Sample records for m-area chemical oxidation

  1. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  3. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel Olivier Herbineta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate Olivier Herbineta , William of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from

  4. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (4745 Trinity Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kodas, Toivo T. (5200 Noreen Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  5. Short communication Chemically abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    layer barrier. This situation can lead to partial oxidation of the ferromagnetic metals and degradationShort communication Chemically abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films H.G. Lee a,b , D. Lee online 24 May 2005 Abstract A chemically abrupt Fe/Ce oxide interface can be formed by initial oxidation

  6. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Dennis M. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  8. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  9. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  11. Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

  12. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  13. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  14. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

  15. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the preparation of graphene sheets from graphite. After numerous failed attempts to create graphene-based sheetsSynthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide Sasha of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate results

  16. Chemical oxidation of tryptic digests to improve sequence coverage in peptide mass fingerprint protein identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Jessica Elaine

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    residues can be oxidized by a variety of chemical reagents. DMSO (Dimethylsulfoxide)/HCl/acetic acid33,35,38, Fe(III)/ascorbic acid/O238, hydrogen peroxide37,38 and peracids29-32,38 are a few reagents commonly used for oxidation. Unfortunately...

  17. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    amorphous materials, such as ferrihydrite, to well-crystallized minerals such as goethite and hematite (5 assemblages. Experimental Section Oxide Synthesis and Characterization.A variety of synthetic Fe(III) oxides included a series of goethites with differing crystallinity and surface area, synthesized from Fe(NO3

  18. Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for copper-based materials, and at 950 C for iron- and manganese-based materials. Methane or syngas (50% COEvaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

  19. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  20. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01oxides.

  1. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  2. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Schutte, Erick J. (Thornton, CO); Rolfe, Sara L. (Loveland, CO)

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  3. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized CuFe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  4. Tailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activity at the surface of implants, mainly by modifying their topography and physicochemical properties, such as its surface chemistry and energy, roughness, and topography [6]. It is generally accepted that roughTailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation Fabio Variola a,b , Ji

  5. DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900122 Influence of Treatment Conditions on the Chemical Oxidative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of H2SO4/H2O2 Mixtures for Modulating the Topography of Titanium** By Fabio Variola, Alessandro Lauria composition, energy, roughness, and topography.[511] The key to achieving improved bioactivity generated on titanium (cpTi) and Ti6Al4V alloy by chemical oxidation with a H2SO4/H2O2 mixture. Here, we

  6. Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing conditions. In order to simulate substantial reaction progress over geologic time, one can benefit from the quasi-stationary state (QSS) approximation. A significant saving of computing time using QSS is demonstrated through the example. In addition, changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation are also addressed in some degree. Even though oxidative weathering is sensitive to many factors, this work demonstrates that our model provides a comprehensive suite of process modeling capabilities, which could serve as a prototype for oxidative weathering processes with broad significance for geoscientific, engineering, and environmental applications.

  7. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew [Carus Corporation, 315 5th Street, Peru, IL 61354 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  8. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  9. Evaluating DNAPL Source and Migration Zones: M-Area Settling Basin and the Western Sector of A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.G.

    2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to critically evaluate previous characterization and remediation data to determine the current extent and distribution of DNAPL associated with releases at the M-Area Basin within A/M Area. The primary objective of the effort is to develop an approximate recommendation for the target treatment location and volume near the M Area Settling Basin. Through this analysis the final objective is to identify those subsurface regions having specific geometry and character necessary to cost-effectively deploy DNAPL specific remediation alternatives.

  10. On the possibility to grow zinc oxide-based transparent conducting oxide films by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrutis, Adulfas, E-mail: adulfas.abrutis@chf.vu.lt; Silimavicus, Laimis; Kubilius, Virgaudas; Murauskas, Tomas; Saltyte, Zita; Kuprenaite, Sabina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) was applied to grow zinc oxide (ZnO)-based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Indium (In)-doped ZnO films were deposited using a cold wall pulsed liquid injection CVD system with three nichrome wires installed at a distance of 2?cm from the substrate holder. The wires were heated by an AC current in the range of 010 A. Zn and In 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionates dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane were used as precursors. The hot wires had a marked effect on the growth rates of ZnO, In-doped ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films; at a current of 610 A, growth rates were increased by a factor of ?1020 compared with those of traditional CVD at the same substrate temperature (400?C). In-doped ZnO films with thickness of ?150?nm deposited on sapphire-R grown at a wire current of 9?A exhibited a resistivity of ?2??10{sup ?3} ?cm and transparency of >90% in the visible spectral range. These initial results reveal the potential of HW-CVD for the growth of TCOs.

  11. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  12. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  13. Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alagar; T. Theivasanthi; A. Kubera Raja

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

  14. Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alagar, M; Raja, A Kubera; 10.3923/jas.2012.398.401

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

  15. Chemical dynamics and bonding at gas/semiconductor and oxide/semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applied to alternative semiconductor materials to determinephase oxides and semiconductor surfaces. Both experimentalunderstanding of the oxide/semiconductor interface. The

  16. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  17. Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

  18. Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor for the bulk production of graphene based materials, are found to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    #12;Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor), is the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powders that was first synthesized over a cen atomic layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms (Fig. 1a). In 2004, it was isolated by mechanical exfoliation

  19. Tuning the properties of complex transparent conducting oxides: Role of crystal symmetry, chemical composition, and carrier generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Tuning the properties of complex transparent conducting oxides: Role of crystal symmetry, chemical; revised manuscript received 24 February 2010; published 17 March 2010 The electronic properties of singleO3, , and -Ga2O3, rock salt and wurtzite ZnO, and layered InGaZnO4 reveals the role of the following

  20. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  1. Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

  2. Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Modeling the Fluorocarbon Plasma Etch of Silicon Oxide and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HO,PAULINE; JOHANNES,JUSTINE E.; BUSS,RICHARD J.; MEEKS,ELLEN

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a project with SEMATECH, detailed chemical reaction mechanisms have been developed that describe the gas-phase and surface chemistry occurring during the fluorocarbon plasma etching of silicon dioxide and related materials. The fluorocarbons examined are C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, while the materials studied are silicon dioxide, silicon, photoresist, and silica-based low-k dielectrics. These systems were examined at different levels, ranging from in-depth treatment of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} plasma etch of oxide, to a fairly cursory examination of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} etch of the low-k dielectric. Simulations using these reaction mechanisms and AURORA, a zero-dimensional model, compare favorably with etch rates measured in three different experimental reactors, plus extensive diagnostic absolute density measurements of electron and negative ions, relative density measurements of CF, CF{sub 2}, SiF and SiF{sub 2} radicals, ion current densities, and mass spectrometric measurements of relative ion densities.

  3. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  4. Comparative electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes with different chemical functionalities for quantum dot attachment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Krueger, Michael, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de; Eck, Michael [Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Khler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to different chemically treated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A narrow EPR signal is visible at g?=?2.0029 in both GO and CNT-Oxide from carbon-related dangling bonds. EPR signals became broader and of lower intensity after oxygen-containing functionalities were reduced and partially transformed into thiol groups to obtain thiol-functionalized reduced GO (TrGO) and thiol-functionalized CNT (CNT-SH), respectively. Additionally, EPR investigation of CdSe quantum dot-TrGO hybrid material reveals complete quenching of the TrGO EPR signal due to direct chemical attachment and electronic coupling. Our work confirms that EPR is a suitable tool to detect spin density changes in different functionalized nanocarbon materials and can contribute to improved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticle hybrid nano-composites promising for various electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  5. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biomass and biofuel, and industrial processes. Nitrous oxide emissions related to biofuel, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a more useful quantity. The GWP of N2O is the time- integrated radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg

  6. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  7. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  8. A/M Area DNAPL characterization report for cores collected in 2Q99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas , K.M.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling activities were conducted in the second quarter of 1999 in the A/M Area to further delineate the soil contamination and potential areas of dense non-aqueous phase liquids below the water table emanating from the M-Basin. The purpose of the work was to further understand the subsurface contaminant distribution and to identify locations below the water table where aggressive DNAPL remediation technologies should be pursued.

  9. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

  10. Chemical bath method to grow precipitated nanorods of iridium oxide on alumina membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    for water splitting or methanol oxidation in fuel cells [11, 12]. The recent success in fabricating one considerable attention because of its stable elec- trical transport properties [3]. Endowed with lower

  11. Dresden Unit 2 hydrogen water chemistry: Chemical surveillance, oxide-film characterization, and recontamination during Cycle 10: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, C.P.; Peterson, J.P.; Robinson, R.N.; Sundberg, L.L.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides an Executive Summary of work performed under Project RP1930-7, BWR Hydrogen Water Chemistry - Chemical Surveillance. It describes the work performed to monitor chemical and radiological performance at Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 during Cycle 10, its second full fuel cycle on Hydrogen Water Chemistry. It includes the results of water chemistry measurements, shutdown gamma scan/dose rate measurements, and the results of stainless steel oxide film characterization. This experience at Dresden-2 continues to demonstrate that a plant can operate on Hydrogen Water Chemistry with only minor impact on plant parameters, compared with the beneficial effect on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of sensitized stainless steel components. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  13. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

  14. A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

  15. The aging of organic aerosol in the atmosphere : chemical transformations by heterogeneous oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The immense chemical complexity of atmospheric organic particulate matter ("aerosol") has left the general field of condensed-phase atmospheric organic chemistry relatively under-developed when compared with either gas-phase ...

  16. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs.

  17. An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    be burned pure in current internal combustion engines with similar performance to gasoline. Measurements Glaudeb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Ireland the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should

  18. Chemical and Physical Modification of Graphitic Materials by Oxidative Processes and Solvent Intercalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werke, Carrie Beth

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . ...................................................... 42 Figure 2.6 HOPG that has been freshly peeled (left) and exposed to UV/O3 (right). ...... 45 Figure 3.1 Raman spectra for HOPG (green) and UV/O3 oxidized HOPG (blue). .......... 58 Figure 3.2 Intensity of D/G ratio as a function of exposure time...

  19. Chemical Sinks of Organic Aerosol: Kinetics and Products of the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Erythritol and Levoglucosan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    The heterogeneous oxidation of pure erythritol (C[subscript 4]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 4]) and levoglucosan (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 5]) particles was studied in order to evaluate the effects of atmospheric ...

  20. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  1. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  2. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

  3. Electronic Structure, Oxidation State of Sn, and Chemical Stability of Photovoltaic Perovskite Variant Cs2SnI6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zewen; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cs2SnI6, a variant of perovskite CsSnI3, is expected for a photovoltaic material. Based on a simple ionic model, it is expected that Cs2SnI6 is composed of Cs+, I-, and Sn4+ ions and that the band gap is primarily made of occupied I- 5p6 valence band maximum (VBM) and unoccupied Sn4+ 5s conduction band minimum (CBM) similar to SnO2. In this work, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and revealed that the real charge state of the Sn ion in this compound is +2 similar to CsSnI3. This is due to strong covalent nature between the I ion and the Sn ion, the VBM consists of I 5p - I 5p antibonding states, and the CBM of I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states. The +2 oxidation state of Sn is realized by the apparent charge state of I-2/3, because the I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states form the unoccupied CBM and apparently 1/18 of the I 5p orbitals are unoccupied. These results are further supported by comparing chemical bonding analyses with those of related compounds. The chemical stability of the Cs2SnI...

  4. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

  5. Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultra Thin Uranium Oxide Films by Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivation for this project is due to more than 17 kg of HEU and 400 g of Pu have been interdicted through an international effort to control nuclear smuggling. Nuclear forensics - Detection and analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion or activities, which can contribute significantly for national security. Develop new nuclear forensic methods can be applied to: (a) Environmental swipes, (b) Small particulates, and (c) Thin films. Conclusions of the project are: (1) A unique approach: Neutron Reflectometry + Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; and (2) Detection of chemical speciation with {angstrom}-level resolution.

