National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ma ct ri

  1. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1994 January ... 89.6 91.0 90.2 83.8 88.4 80.4 87.3 88.8 92.1 102.5 February ... 92.9 94.6 93.8 90.4 91.3 86.6 91.4 92.3 91.5 105.5...

  2. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1993 January ... 94.3 95.7 94.9 85.2 94.0 87.1 91.7 93.4 91.2 105.2 February ... 94.6 95.9 96.2 85.4 94.4 86.9 91.8 93.3 90.8 106.8...

  3. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 January ... 86.9 87.6 86.7 77.8 84.8 78.4 87.3 85.7 88.4 102.4 February ... 87.4 88.2 87.8 77.4 84.9 78.5 87.3 85.9 88.5 103.4...

  4. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1996 January ... 94.6 96.1 94.5 93.0 92.0 89.1 94.9 92.6 94.7 111.7 February ... 95.9 97.5 96.2 93.2 93.8 90.8 95.6 93.7 94.4 112.9...

  5. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1997 January ... 107.9 109.0 108.6 105.2 106.5 102.1 107.0 104.4 106.5 130.4 February ... 105.1 106.0 105.2 102.2 103.4 101.0 104.5...

  6. MA.+'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MA.+' t -@ . ;' OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY i OPtRATED BY MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNITE0 STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ,,y , - IhI of ORNLTM-10053 RESULTS OF ...

  7. VA VT CT RI MT WY CO ID UT OR NV CA AZ NM WA TN WV NC AR OK

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 1 Smart Grid Demonstration Project Locations NH MA 16 Awards Support Projects in 21 States

  8. VA VT CT RI MT WY CO ID UT OR NV CA AZ NM WA TN WV NC AR OK

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 2 1 Energy Storage Demonstration Project Locations NH 16 Awards Support Projects in 9 States MA

  9. VA VT CT RI MT WY CO ID UT OR NV CA AZ NM WA TN WV NC AR OK

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 1 Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects NH 32 Awards Support Projects in 24 States 6 11 MA

  10. MA AP MA MA MA AP AP MA MA MA AP AP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP MA MA MA AP AP MA MA MA AP AP low low low AP MA Run PAMM AP Low alpha University Holidays APPAMM Spear Down Hrs S 30 31 S 30 5260 832 6092 2013 2014 Scheduled Hours Users...

  11. EV Community Readiness projects: New York City and Lower Hudson Valley Clean Communities, Inc. (NY, MA, PA); NYSERDA (ME, NH, VT, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, DC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. MA AP MA MA MA AP AP MA MA MA AP AP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP MA MA MA AP AP MA MA MA AP AP low low low AP MA Run PAMM / AP Low alpha University Holidays AP/PAMM Spear Down Hrs S 30 31 S 30 5260 832 6092 2013 2014 Scheduled Hours Users Total 29 31 30 29 31 30 F 31 28 29 30 T 31 28 27 29 28 30 30 27 29 W 30 29 26 29 27 31 28 AP T 29 26 29 27 AP PAMM 30 28 25 31 28 26 30 27 30 28 26 M 28 25 29 27 24 30 27 25 29 26 S 27 24 28 26 23 27 29 26 24 28 25 S 26 23 28 26 24 23 27 25 28 28 25 25 22 27 24 25 23 F 25 26 24 21 27 24 22 26 23 22 27 T 24 21 20 24 22 21

  13. MA MA AP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MA AP low low low MA Run PAMM / AP Low alpha University Holidays AP/PAMM Spear Down Oct Nov S Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep 7/17/2015 SPEAR OPERATING SCHEDULE 2015-2016 2015 2016 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar S 1 1 2 1 4 1 M 2 1 2 1 T 3 1 3 PAMM 1 2 2 3 6 3 W 4 2 3 AP AP 5 2 1 3 2 4 F 2 6 4 1 5 2 4 3 T 1 5 3 5 2 7 4 3 1 5 4 1 6 4 1 5 8 5 S 4 8 2 6 3 2 7 4 2 6 5 S 3 7 6 5 3 7 6 3 8 6 3 7 4 8 7 M 5 9 7 4 9 10 7 AP PAMM PAMM PAMM PAMM 4 8 5 4 9 6 8 AP 5 9 6 5 AP 10 7 5 9 AP 8 6 10 9 13 W 7 11 9 11 T 6 10 8 12

  14. Utilizing a simple CT dosimetry phantom for the comprehension of the operational characteristics of CT AEC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsalafoutas, Ioannis A.; Varsamidis, Athanasios; Thalassinou, Stella; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of the nested polymethylacrylate (PMMA) phantom (which is available in many CT facilities for CTDI measurements), as a tool for the presentation and comparison of the ways that two different CT automatic exposure control (AEC) systems respond to a phantom when various scan parameters and AEC protocols are modified.Methods: By offsetting the two phantom's components (the head phantom and the body ring) half-way along their longitudinal axis, a phantom with three sections of different x-ray attenuation was created. Scan projection radiographs (SPRs) and helical scans of the three-section phantom were performed on a Toshiba Aquilion 64 and a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanners, with different scan parameter selections [scan direction, pitch factor, slice thickness, and reconstruction interval (ST/RI), AEC protocol, and tube potential used for the SPRs]. The dose length product (DLP) values of each scan were recorded and the tube current (mA) values of the reconstructed CT images were plotted against the respective Z-axis positions on the phantom. Furthermore, measurements of the noise levels at the center of each phantom section were performed to assess the impact of mA modulation on image quality.Results: The mA modulation patterns of the two CT scanners were very dissimilar. The mA variations were more pronounced for Aquilion 64, where changes in any of the aforementioned scan parameters affected both the mA modulations curves and DLP values. However, the noise levels were affected only by changes in pitch, ST/RI, and AEC protocol selections. For Brilliance 64, changes in pitch affected the mA modulation curves but not the DLP values, whereas only AEC protocol and SPR tube potential selection variations affected both the mA modulation curves and DLP values. The noise levels increased for smaller ST/RI, larger weight category AEC protocol, and larger SPR tube potential selection.Conclusions: The nested PMMA dosimetry phantom can be effectively utilized for the comprehension of CT AEC systems performance and the way that different scan conditions affect the mA modulation patterns, DLP values, and image noise. However, in depth analysis of the reasons why these two systems exhibited such different behaviors in response to the same phantom requires further investigation which is beyond the scope of this study.

  15. Tammy Ma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tammy Ma Drawn to Science and Giving Back Tammy Ma Tammy Ma We sat down with Dr. Tammy Ma, an experimental physicist at the National Ignition Facility, to talk about what motivates her, why she loves science, her belief in giving back, and advice for younger scientists. Motivation and work ethic My mother, unfortunately, didn't get the chance to finish high school or go to college because she emigrated to Canada as a teenager. So it's always been instilled in both me and my younger brother that

  16. Ma Philippine

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . 4 . Na . Ma Philippine 4 I s Sea PHILIPPINES 7 ; : : ' - ,. * . DE89 007772 PHILIPPINES Asia Pacific Energy Series Country Report DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi-

  17. Category:Providence, RI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Providence, RI Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Providence, RI" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total....

  18. QER Public Meeting in Providence, RI & Hartford, CT: New England...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Power Company Remarks of John F. Bilda, General Manager, ... of the United States, Canada & Australia 1 - The ... PDF icon Remarks of Kevin R. Hennessy PDF icon Remarks of ...

  19. Ookie Ma | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ookie Ma About Us Ookie Ma - Policy and Analysis Portfolio Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Most Recent Natural Gas: Lifting Mileage Higher and Higher ...

  20. MaRIE Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project, and the Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project, and the Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes project will build the experimental facility for the time-dependent control of dynamic material

  1. Ma_1995.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] ; Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-02-11 OSTI Identifier: 1170260 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-20995 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource

  2. DOE/MA-0518

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MA-0518 Origins of the Nevada Test Site United States Department of Energy Terrence R. Fehner F. G. Gosling History Division Executive Secretariat Management and Administration Department of Energy December 2000 Acknowledgments Origins of the Nevada Test Site was written in conjunction with the 50th anniversary commemoration of the Nevada Test Site. The history was released at the official celebration held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on December 18, 2000, fifty years after President Harry S. Truman

  3. QER- Comment of RI Office of Energy Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hi Matt, Please find additional materials from the RI Office of Energy Resources for the DOE QER. The documents attached include: 1) A powerpoint providing an overview of the RI State Energy Plan - the plan will be officially released in Fall, 2014; 2) Testimony to the RI Senate which outlines the need for coordinated work on the gas and electric infrastructure in New England; 3) A powerpoint version of the written testimony; 4) The 2013 Annual Report on the RI Energy Efficiency Program.

  4. US NE MA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NE MA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 US NE MA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US NE MA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US NE MA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household * Massachusetts households use 109 million Btu of energy per home, 22% more than the U.S. average. * The higher than average site consumption

  5. CAES MaCS Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cross-cutting capabilities that support the Center for Advanced Energy Studies' (CAES) mission in multiple initiative areas. MaCS is largely made possible through its...

  6. MA Mortenson | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: MA Mortenson Place: Minnesota Zip: 55440-0710 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Construction and building firm active in the installation of wind and solar farms....

  7. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- C I Haynes Inc - RI 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Evaluation Year: 1994 RI.02-2 RI.02-3 Site Operations: Performed limited scale tests on heat treating uranium in a vacuum cold-wall furnace in 1964 RI.02-1 Site Disposition: ...

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Beverly MA Site - MA 04

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. MA.04-1 - DOE Memorandum; Voigt to LaGrone; Subject: Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - ...

  10. 2012 APS-DPP Plasma Science Expo, Providence, RI | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS-DPP Plasma Science Expo, Providence, RI View larger image IMG 1847 View larger image IMG 1598 View larger image IMG 1608 View larger image IMG 1609 View larger image IMG 1614...

  11. MA Org Chart, November 16, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Staff MA-80 Office of the Ombudsman Rita R. Franklin, Director November 2015 Adrian Collins, Dep. Director MA-50 Office of Asset Management Carmelo Melendez, Director MA-40...

  12. MA Org Chart, August 13, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Staff MA-80 Office of the Ombudsman Rita R. Franklin, Director August 2015 Adrian Collins, Dep. Director MA-50 Office of Asset Management Carmelo Melendez, Director MA-40...

  13. MA Org Chart, March 22, 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management MA-1 Ingrid Kolb, Director Laurie Morman, Chief of Staff Office of Resource Management and Planning MA-1.1 Marilyn Dillon, Director Sandra Hersh, Dep. Director Office of Scheduling and Advance Charles Quintero, Director MA-10 MA-70 Office of Executive Secretariat Amy B. Demagistris, Deputy Director Office of Policy Analysis Michael Coogan Office of Correspondence Management Steven Johnsen MA-72 Administration, MIS, and Executive Commitments Group Shena Kennerly MA-74 Office of History

  14. MA Org Chart, January 5, 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Director Office of Scheduling and Advance Charles Quintero, Director MA-10 MA-70 Office of ... Information Technology Program Emily Stanton Chris Morris, FOIA Officer Vacant Office of ...

  15. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-09-01

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).

  16. Xuedan Ma | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Xuedan Ma Assistant Scientist Education Ph.D. University of Hamburg Postdoc experience Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, 2015-2016 Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratories, 2012-2015 Research Summary Quantum optics of semiconductor nanomaterials Temperature dependent single molecule/particle optical spectroscopy and imaging Plasmonic and dielectric metamaterials; nanophotonics and nano-optics Biological imaging and sensing;

  17. LAMPF TO MaRIE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LAMPF TO MaRIE Los Alamos National Laboratory - 70 Years of Science and Beyond E X P E R I M E N T A L P H Y S I C A L S C I E N C E S Through the science of making, measuring, and modeling, the people of Los Alamos National Laboratory discover breakthrough solutions to the most pressing national security challenges. PEOPLE BEHIND THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LOS ALAMOS MILESTONES THE EVOLUTION OF LOS ALAMOS SIGNATURE FACILITIES EXPERTISE AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN MAKING, MEASURING, AND MODELING This

  18. QER Public Meeting in Providence, RI & Hartford, CT: New England Regional Infrastructure Constraints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting Files: Meeting Agenda, Meeting Briefing Memo, Federal Register Notice, Meeting Summary, Transcript of Meeting, and Panelist Remarks

  19. Johnston LFG (MA RPS Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LFG (MA RPS Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Johnston LFG (MA RPS Biomass Facility Facility Johnston LFG (MA RPS Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  20. THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT, MA-70 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT, MA-70 THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT, MA-70 Organization chart for the Office of the Executive Secretariat, MA-70 PDF icon Office of the Executive Secretariat ...

  1. MA-60 Org chart | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Updated August 12, 2015 OAM Org Chart (MA-60) v18.pptx More Documents & Publications Office of Management Organization Chart Office of International Affairs Org Chart Policy Flash...

  2. InThrMa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Website, Mobile Device Website: www.inthrma.com Web Application Link: www.inthrma.com Cost: Paid Language: English InThrMa Screenshot...

  3. THE UBV(RI){sub C} COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, I.; Michel, R.; Schuster, W. J.; Sefako, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Tucci Maia, M.; Melendez, J.; Castilho, B. V.

    2012-06-10

    Photometric data in the UBV(RI){sub C} system have been acquired for 80 solar analog stars for which we have previously derived highly precise atmospheric parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. UBV and (RI){sub C} data for 46 and 76 of these stars, respectively, are published for the first time. Combining our data with those from the literature, colors in the UBV(RI){sub C} system, with {approx_equal} 0.01 mag precision, are now available for 112 solar analogs. Multiple linear regression is used to derive the solar colors from these photometric data and the spectroscopically derived T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] values. To minimize the impact of systematic errors in the model-dependent atmospheric parameters, we use only the data for the 10 stars that most closely resemble our Sun, i.e., the solar twins, and derive the following solar colors: (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.005, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.166 {+-} 0.022, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.352 {+-} 0.007, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.702 {+-} 0.010. These colors are consistent, within the 1{sigma} errors, with those derived using the entire sample of 112 solar analogs. We also derive the solar colors using the relation between spectral-line-depth ratios and observed stellar colors, i.e., with a completely model-independent approach, and without restricting the analysis to solar twins. We find (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.003, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.158 {+-} 0.009, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.356 {+-} 0.003, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.701 {+-} 0.003, in excellent agreement with the model-dependent analysis.

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tracerlab Inc - MA 11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and cesium blocks during the early 1950s. MA.11-1 MA.11-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - NRC licensed MA.11-2 MA.11-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive...

  5. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Shpack Landfill - MA 06

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Shpack Landfill - MA 06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Shpack Landfill, NY Alternate Name(s): Attleboro, MA Metals and Controls Site Norton Landfill area MA.06-2 MA.06-3 Location: 68 Union Road, Norton, Massachusetts MA.06-2 Historical Operations: No AEC activities were conducted on site. Contamination was suspected from disposal of materials containing uranium and zirconium ash. MA.06-2 MA.06-3 Eligibility Determination: Eligible MA.06-1 Radiological Survey(s): Assessment Surveys MA.06-4 MA.06-5

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Fireworks Ordnance Corp - MA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    13 Fireworks Ordnance Corp - MA 13 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL FIREWORKS ORDNANCE CORP (MA.13) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: American Potash and Chemical Corporation MA.13-3 Location: West Hanover , Massachusetts MA.13-1 Evaluation Year: 1991 MA.13-1 Site Operations: Performed bench scale research and development on uranium forming during the 1960s. MA.13-2 MA.13-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for

  8. Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Decontamination and Decommissioning Evaluation Project | Department of Energy Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning Evaluation Project Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning Evaluation Project This remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS), the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination and

  9. EV Community Readiness projects: New York City and Lower Hudson...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    City and Lower Hudson Valley Clean Communities, Inc. (NY, MA, PA); NYSERDA (ME, NH, VT, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, DC) EV Community Readiness projects: New York City and ...

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Heald Machine Co - MA 15

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Location: Worcester , Massachusetts MA.15-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 MA.15-2 MA.15-3 Site Operations: Research and development on uranium slug drilling machines in the early 1960s. ...

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Norton Co - MA 12

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MA.12-3 Site Operations: Manufactured refractory products using thorium and uranium metal. ... Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium, Thorium MA.12-4 MA.12-5 Radiological Survey(s): ...

  12. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  13. PARS II Enhancements - Igor Pedan, MA-63 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancements - Igor Pedan, MA-63 PARS II Enhancements - Igor Pedan, MA-63 2014 DOE Project Management Workshop PDF icon 28PedanPARSII Enhancements.pdf More Documents & ...

  14. El Ma Electronic Machining srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ma Electronic Machining srl Jump to: navigation, search Name: El.Ma. Electronic Machining srl Place: Riva del Garda (TN), Italy Zip: 38066 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar, Wind...

  15. MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials in extremes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing...

  16. MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive summary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive ...

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Englehard Industries - MA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    operations - uranium metal - under AEC license. MA.0-03-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - NRC licensed MA.0-03-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials...

  18. WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 1_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf PDF icon WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf More Documents & Publications WA_04_053_IBM_CORP_Waiver_of_the_Government_U.S._and_Foreign.pdf WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2002-023

  19. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  20. Structure of Fc[gamma]RI in complex with Fc reveals the importance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    complex with Fc reveals the importance of glycan recognition for high-affinity IgG binding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of FcgammaRI in complex with Fc ...

  1. NETL CT Imaging Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-21

    NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.

  2. NETL CT Imaging Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-04

    NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.

  3. UCRL-MA-110662 PT I U

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MA-110662 PT I U b EQ3/6, A Software Package for Geochemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems: Package Overview and Installation Guide (Version 7.0) . Thomas J. Wolery September 14,1992 DISCLAIMER This document wasprepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liabdity or responsibility for the accuracy,

  4. SE-MA-NO Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SE-MA-NO Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: SE-MA-NO Electric Coop Place: Missouri Phone Number: (417) 924-3291 Website: www.semano.com Facebook: https:...

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Watertown Arsenal - MA 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to Jascewsky; M.I.T. Contract Information October 18, 1976 MA.02-5 - DOE Memorandum; Wilson to Bearse; Samples of Chattanooga Shale for M.I.T.; August 26, 1949 MA.02-6 - DOE ...

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Woburn Landfill - MA 07

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Operations: The National Lead Company, Inc. disposed of approximately fifty 55-gallon drums of low grade uranium ore in at this site in 1960. MA.07-2 MA.07-4 Site Disposition:...

  7. Office of Information Resources (MA-90) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources (MA-90) Office of Information Resources (MA-90) Freedom of Information 2007 Annual Report PDF icon Office of Information Resources (MA-90) More Documents & Publications ANNUAL FOIA REPORT FOR 2009 U.S. Department of Energy 2008 Annual FOIA Report Microsoft Word - 2005 FOIA ANNUAL REPORT.doc

  8. Structure of Fc[gamma]RI in complex with Fc reveals the importance of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    glycan recognition for high-affinity IgG binding (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure of Fc[gamma]RI in complex with Fc reveals the importance of glycan recognition for high-affinity IgG binding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of Fc[gamma]RI in complex with Fc reveals the importance of glycan recognition for high-affinity IgG binding Authors: Lu, Jinghua ; Chu, Jonathan ; Zou, Zhongcheng ; Hamacher, Nels B. ; Rixon, Mark W. ; Sun, Peter D. [1] ; BMS) [2] + Show

  9. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Caldwell and Johnson, Exeter, RI,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Custom Home | Department of Energy Study, Caldwell and Johnson, Exeter, RI, Custom Home DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Caldwell and Johnson, Exeter, RI, Custom Home Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Exeter, Rhode Island, that scored HERS 43 without PV. This 2,000 ft2 custom home has a spray- foamed attic and walls, plus rigid foam sheathing, ducted mini-split heat pumps, and an HRV. PDF icon BA_ZeroEnergyReady_CaldwellJohnson_062314.pdf More Documents & Publications

  10. RFI/RI work plan for the Road A Chemical Basin 904-111G

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetz, T.F.

    2000-03-07

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been prepared for the Road A Chemical Basin Operable Unit (RdACB OU) (904-111G). This unit is subject to the requirements of both RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This Work Plan presents the initial evaluation of existing unit data, applicable background data, the regulatory framework for the unit investigation, and the evaluations and decisions made during the determination of the scope and objectives of the planned Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities.

  11. VA VT CT RI MT WY CO ID UT OR NV CA AZ NM WA TN WV NC AR OK

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    08: Debian Security Advisory V-008: Debian Security Advisory October 23, 2012 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Debian Security Advisory PLATFORM: Debian GNU/Linux 6.0 ABSTRACT: Debian update for bind9 REFERENCE LINKS: Debian Security Advisory DSA-2560-1 Debian bugtracking system: Bug 690118 ISC Reference Number: AA-00801 Secunia Advisory SA51054 CVE-2012-5166 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: was discovered that BIND, a DNS server, hangs while constructing the additional section of a DNS reply,

  12. Identification and characterization of novel NuMA isoforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jin; Xu, Zhe; He, Dacheng; Lu, Guanting

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: Seven NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing were categorized into 3 groups: long, middle and short. Both exons 15 and 16 in long NuMA were hotspot for alternative splicing. Lower expression of short NuMA was observed in cancer cells compared with nonneoplastic controls. Distinct localization pattern of short isoforms indicated different function from that of long and middle NuMA. - Abstract: The large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) has been investigated for over 30 years with functions related to the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. However, the existence and functions of NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing remains unclear. In the present work, we show that at least seven NuMA isoforms (categorized into long, middle and short groups) generated by alternative splicing from a common NuMA mRNA precursor were discovered in HeLa cells and these isoforms differ mainly at the carboxyl terminus and the coiled-coil domains. Two hotspot exons with molecular mass of 3366-nt and 42-nt tend to be spliced during alternative splicing in long and middle groups. Furthermore, full-length coding sequences of long and middle NuMA obtained by using fusion PCR were constructed into GFP-tagged vector to illustrate their cellular localization. Long NuMA mainly localized in the nucleus with absence from nucleoli during interphase and translocated to the spindle poles in mitosis. Middle NuMA displayed the similar cell cycle-dependent distribution pattern as long NuMA. However, expression of NuMA short isoforms revealed a distinct subcellular localization. Short NuMA were present in the cytosol during the whole cycle, without colocalization with mitotic apparatus. These results have allowed us tentatively to explore a new research direction for NuMAs various functions.

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Seymour CT Site - CT 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Seymour CT Site - CT 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Seymour, CT Alternate Name(s): Bridgeport Brass Company Seymour Specialty Wire Reactive Metals, Inc. National Distillers and Chemical Co. Havens Plant CT.02-2 CT.02-3 CT.02-6 Location: 15 Franklin Street, Seymour, Connecticut CT.02-4 Historical Operations: Procured, processed and stored uranium oxides, salts, and metals for AEC and processed the products by cold-forming or extruding natural uranium metal. CT.02-3 CT.02-9 Eligibility Determination:

  14. The 300 mA SRF ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-11-07

    Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) are important for a variety of applications, from high-power Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) to polarized-electron polarized-proton colliders. The ERL current is arguably the most important characteristic of ERLs for such applications. With that in mind, the Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory embarked on the development of a 300 mA ERL to serve as an R and D test-bed for high-current ERL technologies. These include high-current, extremely well damped superconducting accelerating cavities, high-current superconducting laser-photocathode electron guns and high quantum-efficiency photocathodes. In this presentation I will cover these ERL related developments.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Caldwell and Johnson, Charlestown, RI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready affordable home in Charlestown, RI, that achieved a HERS Index of 47 without PV. The 2,244-ft2 two-story home with basement has 2x6 walls filled with 5.5 in. ...

  16. Radiation Protection Instrument Manual, Revision 1, PNL-MA-562

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2009-09-23

    PNL-MA-562 This manual provides specific information for operating and using portable radiological monitoring instruments available for use on the Hanford Site.

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Fenwal Inc - MA 14

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ashland, Massachusetts, February 1, 1967; February 9, 1968 MA.14-2 - DOE Memorandum; Williams to The File; Subject: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites...

  18. EDeMa (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EDeMa Country Germany Headquarters Location Mlheim, Germany Coordinates 51.427074, 6.886492 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  19. MHK Projects/GCK Technology Merrimack River Amesbury MA US |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Merrimack River Amesbury MA US < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","typ...

  20. MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concept revolutionizing materials in extremes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials in extremes Authors: ...

  1. Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Project | Department of Energy Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation Project Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation Project This Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation Project at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio, presents the information necessary to select a Site-wide disposal alternative for the waste generated under the Director's Final Findings and Orders (DFF&O) for

  2. A New Path Forward for WTP AL Boldt and RI Smith

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dick Smith and Al Boldt - thoughts to share with the Tank Waste Committee Not a committee work product A New Path Forward for WTP AL Boldt and RI Smith February 3, 2014 Introduction The "Framework" document, issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) in September of 2013, is purported to show the path forward for completion and operation of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) for treatment of Hanford tank wastes. Construction on two principal facilities (HLW and Pretreatment) was

  3. CT Solar Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority is offering a pilot loan program, CT Solar Loan, to provide homeowners with 15-year loans for solar PV equipment. The loans are administered...

  4. CT Solar Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CT Solar Lease allows homeowners to lease a photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal system, with fixed monthly payments, for a term of 20 years, at no upfront down payment.* This program, which takes...

  5. TH-C-18A-08: A Management Tool for CT Dose Monitoring, Analysis, and Protocol Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J; Chan, F; Newman, B; Larson, D; Leung, A; Fleischmann, D; Molvin, L; Marsh, D; Zorich, C; Phillips, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a customizable tool for enterprise-wide managing of CT protocols and analyzing radiation dose information of CT exams for a variety of quality control applications Methods: All clinical CT protocols implemented on the 11 CT scanners at our institution were extracted in digital format. The original protocols had been preset by our CT management team. A commercial CT dose tracking software (DoseWatch,GE healthcare,WI) was used to collect exam information (exam date, patient age etc.), scanning parameters, and radiation doses for all CT exams. We developed a Matlab-based program (MathWorks,MA) with graphic user interface which allows to analyze the scanning protocols with the actual dose estimates, and compare the data to national (ACR,AAPM) and internal reference values for CT quality control. Results: The CT protocol review portion of our tool allows the user to look up the scanning and image reconstruction parameters of any protocol on any of the installed CT systems among about 120 protocols per scanner. In the dose analysis tool, dose information of all CT exams (from 05/2013 to 02/2014) was stratified on a protocol level, and within a protocol down to series level, i.e. each individual exposure event. This allows numerical and graphical review of dose information of any combination of scanner models, protocols and series. The key functions of the tool include: statistics of CTDI, DLP and SSDE, dose monitoring using user-set CTDI/DLP/SSDE thresholds, look-up of any CT exam dose data, and CT protocol review. Conclusion: our inhouse CT management tool provides radiologists, technologists and administration a first-hand near real-time enterprise-wide knowledge on CT dose levels of different exam types. Medical physicists use this tool to manage CT protocols, compare and optimize dose levels across different scanner models. It provides technologists feedback on CT scanning operation, and knowledge on important dose baselines and thresholds.

  6. Microsoft Word - figure_14.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    42 Figure 14. Net interstate movements, imports, and exports of natural gas in the United States, 2014 (million cubic feet) Norway Trinidad/ Tobago Yemen Trinidad/ Tobago Interstate Movements Not Shown on Map From Volume To From Volume To CT RI Other TX IN MA RI MA MA CT VA DC MD DC VT MA NH MA WA M T I D O R W Y ND SD C A N V U T CO NE KS A Z NM OK TX MN WI MI IA I L IN OH MO AR M S AL GA T N KY FL SC NC WV MD DE VA PA NJ NY CT RI MA VT NH ME LA HI A K Mexico C a n a d a C a n a d a Canada

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Nuclear Metals Inc - MA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    (AEC); Subject: Program for Uranium Recovery; October 11, 1956. 2 pages MA.09-3 - DuPont Letter to H. L. Kilburn (AEC); Subject: Research Programs in Support of Savannah ...

  8. Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Australia ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Australia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Australia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  9. MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive summary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    executive summary describe in detail for each of these areas the current state of the art, the gaps that exist and the road map to MaRIE and beyond. Here we integrate the...

  10. Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Objectives Forecasts sales of competing vehicle technologies among consumer segments. Analyzes how technology, infrastructure, consumer behavior, and policy affect sales of new technologies and determines the resulting societal, environmental and economic impacts. Key Attributes & Strengths MA3T can be used to investigate the societal benefits, costs, and employment impacts of market transitions

  11. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goforth, James; Herrera, Dennis; Oona, Hank; Torres, David; Atchison, W L; Colgate, S A; Griego, J R; Guzik, J; Holtkamp, D B; Idzorek, G; Kaul, A; Kirkpatrick, R C; Menikoff, R; Reardon, P T; Reinovsky, R E; Rousculp, C L; Sgro, A G; Tabaka, L J; Tierney, T E; Watt, R G

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  12. 2012 APS-DPP Plasma Science Expo, Providence, RI | Princeton Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab APS-DPP Plasma Science Expo, Providence, RI View larger image IMG 1847 View larger image IMG 1598 View larger image IMG 1608 View larger image IMG 1609 View larger image IMG 1614 View larger image IMG 1647 View larger image IMG 1650 View larger image IMG 1651 View larger image IMG 1657 View larger image IMG 1659 View larger image IMG 1662 View larger image IMG 1663 View larger image IMG 1664 View larger image IMG 1668 View larger image IMG 1672 View larger image IMG 1675 View larger

  13. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (1035 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 837 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.30.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tufts College - MA 0-05

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Tufts College - MA 0-05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: TUFTS COLLEGE ( MA.0-05 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Medford , Massachusetts MA.0-05-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 MA.0-05-1 Site Operations: Research and development using only small quantities of radioactive material. MA.0-05-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on limited quantities of material handled MA.0-05-1

  15. ContaCt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ContaCt The nuclear and materials science research ca- pabilities at LANSCE are operated as a DOE-des- ignated user facility in service to the nation. We provide neutron and proton beams as well as instrumentation and sample environments for basic, applied, industry, and defense-related re- search in nuclear physics and materials science. A yearly call invites proposals for beam time for experiments from other national laboratories, academia, and industry users. Proprietary and nonproprietary

  16. Climate Action Champions: Boston, MA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boston, MA Climate Action Champions: Boston, MA Boston is the largest city in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Home to sixty colleges and universities, world-renowned medical facilities, nationally competitive professional sports teams, and thriving music and arts scene, Boston is a cultural hub and leader in innovation. | Photo courtesy of the City of Boston. Boston is the largest city in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Home to sixty colleges and

  17. NEW BV(RI){sub C} PHOTOMETRY FOR PRAESEPE: FURTHER TESTS OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRIC CONSISTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joner, Michael D.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Laney, C. David; Van Wyk, Francois

    2011-11-15

    New BV(RI){sub C} measurements of Praesepe made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) are presented. When those measurements are combined with those reported in previous papers in this series, it is found that they support previously determined V zero points for Praesepe, M67, and the Hyades. Support is also found for joint (V - R){sub C} and (R - I){sub C} zero points established previously for Praesepe and NGC 752. For the SAAO system of standard stars, a B - V correction to the Johnson system of about -9 mmag appears to be reasonably well established. The preferred (though not definitive) V correction is about +7 mmag. For the Landolt V system, zero-point identity with the Johnson system at a 2{sigma} level of 4.8 mmag is found, and no color term as large as 4 mmag (mag){sup -1} is detected. Updated CDS data files for Praesepe are briefly described.

  18. CT Offshore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: CT Offshore Place: Otterup, Denmark Zip: 5450 Sector: Wind energy Product: Denmark-based consultancy which provides assistance for project...

  19. Siemens Corporate Technology CT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporate Technology CT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) Place: Erlangan, Germany Sector: Solar Product: R&D lab for Siemens AG. Currently...

  20. CT reconstruction techniques for improved accuracy of lung CT airway measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, A.; Ranallo, F. N.; Judy, P. F.; Gierada, D. S.; Fain, S. B.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of constrained reconstruction techniques on quantitative CT (qCT) of the lung parenchyma and airways for low x-ray radiation dose. Methods: Measurement of small airways with qCT remains a challenge, especially for low x-ray dose protocols. Images of the COPDGene quality assurance phantom (CTP698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) were obtained using a GE discovery CT750 HD scanner for helical scans at x-ray radiation dose-equivalents ranging from 1 to 4.12 mSv (12100 mA s currenttime product). Other parameters were 40 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch, 0.5 s rotation, and 0.625 mm thickness. The phantom was sandwiched between 7.5 cm thick water attenuating phantoms for a total length of 20 cm to better simulate the scatter conditions of patient scans. Image data sets were reconstructed using STANDARD (STD), DETAIL, BONE, and EDGE algorithms for filtered back projection (FBP), 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and Veo reconstructions. Reduced (half) display field of view (DFOV) was used to increase sampling across airway phantom structures. Inner diameter (ID), wall area percent (WA%), and wall thickness (WT) measurements of eight airway mimicking tubes in the phantom, including a 2.5 mm ID (42.6 WA%, 0.4 mm WT), 3 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 0.6 mm WT), and 6 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 1.2 mm WT) were performed with Airway Inspector (Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA) using the phase congruency edge detection method. The average of individual measures at five central slices of the phantom was taken to reduce measurement error. Results: WA% measures were greatly overestimated while IDs were underestimated for the smaller airways, especially for reconstructions at full DFOV (36 cm) using the STD kernel, due to poor sampling and spatial resolution (0.7 mm pixel size). Despite low radiation dose, the ID of the 6 mm ID airway was consistently measured accurately for all methods other than STD FBP. Veo reconstructions showed slight improvement over STD FBP reconstructions (4%9% increase in accuracy). The most improved ID and WA% measures were for the smaller airways, especially for low dose scans reconstructed at half DFOV (18 cm) with the EDGE algorithm in combination with 100% ASIR to mitigate noise. Using the BONE + ASIR at half BONE technique, measures improved by a factor of 2 over STD FBP even at a quarter of the x-ray dose. Conclusions: The flexibility of ASIR in combination with higher frequency algorithms, such as BONE, provided the greatest accuracy for conventional and low x-ray dose relative to FBP. Veo provided more modest improvement in qCT measures, likely due to its compatibility only with the smoother STD kernel.

  1. CT NC0

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    x-L* d! CT NC0 - i , ,. i, .' i :.:(e.!' ,A\~, L.,t, - (iI :i' , . y- 2 .L i ._ 1 c\ :- i;! Ii $ 4. Ci:lc:i.nnati. 39, t>:::i.f> (J&l3 q-1 -3 sui3 Jrn T3 FRCM .I iirz 1 ?j ~ 1.3 bL1 T:' IP !REFOI?T TC 5YC?CZCiC~ :EWllIFl;j",tsSS L' I"JIsIc:;. .:;xli3;. iCAN !fA(=;-fL,yg-j L' sc,, E. $.iCLX:i?, -iIJ,x:q()Is. ON hL4X 24 - 25 ) 1.9tic ;i. A. Quiglel;, A.3, 3, M. ChenauEt gpxrIvB OF TP.~ The purpose of t3is trip was tc observe a proposed method for the dchy- dratim of green salt

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Reed Rolled Thread Co - MA 18

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Reed Rolled Thread Co - MA 18 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: REED ROLLED THREAD CO. (MA.18 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Reed Rolled Thread and Die Co MA.18-1 Location: Worcester , Massachusetts MA.18-3 Evaluation Year: 1990 MA.18-2 MA.18-3 Site Operations: Thread rolling of a test lot of 1500 SRO slugs were planned for this site on September 14 and 15, 1955. There is no indication that the operation was actually conducted at this

  3. MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light Sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using ...

  4. MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a concept for a new research facility, MaRIE: Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes. The key motivation for MaRIE is to develop new ...

  5. MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project, and the Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Ra...

  6. MaRIE 1.0 -- The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE 1.0 -- The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project: Accelerating Qualification, Certification, and Assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0 ...

  7. Roadmap to MaRIE January 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roadmap to MaRIE January 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE January 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  8. Roadmap to MaRIE November 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Roadmap to MaRIE November 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE November 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  9. Roadmap to MaRIE August 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roadmap to MaRIE August 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE August 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  10. Roadmap to MaRIE May 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Roadmap to MaRIE May 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE May 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  11. Roadmap to MaRIE (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Roadmap to MaRIE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  12. Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  13. Radiation-induced refraction artifacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to demonstrate imaging artifacts that can occur during the optical computed tomography (CT) scanning of polymer gel dosimeters due to radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polyacrylamide gels. Methods: A 1 L cylindrical polyacrylamide gel dosimeter was irradiated with 3 3 cm{sup 2} square beams of 6 MV photons. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image the dosimeter. Investigative optical CT scans were performed to examine two types of rayline bending: (i) bending within the plane of the fan-beam and (ii) bending out the plane of the fan-beam. To address structured errors, an iterative SavitzkyGolay (ISG) filtering routine was designed to filter 2D projections in sinogram space. For comparison, 2D projections were alternatively filtered using an adaptive-mean (AM) filter. Results: In-plane rayline bending was most notably observed in optical CT projections where rays of the fan-beam confronted a sustained dose gradient that was perpendicular to their trajectory but within the fan-beam plane. These errors caused distinct streaking artifacts in image reconstructions due to the refraction of higher intensity rays toward more opaque regions of the dosimeter. Out-of-plane rayline bending was observed in slices of the dosimeter that featured dose gradients perpendicular to the plane of the fan-beam. These errors caused widespread, severe overestimations of dose in image reconstructions due to the higher-than-actual opacity that is perceived by the scanner when light is bent off of the detector array. The ISG filtering routine outperformed AM filtering for both in-plane and out-of-plane rayline errors caused by radiation-induced RI changes. For in-plane rayline errors, streaks in an irradiated region (>7 Gy) were as high as 49% for unfiltered data, 14% for AM, and 6% for ISG. For out-of-plane rayline errors, overestimations of dose in a low-dose region (?50 cGy) were as high as 13 Gy for unfiltered data, 10 Gy for AM, and 3.1 Gy for ISG. The ISG routine also addressed unrelated artifacts that previously needed to be manually removed in sinogram space. However, the ISG routine blurred reconstructions, causing losses in spatial resolution of ?5 mm in the plane of the fan-beam and ?8 mm perpendicular to the fan-beam. Conclusions: This paper reveals a new category of imaging artifacts that can affect the optical CT readout of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters. Investigative scans show that radiation-induced RI changes can cause significant rayline errors when rays confront a prolonged dose gradient that runs perpendicular to their trajectory. In fan-beam optical CT, these errors manifested in two ways: (1) distinct streaking artifacts caused by in-plane rayline bending and (2) severe overestimations of opacity caused by rays bending out of the fan-beam plane and missing the detector array. Although the ISG filtering routine mitigated these errors better than an adaptive-mean filtering routine, it caused unacceptable losses in spatial resolution.

