationSystemPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

276

Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric glow discharges with and without dielectric barrier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discharge characteristics and mechanism of glow discharges in atmospheric pressure helium excited by repetitive voltage pulses with and without dielectric barriers are numerically studied using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The waveforms of discharge current density show that one discharge event occurs during the voltage pulse with bare electrodes and two distinct discharge events happen at the rising and falling phases of voltage pulse with dielectric barrier electrodes, respectively. The spatial profiles of electron and electric field at the time instant of discharge current peak reveal that the electrons are trapped in the plasma bulk with bare electrodes, while the electrons are accumulated in the region between the sheath and plasma bulk with dielectric barrier electrodes. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal evolution of electron density and mean electron energy clearly demonstrate the dynamics of discharge ignition, especially the temporal evolution of sheath above the instantaneous cathode.

Song Shutong [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Guo Ying; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jing; Shi, J. J. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Member of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Center, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Lead carbonate scintillator materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

280

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fiber Bridging Model for Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Professor K. K. Chawla Honorary Symposium on Fibers, Foams and ... fiber bridging and resistance-curve behavior in reinforced-carbon-carbon (

282

Stabilization and carbonization studies of polyacrylonitrile /carbon nanotube composite fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fibers contain more than 90 wt. % carbon. They have low density, high specific strength and modulus, and good temperature and chemical resistance. Therefore,… (more)

Liu, Yaodong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon nanofilaments were grown on the surface of microscale carbon-fibers at relatively low temperature using palladium as a catalyst to create multiscale fiber reinforcing structures… (more)

Garcia, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Synthesis of Carbon-Carbon Composite via Infiltration Process of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon frame was first pyrolyzed from the wood template. The final composites were then obtained by infiltrating molten coal tar pitch into the carbon frame ...

285

Carbon-free generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon-free generation Carbon-free generation Carbon-free central generation of electricity, either through fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide capture and storage or development of renewable sources such as solar, wind, and/or nuclear power, is key to our future energy portfolio. Brookhaven also provides tools and techniques for studying geological carbon dioxide sequestration and analyzing safety issues for nuclear systems. Our nation faces grand challenges: finding alternative and cleaner energy sources and improving efficiency to meet our exponentially growing energy needs. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory are poised to meet these challenges with basic and applied research programs aimed at advancing the effective use of renewable energy through improved conversion,

286

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

287

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

carbon | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

carbon Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities carbon cities CO2...

289

Nonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled climate–carbon models have shown the potential for large feedbacks between climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global carbon sinks. Standard metrics of this feedback assume that the response of land and ocean carbon uptake ...

Kirsten Zickfeld; Michael Eby; H. Damon Matthews; Andreas Schmittner; Andrew J. Weaver

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Modeling cooling water discharges from the Burrard Generating Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract-A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to examine the impact of the Burrard Generating Station cooling water on the circulation patterns and thermal regime in the receiving water of Port Moody Arm. A key aspect of this study involved properly incorporating the submerged cooling water buoyant jet into the 3D model. To overcome the scale and interface barriers between the near-field and far-field zones of the buoyant jet, a sub-grid scheme was applied, and the coupled system of equations of motion, heat conservation and state are solved with a single modeling procedure over the complete field. Special care was taken with the diffusion and jet entrainment by using a second order turbulence closure model for vertical diffusion and the Smagorinsky formula for horizontal diffusion as well as jet entrainment. The model was calibrated and validated in terms of buoyant jet trajectory, centerline dilution, and temperature and velocity profiles. Extensive modeling experiments without and with the Burrard Generating Station in operation were then carried out to investigate the receiving water circulations and thermal processes under the influence of the cooling water discharge. The model results reveal that under the influence of the cooling water discharge, peak ebb currents are stronger than peak flood currents in the near-surface layer, and the reverse is true in the near-bottom layer. Meanwhile, the model revealed a well-developed eddy at the southeast side of the buoyant jet in the near-surface layer. It is also found that the warmer water released from the cooling water discharge is mainly confined to the upper layer of the Arm, which is largely flushed out of the Arm through tidal mixing processes, and a corresponding inflow of colder water into the Arm occurs within the lower layer. I.

J. Jiang; D. B. Fissel; D. D. Lemon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

COMMENTS ON THE SEARCH FOR ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGES ON MARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ruf et al. used the Deep Space Network (DSN) to search for the emission of non-thermal radiation by martian dust storms, theoretically predicted by Renno et al. They detected the emission of non-thermal radiation that they were searching for, but were surprised that it contained spectral peaks suggesting modulation at various frequencies and their harmonics. Ruf et al. hypothesized that the emission of non-thermal radiation was caused by electric discharges in a deep convective dust storm, modulated by Schumann resonances (SRs). Anderson et al. used the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to search for similar emissions. They stated that they found only radio frequency interference (RFI) during their search for non-thermal emission by martian dust storms and implicitly suggested that the signal detected by Ruf et al. was also RFI. However, their search was not conducted during the dust storm season when deep convective storms are most likely to occur. Here, we show that the ubiquitous dust devils and small-scale dust storms that were instead likely present during their observations are too shallow to excite SRs and produce the signals detected by Ruf et al. We also show that the spectral and temporal behavior of the signals detected by Anderson et al. corroborates the idea that they originated from man-made pulse-modulated telecommunication signals rather than martian electric discharges. In contrast, an identical presentation of the signals detected by Ruf et al. demonstrates that they do not resemble man-made signals. The presentation indicates that the DSN signals were consistent with modulation by martian SRs, as originally hypothesized by Ruf et al. We propose that a more comprehensive search for electrostatic discharges be conducted with either the ATA or DSN during a future martian dust storm season to test the hypothesis proposed by Ruf et al.

Renno, Nilton O.; Ruf, Christopher S., E-mail: renno@alum.mit.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Reducing industrial toxic wastes and discharges: The role of POTWs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intended for use by elected and appointed local officials, the guidebook makes recommendations as to how publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) can promote hazardous waste minimization. The guide suggests that POTWs can significantly reduce their toxic discharges to the sewer (without transferral of same pollutants to another media) by developing programs which combine features of three options - educational programs that provide waste minimization information to local companies; technical assistance programs that help companies identify and evaluate site-specific opportunities for waste minimization; and regulatory programs that establish indirect inducements or direct requirements to promote waste minimization.

Sherry, S.; Corbett, J.; Eulo, T.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010...

295

Nanostructured Carbide Derived Carbon (CDC)  

... can be grown at rates up to 100 micrometers per hour and is composed of graphite, diamond, amorphous carbon and carbon "nano-onions" ...

296

Microfluidic Analysis for Carbon Management.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focuses on applying microfluidic techniques to analyze two carbon management methods; underground carbon sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. The small scale nature of… (more)

Sell, Andrew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Place London, United Kingdom Zip NW1 8LH Sector Carbon Product London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change....

298

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

299

Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company funded by the UK government to help business and the public sector cut carbon emissions and capture the commercial potential of low carbon technologies....

300

Carbon Capture Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Operation of a Segmented Hall Thruster with Low-sputtering Carbon-velvet Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon fiber velvet material provides exceptional sputtering resistance properties exceeding those for graphite and carbon composite materials. A 2 kW Hall thruster with segmented electrodes made of this material was operated in the discharge voltage range of 200–700 V. The arcing between the floating velvet electrodes and the plasma was visually observed, especially, during the initial conditioning time, which lasted for about 1 h. The comparison of voltage versus current and plume characteristics of the Hall thruster with and without segmented electrodes indicates that the magnetic insulation of the segmented thruster improves with the discharge voltage at a fixed magnetic field. The observations reported here also extend the regimes wherein the segmented Hall thruster can have a narrower plume than that of the conventional nonsegmented thruster.

Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Flexible Software Architecture for Tokamak Discharge Control Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The software structure of the plasma control system in use on the DIII--D tokamak experiment is described. This system implements control functions through software executing in real time on one or more digital computers. The software is organized into a hierarchy that allows new control functions needed to support the DIII--D experimental program to be added easily without affecting previously implemented functions. This also allows the software to be portable in order to create control systems for other applications. The tokamak operator uses an X-windows based interface to specify the time evolution of a tokamak discharge. The interface provides a high level view for the operator that reduces the need for detailed knowledge of the control system operation. There is provision for an asynchronous change to an alternate discharge time evolution in response to an event that is detected in real time. Quality control is enhanced through off-line testing that can make use of software-based...