  6. Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING, In situ Biological Degradation, Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons, PAH, Field Trial, Groundwater Circulation Wells (GCW), Hydrogen Peroxide Introduction Heterocyclic hydrocarbons (NSO-HET) containing nitrogen (N

  7. Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7920 Received 7 January 1999; accepted 21 May 1999 Active sampling mass spectrometry has been used for process

  8. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer characterization samples: 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Keenan, M.A.; Van Pelt, R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Rossabi, J.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples were collected during the A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer Characterization (Phase I) Program. The samples were analyzed for chlorinated VOCs by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and MicroSeeps Ltd. All samples were sealed in the field immediately upon retrieval of the core and subsampling. A total of 113 samples locations were selected for analysis. The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of SRTC analyzed all locations in duplicate (226 samples). MicroSeeps Ltd was selected as the quality assurance (QA) check laboratory. MicroSeeps Ltd analyzed 40 locations with 4 duplicates (44 samples). The samples were collected from seven boreholes in A/M Area in the interval from 200 feet deep to the total depth of the boring (360 feet deep nominal); samples were collected every 10 feet within this interval. The sampling zone corresponds approximately to the Crouch Branch Aquifer in A/M Area. The overall A/M Area Crouch Branch Aquifer characterization objectives, a brief description of A/M Area geology and hydrology, and the sample locations, field notes, driller lithologic logs, and required procedural documentation are presented in WSRC (1993).

  9. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 12751935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.81.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  10. Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 510 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

  11. M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report. Second quarter 1995, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site during second quarter 1995. Topics include: changes in sampling, analysis, and reporting; water levels; remedial action of groundwater; and hydrology of the affected aquifer zones.

  12. Improvement of charge injection efficiency in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells by chemical modification of metal oxides with organic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudo, Naomi; Honda, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuta; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo; Benten, Hiroaki [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of chemical modification of metal oxide surface with dye molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid solid solar cells was studied by using double layered cells consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a flat layer of dense TiO{sub 2}. The external quantum efficiency of the chemically modified cell was nearly double that expected from the photosensitizing effect of the dye molecules. The additional increase shows that the chemical modification with dye molecules can serve not only as a photosensitizer but mainly as an energy funnel and/or an electronic mediator to significantly improve the electron injection efficiency from P3HT to TiO{sub 2}.

  13. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Robert F.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CIGS) or plastic substrates [1,2,8]. In this paper, we report on the deposition of aluminum- doped zinc

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River (USDOE) M-area, west unit (631-21g), Aiken, SC, September 11, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Remedial Investigation, indicate that the M-Area West unit poses no human health or the environment. Therefore, no action is needed at the M-Area West unit. Since M-Area West poses no threat to human health or the environment, and no action is needed, the CERCLA Section 121 requirements are not applicable. No five-year remedy review is needed or will be performed.

  15. M-area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report, First quarter 1995, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, in three volumes, describes the ground water monitoring and c corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the fourth quarter 1994 and first quarter 1995. Concise description of the program and considerable data documenting the monitoring and remedial activities are included in the document. This is Volume 1 covering the following topics: sampling and results; hydrogeologic assessment; water quality assessment; effectiveness of the corrective-action program; corrective-action system operation and performance; monitoring and corrective-action program assessment; proposed monitoring and corrective-action program modifications. Also included are the following appendicies: A-standards; B-flagging criteria; C-figures; D-monitoring results tables; E-data quality/usability assessment.

  16. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

  17. Determination of transport parameters of coincident inorganic and organic plumes in the Savannah River Plant M-Area, Aiken, South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauffman, Toya Lyn

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF TRANSPORT PARAMETERS OF COINCIDENT INORGANIC AND ORGANIC PLUMES IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT M-AREA, AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA A Thesis by TOYA. LYN CAUFFMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Geology DETERMINATION OF TRANSPORT PARAMETERS OF COINCIDENT INORGANIC AND ORGANIC PLUMES IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT M-AREA, AIKEN& SOUTH CAROLINA A Thesis...

  18. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  20. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  1. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  2. The Chemical Behavior and Degradation Mitigation Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Hampton, Michael [University of Florida; Seal, Sudipta [University of Central Florida; Cullen, David A [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, the polymer of choice for polymer electrolyte hydrogen fuel cells, are susceptible to degradation due to attacks on polymer chains from radicals. Mitigation of this attack by cerium-based radical scavengers is an approach that has shown promise. In this work, two formulations of single-crystal cerium oxide nanoparticles, with an order of magnitude difference in particle size, are incorporated into said membranes and subjected to proton conductivity measurements and ex-situ durability tests. We found that ceria is reduced to Ce(III) ions in the acidic environment of a heated, humidified membrane which negatively impacts proton conductivity. In liquid and gas Fenton testing, fluoride emission is reduced by an order of magnitude, drastically increasing membrane longevity. Side-product analysis demonstrated that in the liquid Fenton test, the main point of attack are weak polymer end groups, while in the gas Fenton test, there is additional side-chain attack. Both mechanisms are mitigated by the addition of the ceria nanoparticles, whereby the extent of the durability improvement is found to be independent of particle size.

  3. Comprehensive chemical kinetic modeling of the oxidation of C8 and larger n-alkanes and 2-methylalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Togbe, C; Dagaut, P; Wang, H; Oehlschlaeger, M; NIemann, U; Seshadri, K; Veloo, P S; Ji, C; Egolfopoulos, F; Lu, T

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed and reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for singly methylated iso-alkanes (i.e., 2-methylalkanes) ranging from C{sub 8} to C{sub 20}. The mechanism also includes an updated version of our previously published C{sub 8} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes model. The complete detailed mechanism contains approximately 7,200 species 31,400 reactions. The proposed model is validated against new experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices including premixed and nonpremixed flames, perfectly stirred reactors and shock tubes. This new model is used to show how the presence of a methyl branch affects important combustion properties such as laminar flame propagation, ignition, and species formation.

  4. Vadose Zone Remediation Assessment: M-Area Process Sewer Soil Vapor Extraction Units 782-5M, 782-7M, and 782-8M

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B.D.

    2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on the status of the vadose zone remediation along 1600 ft of the process sewer line between the M-Area security fence and the M-Area settling basin. Three soil vapor extraction (SVE) units 782-5M, 782-7M, and 782-8M, connected to 4 vertical wells and 3 horizontal wells have been addressing the vadose zone volatile organic contamination (VOC) since 1995. The specific objectives of this study were to obtain soil gas and sediment samples, evaluate SVE units and vadose zone remediation, and make recommendations to address further remediation needs.

  5. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwate Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report, First and Second Quarters 1998, Volumes I, II, & III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah river Site (SRS) during first and second quarters 1998. This program is required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Report requirements are described in the 1995 RCRA Renewal Permit, effective October 5, 1995, Section IIIB.H.11.b for the M-Area HWMF and Section IIIG.H.11.b for the Met Lab HWMF.

  6. Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    -of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S

  7. Influence of oxide impurities on the chemical tuning of the thermoelectric properties of substitution derivatives of RuIn{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner-Reetz, Maik, E-mail: Maik.Wagner@cpfs.mpg.de; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Schmidt, Marcus; Grin, Yuri, E-mail: Juri.Grin@cpfs.mpg.de

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic investigation on tuning the charge carrier concentration by substitution of the Ru position in RuIn{sub 3} is performed. Samples with nominal composition Ru{sub 0.95}T{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (T=Re, Rh, Ir) were synthesized via liquidsolid-reaction and subsequent spark plasma sintering treatment. The chemical composition was characterized by X-ray, metallographic and microstructure analysis revealing solid solutions in the samples with Rh and Ir, whereas Re cannot be incorporated in RuIn{sub 3}. Minor oxide impurities in the commercially available starting elements, the homogeneity range of RuIn{sub 3} and the redox potentials of the participating elements are the key for interpreting the observed lattice parameters and the corresponding composition. Both, substitutions with Rh or Ir and Re inclusions in RuIn{sub 3} lead independently to a significant decrease of the total thermal conductivity down to approximately one half of the value observed for binary RuIn{sub 3}, prepared with commercially available starting materials. The electrical resistivity was reduced by substitution and the temperature dependence changes from semiconductor-like, for RuIn{sub 3}, to metal-like in the substitution derivatives. At the same time the sign change in the thermopower at high temperatures, characteristic for binary RuIn{sub 3}, is suppressed, attaining only electrons as majority carriers. - Graphical abstract: Microstructure (perpendicular to the pressure axis; polarized light) of polycrystalline Ru{sub 0.95}Rh{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (a), Ru{sub 0.95}Ir{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (b) and Ru{sub 0.95}Re{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (c) samples after SPS treatment. - Highlights: Substitution solid solutions of RuIn{sub 3} were prepared via liquidsolid-reaction. Chemistry of oxide impurities is crucial for explanation of experimental results. Thermodynamic calculations support the observation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ZnO as impurities. Electrical resistivity is reduced by substitution. Temperature dependence of resistivity changes from semiconductor- to metal-like.

  8. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site.

  9. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  10. Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal Reduction of the Resulting Chemical Society ABSTRACT Graphite oxide was exfoliated and dispersed in propylene carbonate (PC) by bath

  11. activated carbon chemically: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A: Chemical 118 (1997) 215-222 Chemical activities of graphitic carbon spheres Materials Science Websites Summary: the MVOCC process 8. Transition-metal oxides andor rare...

  12. Characterization Activities to Evaluate Chlorinated Solvent Discharges to Tims Branch from the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.G.

    2001-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to identify those regions of plume outcrop along Tims Branch southeast of A/M Area and to establish fixed monitoring points along the seepline to evaluate proposed remediation needs and to support long-term monitoring activities in the vicinity of the seepline. The characterization approach employed in completing these tasks was dynamic and graded. Three stages of characterization were used to evaluate the outcrop region, with the results from each of the previous activities used to direct subsequent characterization.

  13. Chemical and structural investigation of the role of both Mn and Mn oxide in the formation of manganese silicate barrier layers on SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Lozano, J. G.; Nellist, P. D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, Mn silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) barrier layers were formed on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} using both metallic Mn and oxidized Mn films, in order to investigate the role of oxygen in determining the extent of the interaction between the deposited Mn and the SiO{sub 2} substrate. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been shown that a metallic Mn film with an approximate thickness of 1 nm cannot be fully converted to Mn silicate following vacuum annealing to 500 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggests the maximum MnSiO{sub 3} layer thickness obtainable using metallic Mn is {approx}1.7 nm. In contrast, a {approx}1 nm partially oxidized Mn film can be fully converted to Mn silicate following thermal annealing to 400 deg. C, forming a MnSiO{sub 3} layer with a measured thickness of 2.6 nm. TEM analysis also clearly shows that MnSiO{sub 3} growth results in a corresponding reduction in the SiO{sub 2} layer thickness. It has also been shown that a fully oxidized Mn oxide thin film can be converted to Mn silicate, in the absence of metallic Mn. Based on these results it is suggested that the presence of Mn oxide species at the Mn/SiO{sub 2} interface facilitates the conversion of SiO{sub 2} to MnSiO{sub 3}, in agreement with previously published studies.

  14. Progress Update: M Area Closure

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cody, Tom

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A progress update of the Recovery Act at work at the Savannah River Site. The celebration of the first area cleanup completion with the help of the Recovery Act.

  15. 3Q/4Q99 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 1999 - Volumes I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1999.

  16. CHEMICAL STORAGE SEGREGATION GUIDELINES In order to store chemicals properly, they must be segregated based on the associated hazard. Never

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    CHEMICAL STORAGE SEGREGATION GUIDELINES In order to store chemicals properly, they must RECOMMENDED STORAGE METHOD CHEMICAL EXAMPLES INCOMPATIBLES SEE SAFETY DATA SHEETS IN ALL CASES Compressed a flammable gas cabinet for storage. Methane, Acetylene, Hydrogen Oxidizing and toxic compressed gases

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  18. Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)] [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Bertholdt, Horst-Otto [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany)] [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany); Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)] [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

  19. Method for producing chemical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  20. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  1. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  2. Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.

    Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays the amount of data to be processed. This work is a first example in feature extraction from tin-oxide sensors element array of tin-oxide sensors is presented. Results are extrapolated to other arrays of chemical

  3. ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid, December 2007 ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and...

  4. advanced oxidation process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics (more) Plaue, Jonathan 2013-01-01...