  14. Business System Clause - Berta Schreiber, Dir, Office of Policy (MA-61) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Business System Clause - Berta Schreiber, Dir, Office of Policy (MA-61) Business System Clause - Berta Schreiber, Dir, Office of Policy (MA-61) 2014 DOE Project Management Workshop PDF icon Business System Clause - Berta Schreiber, Dir, Office of Policy (MA-61) More Documents & Publications Agenda Agenda_2015 APM Workshop_Final Acquisition Letter No. AL 2013-11

  15. SU-E-I-25: Determining Tube Current, Tube Voltage and Pitch Suitable for Low- Dose Lung Screening CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K; Matthews, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality of a computed tomography (CT) image and the dose delivered during its acquisition depend upon the acquisition parameters used. Tube current, tube voltage, and pitch are acquisition parameters that potentially affect image quality and dose. This study investigated physicians' abilities to characterize small, solid nodules in low-dose CT images for combinations of current, voltage and pitch, for three CT scanner models. Methods: Lung CT images was acquired of a Data Spectrum anthropomorphic torso phantom with various combinations of pitch, tube current, and tube voltage; this phantom was used because acrylic beads of various sizes could be placed within the lung compartments to simulate nodules. The phantom was imaged on two 16-slice scanners and a 64-slice scanner. The acquisition parameters spanned a range of estimated CTDI levels; the CTDI estimates from the acquisition software were verified by measurement. Several experienced radiologists viewed the phantom lung CT images and noted nodule location, size and shape, as well as the acceptability of overall image quality. Results: Image quality for assessment of nodules was deemed unsatisfactory for all scanners at 80 kV (any tube current) and at 35 mA (any tube voltage). Tube current of 50 mA or more at 120 kV resulted in similar assessments from all three scanners. Physician-measured sphere diameters were closer to actual diameters for larger spheres, higher tube current, and higher kV. Pitch influenced size measurements less for larger spheres than for smaller spheres. CTDI was typically overestimated by the scanner software compared to measurement. Conclusion: Based on this survey of acquisition parameters, a low-dose CT protocol of 120 kV, 50 mA, and pitch of 1.4 is recommended to balance patient dose and acceptable image quality. For three models of scanners, this protocol resulted in estimated CTDIs from 2.93.6 mGy.

  16. Science and Technology of the 10-MA Spherical Tori

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Y-K.M.

    1999-11-14

    The Spherical Torus (ST) configuration has recently emerged as an example of confinement concept innovation that enables attractive steps in the development of fusion energy. The scientific potential for the ST has been indicated by recent encouraging results from START,2 CDX-U, and HIT. The scientific principles for the D-fueled ST will soon be tested by NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment3) in the U.S. and MAST (Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak4) in the U.K. at the level of l-2 MA in plasma current. More recently, interest has grown in the U.S. in the possibility of near-term ST fusion burn devices at the level of 10 MA in plasma current. The missions for these devices would be to test burning plasma performance in a small, pulsed D-T-fueled ST (i.e., DTST) and to develop fusion energy technologies in a small steady state ST-based Volume Neutron Source (VNS). This paper reports the results of analysis of the key science and technology issues for these devices.

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- E B Badger - MA 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    B Badger - MA 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: E.B. Badger (MA.0-01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 75 Pitts Street , Boston , Massachusetts MA.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 MA.0-01-2 Site Operations: Construction contractor during the mid-1940s; constructed facility to refine pitchblende ore and produce feed materials at another location. MA.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of radioactive

  18. Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2,583 2,728 2014 5,470 3,783 2,334 2,806 2,175 3,311 1,567 2,871 2,505 2,003 2015 7,729 7,623 5,521 1,673 2,557 7,133 8,237 2,563 2,653 1,541 2,452 2016 10,633 8,593 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  19. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubono, S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-858 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-81 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); He, J. J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Goto, A. [Faculty of Medcine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-2331 (Japan); Muto, H. [Center of General Education, Tokyo University of Science at Suwa, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  20. SU-E-I-60: The Correct Selection of Pitch and Rotation Time for Optimal CT Scanning : The Big Misconception

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranallo, F; Szczykutowicz, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide correct guidance in the proper selection of pitch and rotation time for optimal CT imaging with multi-slice scanners. Methods: There exists a widespread misconception concerning the role of pitch in patient dose with modern multi-slice scanners, particularly with the use of mA modulation techniques. We investigated the relationship of pitch and rotation time to image quality, dose, and scan duration, with CT scanners from different manufacturers in a way that clarifies this misconception. This source of this misconception may concern the role of pitch in single slice CT scanners. Results: We found that the image noise and dose are generally independent of the selected effective mAs (mA*time/ pitch) with manual mA technique settings and are generally independent of the selected pitch and /or rotation time with automatic mA modulation techniques. However we did find that on certain scanners the use of a pitch just above 0.5 provided images of equal image noise at a lower dose compared to the use of a pitch just below 1.0. Conclusion: The misconception that the use of a lower pitch over-irradiates patients by wasting dose is clearly false. The use of a lower pitch provides images of equal or better image quality at the same patient dose, whether using manual mA or automatic mA modulation techniques. By decreasing the pitch and the rotation times by equal amounts, both helical and patient motion artifacts can be reduced without affecting the exam time. The use of lower helical pitch also allows better scanning of larger patients by allowing a greater scan effective mAs, if the exam time can be extended. The one caution with the use of low pitch is not related to patient dose, but to the length of the scan time if the rotation time is not set short enough. Partial Research funding from GE HealthCare.

  1. CT Investment Partners LLP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CT Investment Partners LLP Jump to: navigation, search Name: CT Investment Partners LLP Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Venture capital arm of...

  2. Category:Bridgeport, CT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Bridgeport CT Connecticut Light & Power Co.png SVFullServiceRestauran... 64 KB SVQuickServiceRestaurant Bridgeport CT...

  3. Development of a Hydronic Rooftop Unit-HyPak-MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Lee; Mark Berman

    2009-11-14

    The majority of U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTUs). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTUs are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. 36% percent of annual U.S. energy, and two-thirds of electricity, is consumed in and by buildings. Commercial buildings consume approximately 4.2 quads of energy each year at a cost of $230 billion per year, with HVAC equipment consuming 1.2 quads of electricity. More than half of all U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by packaged HVAC units, most of which are rooftop units (RTUs). Inefficient RTUs create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming5. Also, RTUs often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration, reducing indoor air quality. This is the second HyPak project to be supported by DOE through NETL. The prior project, referred to as HyPak-1 in this report, had two rounds of prototype fabrication and testing as well as computer modeling and market research. The HyPak-1 prototypes demonstrated the high performance capabilities of the HyPak concept, but made it clear that further development was required to reduce heat exchanger cost and improve system reliability before HyPak commercialization can commence. The HyPak-1 prototypes were limited to about 25% ventilation air fraction, limiting performance and marketability. The current project is intended to develop a 'mixed-air' product that is capable of full 0-100% modulation in ventilation air fraction, hence it was referred to as HyPak-MA in the proposal. (For simplicity, the -MA has been dropped when referencing the current project.) The objective of the HyPak Project is to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over conventional RTU performance. Our proposal targeted 60% and 50% reduction in electrical energy use by the HyPak RTU for dry and humid climates, respectively, when compared with a conventional unit, and reduction in peak energy consumption of 50% and 33% respectively. In addition to performance targets, our goal is to develop a production-ready design with durability, reliability and maintainability similar to air-cooled packaged equipment, and that can be commercialized immediately following the conclusion of this project.

  4. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  5. Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED-2) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand based on medium- to long-term scenarios of socio-economic, technological and demographic developments. " References "MAED 2" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  6. MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sources (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light Sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light Sources Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a concept for a new research facility, MaRIE: Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes. The key motivation for MaRIE is to develop new experimental capabilities needed to fill the existing gaps in our

  7. A rational minor actinide (MA) recycling concept based on innovative oxide fuel with high AM content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Sato, Isamu; Ishii, Tetsuya; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Asaga, Takeo; Kurosaki, Ken

    2007-07-01

    A rational MA recycle concept based on high Am content fuel has been proposed. A design study of an Am- MOX fabrication plant, which is a key facility for the MA recycle concept, has been done and the facility concept was clarified from the viewpoint of basic process viability. Preliminary cost estimation suggested that the total construction cost of the MA recycle facilities including Am-MOX, Np-MOX and MA recovery could be comparable with that of the large scale LWR-MOX fabrication plant required for plutonium in LWR fuel cycle. (authors)

  8. EDeMa (Smart Grid Project) (Krefeld, Germany) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Krefeld, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EDeMa Country Germany Headquarters Location Krefeld, Germany Coordinates 50.652943, 6.339111 Loading map......

  9. 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- C G Sargent and Sons - MA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site Operations: Conducted extruder and drying tests with thorium in the late 1960s. ... Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Thorium MA.17-3 Radiological Survey(s): Yes - ...

  11. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  12. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor revision. Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, 9.2.

  15. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  16. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Imaging: CT Dose Optimization Technologies I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denison, K; Smith, S

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical hands-on information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The imaging topic this year is CT scanner dose optimization capabilities. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Dose Optimization Capabilities of GE Computed Tomography Scanners Presentation Time: 11:15 11:45 AM GE Healthcare is dedicated to the delivery of high quality clinical images through the development of technologies, which optimize the application of ionizing radiation. In computed tomography, dose management solutions fall into four categories: employs projection data and statistical modeling to decrease noise in the reconstructed image - creating an opportunity for mA reduction in the acquisition of diagnostic images. Veo represents true Model Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBiR). Using high-level algorithms in tandem with advanced computing power, Veo enables lower pixel noise standard deviation and improved spatial resolution within a single image. Advanced Adaptive Image Filters allow for maintenance of spatial resolution while reducing image noise. Examples of adaptive image space filters include Neuro 3-D filters and Cardiac Noise Reduction Filters. AutomA adjusts mA along the z-axis and is the CT equivalent of auto exposure control in conventional x-ray systems. Dynamic Z-axis Tracking offers an additional opportunity for dose reduction in helical acquisitions while SmartTrack Z-axis Tracking serves to ensure beam, collimator and detector alignment during tube rotation. SmartmA provides angular mA modulation. ECG Helical Modulation reduces mA during the systolic phase of the heart cycle. SmartBeam optimization uses bowtie beam-shaping hardware and software to filter off-axis x-rays - minimizing dose and reducing x-ray scatter. The DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR) generates a dose report at the conclusion of every examination. Dose Check preemptively notifies CT operators when scan parameters exceed user-defined dose thresholds. DoseWatch is an information technology application providing vendor-agnostic dose tracking and analysis for CT (and all other diagnostic x-ray modalities) SnapShot Pulse improves coronary CTA dose management. VolumeShuttle uses two acquisitions to increase coverage, decrease dose, and conserve on contrast administration. Color-Coding for Kids applies the Broselow-Luten Pediatric System to facilitate pediatric emergency care and reduce medical errors. FeatherLight achieves dose optimization through pediatric procedure-based protocols. Adventure Series scanners provide a child-friendly imaging environment promoting patient cooperation with resultant reduction in retakes and patient motion. Philips CT Dose Optimization Tools and Advanced Reconstruction Presentation Time: 11:45 12:15 PM The first part of the talk will cover Dose Reduction and Dose Optimization Technologies present in Philips CT Scanners. The main Technologies to be presented include: DoseRight and tube current modulation (DoseRight, Z-DOM, 3D-DOM, DoseRight Cardiac) Special acquisition modes Beam filtration and beam shapers Eclipse collimator and ClearRay collimator NanoPanel detector DoseRight will cover automatic tube current selection that automatically adjusts the dose for the individual patient. The presentation will explore the modulation techniques currently employed in Philips CT scanners and will include the algorithmic concepts as well as illustrative examples. Modulation and current selection technologies to be covered include the Automatic Current Selection component of DoseRight, ZDOM longitudinal dose modulation, 3D-DOM (combination of longitudinal and rotational dose modulation), Cardiac Dose right (an ECG based dose modulation scheme), and the DoseRight Index (DRI) IQ index. The special acquisition modes covers acquisition techniques such as prospective gating that

  17. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  18. QER SECOND INSTALLMENT REGIONAL MEETING--BOSTON, MA | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    QER SECOND INSTALLMENT REGIONAL MEETING--BOSTON, MA QER SECOND INSTALLMENT REGIONAL MEETING--BOSTON, MA MEETING DATE AND LOCATION Friday, April 15, 2016 Doors open: 8:30 AM; Program begins: 9:30 AM Marriott Long Wharf (Salons D, E, F, L) 296 State Street Boston, MA 02109 Watch the meeting live here. MEETING INFORMATION The U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz and Dr. John P. Holdren, Director of the White House Office of Science will host a public stakeholder meeting on the second

  19. MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member for U. S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, ...

  20. COLLOQUIUM: The MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 27, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes) Project Dr. Cris Barnes Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  1. MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An x-ray free electron laser at up to 42-keV fundamental energy and with photon pulses down to sub-nanosecond spacing, MaRIE 1.0 is designed to meet the challenges of ...

  2. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  3. MaRIE 1.0 -- The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accelerating Qualification, Certification, and Assessment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MaRIE 1.0 -- The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project: Accelerating Qualification, Certification, and Assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0 -- The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project: Accelerating Qualification, Certification, and Assessment Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Cyanamid Co - CT 13

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Cyanamid Co - CT 13 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Cyanamid Co (CT.13 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Stamford , Connecticut CT.13-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.13-1 Site Operations: Produced boron and possibly handled small amounts of refined radioactive source material circa 1940's. Also possibly performed research work on irradiated "J" slugs in 1952 and 1953. CT.13-1 CT.13-3 Site Disposition:

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Fenn Machinery Co - CT 11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Fenn Machinery Co - CT 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Fenn Machinery Co. (CT.11 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New Britain , Connecticut CT.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.11-1 Site Operations: Performed short-term tests on small quantities of uranium metal to explore potential for swaging, circa mid-1950 CT.11-1 CT.11-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope of

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Torrington Co - CT 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Torrington Co - CT 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: TORRINGTON CO. (CT.09 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Torrington Co. - Specialties Division CT.09-1 Location: Torrington , Connecticut CT.09-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.09-1 Site Operations: Performed swaging experiments on small quantities of uranium rods circa 1951 to 1953 as a subcontractor to Bridgeport Brass Co. CT.09-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination

  7. F-1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Central West North Central East North Central Mountain AK WA MT WY ID NV UT CO AZ NM TX OK IA KS MO IL IN KY TN MS AL FL GA SC NC WV PA NJ MD DE NY CT VT ME RI MA NH VA WI MI OH...

  8. F-5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Figure F4. Oil and Gas Supply Model Regions Atlantic WA MT WY ID NV UT CO AZ NM TX OK IA KS MO IL IN KY TN MS AL FL GA SC NC WV PA NJ MD DE NY CT ME RI MA NH VA WI MI OH NE...

  9. Microsoft Word - figure_03.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    IN OH TN WV VA KY MD PA NY VT NH MA CT ME RI DE DC NC SC GA FL NJ AL MS LA MO AR TX NM OK CO KS UT AZ WY NE IL IA MN WI ND SD ID MT WA OR NV CA HI AK MI Gulf of Mexico Volume

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Brass Co - CT 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Brass Co - CT 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Brass Co (CT.01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Anaconda...

  11. TU-F-18C-07: Hardware Advances for MTF Improvement in Dedicated Breast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazi, P; Burkett, G; Yang, K; Boone, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we have designed and implemented a prototype dedicated breast CT system (bCT) to improve the spatial resolution characteristics, in order to improve detection of micro-calcifications. Methods: A 10.8 kW water-cooled, tungsten anode x-ray tube, running up to 240 mA at 60 kV, coupled with an x-ray generator specifically designed for this application, and 0.3 mm of added copper filter was used to generate x-ray pulses. A CsI CMOS flat panel detector with a pixel pitch of 0.075 mm in native binning mode was used. The system geometry was designed in a way to achieve an FOV on par with similar bCT prototypes, resulting in a magnification factor of 1.39. A 0.013 mm tungsten wire was used to generate point spread functions. Multiple scans were performed with different numbers of projections, different reconstruction kernel sizes and different reconstruction filters to study the effects of each parameter on MTF. The resulting MTFs were then evaluated quantitatively using the generated PFSs. Duplicate scans with the same parameters were performed on two other dedicated breast CT systems to compare the performance of the new prototype. Results: The results of the MTF experiments demonstrate a significant improvement in the spatial resolution characteristics. In the new prototype, using the pulsed x-ray source results in a restoration of the azimuthal MTF degradation, due to motion blurring previously seen in other bCT systems. Moreover, employing the higher resolution x-ray detector considerably improves the MTF. The MTF at 10% of the new system is at 3.5 1/mm, a factor of 4.36 greater than an earlier bCT scanner. Conclusion: The MTF analysis of the new prototype bCT shows that using the new hardware and control results in a significant improvement in visualization of finer detail. This suggests that the visualization of micro-calcifications will be significantly improved.

  12. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, X; Grimes, J; Yu, L; Leng, S; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  13. MaRIE: A Presentation to the Science Campaigns Round Robin (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: MaRIE: A Presentation to the Science Campaigns Round Robin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: A Presentation to the Science Campaigns Round Robin Authors: Stevens, Michael Francis [1] ; Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-10-14 OSTI Identifier: 1159570 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-27998 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 2014

  14. MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] ; Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-02-11 OSTI Identifier: 1170260 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-20995 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical

  15. EERE Success Story-MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Markets | Department of Energy MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of Fuel Cell Markets EERE Success Story-MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of Fuel Cell Markets July 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Leveraging funding from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) has developed a model for simulating the market potential of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and challenges to achieving success over time, including competition with

  16. Roadmap to MaRIE (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-11-05 OSTI Identifier: 1163634 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-28624 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE/LANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Materials Science(36); Nuclear Physics &

  17. Roadmap to MaRIE January 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MaRIE January 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE January 2015 Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-01-15 OSTI Identifier: 1167483 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-20265 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE/LANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Materials

  18. Roadmap to MaRIE November 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    November 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE November 2015 This report describes MaRIE experimental facility in the November 2015 issue of their Science and Technology newsletter. Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-11-23 OSTI Identifier: 1226892 Report Number(s): LA-UR--15-29090 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research

  19. MA.2

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    C o m m ission in the early years of nuclear energy development to determine whether they need remedial action and whether the Department has authority to perform such action. ...

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (sup -1 per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsecsup -2, which is typical...

  1. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantsyrev, V. L. Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Astanovitsky, A. L.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Cooper, M. C.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A. L.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A.

    2014-12-15

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubled the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.

  2. redMaGiC. Selecting Luminous Red Galaxies from the DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozo, E.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ? [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (?z=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5? outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  3. Development of ITER 15 MA ELMy H-mode Inductive Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessel, C. E.; Campbell, D.; Gribov, Y.; Saibene, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Casper, T.; Cavinato, M.; Fujieda, H.; Hawryluk, R.; Horton, L. D.; Kavin, A.; Kharyrutdinov, R.; Koechl, F.; Leuer, J.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Luce, T.; Lukash, V.; Mattei, M.; Nunes, I.; Parail, V.; Polevoi, A.; Portone, A.; Sartori, R.; Sips, A. C.C.; Thomas, P. R.; Welander, A.; Wesley, J.

    2008-10-16

    The poloidal field (PF) coil system on ITER, which provides both feedforward and feedback control of plasma position, shape, and current, is a critical element for achieving mission performance. Analysis of PF capabilities has focused on the 15 MA Q = 10 scenario with a 300-500 s flattop burn phase. The operating space available for the 15 MA ELMy H-mode plasma discharges in ITER and upgrades to the PF coils or associated systems to establish confidence that ITER mission objectives can be reached have been identified. Time dependent self-consistent free-boundary calculations were performed to examine the impact of plasma variability, discharge programming, and plasma disturbances. Based on these calculations a new reference scenario was developed based upon a large bore initial plasma, early divertor transition, low level heating in L-mode, and a late H-mode onset. Equilibrium analyses for this scenario indicate that the original PF coil limitations do not allow low li (<0.8) operation or lower flux states, and the flattop burn durations were predicted to be less than the desired 400 s. This finding motivates the expansion of the operating space, considering several upgrade options to the PF coils. Analysis was also carried out to examine the feedback current reserve required in the CS and PF coils during a series of disturbances and a feasibility assessment of the 17 MA scenario was undertaken. Results of the studies show that the new scenario and modified PF system will allow a wide range of 15 MA 300-500 s operation and more limited but finite 17 MA operation.

  4. A low dose simulation tool for CT systems with energy integrating detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabic, Stanislav; Morton, Thomas; Brown, Kevin M.; Wang Qiu

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new strategy for simulating low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans using real scans of a higher dose as an input. The tool is verified against simulations and real scans and compared to other approaches found in the literature. Methods: The conditional variance identity is used to properly account for the variance of the input high-dose data, and a formula is derived for generating a new Poisson noise realization which has the same mean and variance as the true low-dose data. The authors also derive a formula for the inclusion of real samples of detector noise, properly scaled according to the level of the simulated x-ray signals. Results: The proposed method is shown to match real scans in number of experiments. Noise standard deviation measurements in simulated low-dose reconstructions of a 35 cm water phantom match real scans in a range from 500 to 10 mA with less than 5% error. Mean and variance of individual detector channels are shown to match closely across the detector array. Finally, the visual appearance of noise and streak artifacts is shown to match in real scans even under conditions of photon-starvation (with tube currents as low as 10 and 80 mA). Additionally, the proposed method is shown to be more accurate than previous approaches (1) in achieving the correct mean and variance in reconstructed images from pure-Poisson noise simulations (with no detector noise) under photon-starvation conditions, and (2) in simulating the correct noise level and detector noise artifacts in real low-dose scans. Conclusions: The proposed method can accurately simulate low-dose CT data starting from high-dose data, including effects from photon starvation and detector noise. This is potentially a very useful tool in helping to determine minimum dose requirements for a wide range of clinical protocols and advanced reconstruction algorithms.

  5. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  6. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W.; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P.; Matveenko, A.N.; Schmeisser, M.; Volker, J.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R.; Schubert, S.G.; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- New Canaan Site - CT 08

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New Canaan , Connecticut CT.08-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 CT.08-2 Site Operations: None; Investigation of area...

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sperry Products Inc - CT...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1994 CT.07-2 Site Operations: Performed tests involving non-destructive inspection techniques in the 1950s. CT.07-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination...

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Dorr Corp - CT 14

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Stamford , Connecticut CT.14-2 Evaluation Year: 1990 CT.14-3 Site Operations: Conducted heat treatment tests of source material using depleted uranium in an enclosed calciner ...

  10. redMaPPer. I. Algorithm and SDSS DR8 catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Reddick, R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Busha, M. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Finoguenov, A.; Evrard, A.; Koester, B. P.; Hao, J.; Nord, B.; Leauthaud, A.; Pierre, M.; Sadibekova, T.; Sheldon, E. S.

    2014-04-20

    We describe redMaPPer, a new red sequence cluster finder specifically designed to make optimal use of ongoing and near-future large photometric surveys. The algorithm has multiple attractive features: (1) it can iteratively self-train the red sequence model based on a minimal spectroscopic training sample, an important feature for high-redshift surveys. (2) It can handle complex masks with varying depth. (3) It produces cluster-appropriate random points to enable large-scale structure studies. (4) All clusters are assigned a full redshift probability distribution P(z). (5) Similarly, clusters can have multiple candidate central galaxies, each with corresponding centering probabilities. (6) The algorithm is parallel and numerically efficient: it can run a Dark Energy Survey-like catalog in ?500 CPU hours. (7) The algorithm exhibits excellent photometric redshift performance, the richness estimates are tightly correlated with external mass proxies, and the completeness and purity of the corresponding catalogs are superb. We apply the redMaPPer algorithm to ?10, 000 deg{sup 2} of SDSS DR8 data and present the resulting catalog of ?25,000 clusters over the redshift range z in [0.08, 0.55]. The redMaPPer photometric redshifts are nearly Gaussian, with a scatter ? {sub z} ? 0.006 at z ? 0.1, increasing to ? {sub z} ? 0.02 at z ? 0.5 due to increased photometric noise near the survey limit. The median value for |?z|/(1 + z) for the full sample is 0.006. The incidence of projection effects is low (?5%). Detailed performance comparisons of the redMaPPer DR8 cluster catalog to X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogs are presented in a companion paper.

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study 2013: Transformation, Inc., Production House, Devens, MA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Production House Devens, MA BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are designed in to give you superior

  12. Roadmap to MaRIE May 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    May 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE May 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hosted the Stewardship Science Academic Programs Symposium, which is designed to foster relationships among young scientists, sponsors and the National Nuclear Security Administration national laboratories. The event highlights much of the work done by prominent scientists and allows attendees to view the multiple on site facilities at LANL. Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformation Inc., Production House, Devens, MA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Devens, MA, that scored HERS 35 without PV or HERS -37 with PV. This 2,508-square-foot custom home has R-46 double-stud walls with open-cell spray foam, a vented attic with R-67 blown cellulose, plus R-10 rigid XPS under the slab, R-20 closed-cell spray foam on basement walls, triple-pane windows, and one mini-split ductless heat pump.

  14. Best Practices Case Study: Rural Development, Inc., Wisdom Way Solar Village, Greenfield, MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    Wisdom Way Solar Village is an appropriate moniker for the 20-unit community of energy-efficient duplexes in Greenfield, MA. The homes meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energys Builders Challenge, achieving HERS scores of 8 to 18 by packing energy efficiency features into the compact, heavily insulated homes and adding solar water heating and photovoltaics on top, to net home owners energy cost savings of at least $2,500 per year per home.

  15. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III; Rees, Daniel Earl; Scheinker, Alexander; Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  16. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  17. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  18. Implications of CT noise and artifacts for quantitative {sup 99m}Tc SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulme, K. W.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This paper evaluates the effects of computed tomography (CT) image noise and artifacts on quantitative single-photon emission computed-tomography (SPECT) imaging, with the aim of establishing an appropriate range of CT acquisition parameters for low-dose protocols with respect to accurate SPECT attenuation correction (AC). Methods: SPECT images of two geometric and one anthropomorphic phantom were reconstructed iteratively using CT scans acquired at a range of dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 0.4 to 46 mGy). Resultant SPECT image quality was evaluated by comparing mean signal, background noise, and artifacts to SPECT images reconstructed using the highest dose CT for AC. Noise injection was performed on linear-attenuation (?) maps to determine the CT noise threshold for accurate AC. Results: High levels of CT noise (? ? 200400 HU) resulted in low ?-maps noise (? ? 1%3%). Noise levels greater than ?10% in 140 keV ?-maps were required to produce visibly perceptible increases of ?15% in {sup 99m}Tc SPECT images. These noise levels would be achieved at low CT dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 4 ?Gy) that are over 2 orders of magnitude lower than the minimum dose for diagnostic CT scanners. CT noise could also lower (bias) the expected ? values. The relative error in reconstructed SPECT signal trended linearly with the relative shift in ?. SPECT signal was, on average, underestimated in regions corresponding with beam-hardening artifacts in CT images. Any process that has the potential to change the CT number of a region by ?100 HU (e.g., misregistration between CT images and SPECT images due to motion, the presence of contrast in CT images) could introduce errors in ?{sub 140} {sub keV} on the order of 10%, that in turn, could introduce errors on the order of ?10% into the reconstructed {sup 99m}Tc SPECT image. Conclusions: The impact of CT noise on SPECT noise was demonstrated to be negligible for clinically achievable CT parameters. Because CT dose levels that affect SPECT quantification is low (CTDI{sub vol} ? 4 ?Gy), the low dose limit for the CT exam as part of SPECT/CT will be guided by CT image quality requirements for anatomical localization and artifact reduction. A CT technique with higher kVp in combination with lower mAs is recommended when low-dose CT images are used for AC to minimize beam-hardening artifacts.

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Snchez-Gallego, Jos R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragn-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcn-Barroso, Jsus; Belfiore, Francesco; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 at R ? 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 ({sup 1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup 2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ? 10{sup 9} M {sub ?} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6yr.

  20. Chest wall invasion by lung cancer: limitations of CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennes, D.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Wimbish, K.J.; Gross, B.H.; Long, R.W.; Orringer, M.B.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-three patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancies contiguous with a pleural surface were evaluated for chest wall invasion by computed tomography (CT). CT criteria included pleural thickening adjacent to the tumor, encroachment on or increased density of the extrapleural fat, asymmetry of the extrapleural soft tissues adjacent to the tumor, apparent mass invading the chest wall, and rib destruction. The CT scans were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for invasion, and a decision matrix was constructed comparing CT results with pathologic data. CT scanning has low accuracy in assessing chest wall invasion in patients with peripheral lung cancers.

  1. SU-E-I-59: Image Quality and Dose Measurement for Partial Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abouei, E; Ford, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize performance of cone beam CT (CBCT) used in dentistry investigating quantitatively the image quality and radiation dose during dental CBCT over different settings for partial rotation of the x-ray tube. Methods: Image quality and dose measurements were done on a variable field of view (FOV) dental CBCT (Carestream 9300). X-ray parameters for clinical settings were adjustable for 210 mA, 6090 kVp, and two optional voxel size values, but time was fixed for each FOV. Image quality was assessed by scanning cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality phantom (SEDENTEXCT IQ), and then the images were analyzed using ImageJ to calculate image quality parameters such as noise, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A protocol proposed by SEDENTEXCT, dose index 1 (DI1), was applied to dose measurements obtained using a thimble ionization chamber and cylindrical PMMA dose index phantom (SEDENTEXCT DI). Dose distributions were obtained using Gafchromic film. The phantoms were positioned in the FOV to imitate a clinical positioning. Results: The image noise was 612.5% which, when normalized to the difference of mean voxel value of PMMA and air, was comparable between different FOVs. Uniformity was 93.5 99.7% across the images. CNR was 1.74.2 and 6.314.3 for LDPE and Aluminum, respectively. Dose distributions were symmetric about the rotation angle's bisector. For large and medium FOVs at 4 mA and 8090 kVp, DI1 values were in the range of 1.263.23 mGy. DI1 values were between 1.011.93 mGy for small FOV (55 cm{sup 2}) at 45 mA and 7584 kVp. Conclusion: Noise decreased by increasing kVp, and the CNR increased for each FOV. When FOV size increased, image noise increased and CNR decreased. DI1 values were increased by increasing tube current (mA), tube voltage (kVp), and/or FOV. Funding for this project from NSERC Discovery grant, UBC Faculty of Dentistry Research Equipment Grant and UBC Faculty of Dentistry S. Wah Leung Endowment Fund.

  2. MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member for U.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member for U. S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member for U. S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM) At the request of Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member to U.S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM), a high-level briefing was requested about MaRIE 1.0, the

  3. Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Algeria (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Algeria (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Algeria (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.56 2000's 3.48 4.82 3.77 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of Liquefied

  4. Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 5.58 2010's 7.29 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price

  5. Roadmap to MaRIE August 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    August 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE August 2015 Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-08-12 OSTI Identifier: 1211579 Report Number(s): LA-UR--15-26381 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United

  6. Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    March 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015 Authors: Barnes, Cris William [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 1177179 Report Number(s): LA-UR--15-22270 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United

  7. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: MA3T—Modeling Vehicle Market Dynamics with Consumer Segmentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about MA3T—modeling...

  9. Elemental characterization of LL-MA radioactive waste packages with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Toure, M.; El Kanawati, W.; Eleon, C.

    2011-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R and D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages with analytical methods and with non-destructive nuclear measurements. This paper concerns fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique (APT), which brings 3D information about the waste material composition. The characterization of volume elements filled with iron, water, aluminium, and PVC in bituminized and fibre concrete LL-MA waste packages has been investigated with MCNP [1] and MODAR data analysis software [2]. APT provides usable information about major elements presents in the volumes of interest. However, neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei spreads the tagged neutron beam out of the targeted volume towards surrounding materials, reducing spatial selectivity. Simulation shows that small less than 1 L targets can be characterised up to the half-radius of a 225 L bituminized drum, the matrix of which is very rich in hydrogen. Deeper characterization in concrete is possible but limited by counting statistics due to photon attenuation in this dense matrix and, unless large inspection volumes are considered, by the lack of spatial selectivity of the tagged neutron beam due to neutron scattering. (authors)

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Wesleyan University - CT...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    research on small quantities of uranium wire (several inches in length) in Physics Department circa late 1950. CT.12-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for ...

  11. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of ozone dose and contact time for CT calculations was performed in the pilot plant. Operational guidelines for the application of ozone in Union Hills pilot plant ...

  12. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- New England Lime Co - CT...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Elimination Recommendation; May 13, 1987 CT.10-2 - NELCO Letter; J. Pozzi to W. Moore (US AEC); Subject: Description of work associated with magnesium recovery from...

  13. Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports From Yemen (Million Cubic Feet) Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,688 5,591 5,465 2,843 5,608 2,865 5,622 5,537 5,424 2012 2,805 2,765 2,721 2,589 2,899 2,837 2013 2,728 2,763 2,806 2,728 2014 2,329 2,806 2,871 2015 2,234 2,373 2,834 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  14. Everett, MA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Everett, MA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 10,240 11,488 7,086 8,271 8,126 8,150 7,731 7,870 5,199 5,520 9,264 4,691 2012 9,482 8,458 7,661 1,447 4,940 5,465 6,646 10,377 5,634 4,748 2,553 2,581 2013 5,126 5,003 4,629 5,171 5,626 5,173 8,023 5,961 2,995 2,674 2,583 2014 3,141

  15. Ion-induced swelling of ODS ferritic alloy MA957 tubing to 500 dpa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, F. A.; Voyevodin, V.; Bryk, V. V.; Borodin, O. V.; Melnichenko, V. V.; Kalchenko, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the potential swelling behavior of the ODS ferritic alloy MA957 at very high dpa levels, specimens were prepared from pressurized tubes that were unirradiated archives of tubes previously irradiated in FFTF to doses as high at 110 dpa. These unirradiated specimens were irradiated with 1.8 MeV Cr+ ions to doses ranging from 100 to 500 dpa and examined by transmission electron microscopy. No coinjection of helium or hydrogen was employed. It was shown that compared to several ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the same facility, these tubes were rather resistant to void swelling, reaching a maximum value of only 4.5% at 500 dpa and 450°C. In this fine-grained material, the distribution of swelling was strongly influenced by the presence of void denuded zones along the grain boundaries.

  16. ?ot8rh QI ahnloal Corporation In Hart IUnover, Ma86rohusett8,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GE 1 ;" qr)-1 s?llq ' p raspy.. c" ifa K. mris I talked with Hr. Wllllm cIF(Iy, Metrllurgist, Wnlon CarbId@ Nuclear cOrp8ny, 08k B&t&$@, Tenne66ee, on April 26, 1961. He informed me th&t the #rtioMl Northern birislon, Ame~ic6.n ?ot8rh QI ahnloal Corporation In Hart IUnover, Ma86rohusett8, la pePfopn1~ lo8lve forming studier for the. ilnion olo)w Wuolem Conpmy "p l7?JHa). The work at National Northern l#rirc.- alon ir under the 6upenl6lon of Ehsll Phillpohuc4~, v of

  17. SU-E-T-70: Commissioning a Multislice CT Scanner for X-Ray CT Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H; Hilts, M; Jirasek, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To commission a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD). Methods: Commissioning was performed for a 16-slice CT scanner using images acquired through a 1L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine for comparison purposes. The variability in CT number associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background image subtraction technique. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by comparing image noise and uniformity to that of the single slice machine. The consistency in CT number across slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also evaluated. Finally, the variability in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load was measured for the multislice scanner and compared to the tube load effects observed on the single slice machine. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in CT number across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image quality for the multislice machine was found to be comparable to that of the single slice scanner. Further study showed CT number was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thickness examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to imaging a large volume using a single slice scanner. Conclusion: A multislice CT scanner has been commissioning for CT PGD, allowing images of an entire dose distribution to be acquired in a matter of minutes. Funding support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)

  18. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  19. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R

    2011-02-15

    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  20. SU-E-I-63: Quantitative Evaluation of the Effects of Orthopedic Metal Artifact Reduction (OMAR) Software On CT Images for Radiotherapy Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jani, S [Sharp Memorial Hospital, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: CT simulation for patients with metal implants can often be challenging due to artifacts that obscure tumor/target delineation and normal organ definition. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of Orthopedic Metal Artifact Reduction (OMAR), a commercially available software, in reducing metal-induced artifacts and its effect on computed dose during treatment planning. Methods: CT images of water surrounding metallic cylindrical rods made of aluminum, copper and iron were studied in terms of Hounsfield Units (HU) spread. Metal-induced artifacts were characterized in terms of HU/Volume Histogram (HVH) using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Effects of OMAR on enhancing our ability to delineate organs on CT and subsequent dose computation were examined in nine (9) patients with hip implants and two (2) patients with breast tissue expanders. Results: Our study characterized water at 1000 HU with a standard deviation (SD) of about 20 HU. The HVHs allowed us to evaluate how the presence of metal changed the HU spread. For example, introducing a 2.54 cm diameter copper rod in water increased the SD in HU of the surrounding water from 20 to 209, representing an increase in artifacts. Subsequent use of OMAR brought the SD down to 78. Aluminum produced least artifacts whereas Iron showed largest amount of artifacts. In general, an increase in kVp and mA during CT scanning showed better effectiveness of OMAR in reducing artifacts. Our dose analysis showed that some isodose contours shifted by several mm with OMAR but infrequently and were nonsignificant in planning process. Computed volumes of various dose levels showed <2% change. Conclusions: In our experience, OMAR software greatly reduced the metal-induced CT artifacts for the majority of patients with implants, thereby improving our ability to delineate tumor and surrounding organs. OMAR had a clinically negligible effect on computed dose within tissues. Partially funded by unrestricted educational grant from Philips.