Ferron Penaflor Walker

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Battery discharge characteristics of wireless sensor nodes: An experimental analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Battery life extension is the principal driver for energy-efficient wireless sensor network (WSN) design. However, there is growing awareness that in order to truly maximize the operating life of battery-powered systems such as sensor nodes, it is important to discharge the battery in a manner that maximizes the amount of charge extracted from it. In spite of this, there is little published data that quantitatively analyzes the effectiveness with which modern wireless sensor nodes discharge their batteries, under different operating conditions. In this paper, we report on systematic experiments that we conducted to quantify the impact of key wireless sensor network design and environmental parameters on battery performance. Our testbed consists of MICA2DOT Motes, a commercial lithiumcoin battery, and a suite of techniques for measuring battery performance. We evaluate the extent to which known electrochemical phenomena, such as rate-capacity characteristics, charge recovery and thermal effects, can play a role in governing the selection of key WSN design parameters such as power levels, packet sizes, etc. We demonstrate that battery characteristics significantly alter and complicate otherwise well-understood trade-offs in WSN design. In particular, we analyze the non-trivial implications of battery characteristics on WSN power control strategies, and find that a battery-aware approach to power level selection leads to a 52 % increase in battery efficiency. We expect our results to serve as a quantitative basis for future research in designing battery-efficient sensing applications and protocols. I.

Chulsung Park; Kanishka Lahiri

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able

307

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

308

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Benjamin M. Sleeter Chapter 5 of Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of the Western United States

Fleskes, Joe

309

Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study investigates the technologies that have the potential to provide feasible reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a reference power plant. Particular focus has been given to mineral carbonation (at 1 bar) in which magnesium (Mg) and/or ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, emissions, mineral carbonation

C. J. Sturgeon; M. G. Rasul; Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of graphitized carbon fibers. Carbon, 1976. 14 (2): p. 133-chemical vapor deposited carbon fiber. Carbon, 2001. 39 : p.G.G. , Lengths of Carbon Fibers Grown from Iron Catalyst

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

312

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Review Meeting October 12-14, 2005 Table of Contents Agenda PDF-1438KB Phase I Program Review Meeting Phase II Kick-Off Meeting Phase...

313

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23,...

315

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

316

Carbon nanotube zoom lenses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that convergent or divergent zoom lenses with focal length variations up to approximately 100% can be implemented by growing arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on curved templates. Unique lenses, which can change their character from divergent ...

D. Dragoman; M. Dragoman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

318

GRR/Section 14-NV-e - Groundwater Discharge Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-NV-e - Groundwater Discharge Permit GRR/Section 14-NV-e - Groundwater Discharge Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-NV-e - Groundwater Discharge Permit 14NVEGroundwaterDischargePermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Regulations & Policies NAC 445A NRS 445A Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14NVEGroundwaterDischargePermit.pdf 14NVEGroundwaterDischargePermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Bureau of Water Pollution Control is responsible for protecting Nevada water quality from

319

GRR/Elements/14-CA-b.6 - Does RWQCB decide to allow discharge | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RWQCB decide to allow discharge RWQCB decide to allow discharge < GRR‎ | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections 14-CA-b.6 - Does RWQCB decide to allow discharge Once the RWQCB and EPA deem the application complete, the RWQCB makes an initial determination whether the application is appropriate for consideration or if it should be denied outright. If the discharge is denied outright, the process ends. If RWQCB decides to consider the application, the public process is triggered. Logic Chain No Parents \V/ GRR/Elements/14-CA-b.6 - Does RWQCB decide to allow discharge (this page) \V/ No Dependents Under Development Add.png Add an Element Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=GRR/Elements/14-CA-b.6_-_Does_RWQCB_decide_to_allow_discharge&oldid=482583

320

GRR/Section 14-CO-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CO-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit CO-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CO-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit 14COEGroundWaterDischargePermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Regulations & Policies Colorado Water Quality Control Act 5 CCR 1002-61 Colorado Discharge Permit System 5 CCR 1002-41 Basic Standards for Ground Water 5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground Water Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14COEGroundWaterDischargePermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

GRR/Section 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Requirements | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Requirements GRR/Section 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Requirements < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Requirements 14CAEWasteDischargeRequirements.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies California Environmental Protection Agency Water Resources Control Board Regulations & Policies Title 27 CCR, Division 2 - Environmental Protection - Solid Waste SWRCB Exemptions Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14CAEWasteDischargeRequirements.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) may require Waste discharge

322

GRR/Section 14-TX-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-TX-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit GRR/Section 14-TX-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-TX-e - Ground Water Discharge Permit 14TXEGroundWaterDischargePermit (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Railroad Commission of Texas United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies 16 TAC 3.8 (Rule 8) Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14TXEGroundWaterDischargePermit (1).pdf 14TXEGroundWaterDischargePermit (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Pits are used in drilling operations to contain drilling related fluids and

323

GRR/Section 14-CO-b - Colorado Discharge Permit System (CDPS) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CO-b - Colorado Discharge Permit System (CDPS) CO-b - Colorado Discharge Permit System (CDPS) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CO-b - Colorado Discharge Permit System (CDPS) 14COBColoradoDischargePermitSystemCDPS.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Regulations & Policies Colorado Water Quality Control Act 5 CCR 1002-61 5 CCR 1002-62 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14COBColoradoDischargePermitSystemCDPS.pdf 14COBColoradoDischargePermitSystemCDPS.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) Water

324

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation  

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation Tim McKnight CM: Greg Flickinger. Presenter: John Morris

325

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry, baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FC

326

Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

Fan, Hongyou

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

327

Spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling of Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond chemical vapor deposition in a bell-jar cavity reactor were characterized by both experimental and modeling investigations. Discharges containing 1% CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} percentages ranging between 2% and 7% were analyzed as a function of the input microwave power under a pressure of 200 mbar. Emission spectroscopy and broadband absorption spectroscopy were carried out in the UV-visible spectral range in order to estimate the gas temperature and the C{sub 2} density within the plasma. Infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was achieved in order to measure the mole fractions of carbon-containing species such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. A thermochemical model was developed and used in order to estimate the discharge composition, the gas temperature, and the average electron energy in the frame of a quasihomogeneous plasma assumption. Experiments and calculations yielded consistent results with respect to plasma temperature and composition. A relatively high gas temperature ranging between 3000 and 4000 K is found for the investigated discharge conditions. The C{sub 2} density estimated from both experiments and modeling are quite high compared with what is generally reported in the literature for the same kind of plasma system. It ranges between 10{sup 13} and 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} in the investigated power range. Infrared absorption measurements and model predictions indicate quite low densities of methane and acetylene, while the atomic carbon density calculated by the model ranges between 10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The methane and hydrogen introduced in the feed gas are subject to a strong dissociation, which results in a surprisingly high H-atom population with mole fraction ranging between 0.04 and 0.16. Result analysis shows that the power coupling efficiency would range between 70% and 90%, which may at least explain the relatively high values obtained, as compared with those reported in the literature for similar discharges, for gas temperature and C{sub 2} population. The high H-atom densities obtained in this work would indicate that growing nanocrystalline diamond films would experience a very high etching. Simulation results also confirm that sp species would play a key role in the surface chemistry that governs the diamond growth.

Lombardi, G.; Hassouni, K.; Benedic, F.; Mohasseb, F.; Roepcke, J.; Gicquel, A. [Laboratoire d'Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, UPR 1311 CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); INP Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laboratoire d'Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, UPR 1311 CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Carbon/lambda-MnO{sub 2} composites for supercapacitor electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work a composite of carbon with lambda-MnO{sub 2} have been synthesized by a simple two-step route. In the first step, to obtain LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon material, mesoporous activated carbon was impregnated with the solution of precursor metal salts and heated subsequently. As-prepared materials were acid treated which resulted in the formation of lambda-MnO{sub 2}/carbon. Physical properties, structure and specific surface area of electrode materials were studied by TEM, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption measurements. Voltammetry cycling, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed in two- and three-electrode cells have been applied in order to measure electrochemical parameters. TEM images confirmed well dispersed lambda-MnO{sub 2} particles on the surface of carbon material. The carbon in the composite plays an important role as the surface area enhancing component and a support of pseudocapacitive material. Furthermore, the through-connected porosity serves as a continuous pathway for electrolyte transport. A synergetic effect of the porous carbon framework and of the redox properties of the lambda-MnO{sub 2} is at the origin of improvement of specific capacitance values which has been observed for composites after delithiation. - Comparison of capacitance characteristics for initial carbon and synthesised composites for CB in 1 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution.