  5. advanced oxidation processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics (more) Plaue, Jonathan 2013-01-01...

  6. acid generate oxidative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst Materials Science Websites Summary: Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from...

  7. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  8. airway nitric oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  9. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  10. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  11. 3Q/4Q00 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, C.M. Sr.

    2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 2000. This program is required by South Carolina Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Permit SC1890008989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations.

  12. Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brook James

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective removal of toxic chemicals from water is a problem of increasing importance. Aqueous phase oxidation of dilute organic contaminants is an attractive alternative to separation and/or incineration for the treatment of waste water...

  13. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  14. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles W. Brullot a coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized to chemical treatments and biocompatible [12]. An impression of an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with a PEG

  15. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, its very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  16. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

  17. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  18. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  19. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krssig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H....

  20. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  1. Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum for understanding the fundamental chemical mechanisms underlying the selective oxidation of propene to acrolein to form acrolein, and acrolein desorption. The formation of -allyl intermediate is reversible

  2. Hydrazine-reduction of graphite-and graphene oxide Sungjin Park a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) particles, which were not exfoliated, and completely exfoliated individual graphene oxide platelets hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide platelets pro- duced agglomerates of exfoliated platelets, the reduction of GO particles produced particles that were not exfoliated. The degree of chemical reduction

  3. 2010sr29[M Area].doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartment of Energy09PaiviWednesday, October 20, 2010

  4. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  5. Biotreatment techniques get chemical help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizardo, K. (Solvay Interox, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological treatment methods for contaminated soils and groundwater, including landfarming, pump-and-treat bioreactors and in situ bioremediation, are using hydrogen peroxide (H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) as an oxidant to reduce cleanup time and save money. Some examples of how the chemical is being used include the following: recent studies indicate peroxygen compounds, such as calcium peroxide, can be used to chemically aerate soils in landfarming applications. Pump-and-treat bioreactor systems for treating halogenated aliphatics can use an H[sub 2]O[sub 2] solution to deliver oxygen to oxygen-deficient systems. The solution has proven effective for improving bioreactor efficiency during limited oxygen solubility; in situ peroxidation can be used to partially oxidize soil contaminants to reduce their toxicity and enhance their biodegradability in the unsaturated zone prior to in situ bioremediation.

  6. avulsion-induced oxidative stress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  7. aminoglycoside-mediated oxidative stress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  8. arsenic-induced oxidative stress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  9. acid-induced oxidative stress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  10. alcohol-induced oxidative stress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  11. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  12. Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, J. R.

    ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENT J. ROBERT HART, MANAGER, EPRI PULP & PAPER OFFICE, ATLANTA, GA ABSTRACT The composition of effluent from various pulping processes can exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical... an oxidation and photolysis process. AOP FEASIBILITY STUDY The application of AOP for the treatment of pulp mill effluent was demonstrated in an EPRI Co-funded Project (1). This Project had the industrial support of about twenty companies and utilities...

  13. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasby, R.D.; Hetherington, D.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.; Apblett, C.A.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface. 4 figs.

  14. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasby, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Apblett, Christopher A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface.

  15. Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and intact labels. Transportation in cylinder cart. Excessive amount of flammable gases Excessive amount of oxidizing gases Excessive amount of toxic gases #12;General Appearances / Housekeeping # Compliance Items containers. Excess empty chemical containers. Containers properly labeled and intact. Flammable Liquid

  16. Graphene Oxide as an Electrophile for Carbon Nucleophiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    The covalent, surface functionalization of graphene oxide with the malononitrile anion has been demonstrated. Once installed, these surface-bound molecular lynchpins can be chemically modified to increase the solubility ...

  17. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  18. Scalable enhancement of graphene oxide properties by thermally driven phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Scalable enhancement of graphene oxide properties by thermally driven phase transformation Priyank,2,4 * and Jeffrey C. Grossman1 * Chemical functionalization of graphene is promising for a variety of next-generation technologies. Although graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile material in this direction, its use is limited

  19. Tunable Electrical Conductivity of Individual Graphene Oxide Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implementation is its mass production, and the chemical exfoliation of graphite through oxidation. Alternative approaches to large-scale production of graphene, such as the thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide3 and the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite4 and expandable graphite5 powders, are also studied

  20. Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in termsUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical of the SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated

  1. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCH CAPABILITIES Thematerials | Center forChemical

  2. Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

  3. Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

  4. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  5. KrF-laser annealing of native oxides on GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Anderson, G.; Dunlavy, D.; Maggiore, C.; Hammond, R.B.; Stotlar, S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annealing of native oxides grown on GaAs has been performed using a pulsed KrF laser. This process allows the oxides to be heated to temperatures well above 350/sup 0/C without arsenic loss from the GaAs substrate. The physical, chemical, and electronic properties of the oxide are markedly changed by laser processing.

  6. SolGel Electrophoretic Deposition for the Growth of Oxide Nanorods**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    gel processing is a wet chemical route for the synthesis and processing of inorganic and organicinorganic hybrid materials. It is particularly useful in making complex metal oxides and temperature sensitive organicinorganic and Guozhong Cao* 1. Introduction Metal oxides, particularly complex metal oxides, are impor- tant materials

  7. Hole-blocking titanium-oxide/silicon heterojunction and its application to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hole-blocking titanium-oxide/silicon heterojunction and its application to photovoltaics Sushobhan-bandgap semiconducting heterojunctions on silicon. Here, we present a wide-bandgap heterojunction--between titanium oxide and crystalline silicon--where the titanium oxide is deposited via a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

  8. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  9. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  10. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  11. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  12. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  13. Computational Chemical Materials Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Home Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department through processing for improving their performance for engineering applications Use and develop with usable Chemical Electronic Optical Magnetic Transport, thermal and mechanical properties

  14. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

  15. chemical analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions....

  16. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results were obtained using an asbestos supported CuO-Cr203 catalyst. Venkataramam and his co-workers (66) studied the catalytic oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by the fluidized bed technique using a static bed of catalyst. Precipitated Ag20... in the air-ethylene ratio to maintain good yields of ethylene oxide. Wan (68) reported the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by use of a silver catalyst in a 5/16 dnch inner diameter stainless steel tube with a catalyst bed up to 30. 3 centimeters...

  17. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

  18. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides. Progress report, August 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  19. Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

  20. Chemical Management Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

  1. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andoxide lead

  2. PINS chemical identification software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Krebs, Kennth M.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for identifying a chemical compound. A neutron source delivers neutrons into the chemical compound. The nuclei of chemical elements constituting the chemical compound emit gamma rays upon interaction with the neutrons. The gamma rays are characteristic of the chemical elements constituting the chemical compound. A spectrum of the gamma rays is generated having a detection count and an energy scale. The energy scale is calibrated by comparing peaks in the spectrum to energies of pre-selected chemical elements in the spectrum. A least-squares fit completes the calibration. The chemical elements constituting the chemical compound can be readily determined, which then allows for identification of the chemical compound.

  3. Fluorescence based chemical sensors for corrosion detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.E. [LeTourneau Univ., Longview, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Agarwala, V.S. [Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Div., Patuxent River, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several fluorescent materials have been identified as possible corrosion sensing coatings. These are either redox or metal ion complex materials. The redox materials are nonfluorescent in the reduced state and become fluorescent upon oxidation. Incorporated into paint coatings, they provide an early warning of corrosive conditions at the metal or alloy surface. The metal ion complex materials only fluoresce when the organic compound complexes with metal ions such as those generated in corrosion reactions. Fluorescent materials have been incorporated into paint coatings and on metal surfaces for the detection of corrosion. Oxine reacts with aluminum oxide on corroded aluminum to give a fluorescence that can be photographed in UV light. Several other materials were found to have good fluorescence but cannot be reversibly oxidized or reduced at the present time. More work will be done with these compounds as well as with Schiff bases to develop new fluorescent chemical sensing materials for smart coating on alloy surfaces.

  4. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

  5. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  6. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  7. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, D. E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

  8. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  9. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  10. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung Y. (Westmont, IL); Lohan, Dirk (Chicago, IL); Elizabeth, Anne (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  11. The effects of emission of anthropogenic chemical species on chemical and physical properties of aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical studies have been carried out to examine the effects of chemically reactive trace gases emitted into the atmosphere on the evolution of chemical species concentrations, on the chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles, and on optical properties of aerosols. Argonne`s chemistry module has been modified by refining the treatment of gas-to-particle conversion. The changes in size distribution and chemical composition of aerosols are calculated with consideration of heteramolecular diffusion and coagulation. Results of the 24 h real-time simulation indicate that the maximum oxidation rate of sulfur dioxide is about 0.4% h{sup {minus}1}; that the total aerosol volume increases with the increase in relative humidity by as much as 36% (due mainly to the collection of sulfuric acid embryos by preexisting particles); and that the surface area, a measure of optical depth, increases with the increase in relative humidity by as much as 27%.

  12. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

  13. Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards a reagentless sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France Keywords: Molybdenum Silicate Reagentless developed a semi-autonomous method to detect silicate in aqueous samples. Molybdenum oxidation was used

  14. Thermo-mechanical modeling of a micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ie, Tze Yung Andrew, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell is currently being designed by the Micro-chemical Power Team(funded under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative(MURI) Research Program). In the current design a plate ...

  15. Perchlorate Degradation Using Partially Oxidized Titanium Ions and Ion Exchange Membrane Hybrid System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sung Hyuk

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Perchlorate has entered human and environmental food chains and has received a great deal of attention because of its toxicity to humans. In this study, chemical degradation of perchlorate was investigated using partially oxidized titanium ions (Ti2...

  16. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  17. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  18. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  19. Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:0012:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

  20. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    splitting, dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysis. Byhybrid devices such as dye sensitized solar cell-PEC hybrid

  1. CHEMICAL REDUCTION OF REFRACTORY OXIDES BY ATOMIC HYDROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by thermal energy atanic hydrogen has been investigated by00 2 is reduced by atomic hydrogen compared with A1 0 2 3 isof redudng AlP3 by atomic hydrogen can he ohtained from the

  2. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect of hydrogen treatment on the electronic properties ofof hydrogen treatment on the electronic properties of BiVOof hydrogen treatment on the TiO 2 electronic properties.

  3. Determination of chemical properties of a supported copper oxide catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Asok

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $) to the theoretioal oonsiderations upon whish the derivation of the B. E. T. equation is based, have bean made, tbe &. E. T, method (8) is still aooepted as giving reliable values for the surface area of an adsorbent. Esger~agg1EL3 Ngh~g pease (41) and Homfray... area of a catalyst ar adsorbent, Emmstt (15) des- cribed an apparatus of the constantmotums type, Modifications to this apparatus were suggested by ahura and Harld. ns (26~28) ~ One method used for the investigation of catalytic surfaoes consists...

  4. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a workingsealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a workingsealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a working

  5. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen generation, and can be possibly applied to other applications such as nanostructured tandem photovoltaic

  6. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for onboard Vehicular Hydrogen Storage, 2006, US Departmenttheir potential use as hydrogen storage materials. Recently,of Energy targets for hydrogen storage in transportation

  7. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    purity hydrogen gas (Praxair). Material Characterization:hydrogen gas (99.999%, Praxair). The white TiO 2 nanowirepurity N 2 (99.998%, Praxair). The initial oxygen content

  8. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The renewable solar energy is believed a potential solutionenergy density represents a clean, renewable and carbon-free burning fuel, which has the potentialenergy density, and represents a clean, renewable and carbon-free burning fuel, which has the potential

  9. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  10. Novel oxide-oxide fiber reinforced hot gas filter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to fabricate and test oxide fiber reinforced composite hot gas filter elements for advanced power generation systems. The level of mechanical durability exhibited by the currently available filters in field tests indicates that more rugged filters are required to meet the demands of large power generation systems. Furthermore, long term corrosion resistance of currently available filters has yet to be demonstrated in PFBC systems. The essential requirements of a composite material designed to meet the program objective for a toughened hot gas filter include the following: Stable continuous fiber; rigid porous matrix; engineered fiber-matrix interface; and cost effectiveness. Based on properties, availability, and cost, Mitsui`s ALMAX alumina fiber and 3M`s NEXTEL 610 alumina fiber were selected as the oxide reinforcement fibers. In order to meet the economic goals of the program it is essential that the cost and amount of continuous fiber be minimized. A four axis filament winder will be used to fabricate filter Preforms in a variety of fiber architectures. Carbon was used as the initial fiber coating because it was known to be resistant to the Processing chemicals. The coating was produced by pyrolysis of the resin based sizings on the continuous fibers. The matrix of the composite filter is comprised of chopped ceramic fiber. Saffil fiber was used for all compositions in this program.