  1. American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Olin Mathieson - CT 0-02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Name: United Nuclear Corporation CT.0-02-1 Location: New Haven , Connecticut CT.0-02-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.0-02-1 Site Operations: Began fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel ...

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Chain and Cable Co - CT 15

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Chain and Cable Co - CT 15 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Chain and Cable Co (CT.15 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Bridgeport , Connecticut CT.15-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.15-1 Site Operations: Research and development involving uranium metal reclamation. CT.15-1 CT.15-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on the limited quantity of materials and short duration of

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    05 Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (CT.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New Haven , Connecticut CT.05-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.05-3 Site Operations: Research and development with solvents. CT.05-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote based on limited amount of materials handled CT.05-3 Radioactive Materials

  5. MicroCT: Semi-Automated Analysis of CT Reconstructed Data of Home Made Explosive Materials Using the Matlab MicroCT Analysis GUI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seetho, I M; Brown, W D; Kallman, J S; Martz, H E; White, W T

    2011-09-22

    This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) provides the specific procedural steps for analyzing reconstructed CT images obtained under the IDD Standard Operating Procedures for data acquisition [1] and MicroCT image reconstruction [2], per the IDD Quality Assurance Plan for MicroCT Scanning [3]. Although intended to apply primarily to MicroCT data acquired in the HEAFCAT Facility at LLNL, these procedures may also be applied to data acquired at Tyndall from the YXLON cabinet and at TSL from the HEXCAT system. This SOP also provides the procedural steps for preparing the tables and graphs to be used in the reporting of analytical results. This SOP applies to R and D work - for production applications, use [4].

  6. MicroCT: Automated Analysis of CT Reconstructed Data of Home Made Explosive Materials Using the Matlab MicroCT Analysis GUI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seetho, I M; Brown, W D; Kallman, J S; Martz, H E; White, W T

    2011-09-22

    This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) provides the specific procedural steps for analyzing reconstructed CT images obtained under the IDD Standard Operating Procedures for data acquisition [1] and MicroCT image reconstruction [2], per the IDD Quality Assurance Plan for MicroCT Scanning [3]. Although intended to apply primarily to MicroCT data acquired in the HEAFCAT Facility at LLNL, these procedures may also be applied to data acquired at Tyndall from the YXLON cabinet and at TSL from the HEXCAT system. This SOP also provides the procedural steps for preparing the tables and graphs to be used in the reporting of analytical results. This SOP applies to production work - for R and D there are two other semi-automated methods as given in [4, 5].

  7. Early time studies of cylindrical liner implosions at 1 MA on COBRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atoyan, L. Byvank, T. Cahill, A. D. Hoyt, C. L. Grouchy, P. W. L. de Potter, W. M. Kusse, B. R. Hammer, D. A.

    2014-12-15

    Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to implode a cylindrical metal liner to compress and heat preheated, magnetized plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are issues that can still be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long and 4 mm diameter metal liners having different wall thicknesses to study the initiation of plasma on the liner’s surface as well as axial magnetic field compression [P.-A. Gourdain et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 083006 (2013)]. This report presents experimental results with non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner’s surface structure has on initiation and ablation. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and optical 12 frame camera imaging were used to observe and assess emission non-uniformities as they developed. Axial and side-on interferometry was used to determine the distribution of plasma near the liner surface, including the impact of non-uniformities during the plasma initiation and ablation phases of the experiments.

  8. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  9. Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, W.W.M.; Solti-Bohman, L.G.; Brackmann, D.E.; Gruskin, P.

    1984-12-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex is a readily recognizable and treatable entity that is more common than previously realized. Cholesterol granuloma grows slowly in the petrous apex as a mass lesion until it produces hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial twitching. Twelve cases of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex are illustrated; ten of these analyzed in detail, especially with respect to CT findings. A sharply and smoothly marginated expansile lesion in the petrous apex, isodense with plain and nonenhancing on CT, is in all probability a cholesterol granuloma. Preoperative recognition by CT is important for planning proper treatment.

  10. BAIC CT T SK Holdings JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JV Place: Beijing Municipality, China Product: China-based JV to manufacture and sell electric cars. References: BAIC, CT&T & SK Holdings JV1 This article is a stub. You can...

  11. TH-C-BRD-06: A Novel MRI Based CT Artifact Correction Method for Improving Proton Range Calculation in the Presence of Severe CT Artifacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, P; Schreibmann, E; Fox, T; Roper, J; Elder, E; Tejani, M; Crocker, I; Curran, W; Dhabaan, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Severe CT artifacts can impair our ability to accurately calculate proton range thereby resulting in a clinically unacceptable treatment plan. In this work, we investigated a novel CT artifact correction method based on a coregistered MRI and investigated its ability to estimate CT HU and proton range in the presence of severe CT artifacts. Methods: The proposed method corrects corrupted CT data using a coregistered MRI to guide the mapping of CT values from a nearby artifact-free region. First patient MRI and CT images were registered using 3D deformable image registration software based on B-spline and mutual information. The CT slice with severe artifacts was selected as well as a nearby slice free of artifacts (e.g. 1cm away from the artifact). The two sets of paired MRI and CT images at different slice locations were further registered by applying 2D deformable image registration. Based on the artifact free paired MRI and CT images, a comprehensive geospatial analysis was performed to predict the correct CT HU of the CT image with severe artifact. For a proof of concept, a known artifact was introduced that changed the ground truth CT HU value up to 30% and up to 5cm error in proton range. The ability of the proposed method to recover the ground truth was quantified using a selected head and neck case. Results: A significant improvement in image quality was observed visually. Our proof of concept study showed that 90% of area that had 30% errors in CT HU was corrected to 3% of its ground truth value. Furthermore, the maximum proton range error up to 5cm was reduced to 4mm error. Conclusion: MRI based CT artifact correction method can improve CT image quality and proton range calculation for patients with severe CT artifacts.

  12. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    requirements (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Tracer studies were performed in bench and pilot scale ozone diffusion contactors to determine actual contact times for the bench and pilot scale units and to characterize the flow pattern through these reactors. It was recognized that the

  13. CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots Simulations Run at NERSC Show How Seismic Waves Travel Through Mantle September 2, 2015 Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 NERSC PI: Barbara Romanowicz Lead Institution: University of California, Berkeley Project Title: Imaging and Calibration of Mantle Structure at Global and Regional Scales Using Full-Waveform Seismic Tomography NERSC Resources Used:

  14. 2016 Energy Exchange (Providence, RI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2016 Energy Exchange in Providence, Rhode Island, will provide training to energy managers and sustainability professionals who are working to improve facility performance, advance the use of renewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions at federal sites.

  15. Training Session: East Greenwich, RI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This 3.5-hour training provides builders with a comprehensive review of zero net-energy-ready home construction including the business case, detailed specifications, and opportunities to be...

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Metals Selling Corp - CT 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Selling Corp - CT 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: METALS SELLING CORP. (CT.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Putnam , Connecticut CT.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1986 CT.0-01-1 Site Operations: Performed grinding of (non-radioactive) magnesium circa 1950 -1952 as a sub-contractor to Mallinckrodt Corp. CT.0-01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication that radioactive materials were handled at this location

  17. Irradiation Creep and Swelling from 400 C to 600 C of the Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Alloy MA957

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Gelles, David S.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Abe, Katsunori

    2004-04-24

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications. As part of an extensive study performed at PNNL on the ODS steel MA957 [1], irradiation creep tests were performed on pressurized tubes made from MA957 by two different methods. The tubes were made either by gun drilling alone or by a combination of rod drawing and gun drilling. The different fabrication methods were explored because ODS steels have been difficult to form. The pressurized tubes were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to doses ranging from 40 dpa to 110 dpa at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The effective stresses resulting from the pressurization of the tubes ranged from 0 MPa to 175 MPa.

  18. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stir zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.

  19. Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarboro, Sarah B.; Cody, Dianna; Followill, David; Court, Laurence; Stingo, Francesco C.; Kry, Stephen F.; Alvarez, Paola; Zhang, Di; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. Methods: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80–140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ∼5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. Results: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. Conclusions: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due to changes in beam quality, could be more substantial. In particular, it would likely be necessary to account for variations in CT scan parameters and measurement location when performing CT dosimetry using OSLD.

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Terminal Woodbridge, NJ 1,000 Williams Energy Services New Haven, CT 500 Motiva Enterprises LLC New Haven, CT 250 Motiva Enterprises LLC Providence, RI 250 Source: Energy...

  1. Realistic simulation of reduced-dose CT with noise modeling and sinogram synthesis using DICOM CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Won Kim, Chang; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Reducing the patient dose while maintaining the diagnostic image quality during CT exams is the subject of a growing number of studies, in which simulations of reduced-dose CT with patient data have been used as an effective technique when exploring the potential of various dose reduction techniques. Difficulties in accessing raw sinogram data, however, have restricted the use of this technique to a limited number of institutions. Here, we present a novel reduced-dose CT simulation technique which provides realistic low-dose images without the requirement of raw sinogram data. Methods: Two key characteristics of CT systems, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and the algorithmic modulation transfer function (MTF), were measured for various combinations of object attenuation and tube currents by analyzing the noise power spectrum (NPS) of CT images obtained with a set of phantoms. Those measurements were used to develop a comprehensive CT noise model covering the reduced x-ray photon flux, object attenuation, system noise, and bow-tie filter, which was then employed to generate a simulated noise sinogram for the reduced-dose condition with the use of a synthetic sinogram generated from a reference CT image. The simulated noise sinogram was filtered with the algorithmic MTF and back-projected to create a noise CT image, which was then added to the reference CT image, finally providing a simulated reduced-dose CT image. The simulation performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of NPS similarity, the noise magnitude, the bow-tie filter effect, and the streak noise pattern at photon starvation sites with the set of phantom images. Results: The simulation results showed good agreement with actual low-dose CT images in terms of their visual appearance and in a quantitative evaluation test. The magnitude and shape of the NPS curves of the simulated low-dose images agreed well with those of real low-dose images, showing discrepancies of less than +/?3.2% in terms of the noise power at the peak height and +/?1.2% in terms of the spatial frequency at the peak height. The magnitudes of the noise measured for 12 different combinations the phantom size, tube current, and reconstruction kernel for the simulated and real low-dose images were very similar, with differences of 0.1 to 4.7%. Thep value for a statistical testing of the difference in the noise magnitude ranged from 0.99 to 0.11, showing that there was no difference statistically between the noise magnitudes of the real and simulated low-dose images using our method. The strength and pattern of the streak noise in an anthropomorphic phantom was also consistent with expectations. Conclusions: A novel reduced-dose CT simulation technique was developed which uses only CT images while not requiring raw sinogram data. Our method can provide realistic simulation results under reduced-dose conditions both in terms of the noise magnitude and the textual appearance. This technique has the potential to promote clinical research for patient dose reductions.

  2. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image acquisition logic resulted in a significant fourfold improvement in MTF.

  3. bectso-ct121 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Demonstration of Innovative Applications of Technology for the CT-121 FGD Process - Project Brief [PDF-265KB] Southern Company Services, Newnan, GA PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Demonstration of Innovative Applications of Technology for the CT-121 FGD Process, Final Report (Jan 1997) Volume 1, Executive Summary [PDF-4.6MB] Volume 2, Operation [PDF-32.8MB] Volume 2 Appendices [PDF-6.3MB] Volume 3, Equipment Vol 3a, Materials and Maintenance [PDF-34.6MB] Vol 3b, Instrumentation and Control

  4. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hua Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa; Yu, Lifeng; Anastasio, Mark A.; Low, Daniel A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. Methods: The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Results: Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube potentials for patient sizes of 38, 43, 48, 53, and 58 cm were 120, 140, 140, 140, and 140 kVp, respectively, and the corresponding minimum CTDIvol for achieving the optimal image quality index 4.4 were 9.8, 32.2, 100.9, 241.4, and 274.1 mGy, respectively. For patients with lateral sizes of 43–58 cm, 120-kVp scan protocols yielded up to 165% greater radiation dose relative to 140-kVp protocols, and 140-kVp protocols always yielded a greater image quality index compared to the same dose-level 120-kVp protocols. The trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage and the γ passing rates of seven IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated the feasibility of the proposed image quality index for the predication strategy. Conclusions: A general strategy to predict the optimal CT simulation protocols in a flexible and quantitative way was developed that takes into account patient size, treatment planning task, and radiation dose. The experimental study indicated that the optimal CT simulation protocol and the corresponding radiation dose varied significantly for different patient sizes, contouring accuracy, and radiation treatment planning tasks.

  5. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofeng Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian; Mao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 13 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUSCT image fusion. After TRUSCT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% 0.86%, and the prostate volume Dice overlap coefficient was 91.89% 1.19%. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel approach to improve prostate contour utilizing intraoperative TRUS-based prostate volume in the CT-based prostate HDR treatment planning, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with MRIs. The proposed segmentation method would improve prostate delineations, enable accurate dose planning and treatment delivery, and potentially enhance the treatment outcome of prostate HDR brachytherapy.

  6. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da

    2013-05-06

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  7. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stirmore » zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.« less

  8. Non-medical Uses of Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NMR) Non-medical Uses of Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Resources with Additional Information Computed Tomography (CT) Scanner CT Scanner - Courtesy Stanford University Department of Energy Resources Engineering Computed tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) have been used to resolve industrial problems, for materials characterizations, and to provide non-destructive evaluations for discovering flaws in parts before their use, resulting in

  9. SciThur PM: Imaging 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N; Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F

    2014-08-15

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  10. In-patient to isocenter KERMA ratios in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To estimate in-patient KERMA for specific organs in computed tomography (CT) scanning using ratios to isocenter free-in-air KERMA obtained using a Rando phantom.Method: A CT scan of an anthropomorphic phantom results in an air KERMA K at a selected phantom location and air kerma K{sub CT} at the CT scanner isocenter when the scan is repeated in the absence of the phantom. The authors define the KERMA ratio (R{sub K}) as K/ K{sub CT}, which were experimentally determined in a Male Rando Phantom using lithium fluoride chips (TLD-100). R{sub K} values were obtained for a total of 400 individual point locations, as well as for 25 individual organs of interest in CT dosimetry. CT examinations of Rando were performed on a GE LightSpeed Ultra scanner operated at 80 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV, as well as a Siemens Sensation 16 operated at 120 kV. Results: At 120 kV, median R{sub K} values for the GE and Siemens scanners were 0.60 and 0.64, respectively. The 10th percentile R{sub K} values ranged from 0.34 at 80 kV to 0.54 at 140 kV, and the 90th percentile R{sub K} values ranged from 0.64 at 80 kV to 0.78 at 140 kV. The average R{sub K} for the 25 Rando organs at 120 kV was 0.61 {+-} 0.08. Average R{sub K} values in the head, chest, and abdomen showed little variation. Relative to R{sub K} values in the head, chest, and abdomen obtained at 120 kV, R{sub K} values were about 12% lower in the pelvis and about 58% higher in the cervical spine region. Average R{sub K} values were about 6% higher on the Siemens Sensation 16 scanner than the GE LightSpeed Ultra. Reducing the x-ray tube voltage from 120 kV to 80 kV resulted in an average reduction in R{sub K} value of 34%, whereas increasing the x-ray tube voltage to 140 kV increased the average R{sub K} value by 9%. Conclusions: In-patient to isocenter relative KERMA values in Rando phantom can be used to estimate organ doses in similar sized adults undergoing CT examinations from easily measured air KERMA values at the isocenter (free in air). Conversion from in-patient air KERMA values to tissue dose would require the use of energy-appropriate conversion factors.

  11. TU-F-18A-09: CT Number Stability Across Patient Sizes Using Virtual-Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalak, G; Grimes, J; Fletcher, J; McCollough, C; Halaweish, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Virtual-monoenergetic imaging uses dual-energy CT data to synthesize images corresponding to a single photon energy, thereby reducing beam-hardening artifacts. This work evaluated the ability of a commercial virtual-monoenergetic algorithm to achieve stable CT numbers across patient sizes. Methods: Test objects containing a range of iodine and calcium hydroxyapatite concentrations were placed inside 8 torso-shaped water phantoms, ranging in lateral width from 15 to 50 cm, and scanned on a dual-source CT system (Siemens Somatom Force). Single-energy scans were acquired from 70-150 kV in 10 kV increments; dual-energy scans were acquired using 4 energy pairs (low energy: 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV; high energy: 150 kV + 0.6 mm Sn). CTDIvol was matched for all single- and dual-energy scans for a given phantom size. All scans used 128×0.6 mm collimation and were reconstructed with 1-mm thickness at 0.8-mm increment and a medium smooth body kernel. Monoenergetic images were generated using commercial software (syngo Via Dual Energy, VA30). Iodine contrast was calculated as the difference in mean iodine and water CT numbers from respective regions-of-interest in 10 consecutive images. Results: CT numbers remained stable as phantom width varied from 15 to 50 cm for all dual-energy data sets (except for at 50 cm using 70/150Sn due to photon starvation effects). Relative to the 15 cm phantom, iodine contrast was within 5.2% of the 70 keV value for phantom sizes up to 45 cm. At 90/150Sn, photon starvation did not occur at 50 cm, and iodine contrast in the 50-cm phantom was within 1.4% of the 15-cm phantom. Conclusion: Monoenergetic imaging, as implemented in the evaluated commercial system, eliminated the variation in CT numbers due to patient size, and may provide more accurate data for quantitative tasks, including radiation therapy treatment planning. Siemens Healthcare.

  12. Upright cone beam CT imaging using the onboard imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fave, Xenia Martin, Rachael; Yang, Jinzhong; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence; Carvalho, Luis; Pan, Tinsu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Many patients could benefit from being treated in an upright position. The objectives of this study were to determine whether cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could be used to acquire upright images for treatment planning and to demonstrate whether reconstruction of upright images maintained accurate geometry and Hounsfield units (HUs). Methods: A TrueBeam linac was programmed in developer mode to take upright CBCT images. The gantry head was positioned at 0°, and the couch was rotated to 270°. The x-ray source and detector arms were extended to their lateral positions. The x-ray source and gantry remained stationary as fluoroscopic projections were taken and the couch was rotated from 270° to 90°. The x-ray tube current was normalized to deposit the same dose (measured using a calibrated Farmer ion chamber) as that received during a clinical helical CT scan to the center of a cylindrical, polyethylene phantom. To extend the field of view, two couch rotation scans were taken with the detector offset 15 cm superiorly and then 15 cm inferiorly. The images from these two scans were stitched together before reconstruction. Upright reconstructions were compared to reconstructions from simulation CT scans of the same phantoms. Two methods were investigated for correcting the HUs, including direct calibration and mapping the values from a simulation CT. Results: Overall geometry, spatial linearity, and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright reconstructions. Some artifacts were created and HU accuracy was compromised; however, these limitations could be removed by mapping the HUs from a simulation CT to the upright reconstruction for treatment planning. Conclusions: The feasibility of using the TrueBeam linac to take upright CBCT images was demonstrated. This technique is straightforward to implement and could be of enormous benefit to patients with thoracic tumors or those who find a supine position difficult to endure.

  13. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  14. Milestone L3:THM.CFD.P6.01: Hydra-TH Advanced Capabilities J. Bakosi, M.A. Christon, L.A. Pritchett-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THM.CFD.P6.01: Hydra-TH Advanced Capabilities J. Bakosi, M.A. Christon, L.A. Pritchett- Sheats, LANL R.R. Nourgaliev, INL February 1, 2013 CASL-8-2013-0288-000 CASL-U-2013-0288-000 Hydra-TH Advanced Capabilities (L3 Milestone THM.CFD.P6.01) LA-UR 13-20572 J. Bakosi, M.A. Christon, L.A. Pritchett-Sheats Computational Physics Group (CCS-2) Computer, Computational and Statistical Sciences Division Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87544 R.R. Nourgaliev Reactor Safety Simulation Group

  15. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight (r=0.284, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.260, p<0.05), WC (r=0.362, p<0.05) and body fat percentage (r=0.313, p<0.05). It was also noted that random blood triglyceride level was significantly correlated with weight (r=0.223, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.312, p<0.05), WC (r=0.288, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.287, p<0.05) and age (r=0.268 p<0.05). These results call for attention to the existence of overweight and obesity as well as the risk of non-communicable diseases among military population. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  16. DOEiMA-0295

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... which enhance the contractor's ability to effectively manage the work, while ... The URS Status Report can be required to provide a narrative discussion. The DOE project ...

  17. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  18. DOEiMA-0295

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Technical content - brief quantitative description of form, interface, and function (Item ... Though there is some similarity the focus of each is dif- a. PSWBS The following checklist ...

  19. Automated matching and segmentation of lymphoma on serial CT examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Jiayong; Zhao Binsheng; Curran, Sean; Zelenetz, Andrew; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2007-01-15

    In patients with lymphoma, identification and quantification of the tumor extent on serial CT examinations is critical for assessing tumor response to therapy. In this paper, we present a computer method to automatically match and segment lymphomas in follow-up CT images. The method requires that target lymph nodes in baseline CT images be known. A fast, approximate alignment technique along the x, y, and axial directions is developed to provide a good initial condition for the subsequent fast free form deformation (FFD) registration of the baseline and the follow-up images. As a result of the registration, the deformed lymph node contours from the baseline images are used to automatically determine internal and external markers for the marker-controlled watershed segmentation performed in the follow-up images. We applied this automated registration and segmentation method retrospectively to 29 lymph nodes in 9 lymphoma patients treated in a clinical trial at our cancer center. A radiologist independently delineated all lymph nodes on all slices in the follow-up images and his manual contours served as the ''gold standard'' for evaluation of the method. Preliminary results showed that 26/29 (89.7%) lymph nodes were correctly matched; i.e., there was a geometrical overlap between the deformed lymph node from the baseline and its corresponding mass in the follow-up images. Of the matched 26 lymph nodes, 22 (84.6%) were successfully segmented; for these 22 lymph nodes, several metrics were calculated to quantify the method's performance. Among them, the average distance and the Hausdorff distance between the contours generated by the computer and those generated by the radiologist were 0.9 mm (stdev. 0.4 mm) and 3.9 mm (stdev. 2.1 mm), respectively.

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Danbury, CT |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Danbury, CT DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Danbury, CT DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Danbury, CT Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Danbury, CT, that scored HERS 35 without PV. This 2-story, 1,650-ft2 cabin built by a custom home builder for his own family meets Passive House Standards with 5.5-in. of foil-faced polysiocyanurate foam boards lining the outside walls, R-55 of rigid EPS foam under the slab,

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Brookside Development, Derby, CT |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Brookside Development, Derby, CT DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Brookside Development, Derby, CT DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Brookside Development, Derby, CT Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Derby, CT, that achieves a HERS score of 45 without PV or HERS 26 with PV. The production home is one of a development of 7 two-story, 4,000+-ft2 certified homes that have 2x4 walls filled with 1.5 in. closed-cell spray foam, 2-in. fiberglass batt,

  2. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cancer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Purpose: ...

  3. CT Scans of Cores Metadata, Barrow, Alaska 2015

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich

    2015-03-11

    Individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, throughout 2013 and 2014. Cores were drilled along different transects to sample polygonal features (i.e. the trough, center and rim of high, transitional and low center polygons). Most cores were drilled around 1 meter in depth and a few deep cores were drilled around 3 meters in depth. Three-dimensional images of the frozen cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. TIFF files can be uploaded to ImageJ (an open-source imaging software) to examine soil structure and densities within each core.

  4. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION/MODIFICATION OF CONTR.l\CT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTR.l\CT 2. AMENDMENT/MODIFICATION NO. j3. EFFECTIVE DATE 179 I see Block l6C 6.1SSUEDBY CODE 100603 Office of River Protection U~S .. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P.O. Box 450 Richland WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street county, State and ZiP Code) WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC Attn: KAREN VACCA C/0 URS ENERGY & CONSTRUCTION, INC. PO BOX 73 I 720 PARK BLVD BOISE ID 837290073 CODE 806500521 I FACILITY CODE 11. THIS ITEM ONLY APPLIE ,. The

  5. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  6. Simultaneous CT and SPECT tomography using CZT detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Lubbock, TX); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for simultaneous transmission x-ray computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) comprises the steps of: injecting a subject with a tracer compound tagged with a .gamma.-ray emitting nuclide; directing an x-ray source toward the subject; rotating the x-ray source around the subject; emitting x-rays during the rotating step; rotating a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) two-sided detector on an opposite side of the subject from the source; simultaneously detecting the position and energy of each pulsed x-ray and each emitted .gamma.-ray captured by the CZT detector; recording data for each position and each energy of each the captured x-ray and .gamma.-ray; and, creating CT and SPECT images from the recorded data. The transmitted energy levels of the x-rays lower are biased lower than energy levels of the .gamma.-rays. The x-ray source is operated in a continuous mode. The method can be implemented at ambient temperatures.

  7. Quant-CT: Segmenting and Quantifying Computed Tomography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    Quant-CT is currently a plugin to ImageJ, designed as a Java-class that provides control mechanism for the user to choose volumes of interest within porous material, followed by the selection of image subsamples for automated tuning of parameters for filters and classifiers, and finally measurement of material geometry, porosity, and visualization. Denoising is mandatory before any image interpretation, and we implemented a new 3D java code that performs bilateral filtering of data. Segmentation of themore » dense material is essential before any quantifications about geological sample structure, and we invented new schemes to deal with over segmentation when using statistical region merging algorithm to pull out grains that compose imaged material. It make uses of ImageJ API and other standard and thirty-party APIs. Quant-CT conception started in 2011 under Scidac-e sponsor, and details of the first prototype were documented in publications below. While it is used right now for microtomography images, it can potentially be used by anybody with 3D image data obtained by experiment or produced by simulation.« less

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.9 Educational Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 2010 Regional New Construction and Renovations Expenditures for Public K-12 Schools ($Million) Region New Schools Additions Renovation Total Region 1 (CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT) Region 2 (NJ, NY, PA) Region 3 (DE, MD, VA, WV) Region 4 (KY, NC, SC, TN) Region 5 (AL, FL, GA, MS) Region 6 (IN, MI, OH) Region 7 (IL, MN, WI) Region 8 (IA, KS, MO, NE) Region 9 (AR, LA, OK, TX) Region 10 (CO, MT, ND, NM, SD, UT, WY) Region 11 (AZ, CA, HI, NV) Region 12 (AK, ID, OR, WA) Total Source(s): School Planning

  9. Print

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    < 5k 0 < 50k < 100k < 250k < 500k < 1M > 1M > 5M > 10M DE MD DC MA RI NJ AZ UT WY ID OR WA CA TX OK KS CO NE SD ND MN WI IL IA MO AR LA MS AL FL GA TN KY IN OH MI ME NH CT VT NY PA WV VA NC SC MT AK HI NV NM Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Procured Materials and Services 2015 (> $35M) Small business procurements in US: $14.73M

  10. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix B

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Regional maps Figure F4. Oil and gas supply model regions F-5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Regional maps Figure F4. Oil and gas supply model regions Figure F4. Oil and Gas Supply Model Regions Atlantic WA MT WY ID NV UT CO AZ NM OK IA KS MO IL IN KY TN MS AL FL GA SC NC WV PA NJ MD DE NY CT ME RI MA NH VA WI MI OH NE SD MN ND AR OR CA VT East (1) Gulf of Mexico LA Gulf Coast (2)

  11. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix F

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Regional maps Figure F6. Coal supply regions WA ID OR CA NV UT TX OK AR MO LA MS AL GA FL TN SC NC KY VA WV WY CO SD ND MI MN WI IL IN OH MD PA NJ DE CT MA NH VT NY ME RI MT NE IA KS MI AZ NM 500 0 SCALE IN MILES APPALACHIA Northern Appalachia Central Appalachia Southern Appalachia INTERIOR NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS Eastern Interior Western Interior Gulf Lignite Dakota Lignite Western Montana Wyoming, Northern Powder River Basin

  12. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  13. Characteristic performance evaluation of a photon counting Si strip detector for low dose spectral breast CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The possible clinical applications which can be performed using a newly developed detector depend on the detector's characteristic performance in a number of metrics including the dynamic range, resolution, uniformity, and stability. The authors have evaluated a prototype energy resolved fast photon counting x-ray detector based on a silicon (Si) strip sensor used in an edge-on geometry with an application specific integrated circuit to record the number of x-rays and their energies at high flux and fast frame rates. The investigated detector was integrated with a dedicated breast spectral computed tomography (CT) system to make use of the detector's high spatial and energy resolution and low noise performance under conditions suitable for clinical breast imaging. The aim of this article is to investigate the intrinsic characteristics of the detector, in terms of maximum output count rate, spatial and energy resolution, and noise performance of the imaging system. Methods: The maximum output count rate was obtained with a 50 W x-ray tube with a maximum continuous output of 50 kVp at 1.0 mA. A{sup 109}Cd source, with a characteristic x-ray peak at 22 keV from Ag, was used to measure the energy resolution of the detector. The axial plane modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using a 67 ?m diameter tungsten wire. The two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) was measured using flat field images and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were calculated using the MTF and NPS results. The image quality parameters were studied as a function of various radiation doses and reconstruction filters. The one-dimensional (1D) NPS was used to investigate the effect of electronic noise elimination by varying the minimum energy threshold. Results: A maximum output count rate of 100 million counts per second per square millimeter (cps/mm{sup 2}) has been obtained (1 million cps per 100 100 ?m pixel). The electrical noise floor was less than 4 keV. The energy resolution measured with the 22 keV photons from a {sup 109}Cd source was less than 9%. A reduction of image noise was shown in all the spatial frequencies in 1D NPS as a result of the elimination of the electronic noise. The spatial resolution was measured just above 5 line pairs per mm (lp/mm) where 10% of MTF corresponded to 5.4 mm{sup ?1}. The 2D NPS and NEQ shows a low noise floor and a linear dependence on dose. The reconstruction filter choice affected both of the MTF and NPS results, but had a weak effect on the NEQ. Conclusions: The prototype energy resolved photon counting Si strip detector can offer superior imaging performance for dedicated breast CT as compared to a conventional energy-integrating detector due to its high output count rate, high spatial and energy resolution, and low noise characteristics, which are essential characteristics for spectral breast CT imaging.

  14. Investigation of statistical iterative reconstruction for dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makeev, Andrey; Glick, Stephen J.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast CT has great potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) in dedicated breast CT is a promising alternative to traditional filtered backprojection (FBP). One of the difficulties in using SIR is the presence of free parameters in the algorithm that control the appearance of the resulting image. These parameters require tuning in order to achieve high quality reconstructions. In this study, the authors investigated the penalized maximum likelihood (PML) method with two commonly used types of roughness penalty functions: hyperbolic potential and anisotropic total variation (TV) norm. Reconstructed images were compared with images obtained using standard FBP. Optimal parameters for PML with the hyperbolic prior are reported for the task of detecting microcalcifications embedded in breast tissue.Methods: Computer simulations were used to acquire projections in a half-cone beam geometry. The modeled setup describes a realistic breast CT benchtop system, with an x-ray spectra produced by a point source and an a-Si, CsI:Tl flat-panel detector. A voxelized anthropomorphic breast phantom with 280 ?m microcalcification spheres embedded in it was used to model attenuation properties of the uncompressed woman's breast in a pendant position. The reconstruction of 3D images was performed using the separable paraboloidal surrogates algorithm with ordered subsets. Task performance was assessed with the ideal observer detectability index to determine optimal PML parameters.Results: The authors' findings suggest that there is a preferred range of values of the roughness penalty weight and the edge preservation threshold in the penalized objective function with the hyperbolic potential, which resulted in low noise images with high contrast microcalcifications preserved. In terms of numerical observer detectability index, the PML method with optimal parameters yielded substantially improved performance (by a factor of greater than 10) compared to FBP. The hyperbolic prior was also observed to be superior to the TV norm. A few of the best-performing parameter pairs for the PML method also demonstrated superior performance for various radiation doses. In fact, using PML with certain parameter values results in better images, acquired using 2 mGy dose, than FBP-reconstructed images acquired using 6 mGy dose.Conclusions: A range of optimal free parameters for the PML algorithm with hyperbolic and TV norm-based potentials is presented for the microcalcification detection task, in dedicated breast CT. The reported values can be used as starting values of the free parameters, when SIR techniques are used for image reconstruction. Significant improvement in image quality can be achieved by using PML with optimal combination of parameters, as compared to FBP. Importantly, these results suggest improved detection of microcalcifications can be obtained by using PML with lower radiation dose to the patient, than using FBP with higher dose.

  15. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schller, Sren; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hlsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrie, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the proposed algorithm to be segmentation-free (sf). This deformation leads to a nonlinear accentuation of higher CT-values. The original volume and the gray value deformed volume are monochromatically forward projected. The two projection sets are then monomially combined and reconstructed to generate sets of basis volumes which are used for correction. This is done by maximization of the image flatness due to adding additionally a weighted sum of these basis images. sfEBHC is evaluated on polychromatic simulations, phantom measurements, and patient data. The raw data sets were acquired by a dual source spiral CT scanner, a digital volume tomograph, and a dual source micro CT. Different phantom and patient data were used to illustrate the performance and wide range of usability of sfEBHC across different scanning scenarios. The artifact correction capabilities are compared to EBHC. Results: All investigated cases show equal or improved image quality compared to the standard EBHC approach. The artifact correction is capable of correcting beam hardening artifacts for different scan parameters and scan scenarios. Conclusions: sfEBHC generates beam hardening-reduced images and is furthermore capable of dealing with images which are affected by high noise and strong artifacts. The algorithm can be used to recover structures which are hardly visible inside the beam hardening-affected regions.

  16. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the measurements of the test persons, there is a very good correlation (ρ= 0.917) between the respiratory motion phases received by the radar system and the external motion monitor. Our concept of using an array of transmitting antennas turned out to be widely insensitive to the positioning of the test persons. A time shift between the respiratory motion curves recorded with the radar system and the motion curves from the external respiratory monitor was observed which indicates a slight difference between internal organ motion and motion detected by the external respiratory monitor. The simulations were in good accordance with the measurements.Conclusions: A continuous wave radar operating in the near field of the antennas can be used to determine the respiratory motion of humans accurately. In contrast to trigger systems used today, the radar system is able to measure motion inside the body. If such a monitor was routinely available in clinical CT, it would be possible optimizing the scan start with respect to the respiratory state of the patient. Breathing commands would potentially widely be avoided, and as far as uncooperative patients or children are concerned, less sedation might be necessary. Further applications of the radar system could be in radiation therapy or interventional imaging for instance.

  17. SU-E-J-43: Deformed Planning CT as An Electron Density Substitute for Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, K; Godley, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To confirm that deforming the planning CT to the daily Cone-Beam CTs (CBCT) can provide suitable electron density for adaptive planning. We quantify the dosimetric difference between plans calculated on deformed planning CTs (DPCT) and daily CT-on-rails images (CTOR). CTOR is used as a test of the method as CTOR already contains accurate electron density to compare against. Methods: Five prostate only IMRT patients, each with five CTOR images, were selected and re-planned on Panther (Prowess Inc.) with a uniform 5 mm PTV expansion, prescribed 78 Gy. The planning CT was deformed to match each CTOR using ABAS (Elekta Inc.). Contours were drawn on the CTOR, and copied to the DPCT. The original treatment plan was copied to both the CTOR and DPCT, keeping the center of the prostate as the isocenter. The plans were then calculated using the collapsed cone heterogeneous dose engine of Prowess and typical DVH planning parameters used to compare them. Results: Each DPCT was visually compared to its CTOR with no differences observed. The agreement of the copied CTOR contours with the DPCT anatomy further demonstrated the deformation accuracy. The plans calculated using CTOR and DPCT were compared. Over the 25 plan pairs, the average difference between them for prostate D100, D98 and D95 were 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.2%; PTV D98, D95 and mean dose: 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.3%; bladder V70, V60 and mean dose: 1.1%, 0.7%, and 0.2%; and rectum mean dose: 0.3%. (D100 is the dose covering 100% of the target; V70 is the volume of the organ receiving 70 Gy). Conclusion: We observe negligible difference between the dose calculated on the DPCT and the CTOR, implying that deformed planning CTs are a suitable substitute for electron density. The method can now be applied to CBCTs. Research version of Panther provided by Prowess Inc. Research version of ABAS provided by Elekta Inc.

  18. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor

    2014-11-07

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  19. Deformable image registration based automatic CT-to-CT contour propagation for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy in the routine clinical setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumarasiri, Akila Siddiqui, Farzan; Liu, Chang; Yechieli, Raphael; Shah, Mira; Pradhan, Deepak; Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J.; Kim, Jinkoo

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical potential of deformable image registration (DIR)-based automatic propagation of physician-drawn contours from a planning CT to midtreatment CT images for head and neck (H and N) adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Ten H and N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken approximately 3–4 week into treatment, were considered retrospectively. Clinically relevant organs and targets were manually delineated by a radiation oncologist on both sets of images. Four commercial DIR algorithms, two B-spline-based and two Demons-based, were used to deform CT1 and the relevant contour sets onto corresponding CT2 images. Agreement of the propagated contours with manually drawn contours on CT2 was visually rated by four radiation oncologists in a scale from 1 to 5, the volume overlap was quantified using Dice coefficients, and a distance analysis was done using center of mass (CoM) displacements and Hausdorff distances (HDs). Performance of these four commercial algorithms was validated using a parameter-optimized Elastix DIR algorithm. Results: All algorithms attained Dice coefficients of >0.85 for organs with clear boundaries and those with volumes >9 cm{sup 3}. Organs with volumes <3 cm{sup 3} and/or those with poorly defined boundaries showed Dice coefficients of ∼0.5–0.6. For the propagation of small organs (<3 cm{sup 3}), the B-spline-based algorithms showed higher mean Dice values (Dice = 0.60) than the Demons-based algorithms (Dice = 0.54). For the gross and planning target volumes, the respective mean Dice coefficients were 0.8 and 0.9. There was no statistically significant difference in the Dice coefficients, CoM, or HD among investigated DIR algorithms. The mean radiation oncologist visual scores of the four algorithms ranged from 3.2 to 3.8, which indicated that the quality of transferred contours was “clinically acceptable with minor modification or major modification in a small number of contours.” Conclusions: Use of DIR-based contour propagation in the routine clinical setting is expected to increase the efficiency of H and N replanning, reducing the amount of time needed for manual target and organ delineations.