Malak-Polaczyk, A., E-mail: agnieszka-malak@wp.p [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-695 Poznan (Poland); Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15 Rue Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Matei-Ghimbeu, C.; Vix-Guterl, C. [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15 Rue Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Frackowiak, E. [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-695 Poznan (Poland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hollow Carbon Nanowires (HCNWs) were prepared through pyrolyzation of hollow polyaniline nanowires precursor. The HCNWs used as anode material for Na-ion batteries delivers a high reversible capacity of 251 mAh g{sup -1} and 82.2% capacity retention over 400 charge/discharge cycles between 1.2 and 0.01 V (vs. Na{sup +}/Na) at a constant current of 50 mA g{sup -1} (0.2 C). Excellent cycling stability is also observed at even higher charge-discharge rate. A high reversible capacity of 149 mAh g{sup -1} also can be obtained at a current rate of 500 mA g{sup -1} (2C). The good Na ion insertion property is attributed to the short diffusion distance in the HCNWs, and the large interlayer distance (0.37 nm) between the graphitic sheets, which agrees with the interlayered distance predicted by theoretical calculation to enable Na ion insertion in carbon materials.

Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Sushko, Maria L.; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced plasma brush array at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

This study developed a large volume cold atmospheric plasma brush array, which was enhanced by a dielectric barrier discharge by integrating a pair of DC glow discharge in parallel. A platinum sheet electrode was placed in the middle of the discharge chamber, which effectively reduced the breakdown voltage and working voltage. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicated that many excited argon atoms were distributed almost symmetrically in the lateral direction of the plasma. The concentration variations of reactive species relative to the gas flow rate and discharge current were also examined.

Li Xuemei; Zhan Xuefang; Yuan Xin; Zhao Zhongjun; Yan Yanyue; Duan Yixiang [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an (China)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

High Frequency Discharging Characteristics of LiFePO4 Battery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigates the high frequency discharging characteristics of the lithium iron phosphate battery. The investigation focuses on effects of the high-frequency current on the… (more)

Tsai, Tsung-Rung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Self-discharge mechanism of sealed-type nickel/metal-hydride battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Factors affecting the self-discharge rate of a nickel/metal-hydride (Ni-MH) battery, generally much higher than that of nickel/cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery, are investigated, and the self-discharge mechanism is discussed. Ammonia and amine participate in the shuttle reaction like nitrate ion in the Ni-Cd battery, resulting in acceleration of the self-discharge. When nonwoven fabric made of sulfonated-polypropylene is used as a separator instead of conventional polyamide separator, the self-discharge rate of the Ni-MH battery is strongly depressed, to the same level as that of Ni-Cd battery.

Ikoma, Munehisa; Hoshina, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Isao [Matsushita Battery Industrial Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Iwakura, Chiaki [Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

GRR/Elements/18-CA-a.12 - Does the Facility Discharge Waste Water...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 - Does the Facility Discharge Waste Water to Wells by Injection < GRR | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap...

336

GRR/Section 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Permit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon GRRSection 14-CA-e - Waste Discharge Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:...

337

Detection, identification and localization of partial discharges in power transformers using UHF techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Partial discharge (PD) detection using the ultra high frequency (UHF) method has proven viable in monitoring the insulation condition of GIS. Recently, it is being… (more)

Sinaga, Herman Halomoan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Simulation benchmarks for low-pressure plasmas: capacitive discharges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarking is generally accepted as an important element in demonstrating the correctness of computer simulations. In the modern sense, a benchmark is a computer simulation result that has evidence of correctness, is accompanied by estimates of relevant errors, and which can thus be used as a basis for judging the accuracy and efficiency of other codes. In this paper, we present four benchmark cases related to capacitively coupled discharges. These benchmarks prescribe all relevant physical and numerical parameters. We have simulated the benchmark conditions using five independently developed particle-in-cell codes. We show that the results of these simulations are statistically indistinguishable, within bounds of uncertainty that we define. We therefore claim that the results of these simulations represent strong benchmarks, that can be used as a basis for evaluating the accuracy of other codes. These other codes could include other approaches than particle-in-cell simulations, where benchmarking could exa...

Turner, M M; Donko, Z; Eremin, D; Kelly, S J; Lafleur, T; Mussenbrock, T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Shielding of mirror FERF plasma by arc discharges  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of shielding a mirror-confined fusion plasma against erosion by incident neutrals with a plasma blanket generated by an array of hollow-cathode arc discharges was studied. Such a plasma blanket could also be used for linetying stabilization of a single mirror confined plasma as well as to provide a warm plasma stream for stabilization of microinstabilities. The requirements for the plasma blanket are dependent on the parameter ..gamma.., the ratio of the actual cross-field diffusion coefficient to the classical value. The power requirement compares favorably with power loss due to change exchange without shielding. More importantly, the blanket permits a relaxation of vacuum requirements to prevent erosion of the hot plasma by background neutrals.

Woo, J.T.

1976-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Determination of Actinide Isotope Ratios Using Glow Discharge Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diode-laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of a glow discharge has been utilized to measure U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratios. This ``optical mass spectrometric`` measurement has been demonstrated for a number of samples including uranium oxide, fluoride, and metal. Various diode-laser accessible atomic transitions in the 775 to 835 nm region have been evaluated; these transitions were chosen by considering OGS sensitivity and isotope shift. Using the 831.84 nm uranium line, for example, it was possible to measure the U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratio (0.0026) of depleted uranium samples. A prototypical field instrument to make these measurements has been assembled and demonstrated. A U-236 spectral line was identified in a sample of enriched uranium, and an abundance sensitivity was measured.

Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Equilibrium and Stability of Partial Toroidal Plasma Discharges  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium and stability of partial toroidal flux ropes are studied in detail in the laboratory, motivated by ubiquitous loop structures on the solar surface. The flux ropes studied here are magnetized arc discharges formed in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). It is found that these loops robustly maintain their equilibrium on time scales much longer than the Alfven time over a wide range of plasma current, guide eld strength, and angle between electrodes, even in the absence of a strapping fi eld. Additionally, the external kink stability of these flux ropes is found to be governed by the Kruskal-Shafranov limit for a flux rope with line-tied boundary conditions at both ends (q > 1).

E. Oz, C. E. Myers, M. Yamada, H. Ji, R. Kulsrud, and J. Xie

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Self-discharge rate of lithium thionyl-chloride cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our low-rate lithium/thionyl-chloride ``D`` cell is required to provide power continuously for up to 10 years. The cell was designed at Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured at Eagle-Picher Industries, Joplin, Missouri. We have conducted accelerated aging studies at elevated temperatures to predict long-term performance of cells fabricated in 1992. Cells using 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte follow Arrhenius kinetics with an activation energy of 14.6 Kcal/mol. This results in an annual capacity loss to self-discharge of 0.13 Ah at 25 C. Cells using a 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4}{sm_bullet}SO{sub 2} electrolyte do not follow Arrhenius behavior. The performance of aged cells from an earlier fabrication lot is variable.

Cieslak, W.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges  

SciTech Connect

The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

R.Raman

2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrode configuration for extreme-UV electrical discharge source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation. The electric discharge plasma source includes: (a) a body that defines a circular capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end; (b) a back electrode positioned around and adjacent to the distal end of the capillary bore wherein the back electrode has a channel that is in communication with the distal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is concave, and a third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the channel that is adjacent the distal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the distal end; (c) a front electrode positioned around and adjacent to the proximal end of the capillary bore wherein the front electrode has an opening that is communication with the proximal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is substantially linear, and third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the opening that is adjacent the proximal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the proximal end; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the front and back electrodes.

Spence, Paul Andrew (Pleasanton, CA); Fornaciari, Neal Robert (Tracey, CA); Chang, Jim Jihchyun (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

NETL: Carbon Storage - Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BSCSP BSCSP Carbon Storage Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing BSCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is led by Montana State University-Bozeman and represents a coalition of more than 60 organizations including universities, national laboratories, private companies, state agencies, Native American tribes, and international collaborators. The partners are engaged in several aspects of BSCSP projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon storage projects in the BSCSP region. The BSCSP region encompasses Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, South Dakota, and eastern Washington and Oregon. BSCSP Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region

347

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

350

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

351

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets ? 60 M ? will form substantially from silicon carbide and other carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk’s C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptunemass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures. Subject headings: astrobiology — planets and satellites, individual (Mercury, Jupiter) — planetary systems: formation — pulsars, individual (PSR 1257+12)

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

WESTCARB Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas (NATCARB). (Acknowledgement to the WESTCARB web site at http://www.westcarb.org/index.htm)

354

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

355

Success Stories: Carbon Explorer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon Imagine waking up each morning and discovering that twenty percent of all plants in your garden had disappeared over night. They had been eaten. Equally astonishing would be the discovery in the afternoon that new plants had taken their place. This is the norm of life in the ocean. Without the ability to accurately observe these daily changes in ocean life cycles, over vast spatial scales, we lack the ability to predict how the ocean will respond to rising CO2 levels, crippling our ability to develop accurate models of global warming or devise strategies to prevent it. The Carbon Explorer, conceived by Berkeley Lab's James K. Bishop in collaboration with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) and WET labs, Inc. (Philomath, Oregon), bridges this

