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  1. Luxembourg: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 0 Cubic Meters (cu m) 165 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (bbl) 145 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Luxembourg...

  2. Macedonia, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Macedonia, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.3486653, -84.7957854 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservic...

  3. Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy...

  4. Republic of Macedonia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Bank Climate Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus...

  5. Madagascar-USAID Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar-USAID Climate Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name Madagascar-USAID Climate Activities AgencyCompany Organization U.S. Agency for International Development...

  6. Republic of Macedonia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Republic of Macedonia Population 2,022,547 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MK 3-letter ISO code MKD Numeric ISO code...

  7. Madagascar: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Madagascar Population 12,238,914 GDP 10,025,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MG 3-letter ISO code MDG Numeric ISO...

  8. Republic of Macedonia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  9. Aveleos S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aveleos S.A Place: Luxembourg Product: Luxembourg-based JV to develop and operate photovoltaic projects. References: Aveleos S.A1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  10. 3dtab.xlsx

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, ...

  11. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  12. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  13. R&D Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  14. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  15. Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  16. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  17. CI-OFF Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  18. CONST Ex A (Rev. 5.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  19. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  20. NCIPO Ex A (Rev. 2.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  1. D-B CONST Ex A (Rev. 4.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  2. IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  3. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  4. USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Armenia, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Western...

  5. Distribution of chemical elements in soils and stream sediments in the area of abandoned Sb–As–Tl Allchar mine, Republic of Macedonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Makreski, Petre

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of some toxic elements in topsoil and subsoil, focusing on the identification of natural and anthropogenic element sources in the small region of rare As–Sb–Tl mineralization outcrop and abandoned mine Allchar known for the highest natural concentration of Tl in soil worldwide. The samples of soil and sediments after total digestion were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) and inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES). Factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterize element associations. Six associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics: Rb–Ta–K–Nb–Ga–Sn–Ba–Bi–Li–Be–(La–Eu)–Hf–Zr–Zn–In–Pd–Ag–Pt–Mg; Tl–As–Sb–Hg; Te–S–Ag–Pt–Al–Sc–(Gd–Lu)–Y; Fe–Cu–V–Ge–Co–In; Pd–Zr–Hf–W–Be and Ni–Mn–Co–Cr–Mg. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the nature and extent of potential contamination as well as to broadly assess possible impacts to human health and the environment. The results from the analysis of the collected samples in the vicinity of the mine revealed that As and Tl elements have the highest median values. Higher median values for Sb are obviously as a result of the past mining activities and as a result of area surface phenomena in the past. - Highlights: • Soil and river sediments were analyzed from Sb–As–Tl Allchar locality. • An increased content of certain toxic elements for environment was determined. • Highest As and Tl contents are obtained in the close vicinity of Allchar mine. • River sediments portray 160 times higher content of Sb than EU values. • The results classify Allchar as probably the highest natural Tl-deposit worldwide.

  6. Fact #643: October 4, 2010 Four Cylinder Engine Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Eire, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. ...

  7. European Investment Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: European Investment Bank Name: European Investment Bank Address: 98-100, boulevard Konrad Adenauer L-2950 Place: Luxembourg Product: Microfinance, Loans, Venture Capital...

  8. aug011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ...

  9. may01a

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ...

  10. hghlts.PDF

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ...

  11. high

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ...

  12. 123 Agreements for Peaceful Cooperation | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. 2 Pursuant to Section 6 of ...

  13. Microsoft Word - Foreign Obligation Codes.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_ROSE_MARTYN_UPDATED_NMMSS_2014_Foreign...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and The United Kingdom NMMSS Obligation ...

  15. Pottawattamie County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Pottawattamie County, Iowa Avoca, Iowa Carson, Iowa Carter Lake, Iowa Council Bluffs, Iowa Crescent, Iowa Hancock, Iowa Macedonia, Iowa...

  16. Category:Countries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea Northern Mariana Islands Norway O Oman P Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Q Qatar R Republic of Macedonia...

  17. Hamilton County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Illinois Belle Prairie City, Illinois Broughton, Illinois Dahlgren, Illinois Macedonia, Illinois McLeansboro, Illinois Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Availability

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vente des publications des Communautes Europeenes 37, rue Glesener-Luxembourg. FD U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 18th and C Streets, N.W., Mail Stop 1111, Arlington Square Bldg.,...