  20. Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the proposed method but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, the method maintains the same spatial resolution on the decomposed images as that of the CT images before decomposition (8 pairs/cm) while significantly reducing their noise standard deviation. Compared to that obtained by the direct matrix inversion, the noise standard deviation in the images decomposed by the proposed algorithm is reduced by over 98%. Without considering the noise correlation properties in the formulation, the denoising scheme degrades the spatial resolution to 6 pairs/cm for the same level of noise suppression. Compared to the edge-preserving algorithm, the method achieves better low-contrast detectability. A quantitative study is performed on the contrast-rod slice of Catphan phantom. The proposed method achieves lower electron density measurement error as compared to that by the direct matrix inversion, and significantly reduces the error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, the method reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusions: The authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. By exploring the full variance-covariance properties of the decomposed images and utilizing the edge predetection, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability.

  1. Small-Scale Solar Grants (Commerce RI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commerce RI provides incentives for renewable-energy projects. Incentive programs are funded by the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (REF) and alternative compliance payments (ACPs) from the...

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Danbury, CT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Danbury, CT, that scored HERS 35 without PV. This 2-story, 1,650-ft2 cabin built by a custom home builder for his own family meets Passive House...

  3. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  4. Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999).

  5. TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier Transform and Anatomical Features Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory...

  6. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as replacing, but as complimentary to conventional CT, to be used in specific applications.

  7. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Purpose: To develop a delineation tool that refines physician-drawn contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in nasopharynx cancer, using combined pixel value

  8. Objective assessment of image quality and dose reduction in CT iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaishnav, J. Y. Jung, W. C.; Popescu, L. M.; Zeng, R.; Myers, K. J.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have the potential to reduce radiation dose in CT diagnostic imaging. As these algorithms become available on the market, a standardizable method of quantifying the dose reduction that a particular IR method can achieve would be valuable. Such a method would assist manufacturers in making promotional claims about dose reduction, buyers in comparing different devices, physicists in independently validating the claims, and the United States Food and Drug Administration in regulating the labeling of CT devices. However, the nonlinear nature of commercially available IR algorithms poses challenges to objectively assessing image quality, a necessary step in establishing the amount of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve without compromising that image quality. This review paper seeks to consolidate information relevant to objectively assessing the quality of CT IR images, and thereby measuring the level of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve. Methods: The authors discuss task-based methods for assessing the quality of CT IR images and evaluating dose reduction. Results: The authors explain and review recent literature on signal detection and localization tasks in CT IR image quality assessment, the design of an appropriate phantom for these tasks, possible choices of observers (including human and model observers), and methods of evaluating observer performance. Conclusions: Standardizing the measurement of dose reduction is a problem of broad interest to the CT community and to public health. A necessary step in the process is the objective assessment of CT image quality, for which various task-based methods may be suitable. This paper attempts to consolidate recent literature that is relevant to the development and implementation of task-based methods for the assessment of CT IR image quality.

  9. The effects of mapping CT images to Monte Carlo materials on GEANT4 proton simulation accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Samuel; McAuley, Grant; Slater, James; Wroe, Andrew

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations of radiation therapy require conversion from Hounsfield units (HU) in CT images to an exact tissue composition and density. The number of discrete densities (or density bins) used in this mapping affects the simulation accuracy, execution time, and memory usage in GEANT4 and other Monte Carlo code. The relationship between the number of density bins and CT noise was examined in general for all simulations that use HU conversion to density. Additionally, the effect of this on simulation accuracy was examined for proton radiation. Methods: Relative uncertainty from CT noise was compared with uncertainty from density binning to determine an upper limit on the number of density bins required in the presence of CT noise. Error propagation analysis was also performed on continuously slowing down approximation range calculations to determine the proton range uncertainty caused by density binning. These results were verified with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: In the presence of even modest CT noise (5 HU or 0.5%) 450 density bins were found to only cause a 5% increase in the density uncertainty (i.e., 95% of density uncertainty from CT noise, 5% from binning). Larger numbers of density bins are not required as CT noise will prevent increased density accuracy; this applies across all types of Monte Carlo simulations. Examining uncertainty in proton range, only 127 density bins are required for a proton range error of <0.1 mm in most tissue and <0.5 mm in low density tissue (e.g., lung). Conclusions: By considering CT noise and actual range uncertainty, the number of required density bins can be restricted to a very modest 127 depending on the application. Reducing the number of density bins provides large memory and execution time savings in GEANT4 and other Monte Carlo packages.

  10. 10 A.M. CT TODAY: On-the Record Conference Call for Obama Administration to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Announce Major Initiative to Enhance America's Energy Security | Department of Energy A.M. CT TODAY: On-the Record Conference Call for Obama Administration to Announce Major Initiative to Enhance America's Energy Security 10 A.M. CT TODAY: On-the Record Conference Call for Obama Administration to Announce Major Initiative to Enhance America's Energy Security August 16, 2011 - 9:52am Addthis White House Rural Economic Council Promotes Production of Next Generation Biofuels, Job Creation and

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Caldwell and Johnson,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charlestown, RI DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Healthy Efficient Homes - Spirit Lake, Iowa DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Preferred Builders, Old Greenwich, CT, Custom

  12. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  13. SU-C-9A-06: The Impact of CT Image Used for Attenuation Correction in 4D-PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Y; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Cai, J; Das, S; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the appropriateness of using 3D non-gated CT image for attenuation correction (AC) in a 4D-PET (gated PET) imaging protocol used in radiotherapy treatment planning simulation. Methods: The 4D-PET imaging protocol in a Siemens PET/CT simulator (Biograph mCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, IL) was evaluated. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) with a moving glass sphere (8 mL) in the middle of its thorax portion was used in the experiments. The glass was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and was in a longitudinal motion derived from a real patient breathing pattern. Varian RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used for respiratory gating. Both phase-gating and amplitude-gating methods were tested. The clinical imaging protocol was modified to use three different CT images for AC in 4D-PET reconstruction: first is to use a single-phase CT image to mimic actual clinical protocol (single-CT-PET); second is to use the average intensity projection CT (AveIP-CT) derived from 4D-CT scanning (AveIP-CT-PET); third is to use 4D-CT image to do the phase-matched AC (phase-matching- PET). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) and volume of the moving target (glass sphere) with threshold of 40% SUVmax were calculated for comparison between 4D-PET images derived with different AC methods. Results: The SUVmax varied 7.3%±6.9% over the breathing cycle in single-CT-PET, compared to 2.5%±2.8% in AveIP-CT-PET and 1.3%±1.2% in phasematching PET. The SUVmax in single-CT-PET differed by up to 15% from those in phase-matching-PET. The target volumes measured from single- CT-PET images also presented variations up to 10% among different phases of 4D PET in both phase-gating and amplitude-gating experiments. Conclusion: Attenuation correction using non-gated CT in 4D-PET imaging is not optimal process for quantitative analysis. Clinical 4D-PET imaging protocols should consider phase-matched 4D-CT image if available to achieve better accuracy.

  14. MO-E-17A-03: Monte Carlo CT Dose Calculation: A Comparison Between Experiment and Simulation Using ARCHER-CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, T; Du, X; Su, L; Gao, Y; Ji, W; Xu, X; Zhang, D; Shi, J; Liu, B; Kalra, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the CT doses derived from the experiments and GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, using a human cadaver and ATOM phantom. Methods: The cadaver of an 88-year old male and the ATOM phantom were scanned by a GE LightSpeed Pro 16 MDCT. For the cadaver study, the Thimble chambers (Model 105?0.6CT and 106?0.6CT) were used to measure the absorbed dose in different deep and superficial organs. Whole-body scans were first performed to construct a complete image database for MC simulations. Abdomen/pelvis helical scans were then conducted using 120/100 kVps, 300 mAs and a pitch factor of 1.375:1. For the ATOM phantom study, the OSL dosimeters were used and helical scans were performed using 120 kVp and x, y, z tube current modulation (TCM). For the MC simulations, sufficient particles were run in both cases such that the statistical errors of the results by ARCHER-CT were limited to 1%. Results: For the human cadaver scan, the doses to the stomach, liver, colon, left kidney, pancreas and urinary bladder were compared. The difference between experiments and simulations was within 19% for the 120 kVp and 25% for the 100 kVp. For the ATOM phantom scan, the doses to the lung, thyroid, esophagus, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus were compared. The difference was 39.2% for the esophagus, and within 16% for all other organs. Conclusion: In this study the experimental and simulated CT doses were compared. Their difference is primarily attributed to the systematic errors of the MC simulations, including the accuracy of the bowtie filter modeling, and the algorithm to generate voxelized phantom from DICOM images. The experimental error is considered small and may arise from the dosimeters. R01 grant (R01EB015478) from National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

  15. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 0.182 to 0.420 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  16. SU-E-I-68: Practical Considerations On Implementation of the Image Gently Pediatric CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J; Adams, C; Lumby, C; Dillon, J; Woods, E; Richer, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One limitation associated with the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols is practical implementation of the recommended manual techniques. Inconsistency as a result of different practice is a possibility among technologist. An additional concern is the added risk of data error that would result in over or underexposure. The Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) features automatically reduce radiation for children. However, they do not work efficiently for the patients of very small size and relative large size. This study aims to implement the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols in the practical setting while maintaining the use of AEC features for pediatric patients of varying size. Methods: Anthropomorphological abdomen phantoms were scanned in a CT scanner using the Image Gently pediatric protocols, the AEC technique with a fixed adult baseline, and automatic protocols with various baselines. The baselines were adjusted corresponding to patient age, weight and posterioranterior thickness to match the Image Gently pediatric CT manual techniques. CTDIvol was recorded for each examination. Image noise was measured and recorded for image quality comparison. Clinical images were evaluated by pediatric radiologists. Results: By adjusting vendor default baselines used in the automatic techniques, radiation dose and image quality can match those of the Image Gently manual techniques. In practice, this can be achieved by dividing pediatric patients into three major groups for technologist reference: infant, small child, and large child. Further division can be done but will increase the number of CT protocols. For each group, AEC can efficiently adjust acquisition techniques for children. This implementation significantly overcomes the limitation of the Image Gently manual techniques. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness in clinical practice, Image Gently Pediatric CT protocols can be implemented in accordance with AEC techniques, with adjusted baselines, to achieve the goal of providing the most appropriate radiation dose for pediatric patients of varying sizes.

  17. Bowtie filters for dedicated breast CT: Theory and computational implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontson, Kimberly Jennings, Robert J.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To design bowtie filters with improved properties for dedicated breast CT to improve image quality and reduce dose to the patient. Methods: The authors present three different bowtie filters designed for a cylindrical 14-cm diameter phantom with a uniform composition of 40/60 breast tissue, which vary in their design objectives and performance improvements. Bowtie design #1 is based on single material spectral matching and produces nearly uniform spectral shape for radiation incident upon the detector. Bowtie design #2 uses the idea of basis material decomposition to produce the same spectral shape and intensity at the detector, using two different materials. Bowtie design #3 eliminates the beam hardening effect in the reconstructed image by adjusting the bowtie filter thickness so that the effective attenuation coefficient for every ray is the same. All three designs are obtained using analytical computational methods and linear attenuation coefficients. Thus, the designs do not take into account the effects of scatter. The authors considered this to be a reasonable approach to the filter design problem since the use of Monte Carlo methods would have been computationally intensive. The filter profiles for a cone-angle of 0° were used for the entire length of each filter because the differences between those profiles and the correct cone-beam profiles for the cone angles in our system are very small, and the constant profiles allowed construction of the filters with the facilities available to us. For evaluation of the filters, we used Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the full cone-beam geometry. Images were generated with and without each bowtie filter to analyze the effect on dose distribution, noise uniformity, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) homogeneity. Line profiles through the reconstructed images generated from the simulated projection images were also used as validation for the filter designs. Results: Examples of the three designs are presented. Initial verification of performance of the designs was done using analytical computations of HVL, intensity, and effective attenuation coefficient behind the phantom as a function of fan-angle with a cone-angle of 0°. The performance of the designs depends only weakly on incident spectrum and tissue composition. For all designs, the dynamic range requirement on the detector was reduced compared to the no-bowtie-filter case. Further verification of the filter designs was achieved through analysis of reconstructed images from simulations. Simulation data also showed that the use of our bowtie filters can reduce peripheral dose to the breast by 61% and provide uniform noise and CNR distributions. The bowtie filter design concepts validated in this work were then used to create a computational realization of a 3D anthropomorphic bowtie filter capable of achieving a constant effective attenuation coefficient behind the entire field-of-view of an anthropomorphic breast phantom. Conclusions: Three different bowtie filter designs that vary in performance improvements were described and evaluated using computational and simulation techniques. Results indicate that the designs are robust against variations in breast diameter, breast composition, and tube voltage, and that the use of these filters can reduce patient dose and improve image quality compared to the no-bowtie-filter case.

  18. Pilot Study to Confirm that Fat and Liver can be Distinguished by Spectroscopic Tissue Response on a Medipix-All-Resolution System-CT (MARS-CT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Kyra B.; Anderson, Nigel G.; Butler, Alexandra P.; Carr, James M.; Clark, Michael J.; Cook, Nick J.; Scott, Nicola J.; Butler, Philip H.; Butler, Anthony P.

    2009-07-23

    NAFLD, liver component of the 'metabolic' syndrome, has become the most common liver disease in western nations. Non-invasive imaging techniques exist, but have limitations, especially in detection and quantification of mild to moderate fatty liver. In this pilot study, we produced attenuation curves from biomedical-quality projection images of liver and fat using the MARS spectroscopic-CT scanner. Difficulties obtaining attenuation spectra after reconstruction demonstrated that standard reconstruction programs do not preserve spectral information.

  19. HEATRESV.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Terminal Woodbridge, NJ 1,000 Williams Energy Services New Haven, CT 500 Motiva Enterprises LLC New Haven, CT 250 Motiva Enterprises LLC Providence, RI 250 Total 2,000 Source:...

  20. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: CT Dose Optimization Technologies II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driesser, I; Angel, E

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The imaging topic this year is CT scanner dose optimization capabilities. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Siemens‘ Commitment to the Right Dose in Computed Tomography Presentation Time: 11:15 - 11:45 AM Providing sustainable clinical results at highest patient safety: This is the challenge in medical imaging. Especially for Computed Tomography this means applying not simply the lowest, but the right dose for sound diagnostic imaging. Consequently, Siemens is committed to deliver the right dose in CT. In order to reduce radiation to the right dose, the first step is to provide the right dose technology. Through decades of research and development in CT imaging, Siemens CT has constantly introduced new ideas leading to a comprehensive portfolio of unique CARE technologies to deliver the right dose. For example automated kV adjustment based on patient size and the clinical question with CARE kV and three generations of iterative reconstruction. Based on the right dose technology, the next step is to actually scan at the right dose. For this, it is key to know the right dose targets for every examination. Siemens continuously involves CT experts to push developments further and outline how users can best adapt their procedures to the right dose. For users to know whether they met the right dose targets, it is therefore important to understand and monitor the actual absolute dose values. All scanners are delivered with defined default protocols which automatically use the available right dose technologies. Finally, to deliver the right dose not just in singular cases, but ideally to patients everywhere, organizations need then to manage dose across their institutions. Here Siemens offers the right dose management tools for administrations to analyze and document dose, to train their clinical staff and to continuously optimize the application of the right dose in clinical routine. Siemens CT is not only adhering to the ALARA principle, but is inspired by it. With CARE Right Siemens show their commitment to the right dose in CT. Toshiba Aquilion CT Dose Management Tools Presentation Time: 11:45 - 12:15 PM A practical review of Toshiba’s CT dose management technologies from the physicist’s perspective. This presentation will include an overview of Toshiba’s CT dose reduction technologies and dose safeguards. Content will include answers to frequently asked questions relating to dose management, dose tracking, CTDI measurement, ACR accreditation, ACR QC, and protocol review on Toshiba CT systems. Specific topics will include the following: Toshiba’s mechanism of tube current modulation; Exposure record format and interpretation of the values; Dose reporting and dose safeguard tools; Use of AIDR 3D iterative reconstruction; The configuration of task specific image quality target and its integration with AIDR 3D; Tips for scanning the ACR phantom with wide beam geometry; Measuring CTDI for wide beam geometry; Discussion of daily QC procedures and specifications; Tips for annual QC evaluation; Protocol management tools.

  1. MO-E-17A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING) - Calculating SSDE From CT Exams Using Size Data Available in the DICOM Header of CT Localizer Radiographs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; McNitt-Gray, M; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using existing data stored within the DICOM header of certain CT localizer radiographs as a patient size metric for calculating CT size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). Methods: For most Siemens CT scanners, the CT localizer radiograph (topogram) contains a private DICOM field that stores an array of numbers describing AP and LAT attenuation-based measures of patient dimension. The square root of the product of the AP and LAT size data, which provides an estimate of water-equivalent-diameter (WED), was calculated retrospectively from topogram data of 20 patients who received clinically-indicated abdomen/pelvis (n=10) and chest (n=10) scans (WED-topo). In addition, slice-by-slice water-equivalent-diameter (WED-image) and effective diameter (ED-image) values were calculated from the respective image data. Using TG-204 lookup tables, size-dependent conversion factors were determined based upon WED-topo, WED-image and ED-image values. These conversion factors were used with the reported CTDIvol to calculate slice-by-slice SSDE for each method. Averaging over all slices, a single SSDE value was determined for each patient and size metric. Patientspecific SSDE and CTDIvol values were then compared with patientspecific organ doses derived from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of fixed tube current scans. Results: For abdomen/pelvis scans, the average difference between liver dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 18.70%, 8.17%, 6.84%, and 7.58%, respectively. For chest scans, the average difference between lung dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 25.80%, 3.33%, 4.11%, and 7.66%, respectively. Conclusion: SSDE calculated using WED derived from data in the DICOM header of the topogram was comparable to SSDE calculated using WED and ED derived from axial images; each of these estimated organ dose to within 10% for both abdomen/pelvis and chest CT examinations. The topogrambased method has the advantage that WED data are already provided and therefore available without additional post-processing of the image data. Funding Support: NIH Grant R01-EB017095; Disclosures - Michael McNitt-Gray: Institutional Research Agreement, Siemens AG; Research Support, Siemens AG; Consultant, Flaherty Sensabaugh Bonasso PLLC; Consultant, Fulbright and Jaworski; Disclosures - Cynthia McCollough: Research Grant, Siemens Healthcare.

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Brookside Development, Derby, CT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Derby, CT, that achieves a HERS score of 45 without PV or HERS 26 with PV. The production home is one of a development of 7 two-story, 4,000+-ft2...

  3. The feasibility of head motion tracking in helical CT: A step toward motion correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Ha; Nuyts, Johan; Kuncic, Zdenka; Fulton, Roger

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To establish a practical and accurate motion tracking method for the development of rigid motion correction methods in helical x-ray computed tomography (CT). Methods: A commercially available optical motion tracking system provided 6 degrees of freedom pose measurements at 60 Hz. A 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 calibration matrix was determined to convert raw pose data acquired in tracker coordinates to a fixed CT coordinate system with origin at the isocenter of the scanner. Two calibration methods, absolute orientation (AO), and a new method based on image registration (IR), were compared by means of landmark analysis and correlation coefficient in phantom images coregistered using the derived motion transformations. Results: Transformations calculated using the IR-derived calibration matrix were found to be more accurate, with positional errors less than 0.5 mm (mean RMS), and highly correlated image voxel intensities. The AO-derived calibration matrix yielded larger mean RMS positional errors ( Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.0 mm), and poorer correlation coefficients. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of accurate motion tracking for retrospective motion correction in helical CT. Their new IR-based calibration method based on image registration and function minimization was simpler to perform and delivered more accurate calibration matrices. This technique is a useful tool for future work on rigid motion correction in helical CT and potentially also other imaging modalities.

  4. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ?6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (?$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  5. SU-E-I-58: Detecting Tumors with Extremely Low Contrast in CT Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, K; Gou, S; Kupelian, P; Steiberg, M; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors such as the prostate focal lesions and the brain metastases have extremely low CT contrast and MRI is usually used for target delineation. The target contours are propagated to the CT for treatment planning and patient positioning. We have employed an advanced denoising method eliminating the noise and allow magnification of subtle contrast of these focal lesions on CT. Methods: Five prostate and two brain metastasis patients with MRI T2, diffusion or dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) images confirmed focal lesions were included. One brain patients had 5 metastases. A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adapted to reduce the noise of kVCT images used for treatment planning. The gray-level range of the resultant images was narrowed to magnify the tumor-normal tissue contrast. Results: For the prostate patients, denoised kVCT images showed focal regions at 5, 8,11-1, 2, and 8–10 oclock for the 5 patients, this is highly consistent to the radiologist confirmed focal lesions based on MRI at 5, 7, 11-1, 2 and 8–10 oclock in the axial plane. These CT focal regions matched well with the MRI focal lesions in the cranio-caudal position. The average increase in density compared to background prostate glands was 0.86%, which corresponds to ∼50% increase in cellularity and is lower than the average CT noise level of 2.4%. For the brain patients, denoised kVCT showed 5/6 metastases. The high CT-density region of a metastasis is 2-mm off from its corresponding elevated MRI perfusion center. Overall the detecting sensitivity was 91%. Conclusion: It has been preliminarily demonstrated that the higher tumor cellularity can be detected using kVCT. The low contrast-to-noise information requires advanced denoising to reveal. The finding is significant to radiotherapy by providing an additional tool to locate focal lesions for confirming MRI-CT registration and providing a highly accessible outcome assessment tool.

  6. Clinical evaluation of the iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm for CT simulation in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axente, Marian; Von Eyben, Rie; Hristov, Dimitre; Paidi, Ajay; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Zeng, Chuan; Krauss, Andreas

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To clinically evaluate an iterative metal artifact reduction (IMAR) algorithm prototype in the radiation oncology clinic setting by testing for accuracy in CT number retrieval, relative dosimetric changes in regions affected by artifacts, and improvements in anatomical and shape conspicuity of corrected images. Methods: A phantom with known material inserts was scanned in the presence/absence of metal with different configurations of placement and sizes. The relative change in CT numbers from the reference data (CT with no metal) was analyzed. The CT studies were also used for dosimetric tests where dose distributions from both photon and proton beams were calculated. Dose differences and gamma analysis were calculated to quantify the relative changes between doses calculated on the different CT studies. Data from eight patients (all different treatment sites) were also used to quantify the differences between dose distributions before and after correction with IMAR, with no reference standard. A ranking experiment was also conducted to analyze the relative confidence of physicians delineating anatomy in the near vicinity of the metal implants. Results: IMAR corrected images proved to accurately retrieve CT numbers in the phantom study, independent of metal insert configuration, size of the metal, and acquisition energy. For plastic water, the mean difference between corrected images and reference images was −1.3 HU across all scenarios (N = 37) with a 90% confidence interval of [−2.4, −0.2] HU. While deviations were relatively higher in images with more metal content, IMAR was able to effectively correct the CT numbers independent of the quantity of metal. Residual errors in the CT numbers as well as some induced by the correction algorithm were found in the IMAR corrected images. However, the dose distributions calculated on IMAR corrected images were closer to the reference data in phantom studies. Relative spatial difference in the dose distributions in the regions affected by the metal artifacts was also observed in patient data. However, in absence of a reference ground truth (CT set without metal inserts), these differences should not be interpreted as improvement/deterioration of the accuracy of calculated dose. With limited data presented, it was observed that proton dosimetry was affected more than photons as expected. Physicians were significantly more confident contouring anatomy in the regions affected by artifacts. While site specific preferences were detected, all indicated that they would consistently use IMAR corrected images. Conclusions: IMAR correction algorithm could be readily implemented in an existing clinical workflow upon commercial release. While residual errors still exist in IMAR corrected images, these images present with better overall conspicuity of the patient/phantom geometry and offer more accurate CT numbers for improved local dosimetry. The variety of different scenarios included herein attest to the utility of the evaluated IMAR for a wide range of radiotherapy clinical scenarios.

  7. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup }, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a redder NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (?) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of ????(dose){sup ??} with the component ? ? 0.25, which violated the classical ????(dose){sup ?0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial uniformity when compared with FBP. (6) A composite image generated from two MBIR images acquired at two different dose levels (D1 and D2) demonstrated lower noise than that of an image acquired at a dose level of D1+D2. Conclusions: The noise characteristics of the MBIR method are significantly different from those of the FBP method. The well known tradeoff relationship between CT image noise and radiation dose has been modified by MBIR to establish a more gradual dependence of noise on dose. Additionally, some other CT noise properties that had been well understood based on the linear system theory have also been altered by MBIR. Clinical CT scan protocols that had been optimized based on the classical CT noise properties need to be carefully re-evaluated for systems equipped with MBIR in order to maximize the method's potential clinical benefits in dose reduction and/or in CT image quality improvement.

  8. US NE MA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water heating Air conditioning Appliances, electronics, lighting Household Energy Use in ...

  9. MA_06-9.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  10. MA_10-2.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  11. MA_12-1.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  12. PIA- Management and Administration (MA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The E-Government Act of 2002 requires Federal agencies to perform Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs), an analysis of how information is handled, in order: (i) to ensure handling conforms to...

  13. Microsoft Word - S07581_MA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Activities at Site A/Plot M March 2011 LMS/SAM/S07581 This page intentionally left blank LMS/SAM/S07581 Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Activities at Site A/Plot M March 2011 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Activities at Site A/Plot M March 2011 Doc. No. S07581 Page i Contents Abbreviations

  14. A high intensity 200 mA proton source for the FRANZ-Project (Frankfurt-Neutron-Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Center)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweizer, W. Ratzinger, U.; Klump, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-02-15

    At the University of Frankfurt a high current proton source has been developed and tested for the FRANZ-Project [U. Ratzinger, L. P. Chau, O. Meusel, A. Schempp, K. Volk, M. Heil, F. Kppeler, and R. Stieglitz, Intense pulsed neutron source FRANZ in the 1500 keV range, ICANS-XVIII Proceedings, Dongguan, April 2007, p. 210]. The ion source is a filament driven arc discharge ion source. The new design consists of a plasma generator, equipped with a filter magnet to produce nearly pure proton beams (92 %), and a compact triode extraction system. The beam current density has been enhanced up to 521 mA/cm{sup 2}. Using an emission opening radius of 4 mm, a proton beam current of 240 mA at 50 keV beam energy in continuous wave mode (cw) has been extracted. This paper will present the current status of the proton source including experimental results of detailed investigations of the beam composition in dependence of different plasma parameters. Both, cw and pulsed mode were studied. Furthermore, the performance of the ion source was studied with deuterium as working gas.

  15. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  16. Estimation of the weighted CTDI{sub {infinity}} for multislice CT examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xinhua; Zhang Da; Liu, Bob

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the variations of CT dose index (CTDI) efficiencies, {epsilon}(CTDI{sub 100})=CTDI{sub 100}/CTDI{sub {infinity}}, with bowtie filters and CT scanner types. Methods: This was an extension of our previous study [Li, Zhang, and Liu, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5789-5803 (2011)]. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to calculate {epsilon}(CTDI{sub 100}) on a Siemens Somatom Definition scanner. The {epsilon}(CTDI{sub 100}) dependencies on tube voltages and beam widths were tested in previous studies. The influences of different bowtie filters and CT scanner types were examined in this work. The authors tested the variations of {epsilon}(CTDI{sub 100}) with bowtie filters on the Siemens Definition scanner. The authors also analyzed the published CTDI measurements of four independent studies on five scanners of four models from three manufacturers. Results: On the Siemens Definition scanner, the difference in {epsilon}(CTDI{sub W}) between using the head and body bowtie filters was 2.5% (maximum) in the CT scans of the 32-cm phantom, and 1.7% (maximum) in the CT scans of the 16-cm phantom. Compared with CTDI{sub W}, the weighted CTDI{sub {infinity}} increased by 30.5% (on average) in the 32-cm phantom, and by 20.0% (on average) in the 16-cm phantom. These results were approximately the same for 80-140 kV and 1-40 mm beam widths (4.2% maximum deviation). The differences in {epsilon}(CTDI{sub 100}) between the simulations and the direct measurements of four previous studies were 1.3%-5.0% at the center/periphery of the 16-cm/32-cm phantom (on average). Conclusions: Compared with CTDI{sub vol}, the equilibrium dose for large scan lengths is 30.5% higher in the 32-cm phantom, and is 20.0% higher in the 16-cm phantom. The relative increases are practically independent of tube voltages (80-140 kV), beam widths (up to 4 cm), and the CT scanners covered in this study.

  17. Irradiation creep and density changes observed in MA957 pressurized tubes irradiated to doses of 40-110 dpa at 400-750°C in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Frank A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2012-12-30

    An irradiation creep and swelling study was performed on tubing constructed from the Y2O3-strengthened ODS ferritic steel MA957. As a result of the reduction operations during manufacture, the grains in the tubing were highly elongated in the direction of the tubing axis, with an aspect ratio of ~10:1. Pressurized creep tubes were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to doses ranging from 40 dpa to 110 dpa at temperatures ranging from 400 to 750°C. The diametral strains produced during irradiation exhibit very strong transient strains that are linearly dependent on stress and increase with irradiation temperature before reaching temperature-independent steady-state creep rates of 0.6-0.7 X 10-6 (MPa dpa)-1. Contributions to transient strains may not arise only from classical thermal creep or irradiation creep considerations, but also may result from an irradiation-stimulated growth process whereby the highly elongated grain structure reduces the aspect ratio to produce fatter grains and thereby increases in the tube diameter. One manifestation of this process is a change in tube diameter that is not accompanied by a density change characteristic of void swelling or precipitation-induced changes in lattice parameter. These results provide the first conclusive demonstration that resistance to irradiation creep can be extended to higher temperatures by dispersoid addition, and most importantly, this resistance is maintained to high radiation damage levels. However, the irradiation creep compliance is not reduced by dispersoid addition, casting some doubt on various proposed climb and glide mechanisms of irradiation creep.

  18. Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local noise level for CT denoising

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local noise level of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local noise estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a noise model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The noise propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical noise map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this noise map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, noise power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local noise level estimation matches the noise distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical noise map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce noise substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the shape and peak frequency of the noise power spectrum better than commercial smoothing kernels, and indicate that the spatial resolution at low contrast levels is not significantly degraded. Both the subjective evaluation using the ACR phantom and the objective evaluation on a low-contrast detection task using a CHO model observer demonstrate an improvement on low-contrast performance. The GPU implementation can process and transfer 300 slice images within 5 min. On patient data, the adaptive NLM algorithm provides more effective denoising of CT data throughout a volume than standard NLM, and may allow significant lowering of radiation dose. After a two week pilot study of lower dose CT urography and CT enterography exams, both GI and GU radiology groups elected to proceed with permanent implementation of adaptive NLM in their GI and GU CT practices. Conclusions: This work describes and validates a computationally efficient technique for noise map estimation directly from CT images, and an adaptive NLM filtering based on this noise map, on phantom and patient data. Both the noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering can be performed in times that allow integration with clinical workflow. The adaptive NLM algorithm provides effective denoising of CT data throughout a volume, and may allow significant lowering of radiation dose.

  19. Novel methods of measuring single scan dose profiles and cumulative dose in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakonechny, K.D.; Fallone, B.G.; Rathee, S.

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a conventional indicator of the patient dose in CT studies. It is measured as the integration of the longitudinal single scan dose profile (SSDP) by using a 100-mm-long pencil ionization chamber and a single axial scan. However, the assumption that most of the SSDP is contained within the chamber length may not be valid even for thin slices. We have measured the SSDPs for several slice widths on two CT scanners using a PTW diamond detector placed in a 300 mmx200 mmx300 mm water-equivalent plastic phantom. One SSDP was also measured using lithium fluoride (LiF) TLDs and an IC-10 small volume ion chamber, verifying the general shape of the SSDP measured using the diamond detector. Standard cylindrical PMMA CT phantoms (140 mm length) were also used to qualitatively study the effects of phantom shape, length, and composition on the measured SSDP. The SSDPs measured with the diamond detector in the water-equivalent phantom were numerically integrated to calculate the relative accumulated dose D{sub L}(0){sub calc} at the center of various scan lengths L. D{sub L}(0){sub calc} reached an equilibrium value for L>300 mm, suggesting the need for phantoms longer than standard CT dose phantoms. We have also measured the absolute accumulated dose using an IC-10 small volume ion chamber, D{sub L}(0){sub SV}, at three points in the phantom cross section for several beamwidths and scan lengths. For one CT system, these measurements were made in both axial and helical scanning modes. The absolute CTDI{sub 100}, measured with a 102 mm active length pencil chamber, were within 4% of D{sub L}(0){sub SV} measured with the small volume ion chamber for L{approx_equal}100 mm suggesting that nonpencil chambers can be successfully used for CT dosimetry. For nominal beam widths ranging from 3 to 20 mm and for L{approx_equal}250 mm, D{sub L}(0){sub SV} values at the center of the water-equivalent phantom's elliptic cross section were approximately 25%-30% higher than the measured CTDI{sub 100}. For small beamwidths, the difference in D{sub L}(0){sub SV} for L{approx_equal}250 mm and L{approx_equal}14xbeamwidth (CTDI{sub 14nT}) reached up to 50%. Peripheral point doses at 70 mm depth along the major axis of the phantom for L{approx_equal}250 mm were up to 22% higher than for L{approx_equal}100 mm. The differences between CTDI{sub 100} and D{sub L}(0){sub SV} for L{approx_equal}250 mm were in good agreement with the predictions made from the numerical integration of the measured SSDPs. Due to the considerable dose measured beyond the length of standard CT phantoms, CT dosimetry for longer body scan series should be performed in longer phantoms. Measurements could be made as we have shown, using a small volume chamber translating through the beam using multiple scans.

  20. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Sanjit O.; Petre, Elena N.; Osborne, Joseph; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  1. SU-E-P-03: Implementing a Low Dose Lung Screening CT Program Meeting Regulatory Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrance, M; Marsh, S; O'Donnell, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Purpose: Provide guidance to the Radiology Departments with the intent of implementing a Low Dose CT Screening Program using different CT Scanners with multiple techniques within the framework of the required state regulations. Method: State Requirements for the purpose of implementing a Low Dose CT Lung Protocol required working with the Radiology and Pulmonary Department in setting up a Low Dose Screening Protocol designed to reduce the radiation burden to the patients enrolled. Radiation dose measurements (CTDIvol) for various CT manufacturers (Siemens16, Siemens 64, Philips 64, and Neusoft128) for three different weight based protocols. All scans were reviewed by the Radiologist. Prior to starting a low dose lung screening protocol, information had to be submitted to the state for approval. Performing a Healing Arts protocol requires extensive information. This not only includes name and address of the applicant but a detailed description of the disease, the x-ray examination and the population to be examined. The unit had to be tested by a qualified expert using the technique charts. The credentials of all the operators, the supervisors and the Radiologists had to be submitted to the state. Results: All the appropriate documentation was sent to the state for review. The measured results between the Low Dose Protocol versus the default Adult Chest Protocol showed that there was a dose reduction of 65% for small (100-150 lb.) patient, 75% for the Medium patient (151-250 lbs.), and a 55% reduction for the Large patient ( over 250 lbs.). Conclusion: Measured results indicated that the Low Dose Protocol indeed lowered the screening patient's radiation dose and the institution was able to submit the protocol to the State's regulators.

  2. SU-E-I-43: Pediatric CT Dose and Image Quality Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, G; Singh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design an approach to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging, and to evaluate expected performance. Methods: A methodology was designed to quantify relative image quality as a function of CT image acquisition parameters. Image contrast and image noise were used to indicate expected conspicuity of objects, and a wide-cone system was used to minimize scan time for motion avoidance. A decision framework was designed to select acquisition parameters as a weighted combination of image quality and dose. Phantom tests were used to acquire images at multiple techniques to demonstrate expected contrast, noise and dose. Anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts were imaged on a 160mm CT system with tube voltage capabilities as low as 70kVp. Previously acquired clinical images were used in conjunction with simulation tools to emulate images at different tube voltages and currents to assess human observer preferences. Results: Examination of image contrast, noise, dose and tube/generator capabilities indicates a clinical task and object-size dependent optimization. Phantom experiments confirm that system modeling can be used to achieve the desired image quality and noise performance. Observer studies indicate that clinical utilization of this optimization requires a modified approach to achieve the desired performance. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging. In addition, the methodology can be used in an automated parameter selection feature that can suggest techniques given a limited number of user inputs. G Stevens and R Singh are employees of GE Healthcare.

  3. Dose reconstruction for real-time patient-specific dose estimation in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Man, Bruno Yin, Zhye; Wu, Mingye; FitzGerald, Paul; Kalra, Mannudeep

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Many recent computed tomography (CT) dose reduction approaches belong to one of three categories: statistical reconstruction algorithms, efficient x-ray detectors, and optimized CT acquisition schemes with precise control over the x-ray distribution. The latter category could greatly benefit from fast and accurate methods for dose estimation, which would enable real-time patient-specific protocol optimization. Methods: The authors present a new method for volumetrically reconstructing absorbed dose on a per-voxel basis, directly from the actual CT images. The authors’ specific implementation combines a distance-driven pencil-beam approach to model the first-order x-ray interactions with a set of Gaussian convolution kernels to model the higher-order x-ray interactions. The authors performed a number of 3D simulation experiments comparing the proposed method to a Monte Carlo based ground truth. Results: The authors’ results indicate that the proposed approach offers a good trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. The images show a good qualitative correspondence to Monte Carlo estimates. Preliminary quantitative results show errors below 10%, except in bone regions, where the authors see a bigger model mismatch. The computational complexity is similar to that of a low-resolution filtered-backprojection algorithm. Conclusions: The authors present a method for analytic dose reconstruction in CT, similar to the techniques used in radiation therapy planning with megavoltage energies. Future work will include refinements of the proposed method to improve the accuracy as well as a more extensive validation study. The proposed method is not intended to replace methods that track individual x-ray photons, but the authors expect that it may prove useful in applications where real-time patient-specific dose estimation is required.