356

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

357

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

358

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase III DE-FC26-05NT42588 Robert J. Finley and the MGSC Project Team Illinois State Geological Survey (University of Illinois) and Schlumberger Carbon Services U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23, 2012 * The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) via the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program (contract number DE-FC26-05NT42588) and by a cost share agreement with the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, Office of Coal Development through the Illinois Clean Coal

359

RMOTC - Testing - Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Management Carbon Management Ten Sleep Time Structure, 2nd Wall Creek Formation at RMOTC Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC has the field setting, infrastructure, and expertise to play an important role in carbon management testing, demonstration, and research. The unique combination of a publicly-owned and DOE-operated oil field,

360

Carbon-particle generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, A.J.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Carbon Materials Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Breakout Group Process Materials Breakout Group Process * Day 2, Thursday - Review results of Day 1 and modify if needed - Identify critical R&D needs - Outline R&D plan with key milestones - Report results to plenary Carbon Materials Breakout Group * Key Results - Target: get the science right to engineer carbon materials for hydrogen storage * Integrate theory, experiment, engineering * Understand mechanisms, effects, and interactions ranging from physisorption to chemisorption - Theory * Provide "directional" guidance for experiments (and vice- versa) * Provide baseline theory to elucidate parameters affecting the number and type of binding sites and the heat of their interaction with H2 (∆H ) for a broad range of (highly) modified carbon materials

362

Carbon microstructures for electrochemical studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin layers of photoresist were spin coated onto silicon wafers, and then carbonized to form smooth carbon films by heating in nitrogen for 1 hour at temperatures between 600 to 1100 C. Well-defined carbon microstructures on Si wafers that are being considered for electrodes in a microbattery concept were obtained by additional processing steps involving patterning and lithography of the photoresist prior to carbonization. The status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist, characterization of the carbons by surface-sensitive techniques and electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry of the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reaction is described.

Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

Carbon Capture and Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SECARB's SECARB's Mississippi SalineTest Site: A Field Project Update Robert C. Trautz (rtrautz@epri.com) Electric Power Research Institute Senior Project Manager DOE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Review Meeting October 6-8, 2008 Pittsburgh, PA 2 1. Introduction 2. Well Drilling & Completion 3. Reservoir Characterization 4. CO 2 Injection Operations 5. Monitoring and Verification Outline 3 Key Organizations and Acknowledgments SOUTHERN STATES ENERGY BOARD Dr. Gerald (Jerry) R. Hill OTHER FIELD PROJECTS AND SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES * Advanced Resources * Alabama Geological Survey/ SCS * Gulf Coast Carbon Center (TXBEG) * EPRI * Virginia Tech University * Mississippi State University * Others Richard Esposito MISSISSIPPI POWER CO. Rick Berry Richard (Dick) Rhudy Robert (Rob) Trautz

364

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

Friedmann, S

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Design and Operation Checklists for Zero Discharge Power Plant Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design and operation checklists prepared by participants in the Zero Discharge Symposium identify key issues for the successful operation of a zero discharge power plant.The checklists highlight the importance of communication between utilities and architect/engineering companies, as well as within the utility industry itself.

1985-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

Spatially hybrid computations for streamer discharges: II. Fully 3D simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We recently have presented first physical predictions of a spatially hybrid model that follows the evolution of a negative streamer discharge in full three spatial dimensions; our spatially hybrid model couples a particle model in the high field region ... Keywords: Hybrid model, Multiscale, Streamer discharge

Chao Li; Ute Ebert; Willem Hundsdorfer

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1 , Aurélien, Palaiseau, France A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 k experiments of laser guided discharges obtained in air by high voltage bursts delivered by a compact Tesla

368

Global Particle Balance Measurements in DIII-D H-mode Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are performed on the DIII-D tokamak to determine the retention rate in an all graphite first-wall tokamak. A time-dependent particle balance analysis shows a majority of the fuel retention occurs during the initial Ohmic and L-mode phase of discharges, with peak fuel retention rates typically similar to 2 x 10(21) D/s. The retention rate can be zero within the experimental uncertainties (<3 x 10(20) D/s) during the later stationary phase of the discharge. In general, the retention inventory can decrease in the stationary phase by similar to 20-30% from the initial start-up phase of the discharge. Particle inventories determined as a function of time in the discharge, using a 'dynamic' particle balance analysis, agree with more accurate particle inventories directly measured after the discharge, termed 'static' particle balance. Similarly, low stationary retention rates are found in discharges with heating from neutral-beams, which injects particles, and from electron cyclotron waves, which does not inject particles. Detailed analysis of the static and dynamic balance methods provide an estimate of the DIII-D global co-deposition rate of <= 0.6-1.2 x 10(20) D/s. Dynamic particle balance is also performed on discharges with resonant magnetic perturbation ELM suppression and shows no additional retention during the ELM-suppressed phase of the discharge.

Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Brooks, N [General Atomics, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics; McLean, A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Whyte, D. G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V. [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics NAS of Belarus, Nezavisimosti Ave., 68, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optimum Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel: A Comprehensive Study of Duke Power's Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economic analysis of two pressurized water reactors (PWRs) shows that increasing the discharge burnup of light water reactor (LWR) fuel above current values can result in significant cost benefits. Optimum discharge burnup levels, however, may not be achievable without exceeding the current limit on enrichment.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Optimal and Adaptive Battery Discharge Strategies for Cyber-Physical Fumin Zhang and Zhenwu Shi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal and Adaptive Battery Discharge Strategies for Cyber-Physical Systems Fumin Zhang and Zhenwu Shi Abstract-- We introduce a dynamic battery model that de- scribes the variations of the capacity of a battery under time varying discharge current. This model is input-output equivalent to the Rakhmatov

Zhang, Fumin

372

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time Yu Ru, Jan Kleissl, and Sonia Martinez Abstract-- In this paper, we study a battery sizing problem for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems assuming that the battery charging/discharging limit scales linearly with its

Martínez, Sonia

373

Intelligent process modeling and optimization of die-sinking electric discharge machining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports an intelligent approach for process modeling and optimization of electric discharge machining (EDM). Physics based process modeling using finite element method (FEM) has been integrated with the soft computing techniques like artificial ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks (ANN), Electric discharge machining (EDM), Finite element method (FEM), Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), Process modeling and optimization, Scaled conjugate gradient algorithm (SCG)

S. N. Joshi; S. S. Pande

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A model of plasma discharges in pre-arcing regime for water treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is presented a simulation study of a water treatment system based upon 1 kHz frequency plasma discharges in the pre-arcing regime produced within a coaxial cylinder reactor. The proposed computational model takes into consideration the three main ... Keywords: modelling, pulsed corona discharges, simulation, streamers

B. G. Rodríguez-Méndez; R. López-Callejas; R. Peña-Eguiluz; A. Mercado-Cabrera; R. Valencia-Alvarado; S. R. Barocio; A. de la Piedad-Beneitez; J. S. Benítez-Read; J. O. Pacheco-Sotelo

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Technical Assistance to Kansas City Plant: Mitigation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Soil and storm water discharges from the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) resulting from past spills and discharges. KCP has implemented a range of actions to mitigate the soil contamination and to reduce the measured PCB releases.

Looney, B.B.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

Simulation of water hammer phenomenon in a pumping discharge duct protected by air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air chamber and free air dispersed throughout the water are two efficient means of protection of a discharge duct from water hammer damages. The paper presents the results regarding the extreme pressures in the discharge duct of a pumping installation, ... Keywords: air chamber, dissolution, free air, pumping installation, water hammer

Anca Constantin; Claudiu Stefan Nitescu

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Diagnostics of a glow discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report and recent publications cited summarize our measurements of the neutral radicals produced in pure silane discharges, our measurements of the interaction of silane with a growing amorphous silicon surface, qualitative models of discharge neutral radical chemistry, and quantitative models of dc discharge ion chemistry. All radicals of the monosilane and disilane groups have been measured and are reported as a function of discharge parameters, but not yet for the full range of parameters that must be investigated for detailed analysis. Observations of the reaction of SiH/sub 4/ with a hot amorphous silicon surface are given. These are closely related to the dominant discharge film deposition mechanism of SiH/sub 3/ reacting with a hydrogen covered amorphous silicon surface and a surface reaction model is suggested that explains some but not all of our data. The dc discharge model is used to obtain quantitative predictions of the ion species at the cathode surface of a dc discharge. This is compared to observations and used to explain the observations at our laboratory and other laboratories. We conclude that most but not all features of the ion chemistry in dc discharges of pure silane can be relatively well understood from this model.