  11. and Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    is constructing a new building that will house the Department of Chemical Engineering and the DepartmentBiological and Chemical Engineering Building #12;2 Biological and Chemical Engineering Building sta and Engineering Quad, the new building will be part of a neighborhood of four buildings that house a community

  12. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa

    1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  13. Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Developing Leaders of Innovation Department of Chemical Engineering #12;At the University of Virginia, we educate students in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering, giving them.Va. Department of Chemical Engineering benefit from a modern academic curriculum and state

  14. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  15. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail M. Labushev

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  16. PHYSICS DIVISION CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    PHYSICS DIVISION CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN 2008 Prepared by _________________________________________________ T. Mullen Physics Division Chemical Hygiene Officer Reviewed by ___________________________________________________ J. Woodring Site Chemical Hygiene Officer Approved

  17. Chin. Phys. B Vol. 20, No. 11 (2011) 113301 Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on chemically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chin. Phys. B Vol. 20, No. 11 (2011) 113301 Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on chemically modified graphene with aminophenyl groups for formic acid oxidation Yang Su-Dong( )a)b) , Shen Cheng functionalized by a nucleophilic ring-opening reaction between the epoxy groups of graphene oxide

  18. Effect of atmosphere change paths on the induced chemical expansion Valentin O.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ]. The same phenomenon is observed in other applications of non- stoichiometric oxide such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) [Yakabe2003, Fu2006]. In the POM process, the oxygen activity through the membrane may vary] for SOFC, proposed a numerical simulation model to analyse in steady state the chemical and thermal

  19. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  20. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  1. Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering June 2014 #12;Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 POLICY.......................................................................................... 2 2.1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER

  2. Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes Some otherwise chemically stable fluxes may decompose into suboxides in the presence of welding arcs, thereby providing higher levels of 0 2 in weld metal than those oxides which do not form suboxides ABSTRACT. The stability of metal

  3. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    n junction solar cell2,6,810 . Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as solgel thin-film deposition of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost

  4. Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachandran, Rajendran; Felix, Sathiyanathan [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Joshi, Girish M. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghupathy, Bala P.C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Research and Advanced Engineering Division (Materials), Renault Nissan Technology and Business Center India (P) Ltd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeong, Soon Kwan, E-mail: jeongsk@kier.re.kr [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. NaBH{sub 4} was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide.

  5. ISSN 1463-9076 Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    DOI: 10.1039/c2cp40754j In this work, we demonstrate the mechanism by which electronic charge for devising materials with smaller chemical expansion coefficients and for the reliability of the widely stresses and ultimately mechanical failure. Examples are solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components4

  6. Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet Vanderbilt Environmental.safety.vanderbilt.edu HIGHLY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTES Certain chemical wastes must be handled by special procedures due to their highly hazardous nature. These chemicals include expired isopropyl and ethyl ethers (these chemicals

  7. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    Emphasis in Nanotechnology · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Petroleum Engineering · ChemicalEngineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, materials, energy

  8. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    · ChemicalEngineering (Nanotechnology) Bachelor of Science 131 units · ChemicalEngineering(Petroleum38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, pharmaceutical

  9. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    in Nanotechnology · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Petroleum Engineering · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Polymers38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, pharmaceutical

  10. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMSStaffCerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation

  11. GEOMETRIC SINGULAR PERTURBATION ANALYSIS OF OXIDATION HEAT PULSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    - mation is negligible. Here, we employ a simple model for combustion, which takes into account oil reduction. 1. Introduction In situ combustion is a method of oil recovery that uses a chemical reaction, and oxidation or combustion is induced, a combustion front forms if heat loss to the surrounding rock for

  12. Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria Jena E. Johnsona,1 , Samuel M) The emergence of oxygen-producing (oxygenic) photosynthesis fundamentally transformed our planet; however biological innovation-- the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis (3, 4). Several bio- chemical attributes

  13. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  14. Nitrogen oxidizing in modeling of diesel engine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.; Merker, G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model of diesel engine operation based on the interconnected calculation of diesel fuel spray and the processes in the combustion chamber is extended for the calculation of Nitrogen oxidizing. A number of chemical reactions with O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, N, NO, OH, H, H{sub 2} are included in the model.

  15. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  16. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.; Piner, R.; Dommett, G.; Evmenenko, G.; Nguyen, S.; Ruoff, R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  18. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  19. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  20. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  1. Excimer laser chemical problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennant, R.; Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques need to be developed to maintain XeF and XeCl laser performance over long periods of time without degradation resulting from chemical processes occurring within the laser. The dominant chemical issues include optical damage, corrosions of laser materials, gas contamination, and control of halogen concentration. Each of these issues are discussed and summarized. The methods of minimizing or controlling the chemical processes involved are presented.

  2. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Sirivedhin; Tanita

    2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted in six major focus areas: (1) Evaluation of the process using 6 test soils with full chemical and physical characteristics to determine controlling factors for biodegradation and chemical oxidation; (2) Determination of the sequestration time on chemical treatment suspectability; (3) Risk factors, i.e. toxicity after chemical and biological treatment; (4) Impact of chemical treatment (Fenton's Reagent) on the agents of biodegradation; (5) Description of a new genus and its type species that degrades hydrocarbons; and (6) Intermediates generate from Fenton's reagent treatment of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. EMSL - chemical analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical-analysis en Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  4. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  5. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  6. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  7. Oxidative stress in K562 cells differentiation 1 OXIDATIVE STRESS INVOLVEMENT IN CHEMICALLY-INDUCED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ) and doxorubicin (DOX). When used at subtoxic concentration, these drugs induce the overexpression of erythroid with BA, ACLA and DOX lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase). In addition, DOX increased

  8. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    bonds, 2 to 10 ev). The methods that have revealed this richness and order of medium- and high-energy, mass spectrometry. While hot-atom studies overcome the energy limitations of thermochemical methods energies of a few electron volts. Most studies of chemical kinetics made by traditional thermochemical

  9. CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY ABBREVIATION CHEMICAL NAME HAZARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Corrosive - base LiCl Lithium chloride Harmful MeOH Methanol Flammable #12;CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY Irritant destain Methanol,acetic acid,H2O Flammable, Corrosive - acid DI H2O Deionized water DCM FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride Corrosive - acid FeSO4 Iron(II) sulfate Toxic H2O Water HCl Hydrochloric

  10. Computational studies of polysiloxanes : oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Zhang, Z.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon-containing solvents have tremendous potential for application as electrolytes for electrical energy storage devices such as lithium-ion (air) batteries and supercapacitors. Quantum chemical methods were employed to investigate trends in oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions of a series of polysiloxanes. Various electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents can be used to tune the oxidation potential in shorter chain siloxanes but not in longer ones. Decomposition reactions of siloxanes in their oxidized states were investigated and compared against their carbon analogues. These studies suggest that the Si-O group provides added stability for siloxanes over their carbon analogues. Computational studies have also been performed for various disiloxanes and siloxanes with spacer groups to understand their thermochemical stability and oxidation potentials.

  11. Oxidation of palladium on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill, M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Sutter, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lallo, J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Tenney, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of supported Pd-deposits on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) single crystals has been studied by x- ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Oxidation has been carried out ex-situ in a high-pressure cell with subsequent vacuum-transfer and characterization by XPS in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), as well as using in-situ characterization by synchrotron based near-ambient pressure XPS. On Au(111) alloying of Pd with the substrate competes with oxidation and only sufficiently thick Pd films have been found to oxidize. For Pd on ZnO the oxidation conditions depend on the amount of deposited Pd. Thicker Pd deposits behave similar to bulk Pd, while thinner films oxidize already at lower temperatures. Interestingly, for very small amounts of Pd, in-situ XPS shows full oxidation at room temperature and at less than 0.6 mbar O? pressure. This indicates a lowering of the kinetic barriers for oxidation of very small supported Pd-clusters. The formed oxide is, however, not stable in UHV and a slow reduction is observed. The instability of this oxide indicates that the Pd-oxide formed at the interface to ZnO may have different chemical properties compared to bulk PdO or surface oxides on Pd.

  12. Oxidation of palladium on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Batzill, M.; Sutter, P.; Lallo, J.; Tenney, S. A.

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of supported Pd-deposits on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) single crystals has been studied by x- ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Oxidation has been carried out ex-situ in a high-pressure cell with subsequent vacuum-transfer and characterization by XPS in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), as well as using in-situ characterization by synchrotron based near-ambient pressure XPS. On Au(111) alloying of Pd with the substrate competes with oxidation and only sufficiently thick Pd films have been found to oxidize. For Pd on ZnO the oxidation conditions depend on the amount of deposited Pd. Thicker Pd deposits behave similar to bulk Pd, while thinner filmsmoreoxidize already at lower temperatures. Interestingly, for very small amounts of Pd, in-situ XPS shows full oxidation at room temperature and at less than 0.6 mbar O? pressure. This indicates a lowering of the kinetic barriers for oxidation of very small supported Pd-clusters. The formed oxide is, however, not stable in UHV and a slow reduction is observed. The instability of this oxide indicates that the Pd-oxide formed at the interface to ZnO may have different chemical properties compared to bulk PdO or surface oxides on Pd.less

  13. Oxidation of palladium on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Batzill, M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Sutter, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lallo, J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Tenney, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of supported Pd-deposits on Au(111) and ZnO(0001) single crystals has been studied by x- ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Oxidation has been carried out ex-situ in a high-pressure cell with subsequent vacuum-transfer and characterization by XPS in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), as well as using in-situ characterization by synchrotron based near-ambient pressure XPS. On Au(111) alloying of Pd with the substrate competes with oxidation and only sufficiently thick Pd films have been found to oxidize. For Pd on ZnO the oxidation conditions depend on the amount of deposited Pd. Thicker Pd deposits behave similar to bulk Pd, while thinner films oxidize already at lower temperatures. Interestingly, for very small amounts of Pd, in-situ XPS shows full oxidation at room temperature and at less than 0.6 mbar O? pressure. This indicates a lowering of the kinetic barriers for oxidation of very small supported Pd-clusters. The formed oxide is, however, not stable in UHV and a slow reduction is observed. The instability of this oxide indicates that the Pd-oxide formed at the interface to ZnO may have different chemical properties compared to bulk PdO or surface oxides on Pd.

  14. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  15. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  16. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  17. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  18. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  19. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Wendy

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical ...

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Wendy

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

  1. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S. [HeteroFoaM Center, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States); Chu, Yong S. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 703 Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Yi, Jaemock [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Bldg. 438-B007 Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., MS 69 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  2. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  3. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary...

  4. ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

  5. Safety Issues Chemical Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Safety Issues Chemical Storage Store in compatible containers that are in good condition to store separately. #12;Safety Issues Flammable liquid storage -Store bulk quantities in flammable storage cabinets -UL approved Flammable Storage Refrigerators are required for cold storage Provide

  6. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfate of either sodium, potassium, lithium, rubidium or cesium. The active agent was prepared in the form of a slurry which was deposited on the carrier by agitating the two materials together. The carrier was alumina or silicon carbide. Oxidation... welded on each end. On the bottom of the tank was a drain connection which was closed; the tank also contained a thermometer well. The tank was connected to the vent system through a needle valve and also through a safety valve which was set...