  19. UCRL-JC-1197l5 PREPRINT HUMAN HEALTH RISKS FROM TNT, RDX, and HMX

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    97l5 PREPRINT HUMAN HEALTH RISKS FROM TNT, RDX, and HMX IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA AND CONSIDERATION OF THE U.S. REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT Jeffrey I. Daniels John P. Knezovich This paper was pre ared for submittal to the Luxembourg, Luxembourg November 14-16,1994 Procee ap ings Demil '94 December 1994 Thisis apreprintof apaperintendedfor publicationin a journal orproceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint is made available with the understanding that it will not be cited

  20. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  1. Microsoft Word - Final Rainfall in Washington newsletter_2010...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    England and Southern Scotland The eastern coasts of large islands like Australia and Madagascar Areas in the northwestern United States near the Great Lakes Seattle, Washington,...

  2. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  3. A Review of the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    submitted by Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Panama and Suriname can be accessed online at: http:www.wri.orggfi ." To access...

  4. Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

  5. Tomče Runčevski | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Tomče Runčevski Previous Next List Runchevski Postdoctoral Researcher Department of Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Email: runcevski@berkeley.edu Phone: 510-708-2455 PhD in Materials Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research and Stuttgart University, Germany BS and MS in Applied Chemistry, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia EFRC Research Structural characterization of materials is the key step in understanding their

  6. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 12, 2009 [Events] BALWOIS 2010 Deadline is Approaching Bookmark and Share conference-balwois2010 Reminder: The deadline for submitting an abstract for BALWOIS 2010 is November 15, 2009. The fourth international conference on water observation and information systems is May 25-29, 2010, and will take place in Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. For more information or to submit your abstract, visit the BALWOIS 2010 Conference website. UPDATE: The deadline for submitting an abstract for BALWOIS

  7. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  8. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  9. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  10. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  11. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  12. Enhancing the effectiveness of governmental and non-governmental partnership in natural resources management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, K.L.; Gow, D.; Brown, C.; Christophersen, K.; Gaylord, E.

    1990-08-01

    The African sub-continent (Sub-Saharan Africa) is a vast continent of mangroves and deserts, rainforests, mountains and, miles upon thousands of miles of flat wooded plains. It is a continent whose people rely directly on its basic natural resources--land, water, soils, animals and vegetation--for their day-to-day subsistence and development. The effects of environmental degradation have taught bilateral and multilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and national governments harsh lessons about the critical importance of natural resources management to food security and development. The report examines the role of NGO's as resource stewards and explores the relationship between NGO's and donors in the environmental field, with particular reference to experiences from the Natural Resources Management Support Project for Africa and from the literature. Practical guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of donor- collaboration are suggested. Annexes present case studies of Cameroon, Madagascar, and Mali.

  13. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  14. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, D; Pybus, O; Magiorkinis, G; Hatzakis, A

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  15. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  16. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  17. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  18. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  19. A Tribute to Klaus Ruedenberg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2010-08-26

    I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well" said Alexander the Great, the King of Greek Macedonia, about his teacher, the philosopher Aristotle. This statement echoes the widely held belief of the students, research associates, collaborators and admirers of Klaus Ruedenberg regarding his invaluable contribution towards shaping their scientific lives. This special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry presents a tribute to Professor Klaus Ruedenberg, on the occasion of his 90th birthday, for his numerous scientific contributions to the field of quantum chemistry. The many outstanding papers that are part of this issue document his seminal contributions to a broad range of quantum chemistry, including the evaluation of electron repulsion integrals, the free-electron network model for conjugated molecules, the origin of covalent bonding, including the central role of the kinetic energy in the covalent bond, and the intrinsic identification of chemical bonding patterns in molecular systems, orbital localization that has enabled a deep understanding of many chemical phenomena, the multi-configurational self-consistent field method and the concept of the Full Optimized Reaction Space (FORS) to study chemical rearrangements and its application to the study of global potential energy surfaces and conical intersections, the first construction of systematic, eventempered sequences of orbital sets that approach the complete basis set limit, and the novel simultaneous extrapolation of basis set and level of theory to achieve nearly exact molecular energies and vibrational spectra. In addition, as past students and research associates of Klaus Ruedenberg, that is people whose scientific and personal lives have been critically affected by a great teacher, we wish to point out a less well-known aspect of his professional career, that of an educator. Professor Klaus Ruedenberg has a passion for communicating scientific ideas and educating students, whether they were at the undergraduate, graduate or post-graduate levels or whether they were visitors to his laboratory. No matter how much of his time it took, there were never any shortcuts or excuses, but also no pressure on the students. Knowledge was just there waiting to be gained - for free - by just mining a vast repository of mathematical, physical and chemical concepts. It is not hyperbole to stress his contribution in molding the scientific lives and in turn the personal success of so many people who have had the privilege to learn from him.