Gallagher, A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Method of inducing differential etch rates in glow discharge produced amorphous silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inducing differential etch rates in glow discharge produced amorphous silicon by heating a portion of the glow discharge produced amorphous silicon to a temperature of about 365.degree. C. higher than the deposition temperature prior to etching. The etch rate of the exposed amorphous silicon is less than the unheated amorphous silicon.

Staebler, David L. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Zanzucchi, Peter J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Detection of partial discharges by a monopole antenna in insulation oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper dealt with the measurement and analysis of electromagnetic waves generated by partial discharge (PD) in insulation oil to develop insulation diagnostic techniques for oil-immersed transformers. Two types of narrow-band monopole antennas with ... Keywords: electromagnetic wave, insulation diagnosis, insulation oil, monopole antenna, partial discharge (PD), resonant frequency

Chang-Hwan Jin; Jung-Yoon Lee; Dae-Won Park; Gyung-Suk Kil

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

NETL: 2010 - Carbon Sequestration Peer Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Peer Review Carbon Sequestration Peer Review During March 15 - 19, 2010, a total of 16 projects from NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program were peer reviewed....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC Place Newport Beach, California Zip 92660 Sector Carbon Product Investment firm focused on...

383

GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GS Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name GS Carbon Corporation Place New York, New York Zip 10119 Sector Carbon Product The company offsets emissions output with...

384

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

385

Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables theencapsulation in a carbon fiber coating [9]. This coatingembedded in an amorphous carbon fiber coating that is not

Chai, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Key resources related to carbon cycle and climate change research Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Illustration of the Global Carbon...

387

Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

388

Preparation and Microstructure of Carbon/Carbon Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, C. Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials ... Carbon fiber felts were firstly densified by carbon using chemical vapor infiltration to ... Character Distribution on Oxidation Resistance of ZG30Cr20Ni10 Heat Resistant Steel.

389

GRR/Section 15-OR-a - Air Contaminant Discharge Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5-OR-a - Air Contaminant Discharge Permit 5-OR-a - Air Contaminant Discharge Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 15-OR-a - Air Contaminant Discharge Permit 15ORAAirContaminantDischargePermit (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Regulations & Policies ORS Chapter 468a OAR 340-209 OAR 340-216 340-216-0020 (Table 1) Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 15ORAAirContaminantDischargePermit (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) regulates air

390

Flow and temperature fields in a free discharge inductively coupled plasma  

SciTech Connect

Computations were made of the flow and temperature fields in an inductively coupled argon plasma at atmospheric pressure under confined and free discharge conditions. The model takes into account gravity effects and swirl in the sheath gas. Natural convection was found to have a negligible effect on the flow and temperature fields under confined discharge conditions but a significant effect for the free discharge. The back flow in the discharge was substantially reduced in the presence of swirl for swirl velocities over the range 0-50 m/s. Also with a mode-rate increase in swirl, the conduction heat flux to the wall decreased but increased with the further increase in swirl. From an overall energy balance point of view, conductive heat flux to the wall of the plasma confinement tube was substantially lower for a free plasma discharge compared to that for a confined plasma.

Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.; Barnes, R.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Free-surface flow simulations for discharge-based operation of hydraulic structure gates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We combine non-hydrostatic flow simulations of the free surface with a discharge model based on elementary gate flow equations for decision support in operation of hydraulic structure gates. A water level-based gate control used in most of today's general practice does not take into account the fact that gate operation scenarios producing similar total discharged volumes and similar water levels may have different local flow characteristics. Accurate and timely prediction of local flow conditions around hydraulic gates is important for several aspects of structure management: ecology, scour, flow-induced gate vibrations and waterway navigation. The modelling approach is described and tested for a multi-gate sluice structure regulating discharge from a river to the sea. The number of opened gates is varied and the discharge is stabilized with automated control by varying gate openings. The free-surface model was validated for discharge showing a correlation coefficient of 0.994 compared to experimental data. A...

Erdbrink, C D; Sloot, P M A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

GRR/Section 14-AK-b - Alaska Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-AK-b - Alaska Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit GRR/Section 14-AK-b - Alaska Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-AK-b - Alaska Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit 14AKBAlaskaPollutantDischargeEliminationSystemPermit (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies Alaska Statutes Alaska Administrative Code Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14AKBAlaskaPollutantDischargeEliminationSystemPermit (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

393

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jungle Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Jungle Place El Segundo, California Zip 90246 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere by planting and managing tree plantations, increasing awareness of the facts behind increased CO2 in the atmosphere, and giving companies a means to participate in carbon credit trading. References Carbon Jungle[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon Jungle is a company located in El Segundo, California . References ↑ "Carbon Jungle" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon_Jungle&oldid=343237" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

395

Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Asset Carbon Place United Kingdom Product UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References Asset Carbon1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase...

396

Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

Rushfeldt, Scott I

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities  

SciTech Connect

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize potential carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites and to demonstrate the long-term storage of sequestered carbon (p. 5). Among the challenges in this area are 'improved understanding of CO{sub 2} flow and trapping within the reservoir and the development and deployment of technologies such as simulation models and monitoring systems' (p. 20). The University of Wyoming (UW), following consultations with the NETL, the Wyoming State Geological Survey, and the Governor's office, identified potential for geologic sequestration of impure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep reservoirs of the Moxa Arch. The Moxa Arch is a 120-mile long north-south trending anticline plunging beneath the Wyoming Thrust Belt on the north and bounded on the south by the Uinta Mountains. Several oil and gas fields along the Moxa Arch contain accumulations of natural CO{sub 2}. The largest of these is the La Barge Platform, which encompasses approximately 800 square miles. Several formations may be suitable for storage of impure CO{sub 2} gas, foremost among them the Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Nugget Sandstone. This project responded to the challenges described above by preparing a geological site characterization study on the Moxa Arch. The project included four priority research areas: (A) geological characterization of geologic structure of the Arch, the fault, and fracture patterns of the target formations and caprocks, (B) experimental characterization of carbon dioxide-brine-rock reactions that may occur, (C) optimization of geophysical and numerical models necessary for measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV), and (D) a preliminary performance assessment. Research work to accomplish these goals was coordinated by one administrative task under the direction of Dr. Carol Frost, Professor of Geology and Geophysics (Task 1.0), and one task devoted to designing and creating an interdisciplinary, project-specific carbon cyberinfrastructure to support collaborative carbon dioxide sequestration research among University of Wyoming scientists and their collaborators, performed by Jeff Hammerlinck, Director of the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center at the University of Wyoming (Task 1.5). The results of these tasks are presented in the Introduction and in Chapter 1, respectively.

Carol Frost

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications  

SciTech Connect

The charging voltage limits of mixed carbonate solvents for Li-ion batteries have been systematically investigated from 4.9 to 5.3 V in half cells using Cr-doped spinel cathode material LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. We found that the stability of conventional carbonate electrolytes is strongly related to the stability and properties of the cathode materials at both lithiated and de-lithiated states. It is the first time to report that the conventional electrolytes based on mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and linear carbonate (dimethyl carbonate - DMC, ethyl methyl carbonate - EMC, and diethyl carbonate - DEC) have shown very similar long-term cycling performance when cycled up to 5.2 V on LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. The discharge capacity increases with the charge cutoff voltage and reaches the highest discharge capacity at 5.2 V. The capacity retention is about 87% after 500 cycles at 1C rate for all three carbonate mixtures when cycled between 3.0 V and 5.2V. The first-cycle efficiency has a maximum value at 5.1 V, with an average from 83% to 85% at C/10 rate. When cycled to 5.3 V, EC-DMC still shows good cycling performance but EC-EMC and EC-DEC show faster capacity fading. EC-DMC and EC-EMC have much better rate capability than EC-DEC. In addition, the first-cycle irreversible capacity loss increases with the cutoff voltage and the 'inactive' conductive carbon has also been found to be partly associated with the low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency at high voltages due to electrolyte decomposition and probably the PF6- anion irreversible intercalation.

Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Pan, Anqiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaohong S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Mercury oxidization in dielectric barrier discharge plasma system  

SciTech Connect

The pronounced volatility of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and some of its compounds, coupled with their extreme toxicity, makes these substances extremely hazardous. Conversion of Hg{sup 0} to HgO would significantly enhance mercury removal from flue gases. This investigation is focused on studying the effect of some of the constituents such as O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and NOx present in flue gases on elemental mercury oxidation in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The results show that Hg vapors (6 ppbv) in a stream of 0.1% O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are effectively oxidized at the energy density of up to 114 J/L. Hg conversion of over 80% is achieved when present in a gas mixture of 8% O{sub 2}, 2% H{sub 2}O, and 10% CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} balance. The presence of NOx enhanced mercury oxidation in the DBD reactor. The oxidation chemistry is discussed. Studies show that Hg can be simultaneously removed along with the other two major pollutants, NOx and SO{sub 2}, in one DBD reactor followed by a wet scrubber system. This avoids the need of three techniques for the removal of major gaseous pollutants from coal-fired power plants.