  7. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  8. Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Woldman, Cornell University, 2009 SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Milhans Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air side life of the fuel cell. An ideal sealant is chemically compatible with neighboring fuel cell components

  9. Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite be prepared via an exfoliation/in-situ reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium 4 prepare graphite nanoplatelets via the chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide nanoplatelets

  10. Mass Spectral Evidence That Small Changes in Composition Caused by Oxidative Aging Processes Alter Aerosol CCN Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass Spectral Evidence That Small Changes in Composition Caused by Oxidative Aging Processes Alter that small changes in particle chemical composition caused by oxidation could increase the CCN activity increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity compared to their hydro- phobic counterparts. At present

  11. Chemical interaction matrix between reagents in a Purex based process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brahman, R.K.; Hennessy, W.P. [Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (United States); Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the responsible entity for the disposal of the United States excess weapons grade plutonium. DOE selected a PUREX-based process to convert plutonium to low-enriched mixed oxide fuel for use in commercial nuclear power plants. To initiate this process in the United States, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is under construction and will be operated by Shaw AREVA MOX Services at the Savannah River Site. This facility will be licensed and regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A PUREX process, similar to the one used at La Hague, France, will purify plutonium feedstock through solvent extraction. MFFF employs two major process operations to manufacture MOX fuel assemblies: (1) the Aqueous Polishing (AP) process to remove gallium and other impurities from plutonium feedstock and (2) the MOX fuel fabrication process (MP), which processes the oxides into pellets and manufactures the MOX fuel assemblies. The AP process consists of three major steps, dissolution, purification, and conversion, and is the center of the primary chemical processing. A study of process hazards controls has been initiated that will provide knowledge and protection against the chemical risks associated from mixing of reagents over the life time of the process. This paper presents a comprehensive chemical interaction matrix evaluation for the reagents used in the PUREX-based process. Chemical interaction matrix supplements the process conditions by providing a checklist of any potential inadvertent chemical reactions that may take place. It also identifies the chemical compatibility/incompatibility of the reagents if mixed by failure of operations or equipment within the process itself or mixed inadvertently by a technician in the laboratories. (aut0010ho.

  12. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H. [Hitachi Power Systems America, Basting Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  15. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  16. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  17. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  18. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Udo [Yale University

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  19. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Art J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Roussel, Paul [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  20. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria)] [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  1. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

  2. Concentrated formulations and methods for neutralizing chemical and biological toxants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.; Tadros, Maher E.

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A formulation and method of making and using that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological toxants, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The aqueous formulation is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered as a long-lasting foam, spray, or fog. The formulation includes solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the CW or BW toxant susceptible to attack, so that a nucleophillic agent can attack the compound via a hydrolysis or oxidation reaction. The formulation can kill up to 99.99999% of bacterial spores within one hour of exposure.

  3. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  4. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  5. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z (n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  6. Appendix G. Chemicals Appendix G. Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals chemicals result from the direct or indirect actions of humans. Build- ing materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation materials), asbestos

  7. Appendix H. Chemicals Appendix H. Chemicals H-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals chemicals result from the direct or indirect actions of humans. Build- ing materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation materials), asbestos

  8. PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    phenomena in nature and technology. The chemical engineer leverages knowledge of molecular processes across1 PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering Bylaws Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering College of Engineering and Architecture Approved by Voiland School faculty

  9. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  10. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type Tubular SOFC Planar SOFC MCFC PEM Reformer Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions H2 electrochemically oxidized only CO consumed

  11. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

  12. Modeling of Spent Fuel Oxidation at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile [Department of Physico Chemistry, CEA, Gif sur Yvette, 91191 (France); Desgranges, Lionel [Department of Spent Fuel Studies, CEA, St Paul lez Durance, 13108 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During dry storage, the oxidation of the spent fuel in case of cladding and container failure (accidental scenario) could be detrimental for further handling of the spent fuel rod and for the safety of the facilities. Depending on whether the uranium dioxide is under the form of powder or pellet, irradiated or unirradiated, the weight gain curves do not present the same shape. To account for these different behaviours, two models have been developed. Firstly, the oxidation of unirradiated powders has been modelled based on the coexistence, during the oxidation, of two intermediate products, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The comparison between the calculation and the literature data is good in terms of weight gain curves and chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen within the two phases. Secondly, the oxidation of spent fuel fragments is approached by a convolution procedure between a grain oxidation model and an empirical parameter which represents the linear oxidation speed of grain boundary or an average distance able to cover the entire spent fuel fragment. This procedure of calculation allows in one hand to account for the incubation period noticed on unirradiated pellets or spent fuel and in another hand to link the empirical parameter to physical as porosity, cracks or linear power, or operational parameters such as fission gas release (FGR) respectively. A comparison of this new modelling with experimental data will be proposed. (authors)

  13. 668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Chemical Sensors and Electronic Noses Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    and Electronic Noses Based on 1-D Metal Oxide Nanostructures Po-Chiang Chen, Guozhen Shen, and Chongwu Zhou warfare agents is important to human health and safety. Thus, the development of chemical sensors- trial gases, chemical warfare agents, and human breath. In this review, we provide an overview

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G-31 Fluorocarbonhydrocarbons, and (3) fluorocarbon solvents. However, aHigh Hazard Chemicals Fluorocarbon Solvents Fluorocarbon

  18. November 2006 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    .0 DEPARTMENTAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT 4.1 CHEMISTRY SAFETY COMMITTEE 4.2 TRAINING 4.3 CHEMICAL SAFETY PROTOCOLS 4.2 CHEMICAL HAZARD INFORMATION 6.3 CHEMICAL STORAGE IN LABORATORIES 6.4 WORKING WITH PARTICULARLY HAZARDOUS PROCEDURES 6.8 CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL 6.9 COMPRESSED GASES 6.10 CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS #12;November 2006 3 6

  19. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  20. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  1. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  2. Optically transparent yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnett, T.; Greenberg, M.; Gentilman, R.L.

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A body is described comprising at least 99.9% yttrium oxide having a density of at least 99% of theoretically density, a sample of the body having a in-line transmission of at least 73%, over a wavelength range of 2-5 microns with the sample having a thickness of 0.375 inches.

  3. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  4. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  5. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  6. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  7. Perform Tests and Document Results and Analysis of Oxide Layer Effects and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E. D. [ORNL; DelCul, G. D. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL; Hunt, R. D. [ORNL; Ausmus, C. [ORNL

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During the initial feasibility test using actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding in FY 2012, an incubation period of 3045 minutes was observed in the initial dry chlorination. The cladding hull used in the test had been previously oxidized in a dry air oxidation pretreatment prior to removal of the fuel. The cause of this incubation period was attributed to the resistance to chlorination of an oxide layer imparted by the dry oxidation pretreatment on the cladding. Subsequently in 2013, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) reported on their chlorination study [R1] on ~9-gram samples of unirradiated ZirloTM cladding tubes that had been previously oxidized in air at 500oC for various time periods to impart oxide layers of varying thickness. In early 2014, discussions with Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracted technical consultants from Westinghouse described their previous development (and patents) [R2] on methods of chemical washing to remove some or all of the hydrous oxide layer imparted on UNF cladding during irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) . Thus, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study, described herein, was planned to extend the KAERI study on the effects of anhydrous oxide layers, but on larger ~100-gram samples of unirradiated zirconium alloy cladding tubes, and to investigate the effects of various methods of chemical pretreatment prior to chlorination with 100% chlorine on the average reaction rates and Cl2 usage efficiencies.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS SLUDGE SIMULANTS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.

    2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) tank closure. After bulk waste removal, the ECC process can be used to dissolve and remove much of the remaining sludge from HLW tanks. The ECC process uses dilute oxalic acid (1 wt %) with in-line pH monitoring and control. The resulting oxalate is decomposed through hydroxylation using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Minimizing the amount of oxalic acid used for dissolution and the subsequent oxidative destruction of oxalic acid will minimize the potential for downstream impacts. Initial efficacy tests by AREVA demonstrated that previous tank heel simulants could be dissolved using dilute oxalic acid. The oxalate could be decomposed by an AOP that utilized ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the resultant metal oxides and hydroxides could be separated out of the process.

  9. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  10. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  11. Influence of pH condition on colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide by electrostatic repulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Long-Yue [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A facile chemical process is described to produce graphene oxide utilizing a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide sheets. 11-aminoundecanoic acid molecules were protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphite oxide sheets to achieve ion exchange, and the carboxyl groups were then ionized in a NaOH solution to exfoliate the graphite oxide sheets. In this way, the produced graphene oxide nanosheets were stably dispersed in water. The delaminated graphene nanosheets were confirmed by XRD, AFM, and TEM. XRD patterns indicated the d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite greatly increased from 0.380 nm and 0.870 nm. AFM and TEM images showed that the ordered graphite crystal structure of graphene nanosheets was effectively exfoliated by this method. The prepared graphene nanosheets films showed 87.1% transmittance and a sheet resistance of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} {Omega}/square. - Graphical abstract: A stable graphene oxide suspension could be quickly prepared by exfoliating a graphite oxide suspension by a host-guest electrostatic repulsion in aqueous solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene nanosheets were prepared by a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 11-aminoundecanoic acid was protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphene oxide to achieve ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite oxide greatly increased from 0.330 nm to 0.415 nm after 11-aminoundecanoic acid treatment.

  12. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  13. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  14. Fundamental study on recovery uranium oxide from HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumida, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Matsumoto, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Iba, H. [Hitachi Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Noguchi, Y. [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large numbers of spent HEPA filters are produced at uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Uranium oxide particles have been collected on these filters. Then, a spent HEPA filter treatment system was developed from the viewpoint of recovering the UO{sub 2} and minimizing the volume. The system consists of a mechanical separation process and a chemical dissolution process. This paper describes the results of fundamental experiments on recovering UO{sub 2} from HEPA filters.

  15. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Abstract: Graphene...

  16. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of how catalyst composition, redox ability, and structure control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Oxide systems that permit examination of the role of metal oxide cations separately and in pairwise combinations are being developed. Organometallic complexes containing C{sub 3}-allyl, cyclopentadienyl, or carbonyl ligands are exchanged with the hydroxide ligands of silica, alumina, titania, zirconia and magnesia supports. The exchange technique is used to achieve high metal oxide loadings without the formation of supported crystallites over silica. The organometallic route may also lead to oxygen-bridged cations and/or cation pairs over the supports prior to full oxidation. The anchored complex is subsequently oxidized to generate a supported oxide. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Molecular accessibility in oxidized and dried coals. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to determine the molecular and structural changes that occur in swelled coal as a result of oxidation and moisture loss both in the presence and absence of light using the newly developed EPR spin probe method. The proposed study will make it possible to deduce the molecular accessibility distribution in swelled, oxidized APCS coal for each rank as a function of (1) size (up to 6 nm) and shape, (2) the relative acidic/basic reactive site distributions, and (3) the role of hydrogen bonding as a function of swelling solvents. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape, size and chemical reactivity to be used as probes of molecular accessible regions of swelled coal. From such data an optimum catalyst can be designed to convert oxidized coal into a more convenient form and methods can be devised to lessen the detrimental weathering processes.

  18. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  19. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  20. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  1. Chemical and Biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    - nology fields where they can test the side effects of antibiotics or develop agricultural chemicals clean drinking water to a village in Kenya, a country experiencing its worst drought in 20 years," said and three collab- orating institutions to improve the manufacture of pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural

  2. Formation of ozone and oxidation of methane in a direct current corona discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tangirala, Umashanker

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FORMATION OF OZONE AND OXIDATION OF METHANE IN A DIRECT CURRENT CORONA DISCHARGE A Thesis by UMASHANKER TANGIRALA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering FORMATION OF OZONE AND OXIDATION OF METHANE IN A DIRECT CURRENT CORONA DISCHARGE A Thesis by UMASHANKER TANGIRALA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ( ad of Department...