  4. Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fried, David V.; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhou, Shouhao; Liao, Zhongxing; Mawlawi, Osama; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases with stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. All patients underwent pretreatment diagnostic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) followed by 4-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for treatment simulation. We used the average-CT and expiratory (T50-CT) images from the 4D-CT along with the CE-CT for texture extraction. Histogram, gradient, co-occurrence, gray tone difference, and filtration-based techniques were used for texture feature extraction. Penalized Cox regression implementing cross-validation was used for covariate selection and modeling. Models incorporating texture features from the 33 image types and CPFs were compared to those with models incorporating CPFs alone for overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM). Predictive Kaplan-Meier curves were generated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Patients were stratified based on whether their predicted outcome was above or below the median. Reproducibility of texture features was evaluated using test-retest scans from independent patients and quantified using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). We compared models incorporating the reproducibility seen on test-retest scans to our original models and determined the classification reproducibility. Results: Models incorporating both texture features and CPFs demonstrated a significant improvement in risk stratification compared to models using CPFs alone for OS (P=.046), LRC (P=.01), and FFDM (P=.005). The average CCCs were 0.89, 0.91, and 0.67 for texture features extracted from the average-CT, T50-CT, and CE-CT, respectively. Incorporating reproducibility within our models yielded 80.4% (±3.7% SD), 78.3% (±4.0% SD), and 78.8% (±3.9% SD) classification reproducibility in terms of OS, LRC, and FFDM, respectively. Conclusions: Pretreatment tumor texture may provide prognostic information beyond that obtained from CPFs. Models incorporating feature reproducibility achieved classification rates of ∼80%. External validation would be required to establish texture as a prognostic factor.

  5. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  6. CT-Guided Interventions Using a Free-Hand, Optical Tracking System: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Tilman Jacob, Augustinus L.; Pansini, Michele; Liu, David; Gutzeit, Andreas; Kos, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe present study was designed to evaluate the geometrical accuracy and clinical applicability of a new, free-hand, CT-guided, optical navigation system.MethodsFifteen procedures in 14 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed. The navigation system was applied for interventional procedures on small target lesions, in cases with long needle paths, narrow access windows, or when an out-of-plane access was expected. Mean lesion volume was 27.9 ml, and mean distance to target measured was 107.5 mm. Eleven of 15 needle trajectories were planned as out-of-plane approaches regarding the axial CT plane.ResultsNinety-one percent of the biopsies were diagnostic. All therapeutic interventions were technically successful. Targeting precision was high with a mean distance of the needle tip from planned target of 1.98 mm. Mean intervention time was 1:12 h. A statistically significant correlation between angular needle deviation and intervention time (p = 0.007), respiratory movement of the target (p = 0.008), and body mass index (p = 0.02) was detected. None of the evaluated parameters correlated significantly with the distance from the needle tip to the planned target.ConclusionsThe application of a navigation system for complex CT-guided procedures provided safe and effective targeting within a reasonable intervention time in our series.

  7. Quality assurance for image-guided radiation therapy utilizing CT-based technologies: A report of the AAPM TG-179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Langen, Katja M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Miften, Moyed; Moseley, Douglas J.; Pouliot, Jean; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Yoo, Sua

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Commercial CT-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems allow widespread management of geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. This document provides consensus recommendations for quality assurance protocols that ensure patient safety and patient treatment fidelity for such systems. Methods: The AAPM TG-179 reviews clinical implementation and quality assurance aspects for commercially available CT-based IGRT, each with their unique capabilities and underlying physics. The systems described are kilovolt and megavolt cone-beam CT, fan-beam MVCT, and CT-on-rails. A summary of the literature describing current clinical usage is also provided. Results: This report proposes a generic quality assurance program for CT-based IGRT systems in an effort to provide a vendor-independent program for clinical users. Published data from long-term, repeated quality control tests form the basis of the proposed test frequencies and tolerances.Conclusion: A program for quality control of CT-based image-guidance systems has been produced, with focus on geometry, image quality, image dose, system operation, and safety. Agreement and clarification with respect to reports from the AAPM TG-101, TG-104, TG-142, and TG-148 has been addressed.

  8. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Stevens, Grant M.; Foley, W. Dennis

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the gantry reduced the dose to the breast, while also increasing noise standard deviation. Overall, the noise increase outweighed the dose reduction for the eight voxelized phantoms, suggesting that tilted gantry acquisition may not be beneficial for reducing breast dose while maintaining image quality.

  9. Development of a dynamic quality assurance testing protocol for multisite clinical trial DCE-CT accreditation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Jaffray, D.; Coolens, C.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2; Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L5

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol.Methods: A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared.Results: The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2 1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R{sup 2}) of greater than 0.99 0.0035 (n= 10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from the expected phantom result when scanning at low mAs and low kVp in terms of quantitative metrics (Injected Mass Error 15.4%), goodness of fit (R{sup 2}) of 0.91, and ROI sensitivity (increase in minimum input function ROI radius by 146 86%). These tests also confirmed that the ASIR reconstruction process was beneficial in reducing noise without substantially increasing partial volume effects and that vendor specific modes (e.g., axial shuttle) did not significantly affect the phantom results. The phantom and QA protocol were finally able to quickly (<90 min) and successfully validate the DCE-CT imaging protocol utilized at the three separate institutions of a multicenter clinical trial; thereby enhancing the confidence in the patient data collected.Conclusions: A DCE QA protocol was developed that, in combination with a dynamic multimodality flow phantom, allows the intrascanner variability to be separated from other sources of variability such as the impact of injection protocol and ROI selection. This provides a valuable resource that can be utilized at various clinical trial institutions to test conformance with imaging protocols and accuracy requirements as well as ensure that the scanners are performing as expected for dynamic scans.

  10. Radiation dose reduction in medical x-ray CT via Fourier-based iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P.; Zhao Yunzhe; Huang Zhifeng; Fung, Russell; Zhu Chun; Miao Jianwei; Mao Yu; Khatonabadi, Maryam; DeMarco, John J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Osher, Stanley J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: A Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique, termed Equally Sloped Tomography (EST), is developed in conjunction with advanced mathematical regularization to investigate radiation dose reduction in x-ray CT. The method is experimentally implemented on fan-beam CT and evaluated as a function of imaging dose on a series of image quality phantoms and anonymous pediatric patient data sets. Numerical simulation experiments are also performed to explore the extension of EST to helical cone-beam geometry. Methods: EST is a Fourier based iterative algorithm, which iterates back and forth between real and Fourier space utilizing the algebraically exact pseudopolar fast Fourier transform (PPFFT). In each iteration, physical constraints and mathematical regularization are applied in real space, while the measured data are enforced in Fourier space. The algorithm is automatically terminated when a proposed termination criterion is met. Experimentally, fan-beam projections were acquired by the Siemens z-flying focal spot technology, and subsequently interleaved and rebinned to a pseudopolar grid. Image quality phantoms were scanned at systematically varied mAs settings, reconstructed by EST and conventional reconstruction methods such as filtered back projection (FBP), and quantified using metrics including resolution, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Pediatric data sets were reconstructed at their original acquisition settings and additionally simulated to lower dose settings for comparison and evaluation of the potential for radiation dose reduction. Numerical experiments were conducted to quantify EST and other iterative methods in terms of image quality and computation time. The extension of EST to helical cone-beam CT was implemented by using the advanced single-slice rebinning (ASSR) method. Results: Based on the phantom and pediatric patient fan-beam CT data, it is demonstrated that EST reconstructions with the lowest scanner flux setting of 39 mAs produce comparable image quality, resolution, and contrast relative to FBP with the 140 mAs flux setting. Compared to the algebraic reconstruction technique and the expectation maximization statistical reconstruction algorithm, a significant reduction in computation time is achieved with EST. Finally, numerical experiments on helical cone-beam CT data suggest that the combination of EST and ASSR produces reconstructions with higher image quality and lower noise than the Feldkamp Davis and Kress (FDK) method and the conventional ASSR approach. Conclusions: A Fourier-based iterative method has been applied to the reconstruction of fan-bean CT data with reduced x-ray fluence. This method incorporates advantageous features in both real and Fourier space iterative schemes: using a fast and algebraically exact method to calculate forward projection, enforcing the measured data in Fourier space, and applying physical constraints and flexible regularization in real space. Our results suggest that EST can be utilized for radiation dose reduction in x-ray CT via the readily implementable technique of lowering mAs settings. Numerical experiments further indicate that EST requires less computation time than several other iterative algorithms and can, in principle, be extended to helical cone-beam geometry in combination with the ASSR method.

  11. On two-parameter models of photon cross sections: Application to dual-energy CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Li Sicong; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R.; Lerma, Fritz A.

    2006-11-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the theoretically achievable accuracy in estimating photon cross sections at low energies (20-1000 keV) from idealized dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. Cross-section estimation from dual-energy measurements requires a model that can accurately represent photon cross sections of any biological material as a function of energy by specifying only two characteristic parameters of the underlying material, e.g., effective atomic number and density. This paper evaluates the accuracy of two commonly used two-parameter cross-section models for postprocessing idealized measurements derived from dual-energy CT images. The parametric fit model (PFM) accounts for electron-binding effects and photoelectric absorption by power functions in atomic number and energy and scattering by the Klein-Nishina cross section. The basis-vector model (BVM) assumes that attenuation coefficients of any biological substance can be approximated by a linear combination of mass attenuation coefficients of two dissimilar basis substances. Both PFM and BVM were fit to a modern cross-section library for a range of elements and mixtures representative of naturally occurring biological materials (Z=2-20). The PFM model, in conjunction with the effective atomic number approximation, yields estimated the total linear cross-section estimates with mean absolute and maximum error ranges of 0.6%-2.2% and 1%-6%, respectively. The corresponding error ranges for BVM estimates were 0.02%-0.15% and 0.1%-0.5%. However, for photoelectric absorption frequency, the PFM absolute mean and maximum errors were 10.8%-22.4% and 29%-50%, compared with corresponding BVM errors of 0.4%-11.3% and 0.5%-17.0%, respectively. Both models were found to exhibit similar sensitivities to image-intensity measurement uncertainties. Of the two models, BVM is the most promising approach for realizing dual-energy CT cross-section measurement.

  12. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael D.; Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A.; Holdsworth, David W.; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 ; Drangova, Maria; Chen, Jeff; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 ; Wong, Eugene; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 2 to 60 60 mm{sup 2} were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 70 22 mm{sup 3} solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 50 50 mm{sup 3}. A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 70 20 mm{sup 3} solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 50, 40 40, and 30 30 mm{sup 2}. Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%20%) from 3.9 to 0.8 mm.Conclusions: A set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system were constructed with position reliably better than a tenth of a millimeter. The hardware system is ready for image-guided conformal radiotherapy for small animals with capability of respiratory-gated delivery.

  13. Model-based PSF and MTF estimation and validation from skeletal clinical CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Mainprize, James G.; Robert, Normand; Fialkov, Jeffery; Whyne, Cari M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A method was developed to correct for systematic errors in estimating the thickness of thin bones due to image blurring in CT images using bone interfaces to estimate the point-spread-function (PSF). This study validates the accuracy of the PSFs estimated using said method from various clinical CT images featuring cortical bones. Methods: Gaussian PSFs, characterized by a different extent in the z (scan) direction than in the x and y directions were obtained using our method from 11 clinical CT scans of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton. These PSFs were estimated for multiple combinations of scanning parameters and reconstruction methods. The actual PSF for each scan setting was measured using the slanted-slit technique within the image slice plane and the longitudinal axis. The Gaussian PSF and the corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) are compared against the actual PSF and MTF for validation. Results: The differences (errors) between the actual and estimated full-width half-max (FWHM) of the PSFs were 0.09 0.05 and 0.14 0.11 mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The overall errors in the predicted frequencies measured at 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and 5% MTF levels were 0.06 0.07 and 0.06 0.04 cycles/mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The accuracy of the estimates was dependent on whether they were reconstructed with a standard kernel (Toshiba's FC68, mean error of 0.06 0.05 mm, MTF mean error 0.02 0.02 cycles/mm) or a high resolution bone kernel (Toshiba's FC81, PSF FWHM error 0.12 0.03 mm, MTF mean error 0.09 0.08 cycles/mm). Conclusions: The method is accurate in 3D for an image reconstructed using a standard reconstruction kernel, which conforms to the Gaussian PSF assumption but less accurate when using a high resolution bone kernel. The method is a practical and self-contained means of estimating the PSF in clinical CT images featuring cortical bones, without the need phantoms or any prior knowledge about the scanner-specific parameters.

  14. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Taft School Watertown, CT DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are designed in to give you

  15. Quantitative comparison of noise texture across CT scanners from different manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Justin B.; Christianson, Olav; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare noise texture across computed tomography (CT) scanners from different manufacturers using the noise power spectrum (NPS). Methods: The American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom (Gammex 464, Gammex, Inc., Middleton, WI) was imaged on two scanners: Discovery CT 750HD (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and SOMATOM Definition Flash (Siemens Healthcare, Germany), using a consistent acquisition protocol (120 kVp, 0.625/0.6 mm slice thickness, 250 mAs, and 22 cm field of view). Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection and a wide selection of reconstruction kernels. For each image set, the 2D NPS were estimated from the uniform section of the phantom. The 2D spectra were normalized by their integral value, radially averaged, and filtered by the human visual response function. A systematic kernel-by-kernel comparison across manufacturers was performed by computing the root mean square difference (RMSD) and the peak frequency difference (PFD) between the NPS from different kernels. GE and Siemens kernels were compared and kernel pairs that minimized the RMSD and |PFD| were identified. Results: The RMSD (|PFD|) values between the NPS of GE and Siemens kernels varied from 0.01 mm{sup 2} (0.002 mm{sup -1}) to 0.29 mm{sup 2} (0.74 mm{sup -1}). The GE kernels 'Soft,''Standard,''Chest,' and 'Lung' closely matched the Siemens kernels 'B35f,''B43f,''B41f,' and 'B80f' (RMSD < 0.05 mm{sup 2}, |PFD| < 0.02 mm{sup -1}, respectively). The GE 'Bone,''Bone+,' and 'Edge' kernels all matched most closely with Siemens 'B75f' kernel but with sizeable RMSD and |PFD| values up to 0.18 mm{sup 2} and 0.41 mm{sup -1}, respectively. These sizeable RMSD and |PFD| values corresponded to visually perceivable differences in the noise texture of the images. Conclusions: It is possible to use the NPS to quantitatively compare noise texture across CT systems. The degree to which similar texture across scanners could be achieved varies and is limited by the kernels available on each scanner.

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Preferred Builders, Old Greenwich, CT, Custom

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Old Greenwich, CT, that scored HERS 42 without PV or HERS 20 with PV. This 2,700-square-foot custom home has advanced framed walls with R-24 blown cellulose plus R-7.5 EPS rigid foam, membrane-coated OSB, a closed-cell spray foamed attic, R-13 closed-cell spray foam under the slab and on basement walls, an ERV, and a gas boiler for forced air and radiant floor heat.

  17. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Politte, David G.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on one system produced agreement with a relative error of 2%–6%. Fan beam profiles were found to differ for different filter types on a given system and between different vendors. Conclusions: A commercially available real-time dosimeter probe was found to be a convenient and accurate instrument for measuring fan beam profiles. An analysis method was developed that could handle a wide range of collimation widths by explicitly considering the finite width of the ion chamber. Relative errors in the profiles were found to be less than 5%. Measurements of five different clinical scanners demonstrate the variation in bow tie designs, indicating that generic bow tie models will not be adequate for CT system research.

  18. SU-E-T-99: Design and Development of Isocenter Parameter System for CT Simulation Laser Based On DICOM RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to receive DICOM files from treatment planning system and generate patient isocenter positioning parameter file for CT laser system automatically, this paper presents a method for communication with treatment planning system and calculation of isocenter parameter for each radiation field. Methods: Coordinate transformation and laser positioning file formats were analyzed, isocenter parameter was calculated via data from DICOM CT Data and DICOM RTPLAN file. An in-house software-DicomGenie was developed based on the object-oriented program platform-Qt with DCMTK SDK (Germany OFFIS company DICOM SDK) . DicomGenie was tested for accuracy using Philips CT simulation plan system (Tumor LOC, Philips) and A2J CT positioning laser system (Thorigny Sur Marne, France). Results: DicomGenie successfully established DICOM communication between treatment planning system, DICOM files were received by DicomGenie and patient laser isocenter information was generated accurately. Patient laser parameter data files can be used for for CT laser system directly. Conclusion: In-house software DicomGenie received and extracted DICOM data, isocenter laser positioning data files were created by DicomGenie and can be use for A2J laser positioning system.

  19. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to silica diagenesis: The opal-A to opal-CT transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.B.; Freund, H.; Huang, W.L.; Clouse, J.A.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    An important goal in silica diagenesis research is to understand the kinetics of opal transformation from noncrystalline opal-A to the disordered silica polymorph opal-CT. Because the conventional technique for monitoring the transformation, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), is applicable only to phases with long-range order, the authors used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor the transformation. They applied this technique, combined with XRD and TEM, to experimental run products and natural opals from the Monterey Formation and from siliceous deposits in the western Pacific Ocean. Using a ratio of two infrared absorption intensities ({omega} = I{sub 472 cm{sup {minus}1}}/I{sub 500 cm{sup {minus}1}}), the relative proportions of opal-A and opal-CT can be determined. The progress of the transformation is marked by changes in slope of {omega} vs. depth or time when a sufficient stratigraphic profile is available. There are three stages in the opal-A to opal-CT reaction: (1) opal-A dissolution; (2) opal-CT precipitation, whose end point is marked by completion of opal-A dissolution; and (3) opal-CT ordering, during which tridymite stacking is eliminated in favor of crystobalite stacking.

  20. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV identification.

  1. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  2. SU-C-18A-05: Registration Accuracy of MR-Based Images to On-Board Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT for Brain Patient Setup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnaduwage, D S; Chen, J; Descovich, M; Pouliot, J; Hwang, Ken-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the difference in isocenter shifts when co-registering MR and MR-based pseudo CTs (pCT) with on-board megavoltage conebeam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: Fast Spoiled Gradient Echo MRs were used to generate pCTs (research version of Advantage Sim MD, GE Healthcare) for ten patients who had prior brain radiotherapy. The planning CT (rCT) for each was co-registered with the MR, and the plan isocenter and two other reference points were transferred to the MR and pCT. CBCT images (with the machine isocenter) from a single treatment day were coregistered with the 3 test images (MR, pCT and rCT), by two observers and by an automated registration algorithm. The reference points were used to calculate patient shifts and rotations from the registrations. The shifts calculated from the test image registrations were compared to each other and to the shifts performed by the therapists who treated the patients on that day. Results: The average difference in absolute value between the isocenter shifts from the MR-, pCT- and rCT-CBCT registrations, and the therapist shifts, were 2.02, 3.01 and 0.89 mm (craniocaudal), 1.14, 1.34 and 0.46 mm (lateral), and 1.37, 3.43 and 1.43 mm (vertical), respectively. The MR- and pCT-CBCT registrations differed by 1.99, and 2.53 mm (craniocaudal), 1.36, and 1.37 mm (lateral), and 0.74 and 2.34 mm (vertical), respectively, from the average rCT-CBCT shifts. On average, differences of 2.39 (craniocaudal), 1.28 (lateral) and 2.84 mm (vertical) were seen between the MR and pCT shifts. Rotations relative to the CBCT coordinate system were on average <2 for the MR and rCT, and <6 for the pCT. Conclusion: In this study, FSPGR MR-CBCT registrations were more precise compared to the pCT-CBCT registrations. For improved accuracy, MR sequences that are optimal for bony anatomy visualization are necessary. GE healthcare has provided a research version of Advantage Sim MD to UCSF. No financial support was provided.

  3. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  4. Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree days

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    96 Created on: 4/26/2016 6:14:01 PM Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree days Month/Year/Type of data New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT NJ, NY, PA IL, IN, MI, OH, WI IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD DE, FL, GA, MD, DC, NC, SC, VA, WV November Normal 702 665 757 841 443 2014 749 742 909 1,002 562 2015 583 509 596 653 325 % Diff (normal to 2015) -17.0 -23.5 -21.3 -22.4 -26.6 % Diff (2014 to 2015) -22.2 -31.4

  5. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated Consumption per Capita, 2010 Consumption Consumption per Capita 14 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 TX CA FL LA IL OH PA NY GA IN MI NC VA NJ TN WA KY AL MO MN WI SC OK CO IA MD AZ MA MS KS AR OR NE UT CT WV NM NV AK WY ID ND ME MT SD NH HI DE RI DC VT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 0 2 4 6 8 10

  6. Microsoft Word - figure_99.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Annual Figure 6. Natural gas processing in the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, 2014 (million cubic feet) None 1-15,000 15,001-100,000 100,001-200,000 200,001-500,000 500,001 and over Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-64A, "Annual Report of the Origin of Natural Gas Liquids Production." IN OH TN WV VA KY MD PA NY VT NH MA CT ME RI DE DC NC SC GA FL NJ AL MS LA MO AR TX NM OK CO KS UT AZ WY NE IL IA MN

  7. pr_a.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    FL PADD 4: Rocky Mountain PADD 5: West Coast PADD 2: Midwest PADD 1: East Coast PADD 3: Gulf Coast PADD1A: New England PADD1B: Central Atlantic PADD1C: Lower Atlantic Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts AK HI WA OR CA NV AZ MT WY CO UT ID ND SD NE KS OK MO MN WI MI IL IN OH KY TN IA NM TX AR LA AL MS WV VA NC SC GA FL ME NH VT NY PA NJ MD DE MA CT RI

    9 A P P E N D I X A This appendix contains alphabetical listings of the variables used in the price and expenditure module of the

  8. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix F

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Regional maps Figure F7. Coal demand regions Figure F7. Coal Demand Regions CT,MA,ME,NH,RI,VT OH 1. NE 3. S1 4. S2 5. GF 6. OH 7. EN AL,MS MN,ND,SD IA,NE,MO,KS TX,LA,OK,AR MT,WY,ID CO,UT,NV AZ,NM 9. AM 11. C2 12. WS 13. MT 14. CU 15. ZN WV,MD,DC,DE 2. YP Region Content Region Code NY,PA,NJ VA,NC,SC GA,FL IN,IL,MI,WI Region Content Region Code 14. CU 13. MT 16. PC 15. ZN 12. WS 11. C2 9. AM 5. GF 8. KT 4. S2 7. EN 6. OH 2. YP 1. NE 3. S1 10. C1 KY,TN 8. KT 16. PC AK,HI,WA,OR,CA 10. C1

  9. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was reduced by an average of 60% in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. However, for edge pixels, noise magnitude ranged from 20% higher to 40% lower in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. SAFIRE images of the lung phantom exhibited distinct regions with varying noise texture (i.e., noise autocorrelation/power spectra). Conclusions: Quantum noise properties observed in uniform phantoms may not be representative of those in actual patients for nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. Anatomical texture should be considered when evaluating the performance of CT systems that use such nonlinear algorithms.

  10. A hybrid approach for rapid, accurate, and direct kilovoltage radiation dose calculations in CT voxel space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a fast and accurate method that uses computed tomography (CT) voxel data to estimate absorbed radiation dose at a point of interest (POI) or series of POIs from a kilovoltage (kV) imaging procedure. Methods: The authors developed an approach that computes absorbed radiation dose at a POI by numerically evaluating the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) using a combination of deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. This hybrid approach accounts for material heterogeneity with a level of accuracy comparable to the general MC algorithms. Also, the dose at a POI is computed within seconds using the Intel Core i7 CPU 920 2.67 GHz quad core architecture, and the calculations are performed using CT voxel data, making it flexible and feasible for clinical applications. To validate the method, the authors constructed and acquired a CT scan of a heterogeneous block phantom consisting of a succession of slab densities: Tissue (1.29 cm), bone (2.42 cm), lung (4.84 cm), bone (1.37 cm), and tissue (4.84 cm). Using the hybrid transport method, the authors computed the absorbed doses at a set of points along the central axis and x direction of the phantom for an isotropic 125 kVp photon spectral point source located along the central axis 92.7 cm above the phantom surface. The accuracy of the results was compared to those computed with MCNP, which was cross-validated with EGSnrc, and served as the benchmark for validation. Results: The error in the depth dose ranged from -1.45% to +1.39% with a mean and standard deviation of -0.12% and 0.66%, respectively. The error in the x profile ranged from -1.3% to +0.9%, with standard deviations of -0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The number of photons required to achieve these results was 1x10{sup 6}. Conclusions: The voxel-based hybrid method evaluates the LBTE rapidly and accurately to estimate the absorbed x-ray dose at any POI or series of POIs from a kV imaging procedure.

  11. SU-E-I-62: Assessing Radiation Dose Reduction and CT Image Optimization Through the Measurement and Analysis of the Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CT Images Using Different Beam Hardening Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a clinical setting.

  12. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuan Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) performance as well as dose and image quality is directly affected by the x-ray spectrum. However, the current assessment approaches of the CT x-ray spectrum require costly measurement equipment and complicated operational procedures, and are often limited to the spectrum corresponding to the center of rotation. In order to address these limitations, the authors propose an angle-dependent estimation technique, where the incident spectra across a wide range of angular trajectories can be estimated accurately with only a single phantom and a single axial scan in the absence of the knowledge of the bowtie filter. Methods: The proposed technique uses a uniform cylindrical phantom, made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and positioned in an off-centered geometry. The projection data acquired with an axial scan have a twofold purpose. First, they serve as a reflection of the transmission measurements across different angular trajectories. Second, they are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the phantom, which is then utilized to compute the intersection length of each transmission measurement. With each CT detector element recording a range of transmission measurements for a single angular trajectory, the spectrum is estimated for that trajectory. A data conditioning procedure is used to combine information from hundreds of collected transmission measurements to accelerate the estimation speed, to reduce noise, and to improve estimation stability. The proposed spectral estimation technique was validated experimentally using a clinical scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with spectra provided by the manufacturer serving as the comparison standard. Results obtained with the proposed technique were compared against those obtained from a second conventional transmission measurement technique with two materials (i.e., Cu and Al). After validation, the proposed technique was applied to measure spectra from the clinical system across a range of angular trajectories [−15°, 15°] and spectrum settings (80, 100, 120, 140 kVp). Results: At 140 kVp, the proposed technique was comparable to the conventional technique in terms of the mean energy difference (MED, −0.29 keV) and the normalized root mean square difference (NRMSD, 0.84%) from the comparison standard compared to 0.64 keV and 1.56%, respectively, with the conventional technique. The average absolute MEDs and NRMSDs across kVp settings and angular trajectories were less than 0.61 keV and 3.41%, respectively, which indicates a high level of estimation accuracy and stability. Conclusions: An angle-dependent estimation technique of CT x-ray spectra from rotational transmission measurements was proposed. Compared with the conventional technique, the proposed method simplifies the measurement procedures and enables incident spectral estimation for a wide range of angular trajectories. The proposed technique is suitable for rigorous research objectives as well as routine clinical quality control procedures.

  13. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, N.; Kron, T.; Roxby, P.; Franich, R.; Dunn, L.; Aarons, Y.; Chesson, B.; Siva, S.; Duplan, D.; Ball, D.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. Methods: A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden 'lung' inserts with embedded Perspex 'lesions' were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. Results: When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs. Breathing patterns with a rest period following expiration resulted in well-defined superior edges and were better aligned using an edge-to-edge alignment technique. In most cases, sinusoidal motion patterns resulted in the closest agreements to true values and the smallest misalignments. Conclusions: Strategies are needed to compensate for volume losses at the extremes of motion for both 4DCT MIP and CBCT images for larger and varied amplitudes, and for patterns with rest periods following expiration. Lesions moving greater than 2 cm would warrant larger treatment margins added to the 4DCT MIP ITV to account for the volume being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Lesions moving with a rest period following expiration would be better aligned using an edge-to-edge alignment technique. Sinusoidal patterns represented the ideal clinical scenario, reinforcing the importance of investigating clinically relevant motions and their effects on 4DCT MIP and CBCT volumes. Since most patients do not breathe sinusoidally this may lead to misinterpretation of previous studies using only sinusoidal motion.

  14. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and atlas-based methods and showed a promising potential for RT of the brain based only on MRI.

  15. CT imaging during microwave ablation: Analysis of spatial and temporal tissue contraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dong; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze the spatial distribution and temporal development of liver tissue contraction during high-temperature ablation by using intraprocedural computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: A total of 46 aluminum fiducial markers were positioned in a 60 × 45 mm grid, in a single plane, around a microwave ablation antenna in each of six ex vivo bovine liver samples. Ablations were performed for 10 min at 100 W. CT data of the liver sample were acquired every 30 s during ablation. Fiducial motion between acquisitions was tracked in postprocessing and used to calculate measures of tissue contraction and contraction rates. The spatial distribution and temporal evolution of contraction were analyzed. Results: Fiducial displacement indicated that the zone measured postablation was 8.2 ± 1.8 mm (∼20%) smaller in the radial direction and 7.1 ± 1.0 mm (∼10%) shorter in the longitudinal direction than the preablation tissue dimension. Therefore, the total ablation volume was reduced from its preablation value by approximately 45%. Very little longitudinal contraction was noted in the distal portion of the ablation zone. Central tissues contracted more than 60%, which was near an estimated limit of ∼70% based on initial water content. More peripheral tissues contracted only 15% in any direction. Contraction rates peaked during the first 60 s of heating with a roughly exponential decay over time. Conclusions: Ablation zones measured posttreatment are significantly smaller than the pretreatment tissue dimensions. Tissue contraction is spatially dependent, with the greatest effect occurring in the central ablation zone. Contraction rate peaks early and decays over time.

  16. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, E. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Saletta, M.; Cerello, P. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large scale screenings and clinical programs.

  17. Level-set segmentation of pulmonary nodules in megavolt electronic portal images using a CT prior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schildkraut, J. S.; Prosser, N.; Savakis, A.; Gomez, J.; Nazareth, D.; Singh, A. K.; Malhotra, H. K.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary nodules present unique problems during radiation treatment due to nodule position uncertainty that is caused by respiration. The radiation field has to be enlarged to account for nodule motion during treatment. The purpose of this work is to provide a method of locating a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image that can be used to reduce the internal target volume (ITV) during radiation therapy. A reduction in the ITV would result in a decrease in radiation toxicity to healthy tissue. Methods: Eight patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer were used in this study. CT scans that include the pulmonary nodule were captured with a GE Healthcare LightSpeed RT 16 scanner. Megavolt portal images were acquired with a Varian Trilogy unit equipped with an AS1000 electronic portal imaging device. The nodule localization method uses grayscale morphological filtering and level-set segmentation with a prior. The treatment-time portion of the algorithm is implemented on a graphical processing unit. Results: The method was retrospectively tested on eight cases that include a total of 151 megavolt portal image frames. The method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases. The treatment phase portion of the method has a subsecond execution time that makes it suitable for near-real-time nodule localization. Conclusions: A method was developed to localize a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image. The method uses the characteristics of the nodule in a prior CT scan to enhance the nodule in the portal image and to identify the nodule region by level-set segmentation. In a retrospective study, the method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases studied.

  18. TU-F-18A-02: Iterative Image-Domain Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, T; Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical value. Existing de-noising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. It includes the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan 600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results are compared to those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a de-noising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, our method retains the same spatial resolution as the CT images before decomposition while reducing the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 98%. The other methods either degrade spatial resolution or achieve less low-contrast detectability. Also, our method yields lower electron density measurement error than direct matrix inversion and reduces error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, it reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusion: We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. The proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. This work is supported by a Varian MRA grant.

  19. A=19F (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RI67J, SH67K, ZA67C, EI68A, HA68M, RI68N, UN68, BE69G, BH69, CU69B, KR69A, WA70B, LE72). Cluster model: (WI59D, SH60C, MA63Q, MA64HH, ME68H, BA69E, HI69, ME69K, TA69G, BA70F)....

  20. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalvati, Farzad Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan; Rahnamayan, Shahryar; Rodrigues, George

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., the first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.

  1. Pattern of Retained Contrast on Immediate Postprocedure Computed tomography (CT) After Particle Embolization of Liver Tumors Predicts Subsequent Treatment Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xiaodong Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Jia Xiaoyu Gonen, Mithat; Brown, Karen T. Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Getrajdman, George I. Brody, Lynn A. Thornton, Raymond H. Maybody, Majid Covey, Ann M. Siegelbaum, Robert H. Alago, William Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo determine if the pattern of retained contrast on immediate postprocedure computed tomography (CT) after particle embolization of hepatic tumors predicts modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) response.Materials and MethodsThis study was approved by the Institutional Review Board with a waiver of authorization. One hundred four liver tumors were embolized with spherical embolic agents (Embospheres, Bead Block, LC Bead) and polyvinyl alcohol. Noncontrast CT was performed immediately after embolization to assess contrast retention in the targeted tumors, and treatment response was assessed by mRECIST criteria on follow-up CT (average time 9.0 {+-} 7.7 weeks after embolization). Tumor contrast retention (TCR) was determined based on change in Hounsfield units (HUs) of the index tumors between the preprocedure and immediate postprocedure scans; vascular contrast retention (VCR) was rated; and defects in contrast retention (DCR) were also documented. The morphology of residual enhancing tumor on follow-up CT was described as partial, circumferential, or total. Association between TCR variables and tumor response were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsOf 104 hepatic tumors, 51 (49 %) tumors had complete response (CR) by mRECIST criteria; 23 (22.1 %) had partial response (PR); 21 (20.2 %) had stable disease (SD); and 9 (8.7 %) had progressive disease (PD). By multivariate analysis, TCR, VCR, and tumor size are independent predictors of CR (p = 0.02, 0.05, and 0.005 respectively). In 75 tumors, DCR was found to be an independent predictor of failure to achieve complete response (p < 0.0001) by imaging criteria.ConclusionTCR, VCR, and DCR on immediate posttreatment CT are independent predictors of CR by mRECIST criteria.

  2. Assessment of contrast enhanced respiration managed cone-beam CT for image guided radiotherapy of intrahepatic tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Nikolaj K. G.; Stewart, Errol; Imaging Research Lab, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5B7; Imaging Program, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6C 2R5 ; Lock, Michael; Fisher, Barbara; Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 ; Kozak, Roman; Chen, Jeff; Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 ; Lee, Ting-Yim; Imaging Research Lab, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5B7; Imaging Program, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6C 2R5; Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 ; Wong, Eugene; Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Contrast enhancement and respiration management are widely used during image acquisition for radiotherapy treatment planning of liver tumors along with respiration management at the treatment unit. However, neither respiration management nor intravenous contrast is commonly used during cone-beam CT (CBCT) image acquisition for alignment prior to radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigate the potential gains of injecting an iodinated contrast agent in combination with respiration management during CBCT acquisition for liver tumor radiotherapy. Methods: Five rabbits with implanted liver tumors were subjected to CBCT with and without motion management and contrast injection. The acquired CBCT images were registered to the planning CT to determine alignment accuracy and dosimetric impact. The authors developed a simulation tool for simulating contrast-enhanced CBCT images from dynamic contrast enhanced CT imaging (DCE-CT) to determine optimal contrast injection protocols. The tool was validated against contrast-enhanced CBCT of the rabbit subjects and was used for five human patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: In the rabbit experiment, when neither motion management nor contrast was used, tumor centroid misalignment between planning image and CBCT was 9.2 mm. This was reduced to 2.8?mm when both techniques were employed. Tumors were not visualized in clinical CBCT images of human subjects. Simulated contrast-enhanced CBCT was found to improve tumor contrast in all subjects. Different patients were found to require different contrast injections to maximize tumor contrast. Conclusions: Based on the authors animal study, respiration managed contrast enhanced CBCT improves IGRT significantly. Contrast enhanced CBCT benefits from patient specific tracer kinetics determined from DCE-CT.

  3. Ranchero Armature Test LA-19.4-CT-3: PBX-9501 Explosive with no smoothing layer. Firing point 88, 9/16/13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Brian B.; Goforth, James H.; Rae, Philip John; Dickson, Peter; Briggs, Matthew E.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Hare, Steven John; Herrera, Dennis Harold; Watt, Robert Gregory; Rousculp, Christopher L.

    2014-11-13

    LA-19.4-CT-3 (CT-3) was the third camera test in a series beginning in 1/11, which diagnose the performance of 6 mm thick, 6061 T-0 Al Ranchero armatures. [The test LA-43-CT-2 (CT-2) is described in LA-UR-14-21983.] The goal of CT-3 was to verify that PBX-9501, with 18 mm point spacing and no smoothing layer, could be used for Ranchero generator armatures in place of PBXN-110, which had been used in all previous Ranchero applications. CT-1 and CT-2 both had 43 cm long slapper detonator systems imbedded in the cast PBXN-110 explosive, but manufacturing a charge for a similar 9501 test was not cost effective. Instead, a single cylinder of 9501, 19.368 cm long and 15.494 cm (6.100)in diameter, had a groove machined to accommodate a row of 11 SE-1 detonators with 18 mm point spacing along the mid-plane of the cylinder. The expansion of the armature looks like a slapper assembly along almost of the circumference, and provides adequate proof of concept. Removing the smoother from PBXN-110-driven armatures increased the armature velocity from 3.1 mm/?s to 3.3 mm/?s, as seen in CT-2, and the velocity measured on CT-3 increased to 3.8 mm/?s. In addition, the camera records show that the surface of the armature is smooth enough, and free from ruptures for an expansion of greater that 2X. The advantage of using 9501 is that it precludes concerns about blow-outs seen when bubbles are left in the cast material, and gives extra velocity. The disadvantage is that the machined explosives are more expensive.