Chen, Z.Y.; Mannava, D.P.; Mathur, V.K. [University New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Zero discharge and large-scale DCS are plant highlights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports that the Mulberry cogeneration facility has several features that make it notable in the power field. A zero-discharge wastewater system, an inlet-air chilling system, a secondary boiler, and an extensive distributed-control system (DCS) for overall plant operation are examples. Ability to meet the two-stage NO{sub x}-emission limits -- 25 ppm during the first three years and 15 ppm thereafter -- is a unique challenge. The plant design allows the lower limit to be met now, and retrofit with different burners is possible if NO{sub x}-emission limits are tightened later. The facility, near Bartow in Polk County, Fla, is owned by Polk Power Partners LP, whose members include Central and South West Energy Inc (CSW) of Dallas and ARK Energy of Laguna Hills, Calif. The operating company, CSW Operations, is a subsidiary of CSW. Heart of the plant is a single gas-turbine (GT)/HRSG/steam-turbine combined cycle, providing electric power to Tampa Electric Co and Florida Power Corp, with up to 25,000 lb/hr of process steam for an adjacent ethanol plant which was developed by the facility`s partnership. Commercial operation of Mulberry began on Sept 2, 1994.

Solar, R.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

On the streamer propagation in methane plasma discharges  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of formation and propagation of a streamer in methane at atmospheric pressure were studied using a 2-dimensional axial symmetric hydrodynamic model. The model is based on the drift diffusion approximation and exploits electron transport parameters determined using an external Boltzmann equation solver. The resulting system of equations was solved using the finite element methods and integrated in time with an Euler backward algorithm. An approach useful to alleviate the numerical difficulties determined by the steep gradients that appear on the streamer front was developed. It is based on a proper choice of the adaptation algorithm of the integration time step. Three phases in the streamer development could be identified, in agreement with analytical and numerical models reported in the literature: ionization avalanche, streamer, and shielded plasma. The properties of the three phases have been characterized analyzing the evolution in time of the most important variables characterizing the system (ion and electron densities, potential, and electric field). Finally, the influence of some operative parameters, such as inter-electrodic gap, seed electron density, and applied potential, has been investigated in order to determine how it affects the evolution of the micro-discharge, and in particular, the transition from ionization avalanche to streamer.

Ferrara, Carlo; Preda, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo [Dept. di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria chimica 'G. Natta,' Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7-20131 Milano (Italy)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

The Allen Telescope Array Search for Electrostatic Discharges on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Allen Telescope Array was used to monitor Mars between 9 March and 2 June 2010, over a total of approximately 30 hours, for radio emission indicative of electrostatic discharge. The search was motivated by the report from Ruf et al. (2009) of the detection of non-thermal microwave radiation from Mars characterized by peaks in the power spectrum of the kurtosis, or kurtstrum, at 10 Hz, coinciding with a large dust storm event on 8 June 2006. For these observations, we developed a wideband signal processor at the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). This 1024-channel spectrometer calculates the accumulated power and power-squared, from which the spectral kurtosis is calculated post-observation. Variations in the kurtosis are indicative of non-Gaussianity in the signal, which can be used to detect variable cosmic signals as well as radio frequency interference (RFI). During the three month period of observations, dust activity occurred on Mars in the form of small-scale d...

Anderson, Marin M; Barott, William C; Bower, Geoffrey C; Delory, Gregory T; de Pater, Imke; Werthimer, Dan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

404

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: I: Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: Session I: Petroleum Coke. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Jean-Claude Thomas , Aluminium ...

405

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Partnerships Carbon Fiber Consortium Manufacturing Industrial Partnerships Staff Partnerships Home | Connect with ORNL | For Industry | Partnerships | Industrial...

406

Carbon Nanotubes Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... John Bonevich. Laser Applications Heat Up for Carbon Nanotubes. Longer is Better for Nanotube Optical Properties. Modeling ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

4th Carbon Nanotube Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... measurments, and disseinate this summary to the nanotube community. ... RM) for length separated single-wall carbon nanotubes in aqueous ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

408

Carbon Dioxide Utilization Archived Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utility Mercury Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation Western Kentucky University 9292003 Enhanced Practical Photosynthesis Carbon Sequestration ORNL...

409

NETL: Gasifipedia - Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration, also termed carbon storage, is the permanent storage of CO2, usually in deep geologic formations. Industrially-generated CO2 -- resulting from fossil fuel combustion, gasification, and other industrial processes -- is injected as a supercritical fluid into geologic reservoirs, where it is held in place by natural traps and seals. Carbon storage is one approach to minimizing atmospheric emissions of man-made CO2. As discussed above, the main purpose of CO2 EOR such as the Weyburn Project is tertiary recovery of crude oil, but in effect substantial CO2 remains sequestered/stored as a result. Current Status of CO2 Storage CO2 storage is currently underway in the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway and the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, have been injecting CO2 into geologic storage formations more than a decade. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, as well. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored. In addition, a number of smaller pilot projects are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future long-term CO2 storage. To date, more than 200 small-scale CO2 storage projects have been carried out worldwide. A demonstration project that captures CO2 from a pulverized coal power plant and pipes it to a geologic formation for storage recently came online in Alabama.

410

5, 40834113, 2005 Black Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area J. C and Physics Discussions Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area License. 4083 #12;ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Carbon Accounting in Forest Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Carbon Pools: Above ground biomass Belowground BiomassBelowground Biomass Soil Organic Carbon Dead: · Aboveground biomassAboveground biomass · Belowground biomass · Soil Organic Carbon · Litter · Dead Wood· Dead Wood · (Wood Products) T�V S�D Industrie Service GmbH #12;Principles · Biomass is usually measured

Pettenella, Davide

412

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

413

NETL: Carbon Storage - Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing SECARB efforts can be found on their website. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), managed by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), represents a 13-State region, including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, and portions of Kentucky and West Virginia. SECARB is comprised of over 100 participants representing Federal and State governments, industry, academia, and non-profit organizations. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region The primary goal of SECARB is to develop the necessary framework and

414

510 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 Self-Discharge Characterization and Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capacitor, also referred to as a supercapacitor, is an important factor in de- termining the duration-discharge characterization, self-discharge modeling, supercapacitor. I. INTRODUCTION OVER years, electrochemical capacitors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Superlubricity and wearless sliding in diamondlike carbon films.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have attracted great interest in recent years mainly because of their unusual optical, electrical, mechanical, and tribological properties. Such properties are currently being exploited for a wide range of engineering applications including magnetic hard disks, gears, sliding and roller bearings, scratch resistant glasses, biomedical implants, etc. Systematic studies on carbon-based materials in our laboratory have led to the development of a new class of amorphous DLC films that provide extremely low friction and wear coefficients of 0.001 to 0.005 and 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -10} mm{sup 3} /N.m, respectively, when tested in inert-gas or high-vacuum environments. These films were produced in highly hydrogenated gas discharge plasmas by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature. The carbon source gases used in the deposition of these films included methane, acetylene, and ethylene. Tribological studies in our laboratory have established a very close correlation between the composition of the plasmas and the friction and wear coefficients of the resultant DLC films. Specifically, the friction and wear coefficients of DLC films grown in plasmas with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios were much lower than films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. Fundamental tribological and surface analytical studies have led us to conclude that hydrogen (within the film, as well as on the sliding surfaces) is extremely important for the superlubricity and wearless sliding behavior of these films. Based on these studies, a mechanistic model is proposed to explain the superlow friction and wear properties of the new DLC films.

Erdemir, A.

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

416

Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation  

SciTech Connect

More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO{sub 2} from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be pulverized coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO{sub 2}, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO{sub 2}, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A CO{sub 2} tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO{sub 2}. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC with CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (Alburquerque, NM); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Ingersoll, David (Alburquerque, NM); Firsich, David W. (Dayton, OH)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

419

Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed Carbon Nanotube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed Carbon Nanotube (CNT) ... Application of Carbon Nanotubes – Energy to Bioelectronic Sensor.