  3. Vibrational spectra of CO adsorbed on oxide thin films: A tool to probe the surface defects and phase changes of oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savara, Aditya, E-mail: savaraa@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of iron oxide were grown on Pt(111) single crystals using cycles of physical vapor deposition of iron followed by oxidative annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Two procedures were utilized for film growth of ?1530 ML thick films, where both procedures involved sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. In procedure 1, the iron oxide film was fully grown via sequential deposition+oxidation cycles, and then the fully grown film was exposed to a CO flux equivalent to 8 10{sup ?7} millibars, and a vibrational spectrum of adsorbed CO was obtained using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO from multiple preparations using procedure 1 show changes in the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defectssome of which are correlated with another phase that forms (phase B), even before enough of phase B has formed to be easily detected using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). During procedure 2, CO vibrational spectra were obtained between deposition+oxidation cycles, and these spectra show that the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects changed as a function of sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. The authors conclude that measurement of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on oxide thin films provides a sensitive tool to probe chemical changes of defects on the surface and can thus complement LEED techniques by probing changes not visible by LEED. Increased use of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on thin films would enable better comparisons between films grown with different procedures and by different groups.

  4. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Nonisostructural complex oxide heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Franklin J., E-mail: fwong@seas.harvard.edu; Ramanathan, Shriram [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present an overview of the fundamentals and representative examples of the growth of epitaxial complex oxide thin films on structurally dissimilar substrates. The authors will delineate how the details of particular crystal structures and symmetry of different oxide surfaces can be employed for a rational approach to the synthesis of nonisostructural epitaxial heterostructures. The concept of oxygen eutaxy can be widely applied. Materials combinations will be split into three categories, and in all cases the films and substrates occur in different crystal structures: (1) common translational and rotational symmetry between the film and substrate planes; (2) translational symmetry mismatch between the substrates and films that is distinct from a simple mismatch in lattice parameters; and (3) rotational symmetry mismatch. In case (1), in principle single-crystalline thin films can be attained despite the films and substrates possessing different crystal structures. In case (2), antiphase boundaries will be prevalent in the thin films. In case (3), thin-film rotational variants that are joined by tilt boundaries will be present. Diffraction techniques to determine crystallographic alignment and epitaxial variants are discussed, and transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate extended defects in the thin films will also be reviewed. The authors end with open problems in this field regarding the structure of oxide interfaces that can be topics for future research.

  6. Formulations for neutralization of chemical and biological toxants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadros, Maher E.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The formulation of the present invention non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The at least one reactive compound can be an oxidizing compound, a nucleophilic compound or a mixture of both. The formulation can kill up to 99.99999% of bacterial spores within one hour of exposure.

  7. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

  8. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sren; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The ngstrm Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.510 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  9. Chemical Sciences Division annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains sections on the following topics: photochemistry of materials in the stratosphere, energy transfer and structural studies of molecules on surfaces, crossed molecular beams, molecular interactions, theory of atomic and molecular collision processes, selective photochemistry, photodissociation of free radicals, physical chemistry with emphasis on thermodynamic properties, chemical physics at the high photon energies, high-energy atomic physics, atomic physics, high-energy oxidizers and delocalized-electron solids, catalytic hydrogenation of CO, transition metal-catalyzed conversion of CO, NO, H{sub 2}, and organic molecules to fuels and petrochemicals, formation of oxyacids of sulfur from SO{sub 2}, potentially catalytic and conducting polyorganometallics, actinide chemistry, and molecular thermodynamics for phase equilibria in mixtures.

  10. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Appendix G. Chemicals Appendix G. Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  12. Appendix G: Chemicals Appendix G: Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  13. Appendix H: Chemicals Appendix H: Chemicals H-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  14. Appendix B: Chemicals Appendix B: Chemicals B-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  15. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  16. A Big Response to a Small Problem: Identifying the Oxidative Potential of Nanomaterials and the Physicochemical Characteristics That Play a Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, James Michael

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of nanoparticles influential in toxicological studies, surface properties of metal oxide and carbonaceous nanoparticles were measured. These properties include zeta potential, dissolution and surface-bound chemical components. Subsequently, the role...

  17. Evaluation of thermal stresses in planar solid oxide fuel cells as a function of thermo-mechanical properties of component materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manisha,

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are the direct energy conversion devices which convert the chemical energy of a fuel to electrical energy with much greater efficiency than conventional devices. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is one of the various types of available fuel...

  18. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  19. AGRI-SCIENCE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photosynthetic efficiency Improve chemical agronomic and agro-ecological control measures Modelling through translation of chemical biology tools and technologies Control weeds, disease and pests Minimise a platform to steer future research and policy directions. Encourage external outreach to engage

  20. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Hazardous or Other Location LBL On-Site Bldgs.hazardous chemicals usedin the laboratory: and (v} The locationhazardous chemicals are present: and. (irl}The location and

  1. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  2. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  3. Published: July 18, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 7388 dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic201396m |Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 73887390

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    and MOF-48 are found to have high catalytic activity and chemical stability. They convert methane selec the oxidation of methane directly to AA with 70% yield using K2S2O8 as an oxidant (yields based on K2S2O8), 175Published: July 18, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 7388 dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic201396m |Inorg

  4. Graphene oxide nanocomposites and their electrorheology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin, E-mail: hjchoi@inha.ac.kr

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: GO-based PANI, NCOPA and PS nanocomposites are prepared. The nanocomposites are adopted as novel electrorheological (ER) candidates. Their critical ER characteristics and dielectric performance are analyzed. Typical ER behavior widens applications of GO-based nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), a novel one-atom carbon system, has become one of the most interesting materials recently due to its unique physical and chemical properties in addition to graphene. This article briefly reviews a recent progress of the fabrication of GO-based polyaniline, ionic N-substituted copolyaniline and polystyrene nanocomposites. The critical electrorheological characteristics such as flow response and yield stress from rheological measurement, relaxation time and achievable polarizability from dielectric analysis are also analyzed.

  5. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  6. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  7. OSHA List of Hazardous Chemicals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AS CR CALCIUM CYANAMIDE CALCIUM CYCLAMATE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM OXIDE CALCIUM SILICATE CALCIUM SULFATE CAMPHOR, SYNTHETIC CAPROLACTAM DUST CAPROLACTAM VAPOR CAPTAFOL CAPTAN...

  8. Cotton Harvest-Aid Chemicals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzer, Robert B.; Supak, James

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Application Managing Harvest-Aid Program Secondary Growth Insect Control Care of Equipment Safety with Chemicals Guide for Using Cotton Harvest Aids Defoliants Desiccants Mixtures Plant Regulators-Conditioners 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 COTTON... HARVEST-AID CHEMICALS Robert B. Metzer and James Supak* As the name implies, harvest-aid chemicals pre pare the cotton crop for harvest by reducing foliage and plant moisture that interfere with harvesting operations. Harvest-aid chemicals...

  9. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL] [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p- hydroxyphenyl (H). It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular-weight lignin polymers, and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di- and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p- electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages ( - or -5) react poorly and tend to cap the polymer. In general, -5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  10. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  11. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  12. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research University of California at Santa Barbara Spectroscopy Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR

  13. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs______________________19 #12;3 Introduction 10/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information

  14. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNews : AMFAlaskaNewsOxides of Nitrogen

  15. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  16. Chemical & Engineering Materials | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Engineering Materials SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in Chemical and Engineering Materials strives to understand the...

  17. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  18. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  19. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederick A. (Andersonville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  20. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  1. Tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene and silicon oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uar, A.; opuro?lu, M.; Suzer, S., E-mail: suzer@fen.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Baykara, M. Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ar?kan, O. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and silicon oxide surfaces. A simple rig was designed to bring about a friction between the surfaces via sliding a piece of PTFE on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer specimen. A very mild inclination (?0.5) along the sliding motion was also employed in order to monitor the tribological interaction in a gradual manner as a function of increasing contact force. Additionally, some patterns were sketched on the silicon oxide surface using the PTFE tip to investigate changes produced in the hydrophobicity of the surface, where the approximate water contact angle was 45 before the transfer. The nature of the transferred materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XPS results revealed that PTFE was faithfully transferred onto the silicon oxide surface upon even at the slightest contact and SEM images demonstrated that stable morphological changes could be imparted onto the surface. The minimum apparent contact pressure to realize the PTFE transfer is estimated as 5 kPa, much lower than reported previously. Stability of the patterns imparted towards many chemical washing processes lead us to postulate that the interaction is most likely to be chemical. Contact angle measurements, which were carried out to characterize and monitor the hydrophobicity of the silicon oxide surface, showed that upon PTFE transfer the hydrophobicity of the SiO{sub 2} surface could be significantly enhanced, which might also depend upon the pattern sketched onto the surface. Contact angle values above 100 were obtained.

  2. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  3. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro Micro-solid oxide fuel cell Thin films Butane reformation Chemical micro-reactors Thermally independent fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable

  4. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  5. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  6. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  7. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  8. Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic Feet) Cameron,Chemicals

  9. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof EnergyPublic LawEnergyEnhanced Chemical Cleaning

  10. Sandia Energy - Chemical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInApplied & ComputationalBriefChemical

  11. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  12. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, with have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure range 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.

  13. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  15. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  16. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  17. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  18. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Universit de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  19. Chemicals for Plant Disease Control at Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Kevin

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    common chemical names and the corresponding chemical name for each active ingredient. Kevin Ong* ?Assistant Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist, The Texas A&M University System Table 1. Plant disease control chemicals. Common name Chemical name 1...

  20. P-31 / Schlott P-31: Nodule Formation on Indium-Oxide Tin-Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P-31 / Schlott P-31: Nodule Formation on Indium-Oxide Tin-Oxide Sputtering Targets M. Schlott, M from indium-oxide tin-oxide (ITO) targets [1]. Unfor- tunately, black growths, or nodules, commonly isostatic pressing partly reduced powder mixtures of 90 wt.% indium-oxide and 10 wt.% tin-oxide [4

  1. N-Alkyl-polyethylenimine 2 kDastabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI cell tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    nanoparticles need to be coated with organic polymers or other materials for efficient cell labeling. This surface coating increases the stability of SPIO nanoparticles and allows further chemical modificationsN-Alkyl-polyethylenimine 2 kDastabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI cell

  2. 1 Electrospun Polyethylene Oxide/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite 2 Nanofibrous Mats with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    property, and excellent flexibility for 32 chemical/physical surface functionalization. Hence, electrospun nanoparticles into polymer matrices is one 47 technique that has been developed and used as one of the most 48(acrylic acid) (PAA),14 polyethylene oxide (PEO),15 poly(lactic 57acid) (PLA),16,17 polystyrene (PS),18

  3. PROOF COPY 501138JCP Polarization interactions and boroxol ring formation in boron oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1401817 I. INTRODUCTION Boron oxide chemical formula B2O3 is a network- served by inelastic neutron scattering,1,2 nuclear magnetic resonance,36 nuclear quadrupole resonance,7 to not reveal such structures.2533 A reverse Monte Carlo study34 has shown that a high percentage of boroxol

  4. Polarization Interactions and Boroxol Ring Formation in Boron Oxide: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    is favored. I. Introduction Boron oxide [chemical formula B 2 O 3 ] is a network glassformer. The short scattering (1,2), nuclear magnetic resonance (36), nuclear quadrupole resonance (79), Raman scattering (10 such structures (2533). A reverse Monte Carlo study (34) has shown that a high percentage of boroxol rings cannot

  5. Computational Prediction of One-Electron Reduction Potentials and Acid Dissociation Constants for Guanine Oxidation Intermediates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT, and cellular death.1-9 Among the canonical nucleobases, guanine is well-known to be the most susceptible at a constant pH of 7 (E7). Redox potentials were obtained by chemical oxidation and kinetic rate measurements

  6. Individual Single-Walled Nanotubes and Hydrogels Made by Oxidative Exfoliation of Carbon Nanotube Ropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen-bonded nanotube network. The oxidized tubes bind readily to amine been demonstrated. They have been successfully used in nanoelectronic2 and photovoltaic3 devices and as scanning probe tips,9 chemical10a and flow10b sensors, hydrogen-storage reservoirs,11 nanocomposite

  7. Laser Ablation Synthesis and Electron Transport Studies of Tin Oxide Nanowires**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    and solar cells.[79] In addition, SnO2 thin films have been extensively studied and used as chemical-dimensional metal oxide nanowires, such as In2O3,[1] ZnO,[2] SnO2,[3] CdO,[4] and CuO[5] nanowires, have attracted

  8. Highly Conductive and Porous Activated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for High-Power Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highly Conductive and Porous Activated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for High-Power Supercapacitors for a free-standing carbon film reported to date. A two-electrode supercapacitor using these carbon films. KEYWORDS: Graphene, flexible film, chemical activation, supercapacitors Free-standing thin film materials

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  10. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  11. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  12. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  13. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS: CRITICAL REVIEW OF MOST RECENT ADVANCES. MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL...

  15. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF Chemical Hygiene Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Chemical Hygiene Plan Division of Occupational Health Chemical Hygiene Plan Evaluation and Record Keeping

  16. Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Christine Lee

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of ...

  17. Published: March 29, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2079 dx.doi.org/10.1021/om2002365 |Organometallics 2011, 30, 20792082

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for methane hydroxylation are based on strongly electro- philic and oxidizing cations such as Hg(II),4 PtPublished: March 29, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2079 dx.doi.org/10.1021/om2002365, Beckman Institute, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology

  18. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  19. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  20. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  1. INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICAL LIST PRUDENT PRACTICES FOR HANDLING CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Junghyun

    tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia (anhydrous) Mercury (in oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals, sulfur tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate Sulfuric and other acids Potassium perchlorate (see also

  2. Spectroscopic Characterization of a Multiband Complex Oxide:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Multiband Complex Oxide: Insulating and Conducting Cement 12CaO7AlO. Spectroscopic Characterization of a Multiband Complex Oxide: Insulating and Conducting Cement...

  3. New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

  4. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO)...

  5. Chapter 6: Thallium-Oxide Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter has 2 sections titled: (1) Spray-Deposited, TI-Oxide Films, and (2) Electrodeposited Ti-Oxide Superconductors.

  6. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials...

  7. XPS Determination of Uranium Oxidations States. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extent, are relatively insensitive to compositionstructure within the oxide-hydroxide-hydrate system and can be used to both identify and help quantify U oxidation states in mixed...

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  9. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  10. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  11. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  13. Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost and risk in chemical manufacturing facilities. 24 25 At the core of PI is the optimization of process performance by focusing on molecular level kinetics, 26...

  14. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from

  15. Apparatus and method for stabilization or oxidation of polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere at a selected temperature; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of ozone-containing gas, which decomposes at the selected temperature yielding at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at the selected temperature. The ozone may be generated by a plasma discharge or by various chemical processes. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments as well as to make flame-retardant fabrics.

  16. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Bleier, A.; Besmann, T.M.; Lara-Curzio, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Pessac (France)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing an oxidation-resistant interfacial coating for continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) continues to be a major challenge. CFCCs` mechanical behavior are influenced by the interfacial bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite element modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  17. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

  18. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  19. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

  20. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  1. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  2. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO/sub 2/ recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  4. Compositional Tuning of Ultrathin Surface Oxides on Metal and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that the native oxide on 5%Ni-Al alloy is primarily composed of aluminum oxide with no nickel oxide whereas the photon-assisted oxide comprises of both aluminum oxide and nickel...

  5. Chemical Evolution in Omega Centauri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verne V. Smith

    2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The globular cluster Omega Centauri displays evidence of a complex star formation history and peculiar internal chemical evolution, setting it apart from essentially all other globular clusters of the Milky Way. In this review we discuss the nature of the chemical evolution that has occurred within Omega Cen and attempt to construct a simple scenario to explain its chemistry.

  6. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sideris, Thomas C.

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information Laboratory Name

  7. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wendt, Kraig M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  8. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  9. Thermal oxidation procedure PREPARATION........................................................................................................................................... 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    procedure - 2 - Preparation. The preparation procedure sets up the power, gas supplies, cooling water, (DI to check all the supplies. Cooling water Gas supplies Routing DI water for wet oxidation We start........................................................................................................................................... 2 Step 1 Turn on the cooling water

  10. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, R.L.; Anselmo, R.W.; Black, D.B.; Jacobson, J.J.; Lewis, L.C.; Marushia, P.C.; Spraktes, F.W.; Zack, N.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department.

  11. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  12. Process for the conversion of and aqueous biomass hydrolyzate into fuels or chemicals by the selective removal of fermentation inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Sluiter, Amie D. (Arvada, CO); Hayward, Tammy K. (Broomfield, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.

  13. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INLs test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  14. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design

  15. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  16. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  17. Novel Solar Energy Conversion Materials by Design of Mn(II) Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lany, S.; Peng, H.; Ndione, P.; Zakutayev, A.; Ginley, D. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy conversion materials need to fulfill simultaneously a number of requirements in regard of their band-structure, optical properties, carrier transport, and doping. Despite their desirable chemical properties, e.g., for photo-electrocatalysis, transition-metal oxides usually do not have desirable semiconducting properties. Instead, oxides with open cation d-shells are typically Mott or charge-transfer insulators with notoriously poor transport properties, resulting from large effective electron/hole masses or from carrier self-trapping. Based on the notion that the electronic structure features (p-d interaction) supporting the p-type conductivity in d10 oxides like Cu2O and CuAlO2 occurs in a similar fashion also in the d5 (high-spin) oxides, we recently studied theoretically the band-structure and transport properties of the prototypical binary d5 oxides MnO and Fe2O3 [PRB 85, 201202(R)]. We found that MnO tends to self-trap holes by forming Mn+III, whereas Fe2O3 self-traps electrons by forming Fe+II. However, the self-trapping of holes is suppressed by when Mn is tetrahedrally coordinated, which suggests specific routes to design novel solar conversion materials by considering ternary Mn(II) oxides or oxide alloys. We are presenting theory, synthesis, and initial characterization for these novel energy materials.

  18. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY Barriers Addressed #12;3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center National

  19. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  20. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (P.O. Box 763, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Doughty, Daniel H. (11724 Woodmar La., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Bein, Thomas (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106); Moller, Karin (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  1. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Bernalillo County, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Moller, Karin (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  2. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

  3. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  4. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  5. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

  6. Experimental characterization and chemical kinetics study of chemical looping combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjiao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most promising technologies to achieve carbon capture in fossil fuel power generation plants. A novel rotary-bed reactor concept was proposed by Zhao et. al. [1] in 2013. It ...

  7. Non-planar chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sokolowski, Sara S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.

  8. Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 CODE of the Department of Chemical of Chemical & Biological Engineering. For clarity of presentation, some passages are copied directly from shall offer an undergraduate chemical and biological engineering program of technological, scientific

  9. Biomedical | Chemical & Biomolecular | Civil & Environmental | Electrical & Computer | Industrial | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Chemical Engineering Career opportunities in chemical engineering that new chemical engineering graduates have an average starting salary of $67,600. The University from industry professionals and participate in activities that promote engineering. Chemical

  10. Nextel{trademark}/SiC composites fabricated using forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, B.L. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lowden, R.A.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Schwarz, O.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated employing the forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Composites using Nextel{sup TM} fibers of varying composition were prepared to investigate the effectiveness of each Nextel{sup TM} fiber as a reinforcement for the given matrix. A carbon interface coating was used for the baseline materials, however, alternate interlayers with improved oxidation resistance were also explored Room-temperature flexure strengths of as-fabricated composites and specimens heated in air at 1273 K were measured and compared to results for other SiC-matrix composites.

  11. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  12. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 [mu]m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO[sub 3]; and then indurating it at 800 to 900 C for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  13. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower oxides of titanium, 25 this energy gap, as defined inlies at greater energies than reference titanium oxides. Thetitanium oxides have been comprehensively documented. 25,26,27,28 The two sets of local maxima over this energy

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.

  15. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  16. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  17. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  18. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY CHEMICAL HYGIENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN #12, 2014 #12;University of Delaware Department of Environmental Health & Safety Chemical Hygiene) #12;University of Delaware Department of Environmental Health & Safety Chemical Hygiene Plan

  19. California Institute of Technology CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    California Institute of Technology CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Caltech Environment, Health, and Safety: safety@caltech.edu Website: www.safety.caltech.edu #12;CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AUGUST 2013 Page 2 of 45 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Table of Contents INTRODUCTION

  20. chemical (CHE) CHE overview programs available

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Environmental, Manufacturing and Petroleum En- gineering. Programs Available · Chemical Engineering Bachelor Engineering (Environmental) Bachelor of Science 135 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering (Polymer Science) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Petroleum

  1. New Science for Chemicals Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors (WHO,461, 472 (2009). 17. NRC, Science and Decisions: AdvancingPOLICYFORUM SCIENCE AND REGULATION New Science for Chemicals

  2. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  3. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  4. CHEN 3600 Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    CHEN 3600 Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE: "Engineering With Excel" Larsen Page 2 will be added using "cutting and pasting". #12;CHEN 3600 Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical

  5. Active & passive oxidation of dense SiC & Al?O? composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, Rohit

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACTIVE 4 PASSIVE OXIDATION OF DENSE SiC & AI2Oa COMPOSITE% A Thesis ROHIT MALHOTRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1991 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ACTIVE 4 PASSIVE OXIDATION OF DENSE SiC k AI2O3 COMPOSITES A Thesis ROHIT MALHOTRA Approved as to style and content by: ed M. Gadalla (Chair of Committee) Harry J. Ploehn (Member) eel Christian P...

  6. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  7. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  8. Tailoring the composition of ultrathin, ternary alloy PtRuFe nanowires for the methanol oxidation reaction and formic acid oxidation reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scofield, Megan E. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Koenigsmann, Christopher [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Wang, Lei [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lui, Haiqing [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the search for alternatives to conventional Pt electrocatalysts, we have synthesized ultrathin, ternary PtRuFe nanowires (NW), possessing different chemical compositions in order to probe their CO tolerance as well as electrochemical activity as a function of composition for both (i) the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and (ii) the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR). As-prepared multifunctional ternary NW catalysts exhibited both higher MOR and FAOR activity as compared with binary Pt?Ru? NW, monometallic Pt NW, and commercial catalyst control samples. In terms of synthetic novelty, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method never previously applied to the fabrication of crystalline, pure ternary systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy PtRuFe NWs with a range of controlled compositions. These NWs were subsequently characterized using a suite of techniques including XRD, TEM, SAED, and EDAX in order to verify not only the incorporation of Ru and Fe into the Pt lattice but also their chemical homogeneity, morphology, as well as physical structure and integrity. Lastly, these NWs were electrochemically tested in order to deduce the appropriateness of conventional explanations such as (i) the bi-functional mechanism as well as (ii) the ligand effect to account for our MOR and FAOR reaction data. Specifically, methanol oxidation appears to be predominantly influenced by the Ru content, whereas formic acid oxidation is primarily impacted by the corresponding Fe content within the ternary metal alloy catalyst itself.

  9. Tailoring the composition of ultrathin, ternary alloy PtRuFe nanowires for the methanol oxidation reaction and formic acid oxidation reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scofield, Megan E.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Wang, Lei; Lui, Haiqing; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the search for alternatives to conventional Pt electrocatalysts, we have synthesized ultrathin, ternary PtRuFe nanowires (NW), possessing different chemical compositions in order to probe their CO tolerance as well as electrochemical activity as a function of composition for both (i) the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and (ii) the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR). As-prepared multifunctional ternary NW catalysts exhibited both higher MOR and FAOR activity as compared with binary Pt?Ru? NW, monometallic Pt NW, and commercial catalyst control samples. In terms of synthetic novelty, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method never previously applied to the fabrication ofmorecrystalline, pure ternary systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy PtRuFe NWs with a range of controlled compositions. These NWs were subsequently characterized using a suite of techniques including XRD, TEM, SAED, and EDAX in order to verify not only the incorporation of Ru and Fe into the Pt lattice but also their chemical homogeneity, morphology, as well as physical structure and integrity. Lastly, these NWs were electrochemically tested in order to deduce the appropriateness of conventional explanations such as (i) the bi-functional mechanism as well as (ii) the ligand effect to account for our MOR and FAOR reaction data. Specifically, methanol oxidation appears to be predominantly influenced by the Ru content, whereas formic acid oxidation is primarily impacted by the corresponding Fe content within the ternary metal alloy catalyst itself.less

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: MOgene Green Chemicals LLC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOgene Green Chemicals LLC Sandia to Partner with MOgene Green Chemicals on ARPA-E REMOTE Project On October 2, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Research &...