  4. An HRTEM investigation of the metastable low-temperature silica phase opal-CT in cherts and porcelanites from the Monterey Formation, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, S.L.; Wenk, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is used to investigate the metastable low-temperature silica phase opal-CT in cherts and porcelanites from the Miocene Monterey Formation of California. Low-dose imaging techniques developed to image highly beam sensitive proteins were used in this study and have resulted in good phase contrast images of this hydrous silica phase. Detailed X-ray powder diffraction studies of stratigraphically equivalent rocks along the Santa Barbara coast indicate that the primary d-spacing of newly formed opal-CT differs in rocks with different ratios of silica and detrital minerals. Opal-CT forms progressively later and with a smaller primary d-spacing in rocks with increasing amounts of detrital minerals. In siliceous cherts opal-CT occurs as long needles that most often form dense spherulitic fiber bundles which are randomly dispersed within the rock matrix. The random orientation of fiber bundle nucleation centers does not appear to be associated with any obvious nucleation site, unlike the length-slow opal-CT fibers known as lussatite. Opal-CT needles produce optical diffractogram patterns that are compatible with tridymite and crystobalite. Streaking in the diffraction pattern of individual needles is attributed to a high density of planar defects parallel to their length. Planar defects are not as abundant in opal-CT needles formed in detrital-rich rocks suggesting the rapid growth of opal-CT in highly siliceous environments results in a greater proportion of stacking disorder in the needles. HRTEM provides a method for investigating the development of the microstructure of opal-CT during diagenesis.

  5. SU-E-J-218: Evaluation of CT Images Created Using a New Metal Artifact Reduction Reconstruction Algorithm for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemkiewicz, J; Palmiotti, A; Miner, M; Stunja, L; Bergene, J [Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Metal in patients creates streak artifacts in CT images. When used for radiation treatment planning, these artifacts make it difficult to identify internal structures and affects radiation dose calculations, which depend on HU numbers for inhomogeneity correction. This work quantitatively evaluates a new metal artifact reduction (MAR) CT image reconstruction algorithm (GE Healthcare CT-0521-04.13-EN-US DOC1381483) when metal is present. Methods: A Gammex Model 467 Tissue Characterization phantom was used. CT images were taken of this phantom on a GE Optima580RT CT scanner with and without steel and titanium plugs using both the standard and MAR reconstruction algorithms. HU values were compared pixel by pixel to determine if the MAR algorithm altered the HUs of normal tissues when no metal is present, and to evaluate the effect of using the MAR algorithm when metal is present. Also, CT images of patients with internal metal objects using standard and MAR reconstruction algorithms were compared. Results: Comparing the standard and MAR reconstructed images of the phantom without metal, 95.0% of pixels were within 35 HU and 98.0% of pixels were within 85 HU. Also, the MAR reconstruction algorithm showed significant improvement in maintaining HUs of non-metallic regions in the images taken of the phantom with metal. HU Gamma analysis (2%, 2mm) of metal vs. non-metal phantom imaging using standard reconstruction resulted in an 84.8% pass rate compared to 96.6% for the MAR reconstructed images. CT images of patients with metal show significant artifact reduction when reconstructed with the MAR algorithm. Conclusion: CT imaging using the MAR reconstruction algorithm provides improved visualization of internal anatomy and more accurate HUs when metal is present compared to the standard reconstruction algorithm. MAR reconstructed CT images provide qualitative and quantitative improvements over current reconstruction algorithms, thus improving radiation treatment planning accuracy.

  6. MO-E-17A-08: Attenuation-Based Size Adjusted, Scanner-Independent Organ Dose Estimates for Head CT Exams: TG 204 for Head CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M; Zankl, M; DeMarco, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 204 described size specific dose estimates (SSDE) for body scans. The purpose of this work is to use a similar approach to develop patient-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates for head CT exams using an attenuation-based size metric. Methods: For eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial scans for 64-slice MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. Organ doses were normalized by scannerspecific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaged across all scanners to obtain scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for each patient model. Head size was measured at the first slice superior to the eyes; patient perimeter and effective diameter (ED) were measured directly from the GSF data. Because the GSF models use organ identification codes instead of Hounsfield units, water equivalent diameter (WED) was estimated indirectly. Using the image data from 42 patients ranging from 2 weeks old to adult, the perimeter, ED and WED size metrics were obtained and correlations between each metric were established. Applying these correlations to the GSF perimeter and ED measurements, WED was calculated for each model. The relationship between the various patient size metrics and CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients was then described. Results: The analysis of patient images demonstrated the correlation between WED and ED across a wide range of patient sizes. When applied to the GSF patient models, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the WED size metric was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.77 for the brain and lens of the eye, respectively. Conclusion: Strong correlation exists between CTDIvol normalized brain dose and WED. For the lens of the eye, a lower correlation is observed, primarily due to surface dose variations. Funding Support: Siemens-UCLA Radiology Master Research Agreement; Disclosures - Michael McNitt-Gray: Institutional Research Agreement, Siemens AG; Research Support, Siemens AG; Consultant, Flaherty Sensabaugh Bonasso PLLC; Consultant, Fulbright and Jaworski.

  7. A One-Step Cone-Beam CT-Enabled Planning-to-Treatment Model for Palliative Radiotherapy-From Development to Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Letourneau, Daniel; Varma, Anita; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Bissonnette, Jean Pierre; Fitzpatrick, David; Grabarz, Daniel; Elder, Christine; Martin, Melanie; Bezjak, Andrea; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Panzarella, Tony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Jaffray, David A.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-enabled one-step simulation-to-treatment process for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods and Materials: A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Patients requiring palliative radiotherapy to the spine, mediastinum, or abdomen/pelvis suitable for treatment with simple beam geometry ({<=}2 beams) were accrued. Phase A established the accuracy of cone-beam CT images for the purpose of gross tumor target volume (GTV) definition. Phase B evaluated the feasibility of implementing the cone-beam CT-enabled planning process at the treatment unit. Phase C evaluated the online cone-beam CT-enabled process for the planning and treatment of patients requiring radiotherapy for bone metastases. Results: Eighty-four patients participated in this study. Phase A (n = 9) established the adequacy of cone-beam CT images for target definition. Phase B (n = 45) established the quality of treatment plans to be adequate for clinical implementation for bone metastases. When the process was applied clinically in bone metastases (Phase C), the degree of overlap between planning computed tomography (PCT) and cone-beam CT for GTV and between PCT and cone-beam CT for treatment field was 82% {+-} 11% and 97% {+-} 4%, respectively. The oncologist's decision to accept the plan under a time-pressured environment remained of high quality, with the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivering at least 90% of the prescribed dose to 100% {+-} 0% of the cone-beam CT planning target volume (PTV). With the assumption that the PCT PTV is the gold-standard target, the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivered at least 90% and at least 95% of dose to 98% {+-} 2% and 97% {+-} 5% of the PCT PTV, respectively. The mean time for the online planning and treatment process was 32.7 {+-} 4.0 minutes. Patient satisfaction was high, with a trend for superior satisfaction with the cone-beam CT-enabled process. Conclusions: The cone-beam CT-enabled palliative treatment process is feasible and is ready for clinical implementation for the treatment of bone metastases using simple beam geometry, providing a streamlined one-step process toward palliative radiotherapy.

  8. Ch 13 RI Print Ready 4-27-16

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 - CHAPTER 13 This page intentionally left blank Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Eastern United States April 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications Commission General Services Administration U.S. Department of Agriculture-Rural

  9. Department of energy oak riDge office

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    legacies resulting from more than 60 years of nuclear weapons development and ... at the former K-25 site in the next 5-7 years, DOE will continue with cleanup at Y-12 ...

  10. QER- Comment of Elaine Mroz

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elaine Mroz Quadrennial Energy Review: Comment on the Public Meetings ‘‘Infrastructure Restraints- New England” held April 21, 2014, in Providence, RI and Hartford, CT. Please see attached file.

  11. SU-E-I-33: Initial Evaluation of Model-Based Iterative CT Reconstruction Using Standard Image Quality Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingold, E; Dave, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a new model-based iterative reconstruction with existing reconstruction methods (filtered backprojection and basic iterative reconstruction) using quantitative analysis of standard image quality phantom images. Methods: An ACR accreditation phantom (Gammex 464) and a CATPHAN600 phantom were scanned using 3 routine clinical acquisition protocols (adult axial brain, adult abdomen, and pediatric abdomen) on a Philips iCT system. Each scan was acquired using default conditions and 75%, 50% and 25% dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection (FBP), conventional iterative reconstruction (iDose4) and a prototype model-based iterative reconstruction (IMR). Phantom measurements included CT number accuracy, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), modulation transfer function (MTF), low contrast detectability (LCD), and noise power spectrum (NPS). Results: The choice of reconstruction method had no effect on CT number accuracy, or MTF (p<0.01). The CNR of a 6 HU contrast target was improved by 167% with iDose4 relative to FBP, while IMR improved CNR by 145367% across all protocols and dose levels. Within each scan protocol, the CNR improvement from IMR vs FBP showed a general trend of greater improvement at lower dose levels. NPS magnitude was greatest for FBP and lowest for IMR. The NPS of the IMR reconstruction showed a pronounced decrease with increasing spatial frequency, consistent with the unusual noise texture seen in IMR images. Conclusion: Iterative Model Reconstruction reduces noise and improves contrast-to-noise ratio without sacrificing spatial resolution in CT phantom images. This offers the possibility of radiation dose reduction and improved low contrast detectability compared with filtered backprojection or conventional iterative reconstruction.

  12. SU-E-J-92: On-Line Cone Beam CT Based Planning for Emergency and Palliative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Held, M; Morin, O; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop the feasibility of on-line cone beam CT based planning for emergency and palliative radiotherapy treatments. Methods: Subsequent to phantom studies, a case library of 28 clinical megavoltage cone beam CT (MVCBCT) was built to assess dose-planning accuracies on MVCBCT for all anatomical sites. A simple emergency treatment plan was created on the MVCBCT and copied to its reference CT. The agreement between the dose distributions of each image pair was evaluated by the mean dose difference of the dose volume and the gamma index of the central 2D axial plane. An array of popular urgent and palliative cases was also evaluated for imaging component clearance and field-of-view. Results: The treatment cases were categorized into four groups (head and neck, thorax/spine, pelvis and extremities). Dose distributions for head and neck treatments were predicted accurately in all cases with a gamma index of >95% for 2% and 2 mm criteria. Thoracic spine treatments had a gamma index as low as 60% indicating a need for better uniformity correction and tissue density calibration. Small anatomy changes between CT and MVCBCT could contribute to local errors. Pelvis and sacral spine treatment cases had a gamma index between 90% and 98% for 3%/3 mm criteria. The limited FOV became an issue for large pelvis patients. Imaging clearance was difficult for cases where the tumor was positioned far off midline. Conclusion: The MVCBCT based dose planning and delivery approach is feasible in many treatment cases. Dose distributions for head and neck patients are unrestrictedly predictable. Some FOV restrictions apply to other treatment sites. Lung tissue is most challenging for accurate dose calculations given the current imaging filters and corrections. Additional clinical cases for extremities need to be included in the study to assess the full range of site-specific planning accuracies. This work is supported by Siemens.

  13. Maximum Diameter Measurements of Aortic Aneurysms on Axial CT Images After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Sufficient for Follow-up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumueller, Stephan Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 {+-} 7.5 years, range 51-88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.

  14. Introduction of heat map to fidelity assessment of compressed CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunna; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook; Park, Seongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Kil Joong; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to introduce heat map, a graphical data presentation method widely used in gene expression experiments, to the presentation and interpretation of image fidelity assessment data of compressed computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The authors used actual assessment data that consisted of five radiologists' responses to 720 computed tomography images compressed using both Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG2000) 2D and JPEG2000 3D compressions. They additionally created data of two artificial radiologists, which were generated by partly modifying the data from two human radiologists. Results: For each compression, the entire data set, including the variations among radiologists and among images, could be compacted into a small color-coded grid matrix of the heat map. A difference heat map depicted the advantage of 3D compression over 2D compression. Dendrograms showing hierarchical agglomerative clustering results were added to the heat maps to illustrate the similarities in the data patterns among radiologists and among images. The dendrograms were used to identify two artificial radiologists as outliers, whose data were created by partly modifying the responses of two human radiologists. Conclusions: The heat map can illustrate a quick visual extract of the overall data as well as the entirety of large complex data in a compact space while visualizing the variations among observers and among images. The heat map with the dendrograms can be used to identify outliers or to classify observers and images based on the degree of similarity in the response patterns.

  15. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navalgund, Megha Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.; Zunjarrao, Suraj

    2015-03-31

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT’s capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage and understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  16. CT-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Infected Collections Due to Gastric Leak After Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelogrigoris, M. Sotiropoulou, E.; Stathopoulos, K.; Georgiadou, V.; Philippousis, P.; Thanos, L.

    2011-06-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage in treating infected collections due to gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. From January 2007 to June 2009, 21 patients (9 men and 12 women; mean age, 39.2 (range, 26-52) years) with infected collections due to gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity underwent image-guided percutaneous drainage. All procedures were performed using CT guidance and 8- to 12-Fr pigtail drainage catheters. Immediate technical success was achieved in all 21 infected collections. In 18 of 21 collections, we obtained progressive shrinkage of the collection with consequent clinical success (success rate 86%). In three cases, the abdominal fluid collection was not resolved, and the patients were reoperated. Among the 18 patients who avoided surgery, 2 needed replacement of the catheter due to obstruction. No major complications occurred during the procedure. The results of our study support that CT-guided percutaneous drainage is an effective and safe method to treat infected abdominal fluid collections due to gastric leak in patients who had previously underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. It may be considered both as a preparatory step for surgery and a valuable alternative to open surgery. Failure of the procedure does not, however, preclude a subsequent surgical operation.

  17. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  18. SU-F-18C-12: On the Relationship of the Weighted Dose to the Surface Dose In Abdominal CT - Patient Size Dependency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y; Scott, A; Allahverdian, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It is possible to measure the patient surface dose non-invasively using radiolucent dosimeters. However, the patient size specific weighted dose remains unknown. We attempted to study the weighted dose to surface dose relationship as the patient size varies in abdominal CT. Methods: Seven abdomen phantoms (CIRS TE series) simulating patients from an infant to a large adult were used. Size specific doses were measured with a 100 mm CT chamber under axial scans using a Siemens Sensation 64 (mCT) and a GE 750 HD. The scanner settings were 120 kVp, 200 mAs with fully opened collimations. Additional kVps (80, 100, 140) were added depending on the phantom sizes. The ratios (r) of the weighted CT dose (Dw) to the surface dose (Ds) were related to the phantom size (L) defined as the diameter resulting the equivalent cross-sectional area. Results: The Dw versus Ds ratio (r) was fitted to a linear relationship: r = 1.083 − 0.007L (R square = 0.995), and r = 1.064 − 0.007L (R square = 0.953), for Siemens Sensation 64 and GE 750 HD, respectively. The relationship appears to be independent of the scanner specifics. Conclusion: The surface dose to the weighted dose ratio decreases linearly as the patient size increases. The result is independent of the scanner specifics. The result can be used to obtain in vivo CT dosimetry in abdominal CT.

  19. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.

  20. Early prediction of tumor recurrence based on CT texture changes after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6; Division of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 ; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation induced lung injury (RILI) are common following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence. The authors measured the ability of CT image texture analysis, compared to more traditional measures of response, to predict eventual cancer recurrence based on CT images acquired within 5 months of treatment. Methods: A total of 24 lesions from 22 patients treated with SABR were selected for this study: 13 with moderate to severe benign RILI, and 11 with recurrence. Three-dimensional (3D) consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) changes were manually delineated on all follow-up CT scans. Two size measures of the consolidation regions (longest axial diameter and 3D volume) and nine appearance features of the GGO were calculated: 2 first-order features [mean density and standard deviation of density (first-order texture)], and 7 second-order texture features [energy, entropy, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), inertia, cluster shade, and cluster prominence]. For comparison, the corresponding response evaluation criteria in solid tumors measures were also taken for the consolidation regions. Prediction accuracy was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and two-fold cross validation (CV). Results: For this analysis, 46 diagnostic CT scans scheduled for approximately 3 and 6 months post-treatment were binned based on their recorded scan dates into 25 month and 58 month follow-up time ranges. At 25 months post-treatment, first-order texture, energy, and entropy provided AUCs of 0.790.81 using a linear classifier. On two-fold CV, first-order texture yielded 73% accuracy versus 76%77% with the second-order features. The size measures of the consolidative region, longest axial diameter and 3D volume, gave two-fold CV accuracies of 60% and 57%, and AUCs of 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions: Texture measures of the GGO appearance following SABR demonstrated the ability to predict recurrence in individual patients within 5 months of SABR treatment. Appearance changes were also shown to be more accurately predictive of recurrence, as compared to size measures within the same time period. With further validation, these results could form the substrate for a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis tool which could provide earlier salvage of patients with recurrence.

  1. TH-A-18C-04: Ultrafast Cone-Beam CT Scatter Correction with GPU-Based Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Y; Bai, T; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Pompos, A; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Scatter artifacts severely degrade image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT). We present an ultrafast scatter correction framework by using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and prior patient CT image, aiming at automatically finish the whole process including both scatter correction and reconstructions within 30 seconds. Methods: The method consists of six steps: 1) FDK reconstruction using raw projection data; 2) Rigid Registration of planning CT to the FDK results; 3) MC scatter calculation at sparse view angles using the planning CT; 4) Interpolation of the calculated scatter signals to other angles; 5) Removal of scatter from the raw projections; 6) FDK reconstruction using the scatter-corrected projections. In addition to using GPU to accelerate MC photon simulations, we also use a small number of photons and a down-sampled CT image in simulation to further reduce computation time. A novel denoising algorithm is used to eliminate MC scatter noise caused by low photon numbers. The method is validated on head-and-neck cases with simulated and clinical data. Results: We have studied impacts of photo histories, volume down sampling factors on the accuracy of scatter estimation. The Fourier analysis was conducted to show that scatter images calculated at 31 angles are sufficient to restore those at all angles with <0.1% error. For the simulated case with a resolution of 512×512×100, we simulated 10M photons per angle. The total computation time is 23.77 seconds on a Nvidia GTX Titan GPU. The scatter-induced shading/cupping artifacts are substantially reduced, and the average HU error of a region-of-interest is reduced from 75.9 to 19.0 HU. Similar results were found for a real patient case. Conclusion: A practical ultrafast MC-based CBCT scatter correction scheme is developed. The whole process of scatter correction and reconstruction is accomplished within 30 seconds. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01), The Core Technology Research in Strategic Emerging Industry, Guangdong, China (2011A081402003)

  2. WE-G-18A-03: Cone Artifacts Correction in Iterative Cone Beam CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, H; Folkerts, M; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Wang, X; Bai, T; Lu, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: For iterative reconstruction (IR) in cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging, data truncation along the superior-inferior (SI) direction causes severe cone artifacts in the reconstructed CBCT volume images. Not only does it reduce the effective SI coverage of the reconstructed volume, it also hinders the IR algorithm convergence. This is particular a problem for regularization based IR, where smoothing type regularization operations tend to propagate the artifacts to a large area. It is our purpose to develop a practical cone artifacts correction solution. Methods: We found it is the missing data residing in the truncated cone area that leads to inconsistency between the calculated forward projections and measured projections. We overcome this problem by using FDK type reconstruction to estimate the missing data and design weighting factors to compensate the inconsistency caused by the missing data. We validate the proposed methods in our multi-GPU low-dose CBCT reconstruction system on multiple patients' datasets. Results: Compared to the FDK reconstruction with full datasets, while IR is able to reconstruct CBCT images using a subset of projection data, the severe cone artifacts degrade overall image quality. For head-neck case under a full-fan mode, 13 out of 80 slices are contaminated. It is even more severe in pelvis case under half-fan mode, where 36 out of 80 slices are affected, leading to inferior soft-tissue delineation. By applying the proposed method, the cone artifacts are effectively corrected, with a mean intensity difference decreased from ∼497 HU to ∼39HU for those contaminated slices. Conclusion: A practical and effective solution for cone artifacts correction is proposed and validated in CBCT IR algorithm. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  3. SU-E-QI-08: Fourier Properties of Cone Beam CT Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T; Yan, H; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B.; Mou, X

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the Fourier properties of cone beam CT (CBCT) projections and apply the property to directly estimate noise level of CBCT projections without any prior information. Methods: By utilizing the property of Bessel function, we derivate the Fourier properties of the CBCT projections for an arbitrary point object. It is found that there exists a double-wedge shaped region in the Fourier space where the intensity is approximately zero. We further derivate the Fourier properties of independent noise added to CBCT projections. The expectation of the square of the module in any point of the Fourier space is constant and the value approximately equals to noise energy. We further validate the theory in numerical simulations for both a delta function object and a NCAT phantom with different levels of noise added. Results: Our simulation confirmed the existence of the double-wedge shaped region in Fourier domain for the x-ray projection image. The boundary locations of this region agree well with theoretical predictions. In the experiments of estimating noise level, the mean relative error between the theory estimation and the ground truth values is 2.697%. Conclusion: A novel theory on the Fourier properties of CBCT projections has been discovered. Accurate noise level estimation can be achieved by applying this theory directly to the measured CBCT projections. This work was supported in part by NIH(1R01CA154747-01), NSFC((No. 61172163), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20110201110011) and China Scholarship Council.

  4. Few-view cone-beam CT reconstruction with deformed prior image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hua; Ouyang, Luo; Wang, Jing E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Huang, Jing; Ma, Jianhua E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Chen, Wufan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Prior images can be incorporated into the image reconstruction process to improve the quality of subsequent cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from sparse-view or low-dose projections. The purpose of this work is to develop a deformed prior image-based reconstruction (DPIR) strategy to mitigate the deformation between the prior image and the target image. Methods: The deformed prior image is obtained by a projection-based registration approach. Specifically, the deformation vector fields used to deform the prior image are estimated through iteratively matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and the measured on-treatment projections. The deformed prior image is then used as the prior image in the standard prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm. A simulation study on an XCAT phantom and a clinical study on a head-and-neck cancer patient were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed DPIR strategy. Results: The deformed prior image matches the geometry of the on-treatment CBCT more closely as compared to the original prior image. Consequently, the performance of the DPIR strategy from few-view projections is improved in comparison to the standard PICCS algorithm, based on both visual inspection and quantitative measures. In the XCAT phantom study using 20 projections, the average root mean squared error is reduced from 14% in PICCS to 10% in DPIR, and the average universal quality index increases from 0.88 in PICCS to 0.92 in DPIR. Conclusions: The present DPIR approach provides a practical solution to the mismatch problem between the prior image and target image, which improves the performance of the original PICCS algorithm for CBCT reconstruction from few-view or low-dose projections.

  5. Noise suppression in reconstruction of low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jing; Robar, James; Guan Huaiqun

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To improve the image contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio for low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) using a statistical projection noise suppression algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Methods: Projection images of a contrast phantom, a CatPhan{sup Registered-Sign} 600 phantom and a head phantom were acquired by a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a low-Z (Al) target and low energy x-ray beam (2.5 MeV) at a low-dose level and at a high-dose level. The projections were then processed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The weighted least square (WLS) term models the noise of measured projection and the penalty term enforces the smoothing constraints of the projection image. The variance of projection data was chosen as the weight for the PWLS objective function and it determined the contribution of each measurement. An anisotropic quadratic form penalty that incorporates the gradient information of projection image was used to preserve edges during noise reduction. Low-Z target MV CBCT images were reconstructed by the FDK algorithm after each projection was processed by the PWLS smoothing. Results: Noise in low-Z target MV CBCT images were greatly suppressed after the PWLS projection smoothing, without noticeable sacrifice of the spatial resolution. Depending on the choice of smoothing parameter, the CNR of selected regions of interest in the PWLS processed low-dose low-Z target MV CBCT image can be higher than the corresponding high-dose image.Conclusion: The CNR of low-Z target MV CBCT images was substantially improved by using PWLS projection smoothing. The PWLS projection smoothing algorithm allows the reconstruction of high contrast low-Z target MV CBCT image with a total dose of as low as 2.3 cGy.

  6. MicroCT-Based Skeletal Models for Use in Tomographic Voxel Phantoms for Radiological Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesley Bolch

    2010-03-30

    ABSTRACT The University of Florida (UF) proposes to develop two high-resolution image-based skeletal dosimetry models for direct use by ICRP Committee 2s Task Group on Dose Calculation in their forthcoming Reference Voxel Male (RVM) and Reference Voxel Female (RVF) whole-body dosimetry phantoms. These two phantoms are CT-based, and thus do not have the image resolution to delineate and perform radiation transport modeling of the individual marrow cavities and bone trabeculae throughout their skeletal structures. Furthermore, new and innovative 3D microimaging techniques will now be required for the skeletal tissues following Committee 2s revision of the target tissues of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. This target tissue had been defined in ICRP Publication 30 as a 10-?m cell layer on all bone surfaces of trabecular and cortical bone. The revised target tissue is now a 50-?m layer within the marrow cavities of trabecular bone only and is exclusive of the marrow adipocytes. Clearly, this new definition requires the use of 3D microimages of the trabecular architecture not available from past 2D optical studies of the adult skeleton. With our recent acquisition of two relatively young cadavers (males of age 18-years and 40-years), we will develop a series of reference skeletal models that can be directly applied to (1) the new ICRP reference voxel man and female phantoms developed for the ICRP, and (2) pediatric phantoms developed to target the ICRP reference children. Dosimetry data to be developed will include absorbed fractions for internal beta and alpha-particle sources, as well as photon and neutron fluence-to-dose response functions for direct use in external dosimetry studies of the ICRP reference workers and members of the general public

  7. Dose reduction for cardiac CT using a registration-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierzbicki, Marcin; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry

    2007-06-15

    Two reasons for the recent rise in radiation exposure from CT are increases in its clinical applicability and the desire to maintain high SNR while acquiring smaller voxels. To address this emerging dose problem, several strategies for reducing patient exposure have already been proposed. One method employed in cardiac imaging is ECG-driven modulation of the tube current between 100% at one time point in the cardiac cycle and a reduced fraction at the remaining phases. In this paper, we describe how images obtained during such acquisition can be used to reconstruct 4D data of consistent high quality throughout the cardiac cycle. In our approach, we assume that the mid-diastole (MD) phase is imaged with full dose. The MD image is then independently registered to lower dose images (lower SNR) at other frames, resulting in a set of transformations. Finally, the transformations are used to warp the MD frame through the cardiac cycle to generate the full 4D image. In addition, the transformations may be interpolated to increase the temporal sampling or to generate images at arbitrary time points. Our approach was validated using various data obtained with simulated and scanner-implemented dose modulation. We determined that as little as 10% of the total dose was required to reproduce full quality images with a 1 mm spatial error and an error in intensity values on the order of the image noise. Thus, our technique offers considerable dose reductions compared to standard imaging protocols, with minimal effects on the quality of the final data.

  8. Asymmetrical-fan tranmission CT on SPECT to derive {mu}-maps for attenuation correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loncaric, S.; Huang, G.; Ni, B. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    For proper attenuation correction of SPECT images, an appropriate {mu}-map properly registered with each imaging slices is needed. Among the many techniques for {mu}-map derivation, simultaneous or sequential fan-beam transmission CT (TCT), on the same SPECT system with the same acquisition settings, have advantages of being practical while ensuring registration. However, the problems are: (1) limited FOV for thoracic imaging, projection would be truncated with a typical size detector, (2) lack of room for placing the transmission source in many SPECT systems. We have developed a new sampling scheme to solve the problems mentioned above. This scheme uses an asymmetrical-fan geometry (AFG), which samples only half of the field, the other half would be sampled after an 180{degrees} detector rotation. This technique completes the minimum sampling requirement in a 360{degrees} detector rotation and yields a relatively large FOV defined by the outside edge of the sampling fan. We have confirmed the feasibility of the AFG sampling on a 3-head SPECT system to provide a large FOV for TCT of most patient. The TCT sampling scheme is achieved with an asymmetrical-fan collimator. We have developed the required new reconstruction algorithms and derived excellent reconstructed images of phantoms and human subjects. We propose to have this technique implemented in a short and fast transmission scan in a multi-head SPECT system, after emission imaging, because the detectors have to be pulled out to make room for the transmission source. The imaging field can even exceed the full field size of the detector. MS would be possible when an obtuse sampling fan is formed by shifting the source outward further, provided the central FOV is properly covered with a supplementary sampling scheme, e.g., using another TCT with a fan-beam collimator on another one of the detectors.

  9. TO: FILE FRml: J&-q Ma

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Control c Health Physics Protection 0 AECMED managed operati,ons 13 Little or None G AECtlED responsible for c AEWIIED responsibility accountability E Contractoi'responsibility c ...

  10. MA - Office of Management - Energy Conservation Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the office or with another employee (i.e. a "Suite Mate"). In these cases, an employee can not turn off the lights without also turning-out the lights on his or her Suite Mate. ...

  11. PUBIC_PIA_MA-1027.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 2 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing PSH-15-0102 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing On April 7, 2016, an Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individual should not be granted access authorization. During a background investigation, the Local Security Office (LSO) obtained information about the individual's finances that raised security concerns. Specifically, the LSO learned that the individual owed over $15,000 in unpaid federal

  12. PUBLIC_PIA_MA-1025.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  13. PUBLIC_PIA_MA-1028.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  14. PUBLIC_PIA_MA_1026.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  15. 02-01-2011 Final MA Testimony

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CONTRACTING OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS U.S. SENATE FEBRUARY 1, 2011 Madam Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, my name is Ingrid Kolb. I serve as the Director, Office of Management at the U.S. Department of Energy. I am pleased to be here today to discuss with you how the Department uses audit services to detect and prevent waste, fraud, and abuse in government contracts, to provide contracting officers reasonable assurance whether contractor

  16. DOE_MA0518 December 2000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory. made two practice runs over the lighted tar- get. ... Location of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding communities. Source: REECO, Bechtel ...

  17. Office of Informaiton Resources (MA-90)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Not applicable. D. Additional narrative statement regarding other executive order-related ... FOIA form to facilitate the public's ability to submit FOIA requests to the ...

  18. MaGrann Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems...

  19. KwanliuMa_NERSC2011.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Visualization * Feature extraction * Encoding and packing * Rendering and animation * Remote Visualization * Incremental visualization * Streaming * Provenance *...

  20. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A passing rate of 99% was measured in areas of above 40% of the prescription dose. The final inverse treatment plan was comprised of 43 beams ranging from 5 to 12.5 mm in diameter (2.5 mm size increments are available up to 15 mm in diameter collimation). Using the Xsight Spine Tracking module, the CyberKnife system could not reliably identify and track the tiny mouse spine; however, the CyberKnife system could identify and track the fiducial markers on the 3D mold.In vivo positional accuracy analysis using the 3D mold generated a mean error of 1.41 mm ± 0.73 mm when fiducial markers were used for position tracking. Analysis of the dissected brain confirmed the ability to target the correct brain volume. Conclusions: With the use of a stereotactic body mold with fiducial markers, microCT imaging, and resolution down-sampling, the CyberKnife system can successfully perform small-animal radiotherapy studies.

  1. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning systemMultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was printed using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A passing rate of 99% was measured in areas of above 40% of the prescription dose. The final inverse treatment plan was comprised of 43 beams ranging from 5 to 12.5 mm in diameter (2.5 mm size increments are available up to 15 mm in diameter collimation). Using the Xsight Spine Tracking module, the CyberKnife system could not reliably identify and track the tiny mouse spine; however, the CyberKnife system could identify and track the fiducial markers on the 3D mold.In vivo positional accuracy analysis using the 3D mold generated a mean error of 1.41 mm 0.73 mm when fiducial markers were used for position tracking. Analysis of the dissected brain confirmed the ability to target the correct brain volume. Conclusions: With the use of a stereotactic body mold with fiducial markers, microCT imaging, and resolution down-sampling, the CyberKnife system can successfully perform small-animal radiotherapy studies.

  2. SU-E-I-45: Reconstruction of CT Images From Sparsely-Sampled Data Using the Logarithmic Barrier Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and investigate whether the logarithmic barrier (LB) method can result in high-quality reconstructed CT images using sparsely-sampled noisy projection data Methods: The objective function is typically formulated as the sum of the total variation (TV) and a data fidelity (DF) term with a parameter ? that governs the relative weight between them. Finding the optimized value of ? is a critical step for this approach to give satisfactory results. The proposed LB method avoid using ? by constructing the objective function as the sum of the TV and a log function whose augment is the DF term. Newton's method was used to solve the optimization problem. The algorithm was coded in MatLab2013b. Both Shepp-Logan phantom and a patient lung CT image were used for demonstration of the algorithm. Measured data were simulated by calculating the projection data using radon transform. A Poisson noise model was used to account for the simulated detector noise. The iteration stopped when the difference of the current TV and the previous one was less than 1%. Results: Shepp-Logan phantom reconstruction study shows that filtered back-projection (FBP) gives high streak artifacts for 30 and 40 projections. Although visually the streak artifacts are less pronounced for 64 and 90 projections in FBP, the 1D pixel profiles indicate that FBP gives noisier reconstructed pixel values than LB does. A lung image reconstruction is presented. It shows that use of 64 projections gives satisfactory reconstructed image quality with regard to noise suppression and sharp edge preservation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the logarithmic barrier method can be used to reconstruct CT images from sparsely-amped data. The number of projections around 64 gives a balance between the over-smoothing of the sharp demarcation and noise suppression. Future study may extend to CBCT reconstruction and improvement on computation speed.

  3. A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng; Pan, Xiaoning; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Xiaochun; Du, Weiliang; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

  4. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  5. AMENDMENT OF SOLlClTATlONlMODlFlCATION OF CONTRACT 1 I . CONTR"CT ID CODE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SOLlClTATlONlMODlFlCATION OF CONTRACT 1 I . CONTR"CT ID CODE BWXT Pantex, LLC Route 726, Mt. Athos Road Lynchburg, VA 24506 PAGE 1 OF 2 PAGES Albuquerque, NM 8718Ii4400 I Amarillo, TX 79120 9B. DATED (SEE m M 11) 10A. MODIFICATION OF CONTRACTIORDER NO. 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, &ate, ZIP Code) I ( DE-ACOCOOAL66620 10B. DATED (SEE / E M 13) 2. AMENDMENT/MODIFICATION NO. M097 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Offera must a d t n d e d p rsceipt of this m e n

  6. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The flask registration technique was shown to achieve submillimetre and subdegree placement accuracy. Dosimetry protocol investigations emphasize the need to allow gel dosimeters to cool gradually and to be scanned while at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that considerable noise reduction can be achieved with sinogram filtering and by binning image pixels into more clinically relevant grid sizes. Conclusions: This paper describes a new optical CT scanner for 3D radiation dosimetry. Tests demonstrate that it is capable of imaging both absorption-based and scatter-based samples of high opacities. Imaging protocol and gel dosimeter manufacture techniques have been adapted to produce optimal reconstruction results. These optimal results will require suitable filtering and binning techniques for noise reduction purposes.

  7. SciFri AM: Mountain 02: A comparison of dose reduction methods on image quality for cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, R; Buckley, LA

    2014-08-15

    Modern radiotherapy uses highly conformai dose distributions and therefore relies on daily image guidance for accurate patient positioning. Kilovoltage cone beam CT is one technique that is routinely used for patient set-up and results in a high dose to the patient relative to planar imaging techniques. This study uses an Elekta Synergy linac equipped with XVI cone beam CT to investigate the impact of various imaging parameters on dose and image quality. Dose and image quality are assessed as functions of x-ray tube voltage, tube current and the number of projections in the scan. In each case, the dose measurements confirm that as each parameter increases the dose increases. The assessment of high contrast resolution shows little dependence on changes to the image technique. However, low contrast visibility suggests a trade off between dose and image quality. Particularly for changes in tube potential, the dose increases much faster as a function of voltage than the corresponding increase in low contrast image quality. This suggests using moderate values of the peak tube voltage (100 120 kVp) since higher values result in significant dose increases with little gain in image quality. Measurements also indicate that increasing tube current achieves the greatest degree of improvement in the low contrast visibility. The results of this study highlight the need to establish careful imaging protocols to limit dose to the patient and to limit changes to the imaging parameters to those cases where there is a clear clinical requirement for improved image quality.

  8. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance.

  9. SU-E-I-57: Evaluation and Optimization of Effective-Dose Using Different Beam-Hardening Filters in Clinical Pediatric Shunt CT Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, K; Aldoohan, S; Collier, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Study image optimization and radiation dose reduction in pediatric shunt CT scanning protocol through the use of different beam-hardening filters Methods: A 64-slice CT scanner at OU Childrens Hospital has been used to evaluate CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and measure effective-doses based on the concept of CT dose index (CTDIvol) using the pediatric head shunt scanning protocol. The routine axial pediatric head shunt scanning protocol that has been optimized for the intrinsic x-ray tube filter has been used to evaluate CNR by acquiring images using the ACR approved CT-phantom and radiation dose CTphantom, which was used to measure CTDIvol. These results were set as reference points to study and evaluate the effects of adding different filtering materials (i.e. Tungsten, Tantalum, Titanium, Nickel and Copper filters) to the existing filter on image quality and radiation dose. To ensure optimal image quality, the scanner routine air calibration was run for each added filter. The image CNR was evaluated for different kVps and wide range of mAs values using above mentioned beam-hardening filters. These scanning protocols were run under axial as well as under helical techniques. The CTDIvol and the effective-dose were measured and calculated for all scanning protocols and added filtration, including the intrinsic x-ray tube filter. Results: Beam-hardening filter shapes energy spectrum, which reduces the dose by 27%. No noticeable changes in image low contrast detectability Conclusion: Effective-dose is very much dependent on the CTDIVol, which is further very much dependent on beam-hardening filters. Substantial reduction in effective-dose is realized using beam-hardening filters as compare to the intrinsic filter. This phantom study showed that significant radiation dose reduction could be achieved in CT pediatric shunt scanning protocols without compromising in diagnostic value of image quality.