420

MESOPOROUS CARBON MATERIALS - Energy Innovation Portal  

Building Energy Efficiency ... Solar Thermal; ... wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: An update to the long-term satellite-derived  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) for Hardinge, Ganga. The blue line with plus sign is the river discharge from ENVISAT (QERS/G for 2006

Delcroix, Thierry

422

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

424

Wave modeling in a cylindrical non-uniform helicon discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radio frequency field solver based on Maxwell's equations and a cold plasma dielectric tensor is employed to describe wave phenomena observed in a cylindrical non-uniform helicon discharge. The experiment is carried out on a recently built linear plasma-material interaction machine: The magnetized plasma interaction experiment [Blackwell et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (submitted)], in which both plasma density and static magnetic field are functions of axial position. The field strength increases by a factor of 15 from source to target plate, and the plasma density and electron temperature are radially non-uniform. With an enhancement factor of 9.5 to the electron-ion Coulomb collision frequency, a 12% reduction in the antenna radius, and the same other conditions as employed in the experiment, the solver produces axial and radial profiles of wave amplitude and phase that are consistent with measurements. A numerical study on the effects of axial gradient in plasma density and static magnetic field on wave propagations is performed, revealing that the helicon wave has weaker attenuation away from the antenna in a focused field compared to a uniform field. This may be consistent with observations of increased ionization efficiency and plasma production in a non-uniform field. We find that the relationship between plasma density, static magnetic field strength, and axial wavelength agrees well with a simple theory developed previously. A numerical scan of the enhancement factor to the electron-ion Coulomb collision frequency from 1 to 15 shows that the wave amplitude is lowered and the power deposited into the core plasma decreases as the enhancement factor increases, possibly due to the stronger edge heating for higher collision frequencies.

Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.; Corr, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Chen, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

1980-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

Gavin, Basil F. (Berkeley, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Thatcher, Raymond K. (El Cerrito, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Application of self organizing map approach to partial discharge pattern recognition of cast-resin current transformers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partial discharge (PD) measurement and recognition is a significant tool for potential failure diagnosis of a power transformer. This paper proposes the application of self organizing map (SOM) approach to recognize partial discharge patterns of cast-resin ... Keywords: cast-resin current transformer, partial discharge, pattern recognition, self organizing map

Wen-Yeau Chang; Hong-Tzer Yang

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

XeCl avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: 0.2 to 0.4% chlorine donor/2.5% to 10% Xe/97.3% to 89.6% Ar) is provided. The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl/sub 4/ BCl/sub 3/. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

Sze, R.C.

1979-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

CARBON7510.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Author's personal copy Author's personal copy NMR a critical tool to study the production of carbon fiber from lignin Marcus Foston a , Grady A. Nunnery b , Xianzhi Meng a , Qining Sun a , Frederick S. Baker b , Arthur Ragauskas a, * a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, United States b Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6087, United States A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 7 April 2012 Accepted 6 September 2012 Available online 14 September 2012 A B S T R A C T The structural changes occurring to hardwood Alcell TM lignin as a result of fiber devolatiliza- tion/extrusion, oxidative thermo-stabilization and carbonization are investigated in this study by solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance

431

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION LEADERSHIP FORUM (CSLF): A CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE The undersigned national governmental entities (collectively the "Members") set forth the following Terms of Reference for the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), a framework for international cooperation in research and development for the separation, capture, transportation and storage of carbon dioxide. The CSLF will seek to realize the promise of carbon capture and storage over the coming decades, making it commercially competitive and environmentally safe. 1. Purpose of the CSLF To facilitate the development of improved cost-effective technologies for the separation and capture of carbon dioxide for its transport and long-term safe storage; to make these

432

Evaluation of the Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon and the Treatability of Mercury in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations for reducing the dissolved mercury (Hg) concentrations in wastewater discharged by electric generating power plants are becoming more stringent via federal regulatory limits proposed by the EPA and regulatory limits set by select states. Data obtained in a previous EPRI study conducted in 2009 suggested a potential negative impact of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iodide concentrations present in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater on mercury treatability (EPRI report 1019867). ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

434

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

435

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Energy (Cost) Savings by Zero Discharge in Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum reuse of cooling tower blowdown by the incorporation of a sidestream softening system to recycle water can allow for significant savings in energy costs for industry. The system design parameters described in this paper are based upon calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and silica solubility equations for the resultant high ionic strength of a zero blowdown system. Operational aspects are highlighted in terms of deposition, corrosion, and biofouling potentials as well as currently-practiced, successful treatment procedures. The effects and history of corrosion and scale inhibitors, as well as other treatment chemicals, have been evaluated for numerous plants utilizing zero blowdown, and a summation of this knowledge is presented here. The cost analysis of conventional systems versus recycle systems is based upon a computer model's predictions for makeup waters of various qualities and costs.

Matson, J. V.; Gardiner, W. M.; Harris, T. G.; Puckorius, P. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon taxes and India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Sensitivity of Simulated River Discharge to Land Surface Representation and Meteorological Forcings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discharge of freshwater into oceans represents a fundamental process in the global climate system, and this flux is taken into account in simulations with general circulation models (GCMs). Moreover, the availability of realistic river ...

Stefano Materia; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Zhichang Guo; Andrea Alessandri; Antonio Navarra

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Discharge characteristics and dynamics of compressive plasma streams generated by a compact magnetoplasma compressor  

SciTech Connect

Results from experimental studies of a compact magnetoplasma compressor designed for operation with heavy gases are presented. The integral characteristics of the discharge and the energy contents and other parameters of the generated xenon plasma streams are determined.

Garkusha, I. E.; Tereshin, V. I.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Solyakov, D. G.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Marchenko, A. K.; Staltsov, V. V.; Yelisyeyev, D. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology,' (Ukraine)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Forecasting Annual Discharge of River Murray, Australia, from a Geophysical Model of ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual discharge (Q) in the largest river system in Australia, the River Murray (including the extensive tributary network of the Darling River), is often inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern equatorial ...

H. J. Simpson; M. A. Cane; S. K. Lin; S. E. Zebiak; A. L. Herczeg

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Suppression of Phase Separation in LiFePO 4 Nanoparticles During Battery Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a novel electrochemical phase-field model, we question the common belief that LiXFePO? nanoparticles always separate into Li-rich and Li-poor phases during battery discharge. For small currents, spinodal decomposition ...

Bai, Peng

442

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A radiocarbon method and multi-tracer approach to quantifying groundwater discharge to coastal waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Groundwater discharge into estuaries and the coastal ocean is an important mechanism for the transport of dissolved chemical species to coastal waters. Because many dissolved species are present in groundwater in concentrations ...

Gramling, Carolyn M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Seasonal dynamics in costal aquifers : investigation of submarine groundwater discharge through field measurements and numerical models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fresh and saline groundwater flowing from coastal aquifers into the ocean comprise submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). This outflow is an important pathway for the transport of nutrients and contaminants, and has ...

Michael, Holly Anne, 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems for the Remediation of Metal-Bearing Aqueous Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constructed wetland treatment systems potentially offer utilities an effective, relatively low-cost option for treating aqueous discharges that contain metals. This report provides a ready source of information on these systems and their use within the electric utility industry.

1995-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

446

Discharge Characteristics and Changes over the Ob River Watershed in Siberia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes long-term (1936–90) monthly streamflow records for the major subbasins within the Ob River watershed in order to examine discharge changes induced by human activities (particularly reservoirs and agricultural activities) and ...

Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Alexander Shiklomanov

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Why Does the Amazon Water Flow to the North after Its Discharge?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a simple model, it is demonstrated that earth's sphericity (the beta effect) imposes a severe constraint on the discharge pattern near the equator. Using either bottom or lateral friction to counter the beta effect in the vorticity ...

Hsien Wang Ou

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of three terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. The products of the effort will be a series of technical reports detailing the study procedures, results, and conclusions which contribute to the transfer of technology to the scientific community, petroleum industry, and state and federal agencies.

Gettleson, David A

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

450

GRR/Elements/18-CA-c.10 - Draft Waste Discharge Permit | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0 - Draft Waste Discharge Permit < GRR | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections 18-CA-c.10 -...

451

The corollary discharge in humans is related to synchronous neural oscillations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How do animals distinguish between sensations coming from external sources and those resulting from their own actions? A corollary discharge system has evolved that involves the transmission of a copy of motor commands to sensory cortex, where the expected ...

Chi-Ming A. Chen; Daniel H. Mathalon; Brian J. Roach; Idil Cavus; Dennis D. Spencer; Judith M. Ford

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

453

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

SciTech Connect

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Field Guide: Daytime Discharge Inspection of Transmission and Distribution Overhead Lines and Substations – Guide with Video  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI visual guide, one of a series of field guides designed to support inspection and assessment of transmission components, is devoted to the subject of daytime discharge inspection. Although technology for viewing corona and arcing discharges during the day has been available for a number of years, it can be rather difficult to interpret the images produced by this technology. This systematically organized document was prepared to help overcome some of these difficulties. It is intended for ...

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Development of quantitative techniques for the study of discharge events during plasma electrolytic oxidation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the substrate thickens by a process similar to conventional anodising. The voltage rises rapidly as the oxide layer thickens, and once the applied potential difference has reached several hundred volts, electrical breakdowns of the growing oxide begin... . Probability distributions of apparent discharge lifetimes were presented for three values of the applied volt- age, each corresponding to a later time during processing. The discharge apparent lifetimes were reported as ? 35? 100 ms at 300 V, ? 35? 260 ms...