  11. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

  12. Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage March 7, 2012 - 9:50am...

  13. Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols. Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols....

  14. Keeping Tabs on the World's Dangerous Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia chemical engineer Nancy Jackson has worked in laboratories around the world to help ensure that chemicals are used safely and kept secure.

  15. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Chemical & Sample Prep

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Sample Preparation For general questions, please contact the Lujan Center Chemical and Sample Preparation Laboratory responsible: Charles Kelsey | ckelsey@lanl.gov |...

  16. Oxidation reactions on neutral cobalt oxide clusters: experimental and theoretical studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    oxidation,2441 nitrogen monoxide reduction and oxidation,24,36a,4244 and FischerTropsch reactions.45

  17. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  18. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  19. Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers Studied by Differential Scanning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), EOnPOmEOn, and the ionic surfactants sodium the aggregates of all three polymers. Introduction Water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)- poly

  20. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

  1. MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williama, Pamela Louise

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL Pamelaresistors, and zinc oxide varistors are semiconductorRELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL CONTENTS

  2. Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical...

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  5. Gallium nitride microcavities formed by photoenhanced wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, L.-H.; Lu, C.-Y.; Wu, W.-H.; Wang, S.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the formation of gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities by manipulating a photoenhanced oxidation rate difference between the polar and nonpolar crystallographic planes of GaN. When immersed in a buffered acetic (CH{sub 3}COOH) electrolyte of pH{approx}6.2 at room temperature, it is shown that the photo-oxidation can proceed at a rate that is one order of magnitude slower on the nonpolar plane of {l_brace}1100{r_brace}{sub GaN} than on the polar plane of {l_brace}0001{r_brace}{sub GaN} due to the reduced surface field action. Gallium nitride microcavities bounded by optically smooth {l_brace}1100{r_brace} and {l_brace}1103{r_brace} facets can thus be preferentially formed on the c-plane sapphire substrate after dissolving the oxide layer. The optical properties of these GaN hexagonal cavities reveal characteristic peaks of whispering gallery modes in resonance with the GaN band edge emission spectrum. A typical cavity Q factor of 10{sup 3} is observed in these GaN microcavities due to a reduced optical scattering loss in the wet chemical reaction process.

  6. Chemical structure of vanadium-based contact formation on n-AlN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pookpanratana, S.; France, R.; Blum, M.; Bell, A.; Bar, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Zhang, Y.; Hofmann, T.; Fuchs, O.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Mulcahy, S.; Moustakas, T. D.; Heske, Clemens

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical interaction between a Au/V/Al/V layer structure and n-type AlN epilayers using soft x-ray photoemission, x-ray emission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To understand the complex processes involved in this multicomponent system, we have studied the interface before and after a rapid thermal annealing step. We find the formation of a number of chemical phases at the interface, including VN, metallic vanadium, aluminum oxide, and metallic gold. An interaction mechanism for metal contact formation on the entire n-(Al,Ga)N system is proposed.

  7. Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

  8. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  9. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  10. Ultra-stable Molecule-Surface Architectures at Metal Oxides: Structure, Bonding, and Electron-transfer Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamers, Robert John

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research funded by this project focused on the development of improved strategies for functionalization of metal oxides to enhance charge?transfer processes relevant to solar energy conversion. Initial studies included Fe2O3, WO3, TiO2, SnO2, and ZnO as model oxide systems; these systems were chosen due to differences in metal oxidation state and chemical bonding types in these oxides. Later studies focused largely on SnO2 and ZnO, as these materials show particularly promising surface chemistry, have high electron mobility, and can be readily grown in both spherical nanoparticles and as elongated nanorods. New molecules were synthesized that allowed the direct chemical assembly of novel nanoparticle ?dyadic? structures in which two different oxide materials are chemically joined, leading to an interface that enhances the separation of of charge upon illumination. We demonstrated that such junctions enhance photocatalytic efficiency using model organic compounds. A separate effort focused on novel approaches to linking dye molecules to SnO2 and ZnO as a way to enhance solar conversion efficiency. A novel type of surface binding through

  11. An On-Target Performic Acid Oxidation Method Suitable for Disulfide Bond Elucidation Using Capillary Electrophoresis - Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brad J.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -linked peptides that have been separated by CE-MS must be developed. An on-target performic acid oxidation method was developed to provide the chemical selectivity towards disulfide bonds, i.e., converting the cystine bond to form two peptides modified with a...

  12. 1 Oxidation of Ethidium Using TAML Activators: A Model for High 2 School Research Performed in Partnership with University Scientists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumberg, Bruce

    Bruce Blumberg, Terrence J. Collins, and Steven G. Sogo*, 6 Laguna Beach High School, Laguna Beach-Based/Discovery Learning, Problem Solving/Decision Making, Oxidation/Reduction, 24 Green Chemistry, UV-Vis Spectroscopy 25 school-college interface. 42 The Advanced Chemical Research course (ACR) at Laguna 43 Beach High School

  13. SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmn, Britt A.

    SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD+08 2.6e+08 2.8e+08 3e+08 Time--> Abundance TIC: 0914S4.D INTRODUCTION Diesel exhaust is one into the atmosphere diesel particles can be transformed through physical and chemical processes resulting

  14. Time evolution studies of laser induced chemical changes in InAs nanowire using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Suparna; Aggarwal, R.; Kumari Gupta, Vandna; Ingale, Alka [Laser Physics Application Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the study of time evolution of chemical changes on the surface of an InAs nanowire (NW) on laser irradiation in different power density regime, using Raman spectroscopy for a time span of 816 min. Mixture of metastable oxides like InAsO{sub 4,} As{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed upon oxidation, which are reflected as sharp Raman peaks at ?240254 and 180200?cm{sup ?1}. Evidence of removal of arsenic layer by layer is also observed at higher power density. Position controlled laser induced chemical modification on a nanometer scale, without changing the core of the NW, can be useful for NW based device fabrication.

  15. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, A. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Chagarov, E.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Kummel, A. C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Gu, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Madisetti, S.; Oktyabrsky, S. [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at AlbanyState University of New York, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001)

  16. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

  17. The Role of Comprehensive Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms in Combustion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments by the authors in the field of comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels are reviewed. Examples are given of how these mechanisms provide fundamental chemical insights into a range of combustion applications. Practical combustion consists primarily of chemical heat release from reactions between a fuel and an oxidizer, and computer simulations of practical combustion systems have become an essential tool of combustion research (Westbrook et al., 2005). At the heart of most combustion simulations, the chemical kinetic submodel frequently is the most detailed, complex and computationally costly part of a system model. Historically, the chemical submodel equations are solved using time-implicit numerical algorithms, due to the extreme stiffness of the coupled rate equations, with a computational cost that varies roughly with the cube of the number of chemical species in the model. While early mechanisms (c. 1980) for apparently simple fuels such as methane (Warnatz, 1980) or methanol (Westbrook and Dryer, 1979) included perhaps 25 species, current detailed mechanisms for much larger, more complex fuels such as hexadecane (Fournet et al., 2001; Ristori et al., 2001; Westbrook et al., 2008) or methyl ester methyl decanoate (Herbinet et al., 2008) have as many as 2000 or even 3000 species. Rapid growth in capabilities of modern computers has been an essential feature in this rapid growth in the size and complexity of chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms.

  18. Genomic consequences of DNA oxidation by peroxynitrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, William Louis

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radicals nitric oxide and superoxide are produced endogenously by activated macrophages and neutrophils and combine in a diffusion-limited reaction to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent capable ...

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  20. NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely used in...

  1. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  3. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  6. Formulations for iron oxides dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  7. CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Officer Biological (Accident Reports) 2204 Bioengineering 2965 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) (4/2007) 1

  8. CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals and Safety Numbers Research Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Human Resources (Accident Reports) 4589 Clinical Engineering 2964 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE

  9. CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals and Safety Numbers Research Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Human Resources (Accident Reports) 4589 Bioengineering 2965 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

  10. Northern California Nanotechnology Center Chemical Hygiene Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Northern California Nanotechnology Center Chemical Hygiene Plan Rev 11/12 Page 1 Northern California Nanotechnology Center Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 Introduction Cal-OSHA (Title 8 CCR 5191) and campus regulations require that all laboratories have a written Chemical Hygiene Plan. The Chemical

  11. Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 Introduction Satisfying Cal-OSHA (Title 8 CCR 5191) and campus regulations, this Chemical Hygiene Plan includes safety information specific to the Center for Nano and Micro chemicals and gasses available. If you have any questions about this Chemical Hygiene Plan, please email

  12. Dimension Reduction of Chemical Process Simulation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truemper, Klaus

    of a laminar methane/air combustion process described by 29 chemical species, 3 thermodynamic properties] for the computational effort carried out for some 3-dimensional models. Reduced chemical schemes, for example, ILDM-based memory as well. These chemical schemes are based on an analysis of chemical pathways that identifies

  13. Master of Engineering (ME), Major: Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Master of Engineering (ME), Major: Chemical Engineering Apply Now The Chemical Engineering Program to the following degrees: Master of Engineering, major Chemical Engineering The ME program will be open to students with a Bachelor of Engineering (BE) in Chemical Engineering, or other related disciplines

  14. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high aluminum sludge heels may be appropriate as a means of reducing oxalic acid usage. Reagents other than oxalic acid may also be needed for removing actinide elements from the tank heels. A systems engineering evaluation (SEE) was performed on the various alternative chemical cleaning reagents and organic oxidation technologies discussed in the literature review. The objective of the evaluation was to develop a short list of chemical cleaning reagents and oxalic acid destruction methods that should be the focus of further research and development. The results of the SEE found that eight of the thirteen organic oxidation technologies scored relatively close together. Six of the chemical cleaning reagents were also recommended for further investigation. Based on the results of the SEE and plan set out in the TTQAP the following broad areas are recommended for future study as part of the AECC task: (1) Basic Chemistry of Sludge Dissolution in Oxalic Acid: A better understanding of the variables effecting dissolution of sludge species is needed to efficiently remove sludge heels while minimizing the use of oxalic acid or other chemical reagents. Tests should investigate the effects of pH, acid concentration, phase ratios, temperature, and kinetics of the dissolution reactions of sludge components with oxalic acid, mineral acids, and combinations of oxalic/mineral acids. Real waste sludge samples should be characterized to obtain additional data on the mineral phases present in sludge heels. (2) Simulant Development Program: Current sludge simulants developed by other programs for use in waste processing tests, while compositionally similar to real sludge waste, generally have more hydrated forms of the major metal phases and dissolve more easily in acids. Better simulants containing the mineral phases identified by real waste characterization should be developed to test chemical cleaning methods. (3) Oxalic Acid Oxidation Technologies: The two Mn based oxidation methods that scored highly in the SEE should be studied to evaluate long term potential. One of the AOP's

  15. Texas plant will use new process to coproduce propylene oxide, MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Texaco Chemical Co. is building a $400 + million facility to produce 1.2 billion lb/year (14,000 b/d) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and 400 million lb/year (about 500 metric tons/day) propylene oxide (PO). The facility-under construction at Port Neches, Tex.-will utilize a newly developed Texaco process that coproduces the two chemicals. The process produces propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) from the reaction of isobutane with oxygen in one step, then in a second step with propylene. The TBA is then reacted with methanol in a one-step process that synthesizes MTBE. The paper describes the Port Neches facilities, construction schedule, feedstocks, product uses, and auxiliary equipment.

  16. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  17. Absorption and retention of different chemical forms of trace minerals by mature horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-minerals are gaining greater importance in ration balancing so as to enhance the growth and development of a wide range of tissue types in horses (Jackson, 1998; Ott and Johnson, 2001). Several different chemical formulations of trace mineral... in the oxidative phosphorylation process in mitochondria (Jackson, 1998). Zinc appears in numerous physiologic roles in the body. In concert with copper, zinc has been tied to bone formation and epithelial integrity, including hoof growth (Ott and Johnson, 2001...

  18. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  19. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  20. Chemical sensor development leading to an glucose detection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caballero, Jonathan Bano

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overetching leads to undercutting of the oxide below thecan lead to inconsistencies in the gate oxide. Figure 2-11