  10. SU-D-9A-04: Brain PET/CT Imaging On a Scanner with a Large Axial Field-Of-View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, M; Gerbaudo, V; Hamberg, L; Seaver, K; Kijewski, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Large axial field-of-view (FOV) PET/CT scanners are valued for high sensitivity. Brain PET image quality may depend on the head position within the FOV. We investigated the precision of activity estimation for brain PET imaging when the brain was positioned at the end (END) and in the middle (CEN) of the FOV. The additional CT dose for the CEN position was recorded. Methods: An image quality (Jaszczak) phantom and a striatal phantom were filled with F-18 and positioned in END and CEN locations. For each phantom and each location, we acquired a ∼1-hr listmode PET, rebinned the data into 10 frames with equal number of coincidence events, and reconstructed each frame using an iterative algorithm. For the striatal phantom, END and CEN were compared by drawing on each image three regions of interest (ROI) in axially separated uniform areas. The standard deviation of the activity estimation within each ROI was averaged over the 10 images. The coefficient of variation (CV) for activity estimation was calculated at each position. Image quality was assessed by inspecting the resolution bar pattern in the Jaszczak phantom at two different head positions. Results: The CV was the lowest for ROIs near the center of the FOV. For slices near the end, not only was the CV highest, but also the resolution pattern was degraded. CTDIvol summarized in the dose report indicated that the CT dose was ∼ 10% higher for CEN as compared to END position. Conclusion: Positioning the brain in the middle of the FOV in a large FOV PET/CT scanner allows more precise measurement of tracer uptake and better image quality at the cost of increased CT dose. For the end location longer scan times may minimize image quality degradation without any additional CT dose.

  11. SU-E-J-219: Quantitative Evaluation of Motion Effects On Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiotherapy with Fiducial Markers Using CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, I; Oyewale, S; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Alsbou, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate quantitatively patient motion effects on the localization accuracy of image-guided radiation with fiducial markers using axial CT (ACT), helical CT (HCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using modeling and experimental phantom studies. Methods: Markers with different lengths (2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) were inserted in a mobile thorax phantom which was imaged using ACT, HCT and CBCT. The phantom moved with sinusoidal motion with amplitudes ranging 0–20 mm and a frequency of 15 cycles-per-minute. Three parameters that include: apparent marker lengths, center position and distance between the centers of the markers were measured in the different CT images of the mobile phantom. A motion mathematical model was derived to predict the variations in the previous three parameters and their dependence on the motion in the different imaging modalities. Results: In CBCT, the measured marker lengths increased linearly with increase in motion amplitude. For example, the apparent length of the 10 mm marker was about 20 mm when phantom moved with amplitude of 5 mm. Although the markers have elongated, the center position and the distance between markers remained at the same position for different motion amplitudes in CBCT. These parameters were not affected by motion frequency and phase in CBCT. In HCT and ACT, the measured marker length, center and distance between markers varied irregularly with motion parameters. The apparent lengths of the markers varied with inverse of the phantom velocity which depends on motion frequency and phase. Similarly the center position and distance between markers varied inversely with phantom speed. Conclusion: Motion may lead to variations in maker length, center position and distance between markers using CT imaging. These effects should be considered in patient setup using image-guided radiation therapy based on fiducial markers matching using 2D-radiographs or volumetric CT imaging.

  12. SU-C-207-03: Optimization of a Collimator-Based Sparse Sampling Technique for Low-Dose Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T; Cho, S; Kim, I; Han, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT) imaging, radiation dose delivered to the patient is one of the major concerns. Sparse-view CT takes projections at sparser view angles and provides a viable option to reducing dose. However, a fast power switching of an X-ray tube, which is needed for the sparse-view sampling, can be challenging in many CT systems. We have earlier proposed a many-view under-sampling (MVUS) technique as an alternative to sparse-view CT. In this study, we investigated the effects of collimator parameters on the image quality and aimed to optimize the collimator design. Methods: We used a bench-top circular cone-beam CT system together with a CatPhan600 phantom, and took 1440 projections from a single rotation. The multi-slit collimator made of tungsten was mounted on the X-ray source for beam blocking. For image reconstruction, we used a total-variation minimization (TV) algorithm and modified the backprojection step so that only the measured data through the collimator slits are to be used in the computation. The number of slits and the reciprocation frequency have been varied and the effects of them on the image quality were investigated. We also analyzed the sampling efficiency: the sampling density and data incoherence in each case. We tested three sets of slits with their number of 6, 12 and 18, each at reciprocation frequencies of 10, 30, 50 and 70 Hz/ro. Results: Consistent results in the image quality have been produced with the sampling efficiency, and the optimum condition was found to be using 12 slits at 30 Hz/ro. As image quality indices, we used the CNR and the detectability. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment with a moving multi-slit collimator to realize a sparse-sampled cone-beam CT. Effects of collimator parameters on the image quality have been systematically investigated, and the optimum condition has been reached.

  13. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, Omar C-M Ma, Charlie

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: National Grid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: National Grid Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: National Grid Joined the Challenge: February 2013 Headquarters: Waltham, MA Charging Locations: Waltham, MA; Worcester, MA; Providence, RI Domestic Employees: 16,600 As a leading international electricity and gas company, National Grid is committed to creating new, sustainable energy solutions for the future and modernizing the region's electricity system. National Grid strives to provide plug-in

  15. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast factor for contrast-resolution plots. Furthermore, the authors calculate the contrast-to-noise ratio with the low contrast disks and the authors compare the agreement of the reconstructions with the ground truth by calculating the normalized cross-correlation and the root-mean-square deviation. To evaluate the clinical performance of the proposed method, the authors reconstruct patient data acquired with a Somatom Definition Flash dual source CT scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Results: The results of the simulation study show that among the compared algorithms AIR achieves the highest resolution and the highest agreement with the ground truth. Compared to the reference FBP reconstruction AIR is able to reduce the relative pixel noise by up to 50% and at the same time achieve a higher resolution by maintaining the edge information from the basis images. These results can be confirmed with the patient data. Conclusions: To evaluate the AIR algorithm simulated and measured patient data of a state-of-the-art clinical CT system were processed. It is shown, that generating CT images through the reconstruction of weighting coefficients has the potential to improve the resolution noise trade-off and thus to improve the dose usage in clinical CT.

  16. SU-E-I-98: Dose Comparison for Pulmonary Embolism CT Studies: Single Energy Vs. Dual Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the size specific dose estimate (SSDE), dose length product (DLP) and noise relationship for pulmonary embolism studies evaluated by single source dual energy computed tomography (DECT) against conventional CT (CCT) studies in a busy cancer center and to determine the dose savings provided by DECT. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study was performed to determine the CTDIvol and DLP from a subset of patients scanned with both DECT and CCT over the past five years. We were able to identify 30 breast cancer patients (6 male, 24 female, age range 24 to 81) who had both DECT and CCT studies performed. DECT scans were performed with a GE HD 750 scanner (140/80 kVp, 480 mAs and 40 mm) and CCT scans were performed with a GE Lightspeed 16 slice scanner (120 kVp, 352 mAs, 20 mm). Image noise was measured by placing an ROI and recording the standard deviation of the mean HU along the descending aorta. Results: The average DECT patient size specific dose estimate was to be 14.2 1.7 mGy as compared to 22.4 2.7 mGy from CCT PE studies, which is a 37% reduction in the SSDE. The average DECT DLP was 721.8 84.6 mGy-cm as compared to 981.8 106.1 mGy-cm for CCT, which is a 26% decrease. Compared to CCT the image noise was found to decrease by 19% when using DECT for PE studies. Conclusion: DECT SSDE and DLP measurements indicate dose savings and image noise reduction when compared to CCT. In an environment that heavily debates CT patient doses, this study confirms the effectiveness of DECT in PE imaging.

  17. SU-E-J-151: Dosimetric Evaluation of DIR Mapped Contours for Image Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy with 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balik, S; Weiss, E; Williamson, J; Hugo, G; Jan, N; Zhang, L; Roman, N; Christensen, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate dosimetric errors resulting from using contours deformably mapped from planning CT to 4D cone beam CT (CBCT) images for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Ten locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients underwent one planning 4D fan-beam CT (4DFBCT) and weekly 4DCBCT scans. Multiple physicians delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV) and normal structures in planning CT images and only GTV in CBCT images. Manual contours were mapped from planning CT to CBCTs using small deformation, inverse consistent linear elastic (SICLE) algorithm for two scans in each patient. Two physicians reviewed and rated the DIR-mapped (auto) and manual GTV contours as clinically acceptable (CA), clinically acceptable after minor modification (CAMM) and unacceptable (CU). Mapped normal structures were visually inspected and corrected if necessary, and used to override tissue density for dose calculation. CTV (6mm expansion of GTV) and PTV (5mm expansion of CTV) were created. VMAT plans were generated using the DIR-mapped contours to deliver 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 95% and 100% coverage (V66) to PTV and CTV, respectively. Plan evaluation for V66 was based on manual PTV and CTV contours. Results: Mean PTV V66 was 84% (range 75% 95%) and mean CTV V66 was 97% (range 93% 100%) for CAMM scored plans (12 plans); and was 90% (range 80% 95%) and 99% (range 95% 100%) for CA scored plans (7 plans). The difference in V66 between CAMM and CA was significant for PTV (p = 0.03) and approached significance for CTV (p = 0.07). Conclusion: The quality of DIR-mapped contours directly impacted the plan quality for 4DCBCT-based adaptation. Larger safety margins may be needed when planning with auto contours for IGART with 4DCBCT images. Reseach was supported by NIH P01CA116602.

  18. SU-E-I-93: Improved Imaging Quality for Multislice Helical CT Via Sparsity Regularized Iterative Image Reconstruction Method Based On Tensor Framelet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, H; Guo, M; Lee, K; Li, R; Xing, L; Gao, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Inspired by compressive sensing, sparsity regularized iterative reconstruction method has been extensively studied. However, its utility pertinent to multislice helical 4D CT for radiotherapy with respect to imaging quality, dose, and time has not been thoroughly addressed. As the beginning of such an investigation, this work carries out the initial comparison of reconstructed imaging quality between sparsity regularized iterative method and analytic method through static phantom studies using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. Methods: In our iterative method, tensor framelet (TF) is chosen as the regularization method for its superior performance from total variation regularization in terms of reduced piecewise-constant artifacts and improved imaging quality that has been demonstrated in our prior work. On the other hand, X-ray transforms and its adjoints are computed on-the-fly through GPU implementation using our previous developed fast parallel algorithms with O(1) complexity per computing thread. For comparison, both FDK (approximate analytic method) and Katsevich algorithm (exact analytic method) are used for multislice helical CT image reconstruction. Results: The phantom experimental data with different imaging doses were acquired using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. The reconstructed image quality was compared between TF-based iterative method, FDK and Katsevich algorithm with the quantitative analysis for characterizing signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, and spatial resolution of high-contrast and low-contrast objects. Conclusion: The experimental results suggest that our tensor framelet regularized iterative reconstruction algorithm improves the helical CT imaging quality from FDK and Katsevich algorithm for static experimental phantom studies that have been performed.

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Nelson...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Nelson Construction: Hamilton Way - Farmington, CT More Documents & Publications DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA ...

  20. Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The paper describes the software and provides case studies of CHP installed in multi-family housing (e.g. Cambridge, MA; Danbury, CT).

  1. Noise, sampling, and the number of projections in cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Gang, G. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the number of projection views on image noise in cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a flat-panel detector. Methods: This fairly fundamental consideration in CBCT system design and operation was addressed experimentally (using a phantom presenting a uniform medium as well as statistically motivated clutter) and theoretically (using a cascaded systems model describing CBCT noise) to elucidate the contributing factors of quantum noise (?{sub Q}), electronic noise (?{sub E}), and view aliasing (?{sub view}). Analysis included investigation of the noise, noise-power spectrum, and modulation transfer function as a function of the number of projections (N{sub proj}), dose (D{sub tot}), and voxel size (b{sub vox}). Results: The results reveal a nonmonotonic relationship between image noise andN{sub proj} at fixed total dose: for the CBCT system considered, noise decreased with increasing N{sub proj} due to reduction of view sampling effects in the regime N{sub proj} CT, owing to the relatively high electronic noise in FPDs. The analysis explicitly relates view aliasing and quantum noise in a manner that includes aspects of the object (clutter) and imaging chain (including nonidealities of detector blur and electronic noise) to provide a more rigorous basis for commonly held intuition and heurism in CBCT system design and operation.

  2. SU-D-12A-02: DeTECT, a Method to Enhance Soft Tissue Contrast From Mega Voltage CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, K; Gou, S; Qi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: MVCT images have been used on TomoTherapy system to align patients based on bony anatomies but its usefulness for soft tissue registration, delineation and adaptive radiation therapy is severely limited due to minimal photoelectric interaction and prominent presence of noise resulting from low detector quantum efficiency of megavoltage x-rays. We aim to utilize a non-local means denoising method and texture analysis to recover the soft tissue information for MVCT. Methods: A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adapted to reduce the noise while keeping the texture information of the MVCT images. BM3D is an imaging denoising algorithm developed from non-local means methods. BM3D additionally creates 3D groups by stacking 2D patches by the order of similarity. 3D denoising operation is then performed. The resultant 3D group is inversely transformed back to 2D images. In this study, BM3D was applied to MVCT images of a CT quality phantom, a head and neck and a prostate patient. Following denoising, imaging texture was enhanced to create the denoised and texture enhanced CT (DeTECT). Results: The original MVCT images show prevalent noise and poor soft tissue contrast. By applying BM3D denoising and texture enhancement, all MVCT images show remarkable improvements. For the phantom, the contrast to noise ratio for the low contrast plug was improved from 2.2 to 13.1 without compromising line pair conspicuity. For the head and neck patient, the lymph nodes and vein in the carotid space inconspicuous in the original MVCT image becomes highly visible in DeTECT. For the prostate patient, the boundary between the bladder and the prostate in the original MVCT is successfully recovered. Both results are visually validated by kVCT images of the corresponding patients. Conclusion: DeTECT showed the promise to drastically improve the soft tissue contrast of MVCT for image guided radiotherapy and adaptive radiotherapy.

  3. TH-C-18A-09: Exam and Patient Parameters Affecting the DNA Damage Response Following CT Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgart, S; Adibi, A; Bostani, M; Ruehm, S; Enzmann, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Iwamoto, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To identify exam and patient parameters affecting the biological response to CT studies using in vivo and ex vivo blood samples. Methods: Blood samples were collected under IRB approval from 16 patients undergoing clinically-indicated CT exams. Blood was procured prior to, immediately after and 30minutes following irradiation. A sample of preexam blood was placed on the patient within the exam region for ex vivo analysis. Whole blood samples were fixed immediately following collection and stained for ?H2AX to assess DNA damage response (DDR). Median fluorescence of treated samples was compared to non-irradiated control samples for each patient. Patients were characterized by observed biological kinetic response: (a) fast phosphorylation increased by 2minutes and fell by 30minutes, (b) slow phosphorylation continued to increase to 30minutes and (c) none little change was observed or irradiated samples fell below controls. Total dose values were normalized to exam time for an averaged dose-rate in dose/sec for each exam. Relationships between patient biological responses and patient and exam parameters were investigated. Results: A clearer dose response at 30minutes is observed for young patients (<61yoa; R2>0.5) compared to old patients (>61yoa; R{sup 2}<0.11). Fast responding patients were significantly younger than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Unlike in vivo samples, age did not significantly affect the patient response ex vivo. Additionally, fast responding patients received exams with significantly smaller dose-rate than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age is a significant factor in the biological response suggesting that DDR may be more rapid in a younger population and slower as the population ages. Lack of an agerelated response ex vivo suggests a systemic response to radiation not present when irradiated outside the body. Dose-rate affects the biological response suggesting that patient response may be related to scan timing and dose delivery within an exam protocol. All authors receive(d) funding from a Master Research Agreement from Siemens Healthcare with UCLA Radiological Sciences.

  4. MO-C-17A-13: Uncertainty Evaluation of CT Image Deformable Registration for H and N Cancer Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, A; Yan, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of organ specific Deformable Image Registration (DIR) for H and N cancer Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART). Methods: A commercial DIR evaluation tool, which includes a digital phantom library of 8 patients, and the corresponding “Ground truth Deformable Vector Field” (GT-DVF), was used in the study. Each patient in the phantom library includes the GT-DVF created from a pair of CT images acquired prior to and at the end of the treatment course. Five DIR tools, including 2 commercial tools (CMT1, CMT2), 2 in-house (IH-FFD1, IH-FFD2), and a classic DEMON algorithms, were applied on the patient images. The resulting DVF was compared to the GT-DVF voxel by voxel. Organ specific DVF uncertainty was calculated for 10 ROIs: Whole Body, Brain, Brain Stem, Cord, Lips, Mandible, Parotid, Esophagus and Submandibular Gland. Registration error-volume histogram was constructed for comparison. Results: The uncertainty is relatively small for brain stem, cord and lips, while large in parotid and submandibular gland. CMT1 achieved best overall accuracy (on whole body, mean vector error of 8 patients: 0.98±0.29 mm). For brain, mandible, parotid right, parotid left and submandibular glad, the classic Demon algorithm got the lowest uncertainty (0.49±0.09, 0.51±0.16, 0.46±0.11, 0.50±0.11 and 0.69±0.47 mm respectively). For brain stem, cord and lips, the DVF from CMT1 has the best accuracy (0.28±0.07, 0.22±0.08 and 0.27±0.12 mm respectively). All algorithms have largest right parotid uncertainty on patient #7, which has image artifact caused by tooth implantation. Conclusion: Uncertainty of deformable CT image registration highly depends on the registration algorithm, and organ specific. Large uncertainty most likely appears at the location of soft-tissue organs far from the bony structures. Among all 5 DIR methods, the classic DEMON and CMT1 seem to be the best to limit the uncertainty within 2mm for all OARs. Partially supported by research grant from Elekta.

  5. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  6. Influence of radiation therapy on the lung-tissue in breast cancer patients: CT-assessed density changes and associated symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotstein, S.; Lax, I.; Svane, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The relative electron density of lung tissue was measured from computer tomography (CT) slices in 33 breast cancer patients treated by various techniques of adjuvant radiotherapy. The measurements were made before radiotherapy, 3 months and 9 months after completion of radiation therapy. The changes in lung densities at 3 months and 9 months were compared to radiation induced radiological (CT) findings. In addition, subjective symptoms such as cough and dyspnoea were assessed before and after radiotherapy. It was observed that the mean of the relative electron density of lung tissue varied from 0.25 when the whole lung was considered to 0.17 when only the anterior lateral quarter of the lung was taken into account. In patients with positive radiological (CT) findings the mean lung density of the anterior lateral quarter increased 2.1 times 3 months after radiotherapy and was still increased 1.6 times 6 months later. For those patients without findings, in the CT pictures the corresponding values were 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. The standard deviation of the pixel values within the anterior lateral quarter of the lung increased 3.8 times and 3.2 times at 3 months and 9 months, respectively, in the former group, as opposed to 1.2 and 1.1 in the latter group. Thirteen patients had an increase in either cough or dyspnoea as observed 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. In eleven patients these symptoms persisted 6 months later. No significant correlation was found between radiological findings and subjective symptoms. However, when three different treatment techniques were compared among 29 patients the highest rate of radiological findings was observed in patients in which the largest lung volumes received the target dose. A tendency towards an increased rate of subjective symptoms was also found in this group.

  7. SU-F-18C-01: Minimum Detectability Analysis for Comprehensive Sized Based Optimization of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Across CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smitherman, C; Chen, B; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work involved a comprehensive modeling of task-based performance of CT across a wide range of protocols. The approach was used for optimization and consistency of dose and image quality within a large multi-vendor clinical facility. Methods: 150 adult protocols from the Duke University Medical Center were grouped into sub-protocols with similar acquisition characteristics. A size based image quality phantom (Duke Mercury Phantom) was imaged using these sub-protocols for a range of clinically relevant doses on two CT manufacturer platforms (Siemens, GE). The images were analyzed to extract task-based image quality metrics such as the Task Transfer Function (TTF), Noise Power Spectrum, and Az based on designer nodule task functions. The data were analyzed in terms of the detectability of a lesion size/contrast as a function of dose, patient size, and protocol. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to predict image quality and dose to achieve a minimum level of detectability. Results: Image quality trends with variations in dose, patient size, and lesion contrast/size were evaluated and calculated data behaved as predicted. The GUI proved effective to predict the Az values representing radiologist confidence for a targeted lesion, patient size, and dose. As an example, an abdomen pelvis exam for the GE scanner, with a task size/contrast of 5-mm/50-HU, and an Az of 0.9 requires a dose of 4.0, 8.9, and 16.9 mGy for patient diameters of 25, 30, and 35 cm, respectively. For a constant patient diameter of 30 cm, the minimum detected lesion size at those dose levels would be 8.4, 5, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The designed CT protocol optimization platform can be used to evaluate minimum detectability across dose levels and patient diameters. The method can be used to improve individual protocols as well as to improve protocol consistency across CT scanners.

  8. Perspective and current status on fuel cycle system of fast reactor cycle Technology development (FaCT) project in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Itoh, Masanori

    2007-07-01

    FaCT Project taking over from Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR cycle system (FS) has been launched in 2006 by Japanese joint team with the participation of all parties concerned in Japan. Combination system of (the sodium-cooled reactor,) the advanced aqueous reprocessing system and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication (MOX fuel) is evaluated as the most promising fuel cycle system concept so that it has potential conformity to the design requirements, as well as a high level of technical feasibility as the final report of Phase II in FS. Current status and R and D prospects for this combination system of the advanced aqueous reprocessing system and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication (MOX fuel) system until around 2015 have been studied. Then, it is anticipated that in FR reprocessing commercial facility will start to operate around same time that in LWR reprocessing subsequent plant will be required to replace Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (provided that life time 40 years) around 2050. From the view point of the smooth transition from LWRs to FRs in approximately the year 2050 and beyond in Japan, some issues on fuel cycle have been also discussed. (authors)

  9. Material identification in x-ray microscopy and micro CT using multi-layer, multi-color scintillation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Modgil, Dimple; Rigie, David S.; Wang, Yuxin; Xiao, Xianghui; Vargas, Phillip A.; La Riviere, Patrick J.

    2015-09-30

    We demonstrate that a dual-layer, dual-color scintillator construct for microscopic CT, originally proposed to increase sensitivity in synchrotron imaging, can also be used to perform material quantification and classification when coupled with polychromatic illumination. We consider two different approaches to data handling: (1) a data-domain material decomposition whose estimation performance can be characterized by the Cramer-Rao lower bound formalism but which requires careful calibration and (2) an image-domain material classification approach that is more robust to calibration errors. The data-domain analysis indicates that useful levels of SNR (>5) could be achieved in one second or less at typical bending magnetmore » fluxes for relatively large amounts of contrast (several mm path length, such as in a fluid flow experiment) and at typical undulator fluxes for small amount of contrast (tens of microns path length, such as an angiography experiment). The tools introduced could of course be used to study and optimize parameters for a wider range of potential applications. The image domain approach was analyzed in terms of its ability to distinguish different elemental stains by characterizing the angle between the lines traced out in a two-dimensional space of effective attenuation coefficient in the front and back layer images. As a result, this approach was implemented at a synchrotron and the results were consistent with simulation predictions.« less

  10. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  11. Beam hardening and smoothing correction effects on performance of micro-ct SkyScan 1173 for imaging low contrast density materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriwayu, Wa Ode; Haryanto, Freddy; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar

    2015-04-16

    We have designed and fabricated phantom mimicking breast cancer composition known as a region that has low contrast density. The used compositions are a microcalcifications, fatty tissues and tumor mass by using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, C{sub 27}H{sub 46}O, and hard nylon materials. Besides, phantom also has a part to calculate low cost criteria /CNR (Contrast to Noise Ratio). Uniformity will be measured at water distillation medium located in a part of phantom scale contrast. Phantom will be imaged by using micro ct-sky scan 1173 high energy type, and then also can be quantified CT number to examine SkyScan 1173 performance in imaging low contrast density materials. Evaluation of CT number is done at technique configuration parameter using voltage of 30?kV, exposure 0.160 mAs, and camera resolution 560x560 pixel, the effect of image quality to reconstruction process is evaluated by varying image processing parameters in the form of beam hardening corrections with amount of 25%, 66% and100% with each smoothing level S10,S2 and S7. To obtain the better high quality image, the adjustment of beam hardening correction should be 66% and smoothing level reach maximal value at level 10.

  12. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer.

  13. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coolens, Catherine; Driscoll, Brandon; Chung, Caroline; Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz; Ménard, Cynthia; Jaffray, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K{sub trans}) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K{sub trans} but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions: Parametric voxel-based analysis of 4D DCE CT data resulted in greater accuracy and reliability in measuring changes in perfusion CT-based kinetic metrics, which have the potential to be used as biomarkers in patients with metastatic brain cancer.

  14. CT head-scan dosimetry in an anthropomorphic phantom and associated measurement of ACR accreditation-phantom imaging metrics under clinically representative scan conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Stern, Stanley H.; Chakrabarti, Kish; Minniti, Ronaldo; Parry, Marie I.; Skopec, Marlene

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation absorbed dose and its distribution in an anthropomorphic head phantom under clinically representative scan conditions in three widely used computed tomography (CT) scanners, and to relate those dose values to metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom.Methods: By inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in the head of an anthropomorphic phantom specially developed for CT dosimetry (University of Florida, Gainesville), we measured dose with three commonly used scanners (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Siemens Definition, Philips Brilliance 64) at two different clinical sites (Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Institutes of Health). The scanners were set to operate with the same data-acquisition and image-reconstruction protocols as used clinically for typical head scans, respective of the practices of each facility for each scanner. We also analyzed images of the ACR CT accreditation phantom with the corresponding protocols. While the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance protocols utilized only conventional, filtered back-projection (FBP) image-reconstruction methods, the GE Discovery also employed its particular version of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm that can be blended in desired proportions with the FBP algorithm. We did an objective image-metrics analysis evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and CNR for images reconstructed with FBP. For images reconstructed with ASIR, we only analyzed the CNR, since MTF and NPS results are expected to depend on the object for iterative reconstruction algorithms.Results: The OSLD measurements showed that the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance scanners (located at two different clinical facilities) yield average absorbed doses in tissue of 42.6 and 43.1 mGy, respectively. The GE Discovery delivers about the same amount of dose (43.7 mGy) when run under similar operating and image-reconstruction conditions, i.e., without tube current modulation and ASIR. The image-metrics analysis likewise showed that the MTF, NPS, and CNR associated with the reconstructed images are mutually comparable when the three scanners are run with similar settings, and differences can be attributed to different edge-enhancement properties of the applied reconstruction filters. Moreover, when the GE scanner was operated with the facility's scanner settings for routine head exams, which apply 50% ASIR and use only approximately half of the 100%-FBP dose, the CNR of the images showed no significant change. Even though the CNR alone is not sufficient to characterize the image quality and justify any dose reduction claims, it can be useful as a constancy test metric.Conclusions: This work presents a straightforward method to connect direct measurements of CT dose with objective image metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and CNR. It demonstrates that OSLD measurements in an anthropomorphic head phantom allow a realistic and locally precise estimation of magnitude and spatial distribution of dose in tissue delivered during a typical CT head scan. Additional objective analysis of the images of the ACR accreditation phantom can be used to relate the measured doses to high contrast resolution, noise, and CNR.

  15. Predicting target vessel location on robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft using CT to ultrasound registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Daniel S.; Linte, Cristian; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Barron, John; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Although robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG) has gained more acceptance worldwide, its success still depends on the surgeon's experience and expertise, and the conversion rate to full sternotomy is in the order of 15%-25%. One of the reasons for conversion is poor pre-operative planning, which is based solely on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) images. In this paper, the authors propose a technique to estimate the global peri-operative displacement of the heart and to predict the intra-operative target vessel location, validated via both an in vitro and a clinical study. Methods: As the peri-operative heart migration during RA-CABG has never been reported in the literatures, a simple in vitro validation study was conducted using a heart phantom. To mimic the clinical workflow, a pre-operative CT as well as peri-operative ultrasound images at three different stages in the procedure (Stage{sub 0}--following intubation; Stage{sub 1}--following lung deflation; and Stage{sub 2}--following thoracic insufflation) were acquired during the experiment. Following image acquisition, a rigid-body registration using iterative closest point algorithm with the robust estimator was employed to map the pre-operative stage to each of the peri-operative ones, to estimate the heart migration and predict the peri-operative target vessel location. Moreover, a clinical validation of this technique was conducted using offline patient data, where a Monte Carlo simulation was used to overcome the limitations arising due to the invisibility of the target vessel in the peri-operative ultrasound images. Results: For the in vitro study, the computed target registration error (TRE) at Stage{sub 0}, Stage{sub 1}, and Stage{sub 2} was 2.1, 3.3, and 2.6 mm, respectively. According to the offline clinical validation study, the maximum TRE at the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was 4.1 mm at Stage{sub 0}, 5.1 mm at Stage{sub 1}, and 3.4 mm at Stage{sub 2}. Conclusions: The authors proposed a method to measure and validate peri-operative shifts of the heart during RA-CABG. In vitro and clinical validation studies were conducted and yielded a TRE in the order of 5 mm for all cases. As the desired clinical accuracy imposed by this procedure is on the order of one intercostal space (10-15 mm), our technique suits the clinical requirements. The authors therefore believe this technique has the potential to improve the pre-operative planning by updating peri-operative migration patterns of the heart and, consequently, will lead to reduced conversion to conventional open thoracic procedures.

  16. TH-A-18C-06: A Scatter Elimination Scheme for Cone Beam CT Using An Oscillating Narrow Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, H; Folkerts, M; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Xu, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: While cone beam CT (CBCT) has been widely used in image guided radiation therapy, its low image quality, primarily caused by scattered x-rays, hinders advanced clinical applications, e.g., CBCT based on-line adaptive re-planning. We propose in this abstract a new scheme called oscillating narrow beam CBCT (ONB-CBCT) to eliminate scatter signals. Methods: ONB-CBCT consists of two major components. 1) Oscillating narrow beam (ONB) scan and 2) partitioned flat panel containing multiple individual detector strips and their own readouts. Both the beam oscillation and detector partition are along the superior-inferior (SI) direction. During data acquisition, at a given projection, the narrow beam sweep through the detector region, and different portions of the detector acquires projection data in synchrony with the narrow beam. ONB can be generated by a rotating slit collimator design with conventional tube with single focal spot, or by directly using a new source with multiple focal spots. A proof-of-principle study via Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ONB-CBCT. Results: As the beam becomes narrower, more and more scatter signals are eliminated. For the case with a bowtie filter and using 15 ONBs, the maximum and the average intensity error due to scatter are below 20 and 10 HU, respectively. Conclusion: ONB yields a narrowed exposure field at each snapshot and hence an inherently negligible scatter effect. Meanwhile, the individualized detector units guarantee high frame rate detection and hence a same large volume coverage as that in conventional CBCT. In summary, ONB-CBCT is a promising design to achieve high-quality CBCT imaging. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  17. SU-D-12A-06: A Comprehensive Parameter Analysis for Low Dose Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W; Yan, H; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Bai, T; Zhou, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is always a parameter in compressive sensing based iterative reconstruction (IR) methods low dose cone-beam CT (CBCT), which controls the weight of regularization relative to data fidelity. A clear understanding of the relationship between image quality and parameter values is important. The purpose of this study is to investigate this subject based on experimental data and a representative advanced IR algorithm using Tight-frame (TF) regularization. Methods: Three data sets of a Catphan phantom acquired at low, regular and high dose levels are used. For each tests, 90 projections covering a 200-degree scan range are used for reconstruction. Three different regions-of-interest (ROIs) of different contrasts are used to calculate contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for contrast evaluation. A single point structure is used to measure modulation transfer function (MTF) for spatial-resolution evaluation. Finally, we analyze CNRs and MTFs to study the relationship between image quality and parameter selections. Results: It was found that: 1) there is no universal optimal parameter. The optimal parameter value depends on specific task and dose level. 2) There is a clear trade-off between CNR and resolution. The parameter for the best CNR is always smaller than that for the best resolution. 3) Optimal parameters are also dose-specific. Data acquired under a high dose protocol require less regularization, yielding smaller optimal parameter values. 4) Comparing with conventional FDK images, TF-based CBCT images are better under a certain optimally selected parameters. The advantages are more obvious for low dose data. Conclusion: We have investigated the relationship between image quality and parameter values in the TF-based IR algorithm. Preliminary results indicate optimal parameters are specific to both the task types and dose levels, providing guidance for selecting parameters in advanced IR algorithms. This work is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  18. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences.

  19. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P; Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M; Bentefour, E; Royle, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) and Ion Beam Applications (Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium)

  20. TU-F-18A-04: Use of An Image-Based Material-Decomposition Algorithm for Multi-Energy CT to Determine Basis Material Densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z; Leng, S; Yu, L; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Published methods for image-based material decomposition with multi-energy CT images have required the assumption of volume conservation or accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra and detector response. The purpose of this work was to develop an image-based material-decomposition algorithm that can overcome these limitations. Methods: An image-based material decomposition algorithm was developed that requires only mass conservation (rather than volume conservation). With this method, using multi-energy CT measurements made with n=4 energy bins, the mass density of each basis material and of the mixture can be determined without knowledge of the tube spectra and detector response. A digital phantom containing 12 samples of mixtures from water, calcium, iron, and iodine was used in the simulation (Siemens DRASIM). The calibration was performed by using pure materials at each energy bin. The accuracy of the technique was evaluated in noise-free and noisy data under the assumption of an ideal photon-counting detector. Results: Basis material densities can be estimated accurately by either theoretic calculation or calibration with known pure materials. The calibration approach requires no prior information about the spectra and detector response. Regression analysis of theoretical values versus estimated values results in excellent agreement for both noise-free and noisy data. For the calibration approach, the R-square values are 0.9960+/−0.0025 and 0.9476+/−0.0363 for noise-free and noisy data, respectively. Conclusion: From multi-energy CT images with n=4 energy bins, the developed image-based material decomposition method accurately estimated 4 basis material density (3 without k-edge and 1 with in the range of the simulated energy bins) even without any prior information about spectra and detector response. This method is applicable to mixtures of solutions and dissolvable materials, where volume conservation assumptions do not apply. CHM receives research support from NIH and Siemens Healthcare.

  1. MO-E-17A-06: Organ Dose in Abdomen-Pelvis CT: Does TG 111 Equilibrium Dose Concept Better Accounts for KVp Dependence Than Conventional CTDI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Morgan, A; Davros, W; Dong, F; Primak, A; Segars, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In CT imaging, a desirable quality assurance (QA) dose quantity should account for the dose variability across scan parameters and scanner models. Recently, AAPM TG 111 proposed to use equilibrium dose-pitch product, in place of CT dose index (CTDI100), for scan modes involving table translation. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether this new concept better accounts for the kVp dependence of organ dose than the conventional CTDI concept. Methods: The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A Monte Carlo program developed and validated for a 128-slice CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) was used to simulate organ dose for abdomenpelvis scans at five tube voltages (70, 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp) with a pitch of 0.8 and a detector configuration of 2x64x0.6 mm. The same Monte Carlo program was used to simulate CTDI100 and equilibrium dose-pitch product. For both metrics, the central and peripheral values were used together with helical pitch to calculate a volume-weighted average, i.e., CTDIvol and (Deq)vol, respectively. Results: While other scan parameters were kept constant, organ dose depended strongly on kVp; the coefficient of variation (COV) across the five kVp values ranged between 70–75% for liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, and ovaries, all of which were inside the primary radiation beam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the effect of kVp was highly significant (p=3e−30). When organ dose was normalized by CTDIvol, the COV across the five kVp values reduced to 7–16%. The effect of kVp was still highly significant (p=4e−4). When organ dose was normalized by (Deq)vol, the COV further reduced to 4−12%. The effect of kVp was borderline significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: In abdomen-pelvis CT, TG 111 equilibrium dose concept better accounts for kVp dependence than the conventional CTDI. This work is supported by a faculty startup fund from the Cleveland State University.

  2. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S; Saini, J; Wong, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}?5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}?26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton therapy. The magnitude of benefit appears to be patient specific and dependent on tumor location, size, and proximity to functional volumes. Further investigation in a larger cohort of patients may validate the clinical utility of functional avoidance planning of HCC radiotherapy.

  3. Pilot study for compact microbeam radiation therapy using a carbon nanotube field emission micro-CT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadsell, Mike Cao, Guohua; Zhang, Jian; Burk, Laurel; Schreiber, Torsten; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is defined as the use of parallel, microplanar x-ray beams with an energy spectrum between 50 and 300 keV for cancer treatment and brain radiosurgery. Up until now, the possibilities of MRT have mainly been studied using synchrotron sources due to their high flux (100s Gy/s) and approximately parallel x-ray paths. The authors have proposed a compact x-ray based MRT system capable of delivering MRT dose distributions at a high dose rate. This system would employ carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission technology to create an x-ray source array that surrounds the target of irradiation. Using such a geometry, multiple collimators would shape the irradiation from this array into multiple microbeams that would then overlap or interlace in the target region. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of attaining a high dose rate and parallel microbeam beams using such a system. Methods: The microbeam dose distribution was generated by our CNT micro-CT scanner (100?m focal spot) and a custom-made microbeam collimator. An alignment assembly was fabricated and attached to the scanner in order to collimate and superimpose beams coming from different gantry positions. The MRT dose distribution was measured using two orthogonal radiochromic films embedded inside a cylindrical phantom. This target was irradiated with microbeams incident from 44 different gantry angles to simulate an array of x-ray sources as in the proposed compact CNT-based MRT system. Finally, phantom translation in a direction perpendicular to the microplanar beams was used to simulate the use of multiple parallel microbeams. Results: Microbeams delivered from 44 gantry angles were superimposed to form a single microbeam dose distribution in the phantom with a FWHM of 300?m (calculated value was 290 ?m). Also, during the multiple beam simulation, a peak to valley dose ratio of ?10 was found when the phantom translation distance was roughly 4x the beam width. The first prototype CNT-based x-ray tube dedicated to the development of compact MRT technology development was proposed and planned based on the preliminary experimental results presented here and the previous corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of creating microbeam dose distributions at a high dose rate using a proposed compact MRT system. The flexibility of CNT field emission x-ray sources could possibly bring compact and low cost MRT devices to the larger research community and assist in the translational research of this promising new approach to radiation therapy.