Dunleavy, Christopher Squire

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

456

Dissociative excitation as the source of neutral atoms in hydrogen discharges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electron impact dissociative excitation of H/sub 2/ molecules is identified as the origin of the narrow width and structure of Balmer lines observed in various low density hydrogen discharges. On the basis of this data and estimates of the rates of competing processes in plasmas, dissociative excitation, together with other molecular reactions, is proposed as the source of neutral atoms and protons in these discharges.

McNeill, D.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Generator On-Line Monitoring and Condition Assessment, Partial Discharge and Electromagnetic Interference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-line partial discharge (PD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) analysis systems have been promoted as a means to assess the condition of turbine-driven generator stator winding insulation systems. Although PD is a time-domain measurement and EMI measures activity with a frequency scan, both techniques still evaluate the same phenomenon -- high-frequency currents that flow as a result of electrical (partial) discharges occurring within the structure. This report documents EPRI's ongoing initiative ...

2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

458

Monitoring soil carbon will prepare growers for a carbon trading system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

they obtain a soil carbon sequestration amount over 10 yearsLal R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climateto estimate soil carbon sequestration based on estimates of

Suddick, Emma C; Ngugi, Moffatt K; Paustian, Keith; Six, Johan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B v + B d ) C T = Total carbon B v = biomass contained indevelopment through carbon sequestration: experiences in2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management, IIED Natural

Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ON CALCULATING THE TRANSFER OF CARBON-13 IN RESERVOIR MODELS OF THE CARBON CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7. Keeling. C. D. 1973. The carbon dioxide cycle: reservoirexchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the oceans andmodel to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus

Tans, Pieter P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Tensile testing and stabilization/carbonization studies of polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube composite fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on the processing, structure and properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ carbon nanotube (CNT) composite carbon fibers. Small diameter PAN/CNT based carbon fibers have… (more)

Lyons, Kevin Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Apparatus and method for carbon fiber surface treatment  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for enhancing the surface energy and/or surface chemistry of carbon fibers involves exposing the fibers to direct or indirect contact with atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a background gas containing at least some oxygen or other reactive species. The fiber may be exposed directly to the plasma, provided that the plasma is nonfilamentary, or the fiber may be exposed indirectly through contact with gases exhausting from a plasma discharge maintained in a separate volume. In either case, the process is carried out at or near atmospheric pressure, thereby eliminating the need for vacuum equipment. The process may be further modified by moistening the fibers with selected oxygen-containing liquids before exposure to the plasma.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Sherman, Daniel M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

465

NETL: Carbon Storage - Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MRCSP MRCSP Carbon Storage Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing MRCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) was established to assess the technical potential, economic viability, and public acceptability of carbon storage within a region consisting of nine contiguous states: Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. A group of leading universities, state geological surveys, non-governmental organizations and private companies, led by Battelle Memorial Institute, has been assembled to carry out this research. The MRCSP currently consists of nearly 40 members; each contributing technical knowledge, expertise and cost sharing.

466

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation ...  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

467

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Project Type Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more...

469

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

NETL: Carbon Storage - North American Carbon Atlas Partnership...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Carbon Atlas Partnership (NACAP) NACAP Logo NACAP Logo The United States, Canada, and Mexico participate in a joint CO2 mapping initiative called the North American...

471

Estimating Total Discharge in the Yangtze River Basin Using Satellite-Based Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The measurement of total basin discharge along coastal regions is necessary for understanding the hydrological and oceanographic issues related to the water and energy cycles. However, only the observed streamflow (gauge-based observation) is used to estimate the total fluxes from the river basin to the ocean, neglecting the portion of discharge that infiltrates to underground and directly discharges into the ocean. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the total discharge of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) basin. In this study, we explore the potential response of total discharge to changes in precipitation (from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission—TRMM), evaporation (from four versions of the Global Land Data Assimilation—GLDAS, namely, CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC), and water-storage changes (from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment—GRACE) by using the terrestrial water budget method. This method has been validated by comparison with the observed streamflow, and shows an agreement with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.30 mm/month for GRACE-based discharge and 20.98 mm/month for that derived from precipitation minus evaporation (P ? E). This improvement of approximately 32 % indicates that monthly terrestrial water-storage

Vagner G. Ferreira; Zheng Gong; Xiufeng He; Yonglei Zhang; Samuel A. Andam-akorful

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Studies on the Electrical Characteristics of a DC Glow Discharge by Using Langmuir Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics of a DC glow discharge are studied with the aim of determining the suitable parameters for stable operation of the dusty plasma system. The presence of dust particles in plasma significantly alters the charged particle equilibrium in the plasma and leads to various phenomena. Argon plasma produced by DC glow discharge is investigated with a further goal of studying dusty plasma phenomena. The discharge system has two disc?shaped parallel plate electrodes. The electrodes are enclosed in a large cylindrical stainless steel chamber filled with argon gas. Two important physical parameters affecting the condition of the discharge are the gas pressure and the inter?electrode distance. A single Langmuir probe based on the Keithley source meter is used to determine the electron temperature of the positive column. A custom designed probe is employed to determine the potential distribution between the electrodes during the discharge. The I–V characteristic curve and the Langmuir probe measurement are then used to determine the electron energy distribution of the glow discharge plasma.

S. S. Safaai; Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University Technology Malaysia; S. L. Yap; P. W. Smith; University of Oxford, UK; C. S. Wong; S. V. Muniandy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Program on Technology Innovation: Novel Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach has been developed for making activated carbons and catalytic carbons with high surface areas. A novel carbonization process using alkali organic and metal salt precursors can yield carbons with a narrow, customized, pore size distribution as well as high adsorption capacity and catalytic activity. This report summarizes initial attempts to produce high-surface-area carbons with porous structure and carbons with added nanoscale catalyst using the novel carbonization process.

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

474

GRR/Elements/18-CA-c.1 to 18-CA-c.3 - Does the Project Discharge Waste to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Elements/18-CA-c.1 to 18-CA-c.3 - Does the Project Discharge Waste to GRR/Elements/18-CA-c.1 to 18-CA-c.3 - Does the Project Discharge Waste to Land in a Diffused Manner or Affect Groundwater Quality < GRR‎ | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections 18-CA-c.1 to 18-CA-c.3 - Does the Project Discharge Waste to Land in a Diffused Manner or Affect Groundwater Quality If waste is discharged to land in a diffused manner, such as that it causes soil erosion or the discharge affects groundwater, the developer must file a Report of Waste Discharge application (Form 200) and the necessary supplemental information with the appropriate Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) at least 120 days before beginning to discharge waste. Logic Chain No Parents

475

ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAircraft Carbon govCampaignsAircraft Carbon Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Description Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle instruments and sample collection systems were added to an ARM-managed aircraft at ARM-SGP user facility. A separate (in-place) grant covered the cost of developing the instrument systems, analyzing the data, and ingesting all data to the ARM data archives. In the short-term (~1 y) we had two priorities. The first was to acquire

476

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

477

SWP Carbon Sequestration Training Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Training Center Presentation, October 2010 SWP Carbon Sequestration Training Center Principal Investigators: New Mexico Tech, Andrew Campbell and Peter Mozley University of Utah,...

478

Carbon Sequestration in European Soils  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments...

479

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010 Presented by: Gerald R. Hill, Ph.D. Senior Technical Advisor Southern States Energy Board Acknowledgements  This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.  Cost share and research support provided by SECARB/SSEB Carbon Management Partners Through innovations in energy and environmental policies, programs and technologies, the Southern States Energy Board enhances economic development and the quality of life in the South. - SSEB Mission Statement SSEB Carbon Management Program  Established 2003  Characterizing Southeast Region

480

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI) Background The ICMI project is part of a larger program called Carbon Capture Simulation and Storage Initiative (C2S2I). The C2S2I has a goal of expanding the DOE's focus on Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) for advanced coal power systems and other applications, including the use of petroleum coke as a feedstock for the industrial sector. The American Recovery and Re-Investment Act (ARRA)-funded

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "magmatic carbon discharge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AETH : Aethalometer DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments SP2 : Single Particle...

482

Extra Low Carbon Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of carbon content, magnesium add itions, thermomechan processing, and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Allvac ical. 718 have been investigated

483

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Carbon microtubes - Energy Innovation Portal  

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 ...

485

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for the Petroleum and Coal Products Industry, 1994. Petroleum refining is by far the largest component of the petroleum and ...

486

Carbon Encapsulated Platinum Nanoparticles: Growth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such patterned assembly of carbon encapsulated nanoparticles was further studied for .... Silica Nanoparticles for His-tagged Proteins Capture and Separation.