  4. TH-A-18C-09: Ultra-Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for Cone Beam CT Imaging of Brain Trauma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Stayman, J; Yorkston, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Application of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to low-contrast soft tissue imaging, such as in detection of traumatic brain injury, is challenged by high levels of scatter. A fast, accurate scatter correction method based on Monte Carlo (MC) estimation is developed for application in high-quality CBCT imaging of acute brain injury. Methods: The correction involves MC scatter estimation executed on an NVIDIA GTX 780 GPU (MC-GPU), with baseline simulation speed of ~1e7 photons/sec. MC-GPU is accelerated by a novel, GPU-optimized implementation of variance reduction (VR) techniques (forced detection and photon splitting). The number of simulated tracks and projections is reduced for additional speed-up. Residual noise is removed and the missing scatter projections are estimated via kernel smoothing (KS) in projection plane and across gantry angles. The method is assessed using CBCT images of a head phantom presenting a realistic simulation of fresh intracranial hemorrhage (100 kVp, 180 mAs, 720 projections, source-detector distance 700 mm, source-axis distance 480 mm). Results: For a fixed run-time of ~1 sec/projection, GPU-optimized VR reduces the noise in MC-GPU scatter estimates by a factor of 4. For scatter correction, MC-GPU with VR is executed with 4-fold angular downsampling and 1e5 photons/projection, yielding 3.5 minute run-time per scan, and de-noised with optimized KS. Corrected CBCT images demonstrate uniformity improvement of 18 HU and contrast improvement of 26 HU compared to no correction, and a 52% increase in contrast-tonoise ratio in simulated hemorrhage compared to “oracle” constant fraction correction. Conclusion: Acceleration of MC-GPU achieved through GPU-optimized variance reduction and kernel smoothing yields an efficient (<5 min/scan) and accurate scatter correction that does not rely on additional hardware or simplifying assumptions about the scatter distribution. The method is undergoing implementation in a novel CBCT dedicated to brain trauma imaging at the point of care in sports and military applications. Research grant from Carestream Health. JY is an employee of Carestream Health.

  5. CT Clean Energy Communities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Energy Communities program, offered by the Clean Energy Finance & Investment Authority and the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, offers incentives for communities that pledge their...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Joined the Challenge: March 2013 Headquarters: Palatine, IL Charging Locations: Cedar Rapids, IA; Palatine, IL; O'Fallon, MO; Des Plaines, IL; Knightdale, NC; West Kingston, RI; North Andover, MA; Billerica, MA; Nashville, TN; LaVergne, TN; Smryna, TN; Clovis, CA; Costa Mesa, CA; Carrollton, TX; Seneca, SC; Lexington, KY; Detroit, MI Domestic Employees:

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the two C-terminal domains of the bifunctional cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najmudin, Shabir; Guerreiro, Catarina I. P. D.; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Romão, Maria J. C.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Prates, José A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The two C-terminal domains of the cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from C. thermocellum cellulosome have been crystallized in tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.1 and 2.8 Å from native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Clostridium thermocellum produces a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases for the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, which is termed the cellulosome. The bifunctional multi-modular cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A is one of the largest components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains two internal catalytic domains belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 9 and 44. The C-terminus of this cellulase, comprising a polycystic kidney-disease module (PKD) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM44), has been crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, containing a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.1 and 2.8 Å, respectively.

  8. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. Methods: The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different acquisition scenarios. Parameters used in the phantom study weret{sub cup} for nonuniformity and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for soft tissue visibility. Clinical scans were evaluated in an observer study in which four experienced radiotherapy technologists rated soft tissue visibility and uniformity of scans with and without the grid. Results: The proposed angle dependent gain correction algorithm suppressed the visible ring artifacts. Grid had a beneficial impact on nonuniformity, contrast to noise ratio, and Hounsfield unit accuracy for both scanning geometries. The nonuniformity reduced by 90% for head sized object and 91% for pelvic-sized object. CNR improved compared to no corrections on average by a factor 2.8 for the head sized object, and 2.2 for the pelvic sized phantom. Grid outperformed software correction alone, but adding additional software correction to the grid was overall the best strategy. In the observer study, a significant improvement was found in both soft tissue visibility and nonuniformity of scans when grid is used. Conclusions: The evaluated fiber-interspaced grid improved the image quality of the CBCT system for broad range of imaging conditions. Clinical scans show significant improvement in soft tissue visibility and uniformity without the need to increase the imaging dose.

  9. A=18F (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WA70U, AR71O, EL71, GU71I, HO71C, JA71D, LO71H, PE71, PR71D, QU71A, WI71B, KA72, LE72). Cluster, collective and deformed models:(KE64D, MA64HH, PI66A, RI66G, FE67A, PA67Q, EL68,...

  10. "EMM Region","PC","IGCC","PC","Conv. CT","Adv. CT","Conv. CC","Adv. CC","Adv. CC w/CCS","Fuel Cell","Nuclear","Biomass","MSW","On-shore Wind","Off-shore Wind","Solar Thermal","Solar PV"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Regional cost adjustments for technologies modeled by NEMS by Electric Market Modul (EMM) region 10,11" "EMM Region","PC","IGCC","PC","Conv. CT","Adv. CT","Conv. CC","Adv. CC","Adv. CC w/CCS","Fuel Cell","Nuclear","Biomass","MSW","On-shore Wind","Off-shore Wind","Solar Thermal","Solar PV" ,,,"w/CCS" "1

  11. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrie, Marc

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the best performance. At 50 mGy, the deviation from the reference obtained at 500 mGy were less than 4%. Also the LDPC algorithm provides reasonable results with deviation less than 10% at 50 mGy while PCF and MKB reconstruction show larger deviations even at higher dose levels. Conclusions: LDPC and HDTV increase CNR and allow for quantitative evaluations even at dose levels as low as 50 mGy. The left ventricular volumes exemplarily illustrate that cardiac parameters can be accurately estimated at lowest dose levels if sophisticated algorithms are used. This allows to reduce dose by a factor of 10 compared to today's gold standard and opens new options for longitudinal studies of the heart.

  12. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors previous work [K. Taguchi et al., Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects, Med. Phys. 38(2), 10891102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

  13. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun

    2013-06-15

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities.

  14. SU-E-J-19: Accuracy of Dual-Energy CT-Derived Relative Electron Density for Proton Therapy Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, J; Duan, X; Kruse, J; Herman, M; Bues, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the suitability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to calculate relative electron density (RED) of tissues for accurate proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: DECT images of RED tissue surrogates were acquired at 80 and 140 kVp. Samples (RED=0.19?2.41) were imaged in a water-equivalent phantom in a variety of configurations. REDs were calculated using the DECT numbers and inputs of the high and low energy spectral weightings. DECT-derived RED was compared between geometric configurations and for variations in the spectral inputs to assess the sensitivity of RED accuracy versus expected values. Results: RED accuracy was dependent on accurate spectral input influenced by phantom thickness and radius from the phantom center. Material samples located at the center of the phantom generally showed the best agreement to reference RED values, but only when attenuation of the surrounding phantom thickness was accounted for in the calculation spectra. Calculated RED changed by up to 10% for some materials when the sample was located at an 11 cm radius from the phantom center. Calculated REDs under the best conditions still differed from reference values by up to 5% in bone and 14% in lung. Conclusion: DECT has previously been used to differentiate tissue types based on RED and Z for binary tissue-type segmentation. To improve upon the current standard of empirical conversion of CT number to RED for treatment planning dose calculation, DECT methods must be able to calculate RED to better than 3% accuracy throughout the image. The DECT method is sensitive to the accuracy of spectral inputs used for calculation, as well as to spatial position in the anatomy. Effort to address adjustments to the spectral calculation inputs based on position and phantom attenuation will be required before DECT-determined RED can achieve a consistent level of accuracy for application in dose calculation.

  15. Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Site-Wide Waste Disposition Evaluation Project at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio, presents the information necessary to select a Site-wide...

  16. Streamlined RI/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picel, M.H.; Durham, L.A.; Blunt, D.L.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and 1960s. The Army also used the chemical plant area for the production of explosives in the 1940s. The Weldon Spring Site chemical plant area was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Adjacent to the chemical plant area is another NPL site known as the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. The ordnance works area is a former explosive production facility that manufactured trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) during World War II. The ordnance works area covers 7,000 ha (17,232 acres); cleanup of this site is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE).

  17. Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Process Buildings and Complex...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning Evaluation Project Portsmouth RIFS Report for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities ...

  18. Risk Assessment in the RI/FS process, and derivation of cleanup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Conceptual Site Model, fate and transport, remedial action objectives Human Health Risk Assessment * Multiple "scenarios" were evaluated, each with different exposure assumptions...

  19. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  20. Scoping Document: Quarry Residuals Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Scoping Document.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  1. http://www.hss.energy.gov/csa/analysis/rems/rems/ri.htm

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6th 7th 8th 9th Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Program Office All Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Civilian ...

  2. http://www.hss.energy.gov/csa/analysis/rems/rems/ri.htm

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Renewable Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Environmental Management Office of Fossil Energy Operations...

  3. 2011 Organometallic Chemistry (July 10-15, 2011, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Emilio Bunel

    2011-07-15

    Organometallic chemistry has played and will continue to play a significant role in helping us understand the way bonds are made or broken in the presence of a transition metal complex. Current challenges range from the efficient exploitation of energy resources to the creative use of natural and artificial enzymes. Most of the new advances in the area are due to our extended understanding of processes at a molecular level due to new mechanistic studies, techniques to detect reaction intermediates and theory. The conference will bring the most recent advances in the field including nanocatalysis, surface organometallic chemistry, characterization techniques, new chemical reactivity and theoretical approaches along with applications to organic synthesis and the discovery of new materials. The Conference will bring together a collection of investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Six outstanding posters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows should also consider participating in the Gordon Research Seminar on Organometallic Chemistry (July 9-10, same location) which is specially designed to promote interaction and discussion between junior scientists.

  4. Dissecting the cAMP-inducible allosteric switch in protein kinase A RI alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, T.J.; Kornev, A.P.; Taylor, S.S.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    The regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are the major receptors of cAMP in most eukaryotic cells. As the cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains release cAMP and bind to the catalytic subunit of PKA, they undergo a major conformational change. The change is mediated by the B/C helix in CNB-A, which extends into one long helix that now separates the two CNB domains and docks onto the surface of the catalytic subunit. We explore here the role of three key residues on the B/C helix that dock onto the catalytic subunit, Arg226, Leu233, and Met 234. By replacing each residue with Ala, we show that each contributes significantly to creating the R:C interface. By also deleting the second CNB domain (CNB-B), we show furthermore that CNB-B is a critical part of the cAMP-induced conformational switch that dislodges the B/C helix from the surface of the catalytic subunit. Without CNB-B the K{sub a} for activation by cAMP increases from 80 to 1000 nM. Replacing any of the key interface residues with Ala reduces the K{sub a} to 25-40 nM. Leu233 and M234 contribute to a hydrophobic latch that binds the B/C helix onto the large lobe of the C-subunit, while Arg226 is part of an electrostatic switch that couples the B/C helix to the phosphate binding cassette where the cAMP docks.

  5. Final Update on APBF-DEC EGR/DPF/SCR Demonstration Project at SwRI |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada - Nevada Rail Transportation Corridor DOE/EIS-0250F-S2 and Final En | Department of Energy Proposed Action: To determine a rail alignment within a rail corridor in which to construct and operate a railroad to transport spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing railroad in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The

  6. QER- Comment of Low-income Energy Affordability Network [MA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thank you, Secretary Moniz for the opportunity to submit testimony, I am entering this testimony to call attention to the Secretary and DOE staff, that DOE has operated a successful energy efficiency program for low income renters and home owners since DOE’s creation as a department, that leverages hundreds of millions of dollars in utility and other governmental and private investments...

  7. Microsoft Word - 6.27.12 MA Final Testimony

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PARKS COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES U.S. SENATE JUNE 27, 2012 Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, my name is Ingrid Kolb. I serve as the Director, Office of Management at the U.S. Department of Energy. As part of our programmatic responsibilities, the Office of Management coordinates cultural resources and historic preservation activities across the Department and is the lead office coordinating DOE participation in the proposed Manhattan Project National Historical Park. I

  8. Freeport, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to South Korea (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 6.30 2010's 8.09 10.89 -- -- --

  9. Town of Danvers, MA Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smart Meters AMI Communications Systems 75 Home Area Networks Customer Web Portal In-Home Displays Distribution Automation Upgrades for 5 of 34 Circuits Distribution...

  10. Microsoft Word - ma.04-7 Part 01.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... used to support MEDAEC nuclear development activities; * ... Thermo NUtech Services and Safety and Ecology Corporation, ... therein, and disconnect power service to the buildings ...

  11. PUBLIC_PIA_MA-3WP-1001.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  12. Microsoft Word - 6.28.12 MA Final Testimony

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TESTIMONY OF INGRID KOLB DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS AND PUBLIC LANDS COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES JUNE 28, 2012 Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, my name is Ingrid Kolb. I serve as the Director, Office of Management at the U.S. Department of Energy. As part of our programmatic responsibilities, the Office of Management coordinates cultural resources and historic

  13. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Chung-Pei Ma

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chung-Pei Ma

    2010-01-08

    The lecture was delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  14. Audit Report: CR-MA-95-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Management Advisory Report on Universities Research Association's Documentation and Technical Closeout Activities

  15. Updating and Enhancing the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2009-09-24

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.( ) for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection and their Hanford Site contractors. The manual describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and the radiation protection programs of the Hanford Site contractors. Recommendations and guidance are also provided for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs.

  17. MA-2009-000093Signed.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Invitation to the 2012 DOE Project Management Workshop United States and France Sign Joint Statement on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage FY2012 ...

  18. FuMA Tech GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Place: St. Ingbert, Germany Zip: D-66386 Product: This subsidiary of the BWT-Best Water Technology Group specializes in fuel cell membrane technologies. References:...

  19. Cosmology on the Beach - Chung-Pei Ma: Lecture 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chung-Pei Ma

    2010-01-08

    The lecture was delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Indian Orchard MA Site ...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    FACT SHEET This fact sheet provides information about the Indian Orchard, Massachusetts, Site. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. ...

  1. Cosmology on the Beach - Chung-Pei Ma, Lecture 3

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chung-Pei Ma

    2010-01-08

    The lecture was delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  2. NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR MA BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2011-06-01

    A nuclear data target accuracy assessment has been carried out for two types of transmuters: a critical sodium fast reactor(SFR) and an accelerator driven system (ADMAB). Results are provided for a 7 group energy structure. Considerations about fuel cycle parameters uncertainties illustrate their dependence from the isotope final densities at end of cycle.

  3. Technical Note: Exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x-ray energies owing to beam-hardening effects arising from the mismatch between the sizes of the object and the calibration phantom.

  4. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J.; Koren, S.; Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.583.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

  5. Novel detector design for reducing intercell x-ray cross-talk in the variable resolution x-ray CT scanner: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arabi, Hosein; Asl, Ali Reza Kamali; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Zaidi, Habib

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The variable resolution x-ray (VRX) CT scanner provides substantial improvement in the spatial resolution by matching the scanner's field of view (FOV) to the size of the object being imaged. Intercell x-ray cross-talk is one of the most important factors limiting the spatial resolution of the VRX detector. In this work, a new cell arrangement in the VRX detector is suggested to decrease the intercell x-ray cross-talk. The idea is to orient the detector cells toward the opening end of the detector. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were used for performance assessment of the oriented cell detector design. Previously published design parameters and simulation results of x-ray cross-talk for the VRX detector were used for model validation using the GATE Monte Carlo package. In the first step, the intercell x-ray cross-talk of the actual VRX detector model was calculated as a function of the FOV. The obtained results indicated an optimum cell orientation angle of 28 deg. to minimize the x-ray cross-talk in the VRX detector. Thereafter, the intercell x-ray cross-talk in the oriented cell detector was modeled and quantified. Results: The intercell x-ray cross-talk in the actual detector model was considerably high, reaching up to 12% at FOVs from 24 to 38 cm. The x-ray cross-talk in the oriented cell detector was less than 5% for all possible FOVs, except 40 cm (maximum FOV). The oriented cell detector could provide considerable decrease in the intercell x-ray cross-talk for the VRX detector, thus leading to significant improvement in the spatial resolution and reduction in the spatial resolution nonuniformity across the detector length. Conclusions: The proposed oriented cell detector is the first dedicated detector design for the VRX CT scanners. Application of this concept to multislice and flat-panel VRX detectors would also result in higher spatial resolution.

  6. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 05: Calibration of a SPECT/CT camera for quantitative SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudin, Émilie; Montégiani, Jean-François; Després, Philippe; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-08-15

    While quantitation is the norm in PET, it is not widely available yet in SPECT. This work's aim was to calibrate a commercially available SPECT/CT system to perform quantitative SPECT. Counting sensitivity, dead-time (DT) constant and partial volume effect (PVE) of the system were assessed. A dual-head Siemens SymbiaT6 SPECT/CT camera equipped with low energy high-resolution collimators was studied. {sup 99m}Tc was the radioisotope of interest because of its wide usage in nuclear medicine. First, point source acquisitions were performed (activity: 30–990MBq). Further acquisitions were then performed with a uniform Jaszczak phantom filled with water at high activity (25–5000MBq). PVE was studied using 6 hot spheres (diameters: 9.9–31.2 mm) filled with {sup 99m}Tc (2.8MBq/cc) in the Jaszczak phantom, which was: (1) empty, (2) water-filled and (3) water-filled with low activity (0.1MBq/cc). The data was reconstructed with the Siemens's Flash3D iterative algorithm with 4 subsets and 8 iterations, attenuation-correction (AC) and scatter-correction (SC). DT modelling was based on the total spectrum counting rate. Sensitivity was assessed using AC-SC reconstructed SPECT data. Sensitivity and DT for the sources were 99.51±1.46cps/MBq and 0.60±0.04µs. For the phantom, sensitivity and DT were 109.9±2.3cps/MBq and 0.62±0.13µs. The recovery-coefficient varied from 5% for the 9.9mm, to 80% for the 31.2mm spheres. With our calibration methods, both sensitivity and DT constant of the SPECT camera had little dependence on the object geometry and attenuation. For small objects of known size, recovery-coefficient can be applied to correct PVE. Clinical quantitative SPECT appears to be possible and has many potential applications.

  7. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: Visibility of simulated microcalcifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer).Methods: Aluminum wires and calcium carbonate grains of various sizes were embedded in a paraffin cylinder to simulate imaging of calcifications in a breast. Phantoms were imaged with a benchtop experimental cone beam CT system at various exposure levels. In addition to the Dexela detector, a high pitch (50 μm), thin (150 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (C7921CA-09, Hamamatsu Corporation, Hamamatsu City, Japan) and a widely used low pitch (194 μm), thick (600 μm) scintillator aSi/CsI flat panel detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) were also used in scanning for comparison. The images were independently reviewed by six readers (imaging physicists). The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and measured as a function of the estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) level for various MC sizes and detectors. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were also measured and compared for the three detectors used.Results: The authors have demonstrated that the use of a high pitch (75 μm) CMOS detector coupled with a thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator helped make the smaller 150–160, 160–180, and 180–200 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 10.8, 9, and 10.8 mGy, respectively. It also made the larger 200–212 and 212–224 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 7.2 mGy. No performance improvement was observed for 224–250 μm or larger size groups. With the higher spatial resolution of the Dexela detector based system, the apparent dimensions and shapes of MCs were more accurately rendered. The results show that with the aforementioned detector, a 73% visibility could be achieved in imaging 160–180 μm MCs as compared to 28% visibility achieved by the low pitch (194 μm) aSi/CsI flat panel detector. The measurements confirm that the Hamamatsu detector has the highest MTF, followed by the Dexel detector, and then the Varian detector. However, the Dexela detector, with its thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator and low noise level, has the highest DQE at all frequencies, followed by the Varian detector, and then the Hamamatsu detector. The findings on the MC visibility correlated well with the differences in MTFs, noise power spectra, and DQEs measured for these three detectors.Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that the use of the CMOS type Dexela detector with its high pitch (75 μm) and thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator could help improve the MC visibility. However, the improvement depended on the exposure level and the MC size. For imaging larger MCs or scanning at high exposure levels, there was little advantage in using the Dexela detector as compared to the aSi type Varian detector. These findings correlate well with the higher measured DQEs of the Dexela detector, especially at higher frequencies.

  8. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M. Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (?17 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 2, and 3 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.21.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.31.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.61.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 3 segmented subregions were 2.32.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa.

  9. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Belinda A.; Callahan, Jason; Bressel, Mathias; Simoens, Nathalie; Everitt, Sarah; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Burbury, Kate; MacManus, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  10. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic macropores at atmospheric saturation.

  11. SU-E-I-07: Response Characteristics and Signal Conversion Modeling of KV Flat-Panel Detector in Cone Beam CT System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Ruifen; Pei, Xi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The flat-panel detector response characteristics are investigated to optimize the scanning parameter considering the image quality and less radiation dose. The signal conversion model is also established to predict the tumor shape and physical thickness changes. Methods: With the ELEKTA XVI system, the planar images of 10cm water phantom were obtained under different image acquisition conditions, including tube voltage, electric current, exposure time and frames. The averaged responses of square area in center were analyzed using Origin8.0. The response characteristics for each scanning parameter were depicted by different fitting types. The transmission measured for 10cm water was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. Using the quadratic calibration method, a series of variable-thickness water phantoms images were acquired to derive the signal conversion model. A 20cm wedge water phantom with 2cm step thickness was used to verify the model. At last, the stability and reproducibility of the model were explored during a four week period. Results: The gray values of image center all decreased with the increase of different image acquisition parameter presets. The fitting types adopted were linear fitting, quadratic polynomial fitting, Gauss fitting and logarithmic fitting with the fitting R-Square 0.992, 0.995, 0.997 and 0.996 respectively. For 10cm water phantom, the transmission measured showed better uniformity than Monte Carlo simulation. The wedge phantom experiment show that the radiological thickness changes prediction error was in the range of (-4mm, 5mm). The signal conversion model remained consistent over a period of four weeks. Conclusion: The flat-panel response decrease with the increase of different scanning parameters. The preferred scanning parameter combination was 100kV, 10mA, 10ms, 15frames. It is suggested that the signal conversion model could effectively be used for tumor shape change and radiological thickness prediction. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81101132, 11305203) and Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province (11040606Q55, 1308085QH138)

  12. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of signal-to-noise ratio mainly to the peripheral region of the phantom. Conclusions: Despite typical peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain, and RBM from the standard low-dose brain perfusion 256-slice CT protocol are well below the corresponding thresholds for the induction of erythema, cataract, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively, every effort should be made toward optimization of the procedure and minimization of dose received by these tissues. The current study provides evidence that the use of the narrower bowtie filter available may considerably reduce peak absorbed dose to all above radiosensitive tissues with minimal deterioration in image quality. Considerable reduction in peak eye-lens dose may also be achieved by positioning patient head center a few centimeters above isocenter during the exposure.

  13. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittauer, K; Deraniyagala, R; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C; Lightsey, J; Yan, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility.

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-J-03: Commissioning of the On-Board Cone-Beam CT System Equipped On the Rotating Gantry of a Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takao, S; Miyamoto, N; Matsuura, T; Toramatsu, C; Nihongi, H; Yamada, T; Umegaki, K; Shimizu, S; Shirato, H; Matsuda, K; Sasaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Baba, R; Umekawa, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy requires highly-precise image guidance in patient setup to ensure accurate dose delivery. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is expected to play an important role to reduce uncertainties in patient setup. Hokkaido University has developed a new proton therapy system dedicated to spot-scanning under a collaborative work with Hitachi Ltd. In our system, an orthogonal X-ray imaging system is mounted on a full-rotating gantry. On-board CBCT imaging is therefore available. We have conducted commissioning of the CBCT system for clinical use in proton therapy. Methods: The orthogonal X-ray imaging system, which consists of two sets of X-ray tubes and flat panel detectors (FPDs), are equipped on the rotating gantry. The FPDs are mounted on the proton beam nozzle and can be retracted when not in use. The distance between the X-ray source and the FPD is about 2.1 m. The maximum rotation speed of the gantry is 1 rpm, so CBCT images can be acquired in approximately 1 minute. The maximum reconstruction volume is nearly 40 cm in diameter and 20 cm in axial length. For commissioning of the CBCT system, mechanical accuracy of the rotating gantry first was evaluated. Imaging performance was examined via quantitative evaluation of image quality. Results: Through the mechanical test, the isocentricity of the gantry was confirmed to be less than 1 mm. Moreover, it was improved to 0.5 mm with an appropriate correction. The accurate rotation of the gantry contributes to the CBCT image quality. In the image quality test, objects with 7 line-pairs per cm, which corresponds to a line spacing of 0.071 cm, could be discerned. Spatial linearity and uniformity were also sufficient. Conclusion: Clinical commissioning of the on-board CBCT system for proton therapy was conducted, and CBCT images with sufficient quality were successfully obtained. This research was supported by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R and D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program), initiated by the Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP)

  15. Planning Evaluation of C-Arm Cone Beam CT Angiography for Target Delineation in Stereotactic Radiation Surgery of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Jun; Huang, Judy; Gailloud, Philippe; Rigamonti, Daniele; Lim, Michael; Bernard, Vincent; Ehtiati, Tina; Ford, Eric C.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) is one of the therapeutic modalities currently available to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Conventionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are used in combination to identify the target volume for SRS treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the treatment planning of SRS for cerebral AVMs. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients treated for brain AVMs at our institution were included in this retrospective study. Prior to treatment, all patients underwent MRA, DSA, and C-arm CBCT. All images were coregistered using the GammaPlan planning system. AVM regions were delineated independently by 2 physicians using either C-arm CBCT or MRA, resulting in 2 volumes: a CBCT volume (VCBCT) and an MRA volume (V{sub MRA}). SRS plans were generated based on the delineated regions. Results: The average volume of treatment targets delineated using C-arm CBCT and MRA were similar, 6.40 cm{sup 3} and 6.98 cm{sup 3}, respectively (P=.82). However, significant regions of nonoverlap existed. On average, the overlap of the MRA with the C-arm CBCT was only 52.8% of the total volume. In most cases, radiation plans based on V{sub MRA} did not provide adequate dose to the region identified on C-arm CBCT; the mean minimum dose to V{sub CBCT} was 29.5%, whereas the intended goal was 45% (P<.001). The mean volume of normal brain receiving 12 Gy or more in C-arm CBCT-based plans was not greater than in the MRA-based plans. Conclusions: Use of C-arm CBCT images significantly alters the delineated regions of AVMs for SRS planning, compared to that of MRA/MRI images. CT-based planning can be accomplished without increasing the dose to normal brain and may represent a more accurate definition of the nidus, increasing the chances for successful obliteration.

  16. Dose equations for shift-variant CT acquisition modes using variable pitch, tube current, and aperture, and the meaning of their associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: With the increasing clinical use of shift-variant CT protocols involving tube current modulation (TCM), variable pitch or pitch modulation (PM), and variable aperture a(t), the interpretation of the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} is called into question. This was addressed for TCM in their previous paper published by Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013)] and is extended to PM and concurrent TCM/PM as well as variable aperture in this work. Methods: Rigorous convolution equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM, PM, and concurrent TCM/PM. A comparison with scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} formulae clearly identifies the source of their differences with the traditional CTDI{sub vol}. Dose distribution simulations using the convolution are provided for a variety of TCM and PM scenarios including a helical shuttle used for perfusion studies (as well as constant mA)all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}. These new convolution simulations for TCM are validated by comparison with their previous discrete summations. Results: These equations show that PM is equivalent to TCM if the pitch variation p(z) is proportional to 1/i(z), where i(z) is the local tube current. The simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) or local pitch p(z) due to scatter from all other locations along z, and that the local CTDI{sub vol}(z) or CTDI{sub vol} per slice do not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) or p(z). The CTDI-paradigm does not apply to shift-variant techniques and the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for the same lacks physical significance and relevance. Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant tube current and pitch conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} for shift-variant techniques (TCM or PM) conveys no useful information about the associated dose distribution it purportedly represents. On the other hand, the total energy absorbed E (integral dose) as well as its surrogate DLP remain robust (invariant) with respect to shift-variance, depending only on the total mAs = ?i?t{sub 0} accumulated during the total beam-on time t{sub 0} and aperture a, where ?i? is the average current.

  17. CT_05-1.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  18. CT_10-4.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  19. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | About the School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sponsors National Science Foundation Student participants are supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Instructor and local expenses are supported by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and LANL's Institute for Materials Science & Matter Radiation in Extremes program. Los Alamos National Laboratory Institute for Materials Science MaRiE Los Alamos National Laboratory Institute for Materials Science Matter Radiation Interactions in Extremes Planning and logistic support

  20. A=13C (70AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13C) GENERAL: See Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(BR59M, PH60A, TA60L, ZE60, BA61L, BA61N, KU61A, KU61E, NE61C, EA62, BO63J, MA63S, PE63A, SE63N, TR63, AM64, NA64A, ST64, CO65I, MA65O, ME65B, NE65, WE65D, EL66B, GU66D, HA66F, MA66S, NO66, RI66F, WI66E, BA67JJ, CO67M, FA67A, HU67C, KU67J, PO67G, RI67J, WA67I, FI68, HO68, RE68G, KU69C, VA69, KU70). Other:(BA62P, LI64I, BO65E, HE66D, OL66B, RI68I, TA68W, WI68B, AL69A,

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Caldwell and Johnson — Church Community and Housing Corporation, Charlestown, RI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home garnered an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, for its highly insulated construction, minisplit heat pump and water heater, and triple pane windows.

  2. OAiC RiDGE NATIONAL LABORAl-ORY LKCKKBSP HAITI MANA%ED AND OPERATED...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The reliability of the field screening method was established at another site by comparison of the field-estimated uranium concentration in a specific sample to the results found ...

  3. C C3 C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cq4-o ta o c NC oo M0t - 00 C)W)0 N 0 ' O m C C -t-W0 en "C 0 - () o viw; c c; 6 C; 4 r'i6 ien61 r r C ' (0 t- V) t 00W Np 0W )a ot)I > 000000 000 0 C0 00C>0 ct- M0 00)...

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: MetLife, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MetLife, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: MetLife, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: MetLife, Inc. Joined the Challenge: May 2013 Headquarters: New York, NY Charging Locations: Aurora, IL; Bloomfield, CT; Bridgewater, NJ; Dayton, OH; Freeport, IL; Johnstown, PA; Morristown, NJ; Oriskany, NY; Scranton, PA; St. Louis, MO; Tampa, FL; Troy, NY; Tulsa, OK; Warwick, RI Domestic Employees: 30,887 MetLife embraces its role as a responsible corporate citizen through implementing energy

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Home Appliances in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle Atlantic Census Division" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,"Total New England",,,"Total Middle Atlantic" ,,"Total Northeast",,,"CT, ME, NH, RI, VT" "Home

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Household Demographics of Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle Atlantic Census Division" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,"Total New England",,,"Total Middle Atlantic" ,,"Total Northeast",,,"CT, ME, NH, RI, VT" "Household

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Televisions in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle Atlantic Census Division" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,"Total New England",,,"Total Middle Atlantic" ,,"Total Northeast",,,"CT, ME, NH, RI, VT"

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle Atlantic Census Division" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,"Total New England",,,"Total Middle Atlantic" ,,"Total Northeast",,,"CT, ME, NH, RI, VT" "Air

  9. TH-C-18A-12: Evaluation of the Impact of Body Size and Tube Output Limits in the Optimization of Fast Scanning with High-Pitch Dual Source CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez Giraldo, J; Mileto, A.; Hurwitz, L.; Marin, D.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of body size and tube power limits in the optimization of fast scanning with high-pitch dual source CT (DSCT). Methods: A previously validated MERCURY phantom, made of polyethylene, with circular cross-section of diameters 16, 23, 30 and 37cm, and connected through tapered sections, was scanned using a second generation DSCT system. The DSCT operates with two independently controlled x-ray tube generators offering up to 200 kW power reserve (100 kW per tube). The entire length of the phantom (42cm) was scanned with two protocols using: A)Standard single-source CT (SSCT) protocol with pitch of 0.8, and B) DSCT protocol with high-pitch values ranging from 1.6 to 3.2 (0.2 steps). All scans used 120 kVp with 150 quality reference mAs using automatic exposure control. Scanner radiation output (CTDIvol) and effective mAs values were extracted retrospectively from DICOM files for each slice. Image noise was recorded. All variables were assessed relative to phantom diameter. Results: With standard-pitch SSCT, the scanner radiation output (and tube-current) were progressively adapted with increasing size, from 6 mGy (120 mAs) up to 15 mGy (270 mAs) from the thinnest (16cm) to the thickest diameter (37 cm), respectively. By comparison, using high-pitch (3.2), the scanner output was bounded at about 8 mGy (140 mAs), independent of phantom diameter. Although relative to standard-pitch, the high-pitch led to lower radiation output for the same scan, the image noise was higher, particularly for larger diameters. To match the radiation output adaptation of standard-pitch, a high-pitch mode of 1.6 was needed, with the advantage of scanning twice as fast. Conclusion: To maximize the benefits of fast scanning with high-pitch DSCT, the body size and tube power limits of the system need to be considered such that a good balance between speed of acquisition and image quality are warranted. JCRG is an employee of Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.

  10. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2010-03-01

    When maintained under hydrate-stable conditions, methane hydrate in laboratory samples is often considered a stable and immobile solid material. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies in which the long-term redistribution of hydrates in sediments has been investigated in the laboratory. These observations are important because if the location of hydrate in a sample were to change over time (e.g. by dissociating at one location and reforming at another), the properties of the sample that depend on hydrate saturation and pore space occupancy would also change. Observations of hydrate redistribution under stable conditions are also important in understanding natural hydrate deposits, as these may also change over time. The processes by which solid hydrate can move include dissociation, hydrate-former and water migration in the gas and liquid phases, and hydrate formation. Chemical potential gradients induced by temperature, pressure, and pore water or host sediment chemistry can drive these processes. A series of tests were performed on a formerly natural methane-hydrate-bearing core sample from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, in order to observe hydrate formation and morphology within this natural sediment, and changes over time using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Long-term observations (over several weeks) of methane hydrate in natural sediments were made to investigate spatial changes in hydrate saturation in the core. During the test sequence, mild buffered thermal and pressure oscillations occurred within the sample in response to laboratory temperature changes. These oscillations were small in magnitude, and conditions were maintained well within the hydrate stability zone.

  11. Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Ct-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Very Small (≤1.5 cm) Liver Tumors: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi Buy, Xavier Alberti, Nicolas Fonck, Mariane; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Palussière, Jean

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the technical feasibility of flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very small (<1.5 cm) liver tumors.Materials and MethodsPatients included were candidates for hepatic percutaneous RFA as they had single biopsy-proven hepatic tumors sized ≤1.5 cm and poorly defined on ultrasonography. Following apnea induction, unenhanced CBCT scans were acquired and used to deploy the RF electrode with the aid of a virtual navigation system. If the tumor was not clearly identified on the unenhanced CBCT scan, a right retrograde arterial femoral access was established to carry out hepatic angiography and localize the tumor. Patients’ lesions and procedural variables were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThree patients (2 male and 1 female), aged 68, 76, and 87 years were included; 3 lesions (2 hepato-cellular carcinoma and 1 metastasis from colorectal cancer) were treated. One patient required hepatic angiography. Cycles of apnea used to acquire CBCT images and to deploy the electrode lasted <120 s. Mean fluoroscopic time needed to deploy the electrode was 36.6 ± 5.7 min. Mean overall procedural time was 66.0 ± 22.9 min. No peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. No cases of incomplete ablation were noted at 1-month follow-up.ConclusionPercutaneous CBCT-guided liver RFA with or without arterial hepatic angiography is technically feasible.

  12. Environmental permit tracking and compliance: Central Artery/Tunnel Project, Boston, MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbush, L. )

    1993-01-01

    The Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project in Boston, Massachusetts involves the replacement of the existing I-93 interstate highway (Central Artery) and the extension of I-90 (Massachusetts Turnpike) to Logan International Airport. To date, approximately 95 environmental and related permits have been obtained for the CA/T Project. At least 200 permits from federal, state and local regulatory agencies will be acquired for the entire Project. The proposed action includes construction activities and permanent structures related to the crossing of three bodies of water: Charles River, Fort Point Channel, and Boston Inner Harbor. The Project also includes work in Massachusetts filled tidelands, relocation or construction of outfalls, disposition of construction dewatering and tunnel drainage fluids, and capping of an abandoned landfill. The number of permits, interrelationships between permits and interfaces with design and construction schedules have necessitated the development and implementation of a permit tracking system. The system tracks permit applications from preparation through public and agency review to permit issuance. The issues are discussed in detail: Phased development of the tracking system; Utilization of Project standard scheduling system software, Primavera Project Planner; How the information generated by the tracking system is used at the Project; Report format and production; Construction phase services and the multidiscipline, integrated Project schedule.

  13. MaRIE first experiments summaries version: May 9, 2010 (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at which they nucleate in order to gain a detailed understanding of this process and the influence real material microstructure has on these events. These experiments would...

  14. Are We There Yet? - Mike Peek, Director, Project Management (MA-63) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy April 2012 PSERC Webinars on Issues in Designing the Future Grid April 2012 PSERC Webinars on Issues in Designing the Future Grid The Department has funded an effort at the Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) to investigate the requirements of an electric grid with high penetrations of sustainable energy systems and heavy reliance on cyber systems for sensing and communication. The goal of the effort is to stimulate discussion among the academic, industry,

  15. Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports (Price) From Yemen (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 4.76 4.46 3.52 7.22 5.88 9.10

  16. Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports (Price) From Yemen (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 4.64 4.58 4.21 4.68 4.88 4.84 4.85 4.11 3.68 2012 3.68 3.03 2.80 2.85 4.10 4.57 2013 4.59 7.70 7.81 8.75 2014 5.90 5.99 5.75 2015 10.88 9.41 7.42

  17. Freeport, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to South Korea (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 7.07 14.80

  18. MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    What it would be, the mission need motivation, the scientific challenge, and the current favorable impact on both programs and people are shown in viewgraph form. Authors: Barnes, ...

  19. Just the Facts, Ma'am: Getting the Most out of LED Lighting Facts...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    www.energystar.govlighting * Certification FAQs: - www.energystargovlightingfaqs * Rebate Summary: - www.energystar.govDIME * Contact: Lighting@energystar.gov 13 What is the...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Ma_2015_CNMSStaffScienceHighlight_AngewChemie...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structural stability of lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZO) garnet in aqueous media has been unveiled by using the state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy....