National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lung cancer incidence

  1. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)] [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark) [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark)] [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  2. Research Article Increased Lung and Bladder Cancer Incidence in Adults after

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Research Article Increased Lung and Bladder Cancer Incidence in Adults after In Utero and Early resulted in increased mortality in adults from several outcomes, including lung and bladder cancer. Methods data. Subjects included 221 lung and 160 bladder cancer cases diagnosed in northern Chile from 2007

  3. Lung Cancer James Nguyen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Lung Cancer James Nguyen Biochemistry 118Q Doug Brutlag A Case Study of Genetics and Environment #12;Lung Cancer · Leading cause of cancer for men and women in United States · Every year, about 164,000 new cases are diagnosed in the US, with an estimated 157,000 deaths. · Leading cause of cancer death

  4. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

  5. www.yalecancercenter.org Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapies Guest Expert: Roy Decker, MD, Ph Scott, let's start off by discussing why lung cancer is still such a significant public health problem it has decreased in the last 10- 15 years. The incidence of lung cancer might be decreasing a little

  6. Role of curative radiotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer. [Clinical factors effecting efficacy and incidence of complications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coy, P.; Kennelly, G.M.

    1980-02-15

    From 1963 to 1974, 141 patients with lung cancer were treated with curative intent in the A. Maxwell Evans Clinic in Vancouver. The clinical presentation, age and sex distribution, histology, and reasons for surgery not being carried out are examined. The results of this treatment are presented. An attempt has been made to isolate a group of patients who have a better prognosis so that treatment selection can be improved. Hemoptysis, cough, dyspnea, and incidental finding on routine chest x-ray were the most common manner of presentation. Thirty-four percent of the patients were over 70 years of age and 13% were women. The crude overall three- and five-year survival rates were 18 and 10% (19 and 9% in the men, 17 and 14% in the women). Patients presenting with dyspnea had a better survival than those presenting with cough and hemoptysis. Patients with lesions less than 3 cm in diameter had a 28% three-year survival, compared with 14% for lesions greater than 5 cm in diameter. The three- and five-year survival rates in patients over 70 years of age were 23 and 17% respectively. The response to treatment and the survival were better in the patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-two percent were alive at three years and 12% at five years as compared with 9 and 5% for other histologies. Fifty-four percent of the 35 patients with a complete response and with squamous cell carcinoma were alive at three years, compared with only 8% of the 12 patients with other histologies who showed a complete response.

  7. Early Lung Cancer Detection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2000, DOE has made screening for occupational lung cancer with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans available to workers at high risk for lung cancer. Because former workers undertook essential activities to fulfill the Department's mission, many of them were at risk for lung cancer.

  8. CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    e78S CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF LUNG CANCER, 3RD ED individuals). 3.2.2. In patients at risk for developing lung cancer, screening for lung cancer with sputum are age 55 to 74 and who have smoked for Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer

  9. AmericanLungAssociationStateofLungDiseaseinDiverseCommunities2010 55 Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    AmericanLungAssociationStateofLungDiseaseinDiverseCommunities2010 55 Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs . While normal cells reproduce and develop into healthy lung tissue, these abnormal cells reproduce faster and never grow into normal lung tissue . Lumps

  10. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening Guest Experts: Lynn Tanoue, MD Professor of Therapeutic Radiology and an expert in the use of radiation to treat lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas Oncology Program. Dr. Detterbeck and I also co- direct the new Yale Lung Cancer and Lung Nodule Screening

  11. What Lung Cancer Patients Need to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    What Lung Cancer Patients Need to Know About Bone Health A Publication of The Bone and Cancer Foundation #12;Contents THIS PUBLICATION PROVIDES IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG CANCER AND BONE HEALTH. HOW BONE WORKS (PAGE 2). WHAT LUNG CANCER CAN DO TO BONE (PAGE 2). TREATING BONE

  12. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness Month Update Guest Expert: Frank Detterbeck, MD take a look at the prevention and treatment of lung cancer with Dr. Frank Detterbeck, Professor I want to start out with a question about cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Obviously

  13. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness Month Update 2008 Guest Expert: Frank Detterbeck, MD reach the end of lung cancer awareness month, Ed and Ken welcome the Directors of the Yale Cancer Center of thoracic surgery at Yale and Dr. Tanoue is a Professor of pulmonary medicine. Tanoue Unfortunately, lung

  14. www.yalecancercenter.org Understanding Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Understanding Lung Cancer Guest Expert: Daniel Morgensztern, MD www of radiation to treat lung cancer and cutaneous lymphomas. If you would like to join the conversation, you can at the Yale School of Medicine and he specializes in the treatment and care of patients with lung cancer. Here

  15. Clinical and experimental pathology of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVie, J.G.; Bakker, W.; Wagenaar, S.C.; Carney, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 17 selections. Some of the titles are: Flow cytometric DNA analysis in the study of small cell carcinoma of the lung; Mechanisms of oncogenesis; Adhesion mechanisms in liver metastasis; Current concepts in the therapy of small cell lung cancer; Application of monoclonal antibodies in imaging and therapy; and Clinical applications of the biologic properties of small cell lung cancer.

  16. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lander, Eric S.

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no ...

  17. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Awareness 2009 Guest Expert: Thomas Lynch, Jr., MD Director of lung cancer. Chu What got you interested in focusing your career on the treatment of lung cancer? Lynch I actually got into lung cancer sort of by serendipity. I wish I could tell you that it was a well

  18. Study for Advanced Lung Cancer Patients Guest Expert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Study for Advanced Lung Cancer Patients Guest Expert: Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD Ensign Professor message at 888-234-4YCC. This week you will hear a conversation about clinical trials for advanced lung of lung caner at Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital? Herbst As you probably know, lung cancer

  19. www.yalecancercenter.org An Update on Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org An Update on Lung Cancer Guest Expert: Roy Decker, MD, PhD Assistant the detection and treatment of lung cancer with Dr. Scott Gettinger and Dr. Roy Decker. Chu Scott, let us start off by telling our listeners what lung cancer is and how common it is. Gettinger Lung cancer

  20. AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY PATIENT HEALTH SERIES Lung Cancer Prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY PATIENT HEALTH SERIES Lung Cancer Prevention What are the chances that I will develop lung cancer? The #1 cause of lung cancer is exposure to tobacco smoke. Your chances increase others (second-hand smoke), the greater your chances of developing lung cancer. People who have never

  1. Estimating Volumes of Simulated Lung Cancer Nodules David E. Gilsinn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilsinn, David E.

    Estimating Volumes of Simulated Lung Cancer Nodules David E. Gilsinn Bruce R. Borchardt Amelia Tebbe§ July 15, 2009 Abstract Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. Computed to- mography (CT) shows promise in detecting lung cancers at earlier, more operable

  2. The role of uPAR signaling in lung cancer Background and significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    The role of uPAR signaling in lung cancer Background and significance Lung cancer is the leading of lung cancer ­ non-small-cell-lung cancer (about 85% of all lung cancer cases) and small- cell-lung cancer (about 15%) (Herbst et al., 2008). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is rapidly growing and often

  3. Lung Cancer . Author manuscript p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lung Cancer . Author manuscript Page /1 10 p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data

  4. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartline, Jason D.

    Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification Andrew J. Radosevich1 *, Nikhil N, United States of America Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with .150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated

  5. Does living near heavy industry cause lung cancer in women? A case control study using life grid interviews. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, R; Pless-Mulloli, T; Howel, D; Chadwick, TJ; Bhopal, Raj; Harrison, R N; Gribbin, H

    2006-10-13

    Background: The incidence of lung cancer among women is high in the highly industrialised area of Teesside in north-east England. Previous research has implicated industrial pollution as a possible cause. A study was ...

  6. www.yalecancercenter.org The Biology of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org The Biology of Lung Cancer Guest Expert: Katerina Politi, PhD www lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas. If you would like to join the conversation, you can contact

  7. www.yalecancercenter.org Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer Guest Expert: Anthony Kim, MD Assistant and an expert in the use of radiation to treat lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas. If you would like to join for a conversation about robotic surgery for lung cancer. Here is Francine Foss. Foss Let's start off by talking

  8. Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction Stephanie A. Kovalchik skovalch@rand.org FHCRC 2014 Risk Prediction Symposium June 11, 2014 1 #12;Outline · Lung Cancer Epidemiology and Screening · Screening Benefit and Absolute Risk · Absolute Risk Model for Lung Cancer

  9. Small RNA combination therapy for lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tammela, Tuomas

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering ...

  10. Lung Cancer: A Classic Example of Tumor Escape and Progression While Providing Opportunities for Immunological Intervention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    of lung cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 4, no. 7,pathogenesis of lung cancer,” Annual Review of Physiology,immunoreac- tivity in lung cancer: yet another player in the

  11. LungCAD: A Clinically Approved, Machine Learning System for Lung Cancer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    LungCAD: A Clinically Approved, Machine Learning System for Lung Cancer Detection R Bharat Rao Street, New York, NY 10016 ABSTRACT We present LungCAD, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system system be tested in a clini- cal trial. We describe the clinical trial in which LungCAD was tested

  12. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung

  13. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC from workers and controls to identify genes targeted for inactivation by plutonium in this other common histologic form of lung cancer. We will examine methylation of the p16, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT), and death associated protein kinase genes ([DAP-K], evaluated previously in adenocarcinomas) as well as the new genes being assessed in the adenocarcinomas. The second hypothesis will be tested in a cross-sectional study of cancer-free workers exposed to plutonium and an unexposed population. A cohort of 700 cancer-free workers and 700 unexposed persons is being assembled, exposures are being defined, and induced sputum collected at initial entry into the study and approximately 1-year later. Exposed and unexposed persons will be matched by 5-year age intervals and smoking status (current and former). The frequency for methylation of four genes that show the greatest difference in prevalence in tumors from workers and controls will be determined in exfoliated cells within sputum. These studies will extend those in primary tumors to determine whether difference in prevalence for individual or multiple genes are detected in sputum samples from high-risk subjects exposed to plutonium. Follow-up of this cohort offers the opportunity to validate these endpoints and future biomarkers as true markers for lung cancer risk.

  14. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  15. Mouse models of lung cancer : understanding the molecular and cellular basis of lung tumorigenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Erica L. (Erica Lynn), 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Patients are typically diagnosed with advanced disease and have a high fatality:case ratio. Despite its prevalence, the identity of the cell of origin, precursor ...

  16. Lung Cancer (2005) 47, 41--47 Improving the specificity of fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Lung Cancer (2005) 47, 41--47 Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy spectroscopy; Lung cancer; Bronchoscopy Summary Detection of malignancies of the bronchial tree in an early

  17. Investigating the initiation and progression of small cell lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brauneis, Alison Dooley

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises 18% of all lung cancer cases and is an aggressive disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 5%, mainly due to the advanced nature of the disease at the time of diagnosis. ...

  18. Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer, Timothy Anderson6, Norman Gerry7, Joseph Keane4, Marc E Lenburg7 & Jerome S Brody1 Lung cancer smokers with suspicion of lung cancer could be used as a lung cancer biomarker. Using a training set (n

  19. TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk mutations are observed in about 40e70% of lung cancer tissues, and the hot spot codon mu- tations factors that influence TP53 gene mutation in lung cancer patients residing areas with high lung cancer

  20. Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven ©Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center Summary of Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines Program American Cancer Society (ACS) American Cancer Society. Interim Guidance on Lung Cancer Screening

  1. Polymorphisms of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 and microRNA Related Genes and the Susceptibility and Survival of Lung Cancer and Upper Aero-Digestive Tract Cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YANG, YING

    2014-01-01

    1 I. Lung and upper aero-digestive tractof Lung Cancer and Upper Aero-Digestive Tract Cancers Aof Lung Cancer and Upper Aero-Digestive Tract Cancers by

  2. Tumour microenvironment interactions of small cell lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodkinson, Philip Simon

    2009-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterised by rapid growth, early metastatic spread and poor long-term survival. The tumour is initially sensitive to chemotherapy and thus objective response rates are high. Unfortunately, ...

  3. Selectins Mediate Small Cell Lung Cancer Systemic Metastasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, Franziska

    Metastasis formation is the major reason for the extremely poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. The molecular interaction partners regulating metastasis formation in SCLC are largely unidentified, ...

  4. Lung Cancer (2004) 46, 333--340 High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Lung Cancer (2004) 46, 333--340 High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small cell lung cancer May 2004; accepted 6 May 2004 KEYWORDS Small cell lung carcinoma; Tumor invasiveness; YKL-40; HC gp-39 evaluated serum YKL-40 in 131 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Twenty-two percent

  5. Lung Cancer 86 (2014) 7884 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    Lung Cancer 86 (2014) 78­84 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Lung Cancer journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/lungcan Metastatic sites and survival in lung cancer M. Riihimäkia,b, , A Lung metastasis Brain metastasis Liver metastasis a b s t r a c t Objectives: Population-based data

  6. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  7. 1Q1 Esterase-activatable -lapachone prodrug micelles for NQO1-targeted 2 lung cancer therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    -targeted 2 lung cancer therapy 3Q2 Xinpeng Ma a,1 , Xiumei Huang b,1 , Zachary Moore b , Gang Huang lung cancer 20 Cancer nanomedicine 21Lung cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer and current to be highly efficacious in killing non-small cell lung 23cancer (NSCLC) cells regardless of their p53, cell

  8. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    MN, Smith E, Siadaty M, Hauck FR, Pickle LW (2006) Spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence and race in Virginia,

  9. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  10. Cancer incidences in Europe related to mortalities, and ethnohistoric, genetic, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Michael S.

    Cancer incidences in Europe related to mortalities, and ethnohistoric, genetic, and geographic We have previously shown that geographic differences in cancer mortalities in Europe are related of 45 male and 47 female cancers. Differences in cancer incidences are correlated moder- ately, first

  11. A filter-based feature selection approach for identifying potential biomarkers for lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In-Hee; Lushington, Gerald H.; Visvanathan, Mahesh

    2011-03-21

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and its treatment is dependant on the type and stage of cancer detected in the patient. Molecular biomarkers that can characterize the cancer ...

  12. Recent breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study cohort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    European populations. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008, 107:389-as: Marshall et al. : Recent breast cancer incidence trendsTeachers Study cohort. Breast Cancer Research 2010 12:R4.

  13. Optimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    Optimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Bin Dong is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with 10 phases

  14. Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Felix Fernandez-Madrid,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VandeVord, Pamela

    Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Fe´lix Ferna´ndez-Madrid,2 Pamela J of ANAs in lung cancer. We have previously reported that autoantibodies to collagen antigens resembling those found in the connective tissue diseases are consistently detected in the sera from lung cancer

  15. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current Epidemiological on sele- nium and lung cancer and identify sources of heterogeneity among studies. When all studies were.30). Overall, these results suggest that selenium may have some protective effect against lung cancer

  16. Original Contribution Elevated Lung Cancer in Younger Adults and Low Concentrations of Arsenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Original Contribution Elevated Lung Cancer in Younger Adults and Low Concentrations of Arsenic-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2

  17. MRI-Visible Micellar Nanomedicine for Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung Cancer Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    MRI-Visible Micellar Nanomedicine for Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung Cancer Cells Jagadeesh Setti micelle (MFM) system that is encoded with a lung cancer-targeting peptide (LCP), and encapsulated. The LCP-encoded MFM showed significantly increased Rv 6-dependent cell targeting in H2009 lung cancer

  18. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile Dawit Accepted 20 November 2013 Available online 1 December 2013 Keywords: Arsenic Cancer Methylation Lung about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts

  19. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D; Chung, W; Shin, D; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  20. Frizzled-8 as a putative therapeutic target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua-qing; Department of Medical Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin 300060 ; Xu, Mei-lin; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Cong-hua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fzd-8 is over-expressed in human lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 inhibits proliferation and Wnt pathway in lung cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down Fzd-8 sensitizes lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is necessary to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer in order to develop more effective therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Recent reports have shown that Wnt signaling pathway is important in a number of cancer types including lung cancer. However, the role of Frizzled-8 (Fzd-8), one of the Frizzled family of receptors for the Wnt ligands, in lung cancer still remains to be elucidated. Here in this study we showed that Fzd-8 was over-expressed in human lung cancer tissue samples and cell lines. To investigate the functional importance of the Fzd-8 over-expression in lung cancer, we used shRNA to knock down Fzd-8 mRNA in lung cancer cells expressing the gene. We observed that Fzd-8 shRNA inhibited cell proliferation along with decreased activity of Wnt pathway in vitro, and also significantly suppressed A549 xenograft model in vivo (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that knocking down Fzd-8 by shRNA sensitized the lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. These data suggest that Fzd-8 is a putative therapeutic target for human lung cancer and over-expression of Fzd-8 may be important for aberrant Wnt activation in lung cancer.

  1. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M. (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattmann, Chris

    A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Atlas software system that allows a researcher to correlate lung cancer patients with similar characteristics around regions of the lung in which their sample specimens including multiple types

  3. A novel strategy for surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for lung cancer imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    A novel strategy for surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for lung-step procedure for the surface functionalization of SPIO nanoparticles with a lung cancer-targeting peptide and demonstrate high T2 relaxivity. The nanoprobes are specific in targeting avb6­expressing lung cancer cells

  4. Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors for Label Free Highly Sensitive and Specific Lung Cancer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors for Label Free Highly Sensitive and Specific Lung detect lung cancer cell lysates with high sensitivity down to 2 cells per microliter with silicon based detection of control experiment to verify specificity again. Primary lung cancer develops from epithelial

  5. Clinical Investigation: Breast Cancer Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Clinical Investigation: Breast Cancer Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies Associated. Accepted for publication Sep 19, 2011 Summary The risk of secondary lung cancers after whole breast lower risk of secondary lung malignancy than treatment with the supine breast tech- nique. Breast

  6. Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested ALLAN H. SMITHa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested or inhaled ALLAN H. SMITHa that inorganic arsenic was a human lung carcinogen based on studies involving exposure through inhalation. In 2004, IARC listed arsenic in drinking water as a cause of lung cancer, making arsenic the first

  7. Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan with historically high air pollution levels. This work tests whether persistent spatial patterns of metrics of chronic exposure to air pollutants are associated with the observed patterns of cancer incidence rates

  8. A Web-Based Annotation System for Lung Cancer Radiology Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Results in Radiology Reports. Journal of Digital Imagingfrom pathology reports into a Disease Knowledgefor Lung Cancer Radiology Reports A thesis submitted in

  9. Nuclear Factor I/B is an Oncogene in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Alison L.

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive cancer often diagnosed after it has metastasized. Despite the need to better understand this disease, SCLC remains poorly characterized at the molecular and genomic levels. ...

  10. Characterization of Lung Cancer by Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Imaging: An In-Vivo Study in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    Characterization of Lung Cancer by Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Imaging: An In-Vivo Study in the brain tumor. In this study, we tested the feasibility of in-vivo APT imaging of lung tumor malignant lung cancer cell lines. The results revealed that APT imaging is feasible to quantify lung tumors

  11. Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok Choudhary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok, IL 60201, USA Email: {ankitag,choudhar}@eecs.northwestern.edu Abstract--We analyze the lung cancer. The resulting rules conform with existing biomedical knowledge and provide interesting insights into lung cancer

  12. An NQO1-and PARP-1-mediated cell death pathway induced in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    An NQO1- and PARP-1-mediated cell death pathway induced in non-small-cell lung cancer cells Institute, Boston, MA, and approved May 21, 2007 (received for review March 12, 2007) Lung cancer for non-small- cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) have a survival rate of 15% after 5 years. Novel approaches

  13. Genetic variants on 15q25.1, smoking and lung cancer: an assessment of mediation and interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xihong

    1 Genetic variants on 15q25.1, smoking and lung cancer: an assessment of mediation and interaction-wide association studies have identified variants on chromosome 15q25.1 that increase the risk of both lung cancer as to whether the association with lung cancer is direct or mediated by pathways related to smoking behavior

  14. Evolutionary Modeling of Combination Treatment Strategies To Overcome Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Shannon M. Mumenthaler,, Jasmine Foo,,§ Kevin Leder, Nathan C. Choi in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with combinations of EGFR-targeted therapeutics (e-small cell lung cancer, evolutionary modeling, erlotinib, paclitaxel, resistance, treatment strategies

  15. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16

    DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY A Dissertation by ALEJANDRO GARCIA URIBE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2009 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY A Dissertation by ALEJANDRO GARCIA URIBE...

  16. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; et al

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lungmore »cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.« less

  17. Breast cancer incidence following preeclampsia or gestational hypertension 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wormuth, Jennifer Karen

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and subsequent breast cancer in a population of 6,564 pregnant women. Data on the study population came from the Child Health...

  18. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29

    ]. Workers exposed to tar and soot (which contains benzo[a]pyrene), such as coke oven workers, [7, 8] in concentrations exceeding those present in urban air are at increased risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposures to a number of metals, including... detection of lung cancer. Tests involved the quantitation of gaseous metabolic emissions from immortalized lung cancer cell lines in order to correlate the chemical markers to be of cancerous origin. The specific aims of the project were the study of gas...

  19. The Intracellular Localization of ID2 Expression Has a Predictive Value in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Intracellular Localization of ID2 Expression Has a Predictive Value in Non Small Cell Lung-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of these patients Expression Has a Predictive Value in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. PLoS ONE 4(1): e4158. doi:10.1371/journal

  20. Study of lung-metastasized prostate cancer cell line chemotaxis to epidermal growth factor with a BIOMEMS device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Study of lung-metastasized prostate cancer cell line chemotaxis to epidermal growth factorpp) doi:10.1088/2043-6262/3/3/035007 Study of lung-metastasized prostate cancer cell line chemotaxis of 10 µm. The device was placed on a culture dish and primed with growth media. Lung-metastasized cells

  1. Phosphoproteomic and Bioinformatic Characterization of the Signaling Alterations in Response to a PP2A Activator in Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Sichun

    to a PP2A Activator in Lung Cancer Danica Wiredja1, Yu Liu1, Giridharan Gokulrangan1, Daniela Schlatzer1 cell lung cancer involves the coordinate activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, including the MAPK. To answer these questions, we performed global phosphoproteomics on two KRAS mutated lung adenocarcinoma

  2. Transcriptome Profiles of Carcinoma-in-Situ and Invasive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer as Revealed by SAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Raymond T.

    Transcriptome Profiles of Carcinoma-in-Situ and Invasive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer as Revealed, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Abstract Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents) of the lung, and compared these with expression profiles generated from both bronchial epithelium

  3. Predictive Factors of Late Radiation Fibrosis: A Prospective Study in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazeron, Renaud [University of Lyon, Centre Leon Berard, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France); Etienne-Mastroianni, Benedicte [Hopital Louis Pradel, Department of Pneumology, Lyon (France); Perol, David [University of Lyon, Centre Leon Berard, Departement of Public Health, Lyon (France); Arpin, Dominique [Hopital de la Croix-Rousse, Department of Pneumology, Lyon (France); Vincent, Michel [Hopital Saint Luc-Saint Joseph, Department of Pneumology, Lyon (France); Falchero, Lionel [Centre Hospitalier General, Department of Pneumology, Villefranche sur Saone (France); Martel-Lafay, Isabelle; Carrie, Christian [University of Lyon, Centre Leon Berard, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France); Claude, Line, E-mail: claude@lyon.fnclcc.f [University of Lyon, Centre Leon Berard, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To determine predictive factors of late radiation fibrosis (RF) after conformal radiotherapy (3D-RT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Ninety-six patients with Stage IA-IIIB NSCLC were included in a prospective trial. Clinical evaluation, chest X-ray, and pulmonary functional tests including diffusion parameters were performed before and 6 months after radiotherapy. An independent panel of experts prospectively analyzed RF, using Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales classification. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify relationships between clinical, functional, or treatment parameters and incidence of RF. Variations of circulating serum levels of pro-inflammatory (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, tumor growth factor beta1) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines during 3D-RT were examined to identify correlations with RF. Results: Of the 96 patients included, 72 were evaluable for RF at 6 months. Thirty-seven (51.4%) developed RF (Grade >=1), including six severe RF (Grades 2-3; 8.3%). In univariate analysis, only poor Karnofsky Performance Status and previous acute radiation pneumonitis were associated with RF (p < 0.05). Dosimetric factors (mean lung dose, percentage of lung volume receiving more than 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy) were highly correlated with RF (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, previous acute radiation pneumonitis and dosimetric parameters were significantly correlated with RF occurrence. It was not significantly correlated either with cytokines at baseline or with their variation during 3D-RT. Conclusions: This study confirms the importance of dosimetric parameters to limit the risk of RF. Contrary to acute radiation pneumonitis, RF was not correlated to cytokine variations during 3D-RT.

  4. Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999).

  5. Proteasome Inhibitors Block DNA Repair and Radiosensitize Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cron, Kyle R.

    Despite optimal radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy and/or surgery, a majority of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fail treatment. To identify novel gene targets for improved tumor control, ...

  6. Conditional mouse lung cancer models using adenoviral or lentiviral delivery of Cre recombinase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPage, Michel J.

    The development of animal models of lung cancer is critical to our understanding and treatment of the human disease. Conditional mouse models provide new opportunities for testing novel chemopreventatives, therapeutics and ...

  7. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Hannah

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non–small cell lung ...

  8. Cancer Incidence in Relatives of British Fanconi Anaemia Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tischkowitz, Marc; Easton, Douglas F.; Ball, Jan; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Mathew, Christopher G.

    2008-09-11

    . After removing those cases with no follow-up in the rele- vant period, the final cohort comprised 575 individuals (276 males, 299 females), representing 18,136 person years. In this cohort, 25 males and 30 females were diag- nosed with cancer under...

  9. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chun-Chin

    We utilize multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of noncancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from humans. Our results show that the combination of second-harmonic ...

  10. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    and increased lung metastasis in NOD/SCID mice. Arch BiochemqPCR analysis Pathogen-free NOD-SCID gamma (NSG) mice were

  11. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells. PLoS One 2012;cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Nanomedicine :metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells. PLoS One 2012;

  12. Assessment of ABT-263 activity across a cancer cell line collection leads to a potent combination therapy for small-cell lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faber, Anthony C.

    BH3 mimetics such as ABT-263 induce apoptosis in a subset of cancer models. However, these drugs have shown limited clinical efficacy as single agents in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and other solid tumor malignancies, ...

  13. Tumor CellDerived and Macrophage-Derived Cathepsin B Promotes Progression and Lung Metastasis of Mammary Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Tumor Cell­Derived and Macrophage-Derived Cathepsin B Promotes Progression and Lung Metastasis of mammary cancers compared with wild-type PyMT mice. Lung metastasis volumes were significantly reduced in PyMT;ctsb+/À , an effect that was not further enhanced in PyMT;ctsbÀ/À mice. Furthermore, lung

  14. Project #09R: Ying Luo and Niren Murthy: Multifunctional ProflavineHyaluronic Acid Conjugate (PHC): A new siRNA delivery vehicle for treating lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    ): A new siRNA delivery vehicle for treating lung cancer siRNA is emerging as the next generation of targeted therapies for lung cancer treatment. In advancing siRNA into clinical trials, safe and effective delivery vehicle, termed ProflavineHyaluronic Acid Conjugate (PHC), which can deliver siRNA to lung cancer

  15. www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ted

    on COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis in China: a time-based, multiple risk factor, modelling study Hsien pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and tuberculosis are three leading causes of death in China, where on COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. Methods We used representative data sources to estimate past

  16. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Unresectable Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Surgical Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-kodama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takao, Motoshi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Taguchi, Osamu [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A retrospective evaluation was done of clinical utility of lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical intervention. Methods: During May 2003 to October 2010, 44 consecutive patients (26 male and 18 female) received curative lung RF ablation for 51 recurrent NSCLC (mean diameter 1.7 {+-} 0.9 cm, range 0.6 to 4.0) after surgical intervention. Safety, tumor progression rate, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated. Prognostic factors were evaluated in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 55 lung RF sessions were performed. Pneumothorax requiring pluerosclerosis (n = 2) and surgical suture (n = 1) were the only grade 3 or 4 adverse events (5.5%, 3 of 55). During mean follow-up of 28.6 {+-} 20.3 months (range 1 to 98), local tumor progression was found in 5 patients (11.4%, 5 of 44). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 97.7, 72.9, and 55.7%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Tumor size and sex were independent significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 73.3% in 18 women and 60.5% in 38 patients who had small tumors measuring {<=}3 cm. Conclusion: Our results suggest that lung RF ablation is a safe and useful therapeutic option for obtaining long-term survival in treated patients.

  17. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melak, Dawit; Ferreccio, Catterina; Kalman, David; Parra, Roxana; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Steinmaus, Craig

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 ?g/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 ?g/L (median = 60 ?g/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 ?g/L.

  18. The association between fatalistic beliefs and late stage at diagnosis of lung and colorectal cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Liu, Michael Pang-Hsiang; Abel, Gary A.; Wardle, Jane; Keating, Nancy L.

    2015-02-03

    design and participants: The CanCORS (Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance) study prospectively enrolled U.S. adults diagnosed with lung or colorectal cancer in 2003-2005 who lived in certain geographic areas (northern California; Los Angeles... multiple imputation as previously described (19), were used in the logistic regression models, and outputs were combined with the SAS MIANALYZE procedure. In the present analysis imputed data only relate to the small proportion of records with missing...

  19. Lung cancer-derived Dickkopf1 is associated with bone metastasis and the mechanism involves the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Tianqing; Teng, Jiajun; Jiang, Liyan; Zhong, Hua; Han, Baohui

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DKK1 level was associated with NSCLC bone metastases. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 modulates ?-catenin and RUNX2. -- Abstract: Wnt/?-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferably metastasizes to skeleton. But the role of them in bone dissemination is poorly understood. This study aims to define the role of DKK1 in lung cancer bone metastases and investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that DKK1 over-expression was a frequent event in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) blood samples, and serous DKK1 level was much higher in bone metastatic NSCLC compared to non-bone metastatic NSCLC. We also found that conditioned medium from DKK1 over-expressing lung cancer cells inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast, determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion, whereas the conditioned medium from DKK1 silencing lung cancer cells exhibited the opposite effects. Mechanistically, DKK1 reduced the level of ?-catenin and RUNX2, as well as inhibiting the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that lung cancer-produced DKK1 may be an important mechanistic link between NSCLC and bone metastases, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to treat bone metastase of NSCLC.

  20. Teroxirone inhibited growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating p53

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Kai-Han; Liu, Chun-Yen; Yu, Ya-Chu; Wu, Pei-Tsun [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Chien-Chih [Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Su, Chun-Li [Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kwun-Min [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, Kang, E-mail: kangfang@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrated that the growth of human non-small-cell-lung-cancer cells H460 and A549 cells can be inhibited by low concentrations of an epoxide derivative, teroxirone, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity was mediated by apoptotic cell death through DNA damage. The onset of ultimate apoptosis is dependent on the status of p53. Teroxirone caused transient elevation of p53 that activates downstream p21 and procaspase-3 cleavage. The presence of caspase-3 inhibitor reverted apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, we showed the cytotoxicity of teroxirone in H1299 cells with stable ectopic expression of p53, but not those of mutant p53. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 expression attenuated drug sensitivity. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that teroxirone suppressed growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Being a potential therapeutic agent by restraining cell growth through apoptotic death at low concentrations, teroxirone provides a feasible perspective in reversing tumorigenic phenotype of human lung cancer cells. - Highlights: • Teroxirone repressed tumor cell growth in nude mice of human lung cancer cells. • The apoptotic cell death reverted by caspase-3 inhibitor is related to p53 status. • Teroxirone provides a good candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  1. COPD, INFLAMMATION, AND LUNG CANCER Jerome S Brody, M.D., Professor of Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 COPD, INFLAMMATION, AND LUNG CANCER Jerome S Brody, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Avrum Spira, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine Corresponding Author; Jerome S Brody, MD Pulmonary Center Boston University School

  2. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M.

    2014-12-11

    illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited...

  3. Prognostic Factors in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Division of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Takayama, Kenji; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence clinical outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 101 consecutive patients who underwent SBRT with 48 Gy in 4 fractions for histologically confirmed Stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Factors including age, maximal tumor diameter, sex, performance status, operability, histology, and overall treatment time were evaluated with regard to local progression (LP), disease progression (DP), and overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. Prognostic models were built with recursive partitioning analysis. Results: Three-year OS was 58.6% with a median follow-up of 31.4 months. Cumulative incidence rates of LP and DP were 13.2% and 40.8% at 3 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor diameter was a significant factor in all endpoints of LP, DP, and OS. Other significant factors were age in DP and sex in OS. Recursive partitioning analysis indicated a condition for good prognosis (Class I) as follows: female or T1a (tumor diameter {<=}20 mm). When the remaining male patients with T1b-2a (>20 mm) were defined as Class II, 3-year LP, DP, and OS were 6.8%, 23.6%, and 69.9% in recursive partitioning analysis Class I, respectively, whereas these values were 19.9%, 58.3%, and 47.1% in Class II. The differences between the classes were statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor diameter and sex were the most significant factors in SBRT for NSCLC. T1a or female patients had good prognosis.

  4. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    25-26; Rockville, MD. Philadelphia. xviii 3. Pagano PC, etJan 6-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR Clin Cancer

  5. Residential Mobility and Lung Cancer Risk: Data-Driven Exploration Using Internet Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia; Xu, Songhua

    2015-01-01

    Frequent relocation has been linked to health decline, particularly with respect to emotional and psychological wellbeing. In this paper we investigate whether there is an association between frequent relocation and lung cancer risk. For the initial investigation we leverage two online data sources to collect cancer and control subjects using web crawling and tailored text mining. The two data sources share different strengths and weaknesses in terms of the amount of detail, population representation, and sample size. One data source includes online obituaries. The second data source includes augmented LinkedIn profiles. For each data source, the subjects spatiotemporal history is reconstructed from the available information provided in the obituaries and from the education and work experience provided in the LinkedIn profiles. The study shows that lung cancer subjects have higher mobility frequency than the control group. This trend is consistent for both data sources.

  6. Therapeutic strategies to overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancers harboring the fusion oncogene EML4-ALK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katayama, Ryohei

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to ...

  7. Retrospective Estimation of the Quality of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans for Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Jihye; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the planning quality of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 42 lung cancer cases to provide preliminary data for the development of a planning quality assurance algorithm. Organs in or near the thoracic cavity (ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, liver, esophagus, spinal cord, and bronchus) were selected as organs at risk (OARs). Radiotherapy plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), coverage index (CVI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), OAR-PTV distance and OAR-PTV overlap volume, and the V10Gy, V20Gy, and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of the OARs. The CI, CVI, and HI of the PTV were 0.54 - 0.89 , 0.90 - 1.00 , and 0.11 - 0.41, respectively. The mean EUDs (V10Gy, V20Gy) of the ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, esophagus, cord, liver, heart, and bronchus were 8.07 Gy (28.06, 13.17), 2.59 Gy (6.53, 1.18), 7.02 Gy (26.17, 12.32), 3.56 Gy (13.56, 4.48), 0.72 Gy (2.15, 0.91), 5.14 Gy (19.68, 8.62), and 10.56 Gy (36.08, 19.79), respectivel...

  8. SU-E-J-29: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Tumor Motion Consistency for Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Makhija, K; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Arm, J; Hunter, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the breathing-guidance system: audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. This will minimize respiratory-induced tumor motion variations across cancer imaging and radiotherapy procedues. This is the first study to investigate the impact of respiratory guidance on tumor motion. Methods: Tumor motion consistency was investigated with five lung cancer patients (age: 55 to 64), who underwent a training session to get familiarized with AV biofeedback, followed by two MRI sessions across different dates (pre and mid treatment). During the training session in a CT room, two patient specific breathing patterns were obtained before (Breathing-Pattern-1) and after (Breathing-Pattern-2) training with AV biofeedback. In each MRI session, four MRI scans were performed to obtain 2D coronal and sagittal image datasets in free breathing (FB), and with AV biofeedback utilizing Breathing-Pattern-2. Image pixel values of 2D images after the normalization of 2D images per dataset and Gaussian filter per image were used to extract tumor motion using image pixel values. The tumor motion consistency of the superior-inferior (SI) direction was evaluated in terms of an average tumor motion range and period. Results: Audiovisual biofeedback improved tumor motion consistency by 60% (p value = 0.019) from 1.0±0.6 mm (FB) to 0.4±0.4 mm (AV) in SI motion range, and by 86% (p value < 0.001) from 0.7±0.6 s (FB) to 0.1±0.2 s (AV) in period. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves both breathing pattern and tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential for facilitating reproducible tumor motion towards achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  9. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) expression increases in human lung carcinoma. •CAC1 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. •CAC1 promotes human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer.

  10. Pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization of cancer patients than filgrastim prophylaxis: a retrospective United States claims analysis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, or colorectal cancer.cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, or colorectal cancerlung cancer, NHL, ovarian cancer, or colorectal cancer

  11. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (±2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (±12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (±1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  12. Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakadate, Yusuke; Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 ; Kodera, Yasuo; Kitamura, Yuka; Tachibana, Taro; Tamura, Tomohide; Koizumi, Fumiaki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Radiosensitization by PARG silencing was observed in multiple lung cancer cells. •PAR accumulation was enhanced by PARG silencing after DNA damage. •Radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation were impaired by PARG siRNA. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.

  13. Serum Amyloid A as a Predictive Marker for Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu-Shan [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Heng-Jui [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yue-Cune [Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Su-Chen; Ko, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chih-Chia [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Yu-Wung; Jiang, Jiunn-Song [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, Kwan-Hwa, E-mail: M006565@ms.skh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Science and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate serum markers associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) grade ?3 in patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment serum samples from patients with stage Ib-IV lung cancer who developed RP within 1 year after radiation therapy were analyzed to identify a proteome marker able to stratify patients prone to develop severe RP by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Dosimetric parameters and 3 biological factors were compared. Results: Serum samples from 16 patients (28%) with severe RP (grade 3-4) and 42 patients (72%) with no or mild RP (grade 0-2) were collected for analysis. All patients received a median of 54 Gy (range, 42-70 Gy) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with a mean lung dose (MLD) of 1502 cGy (range, 700-2794 cGy). An m/z peak of 11,480 Da was identified by SELDI-TOF-MS, and serum amyloid A (SAA) was the primary splitter serum marker. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of SAA (0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.00) was higher than those of C-reactive protein (0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94), interleukin-6 (0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), and MLD (0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77). The best sensitivity and specificity of combined SAA and MLD for predicting RP were 88.9% and 96.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Baseline SAA could be used as an auxiliary marker for predicting severe RP. Extreme care should be taken to limit the lung irradiation dose in patients with high SAA.

  14. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yupeng; Kardar, Laleh; Liao, Li; Lim, Gino; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Methods: Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Results: Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Conclusions: Despite the presence of interplay effect, the delivered dose may be reliably estimated using the 4D composite dose. In general the interplay effect may not be a primary concern with IMPT for lung cancers for the authors' institution. The described interplay analysis tool may be used to provide additional confidence in treatment delivery.

  15. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P

    2012-01-01

    2011). 7 P. Armitage and R. Doll, Br J Cancer 8, 1 (1954). 8P. Armitage and R. Doll, Br J Cancer 91, 1983 (2004). 9 E.10 P. Armitage and R. Doll, Br J Cancer 11, 161 (1957). 11

  16. Optimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bin; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-01-01

    Using fiducial markers on patient's body surface to predict the tumor location is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm that automatically identifies a sparse set of locations on the patient's surface with the optimal prediction power for the tumor motion. The sparse selection of markers on the external surface and the assumed linear relationship between the marker motion and the internal tumor motion are represented by a prediction matrix. Such a matrix is determined by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function contains a sparsity term that penalizes the number of markers chosen on the patient's surface. The performance of our algorithm has been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with 10 phases are used for the study. On a reference phase, a grid of points are casted on the patient's surface (except for patient's back) and propagated to other phases via deformable image regis...

  17. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of patients undergoing therapy for small cell lung cancer and ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padjas, Anna; Lesisz, Dominika; Lankoff, Anna; Banasik, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Bakalarz, Robert; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Andrzej . E-mail: awojcik@pu.kielce.pl

    2005-12-01

    The level of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing chemotherapy has been analyzed incisively 20 years ago. The results showed that the highest level of cytogenetic damage was observed at the end of therapy. In recent years, the doses of anticancer drugs were intensified thanks to the discovery of colony stimulating factors. Therefore, it was interesting to analyze the kinetics of micronuclei formation in lymphocytes of patients undergoing modern chemotherapy. The frequencies of micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer treated with a combination of cisplatin and etoposide and 7 patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with a combination of taxol and cisplatin. 3 patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy. Micronuclei were analyzed in lymphocytes collected before the start of therapy and 1 day before each following cycle of chemotherapy. The micronucleus frequencies were compared with the kinetics of leukocyte counts. The micronucleus frequencies showed an interindividual variability. On average, the frequencies of micronuclei increased during the first half of therapy and declined thereafter, reaching, in some patients with ovarian carcinoma, values below the pre-treatment level. Leukocyte counts decreased strongly at the beginning of therapy with an upward trend at the end. We suggest that the decline of micronuclei was due to repopulation of lymphocytes and acquired drug resistance.

  18. Lung Lung Lung (woman only)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    as the leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States in 1987 and now claims the lives of more IS A MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEM FOR WOMEN in the United States, not only owing to its high incidence rate but, more respond to treatment differently than men (iii) Cigarette Smoking Among Adults ­ United States, 2006

  19. SU-E-T-170: Evaluation of Rotational Errors in Proton Therapy Planning of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, S; Zhao, L; Ramirez, E; Singh, H; Zheng, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of rotational (roll, yaw, and pitch) errors in proton therapy planning of lung cancer. Methods: A lung cancer case treated at our center was used in this retrospective study. The original plan was generated using two proton fields (posterior-anterior and left-lateral) with XiO treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using uniform scanning proton therapy system. First, the computed tomography (CT) set of original lung treatment plan was re-sampled for rotational (roll, yaw, and pitch) angles ranged from ?5° to +5°, with an increment of 2.5°. Second, 12 new proton plans were generated in XiO using the 12 re-sampled CT datasets. The same beam conditions, isocenter, and devices were used in new treatment plans as in the original plan. All 12 new proton plans were compared with original plan for planning target volume (PTV) coverage and maximum dose to spinal cord (cord Dmax). Results: PTV coverage was reduced in all 12 new proton plans when compared to that of original plan. Specifically, PTV coverage was reduced by 0.03% to 1.22% for roll, by 0.05% to 1.14% for yaw, and by 0.10% to 3.22% for pitch errors. In comparison to original plan, the cord Dmax in new proton plans was reduced by 8.21% to 25.81% for +2.5° to +5° pitch, by 5.28% to 20.71% for +2.5° to +5° yaw, and by 5.28% to 14.47% for ?2.5° to ?5° roll. In contrast, cord Dmax was increased by 3.80% to 3.86% for ?2.5° to ?5° pitch, by 0.63% to 3.25% for ?2.5° to ?5° yaw, and by 3.75% to 4.54% for +2.5° to +5° roll. Conclusion: PTV coverage was reduced by up to 3.22% for rotational error of 5°. The cord Dmax could increase or decrease depending on the direction of rotational error, beam angles, and the location of lung tumor.

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Treatment Strategies for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Jiang, Jing; Chang, Joe Y.; Welsh, James W.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Swisher, Stephen; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among older adults is expected to increase because of demographic trends and computed tomography-based screening; yet, optimal treatment in the elderly remains controversial. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort spanning 2001-2007, we compared survival outcomes associated with 5 strategies used in contemporary practice: lobectomy, sublobar resection, conventional radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), and observation. Methods and Materials: Treatment strategy and covariates were determined in 10,923 patients aged {>=}66 years with stage IA-IB NSCLC. Cox regression, adjusted for patient and tumor factors, compared overall and disease-specific survival for the 5 strategies. In a second exploratory analysis, propensity-score matching was used for comparison of SABR with other options. Results: The median age was 75 years, and 29% had moderate to severe comorbidities. Treatment distribution was lobectomy (59%), sublobar resection (11.7%), conventional radiation (14.8%), observation (12.6%), and SABR (1.1%). In Cox regression analysis with a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, SABR was associated with the lowest risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.63; referent is lobectomy). After 6 months, lobectomy was associated with the best overall and disease-specific survival. In the propensity-score matched analysis, survival after SABR was similar to that after lobectomy (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.12; referent is SABR). Conventional radiation and observation were associated with poor outcomes in all analyses. Conclusions: In this population-based experience, lobectomy was associated with the best long-term outcomes in fit elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Exploratory analysis of SABR early adopters suggests efficacy comparable with that of surgery in select populations. Evaluation of these therapies in randomized trials is urgently needed.

  1. Complications associated with brachytherapy alone or with laser in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanavkar, B.; Stern, P.; Alberti, W.; Nakhosteen, J.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Relatively little has been reported about destruction through brachytherapy of mucosa-perforating and extraluminary tumors with probable large vessel involvement causing major hemorrhagic or fistular complications. We report 12 patients subjected to laser and brachytherapy for centrally occluding lung cancer, whom we have periodically followed up from June 1986 until they died. Although all laser procedures were free from complications, necrotic cavitation in five cases, two of which were accompanied by large bronchoesophageal fistulas, and massive fatal hemoptysis occurred in six. Minor complications included radiation mucositis (two), noncritical mucosal scarring (two), and cough (four). Characteristics that will identify patients at risk of developing fatal hemoptysis and fistulas should be better defined by imaging and endoscopic techniques. In such cases, modifying the protocol or using alternative procedures should be considered. Minor complications, such as cough, can be avoided by using topical steroid therapy (eg, beclomethasone dipropionate).

  2. Detection of aldehydes in lung cancer cell culture by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Guangqing

    2007-09-17

    Aldehydes in lung cancer cell culture have been investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization. In this study, the poly(dimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene ...

  3. Impaired SHP2-Mediated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation Contributes to Gefitinib Sensitivity of Lung Cancer Cells with Epidermal Factor Receptor-Activating Mutations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, Matthew J.

    Most non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but response to EGFR kinase inhibitors is predominantly limited to NSCLC harboring EGFR-activating mutations. ...

  4. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome, Vitamin D Status, and the Incidence of Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rorabaugh, Joseph Randall

    2012-08-31

    ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiologic data on the role of metabolic syndrome on prostate cancer risk is inconsistent, and only one case-control trial has examined the combined relationship of metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Objective...

  6. Elevated levels of somatic mutation of the glycophorin A locus in cancer patients: Relevance for incidence of secondary cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, S.G.; Bigbee, W.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The glycophorin A (GPA)-based human in vivo somatic mutation assay was used to survey a large number of newly diagnosed cancer patients presenting with a variety of solid tumors. This cancer patient population was sampled pre-therapy and frequencies of two types of variant cells determined: allele loss segregants arising by mutation, deletion, chromosome loss or gene inactivation, and allele loss and duplication segregants arising by chromosome missegregation, mitotic recombination and possibly gene conversion. When compared with matched controls, the cancer patient population exhibited significantly elevated frequencies of both types of segregants. Cancer patients undergoing genotoxic therapy with chemicals and/or ionizing radiation were then examined, yielding variable results depending on the particular agent. In patients receiving localized high dose radiotherapy there was no response with either endpoint. In most cases involving chemotherapy, a significant elevation in the frequency of allele loss variants was observed within one month of the initiation of therapy which persisted at least one erythrocyte lifetime ({approximately}4 months) post therapy. In a subset of these cases, specifically, involving the known stem cell mutagen cis-platinum, the allele loss variant cell frequency remained significantly elevated up to 7 years after treatment. These results indicate that individuals with cancer have inherently higher levels of somatic mutation and segregation, due to genetic predisposition or exposure to environmental genotoxicants, or both, and that certain types of cancer therapy add significantly to the burden of mutation. These data provide a molecular rationale for the increased frequency of secondary malignancy observed in primary cancer patients: they are at increased risk of already having or easily acquiring the necessary carcinogenic events implicated in the progression of multi-step oncogenesis.

  7. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baardwijk, Angela van Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Wanders, Stofferinus; Dekker, Andre; Dingemans, Anne Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Simons, Jean; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissue dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.

  8. Predictive Parameters of CyberKnife Fiducial-less (XSight Lung) Applicability for Treatment of Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Vu, Toni; Doucet, Robert; Béliveau Nadeau, Dominic [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Radiation Oncology Department, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Roberge, David; Lambert, Louise; Carrier, Jean-François [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Filion, Edith, E-mail: edith.filion.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine which parameters allow for CyberKnife fiducial-less tumor tracking in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 133 lung SBRT patients were preselected for direct soft-tissue tracking based on manufacturer recommendations (peripherally located tumors ?1.5 cm with a dense appearance) and staff experience. Patients underwent a tumor visualization test to verify adequate detection by the tracking system (orthogonal radiographs). An analysis of potential predictors of successful tumor tracking was conducted looking at: tumor stage, size, histology, tumor projection on the vertebral column or mediastinum, distance to the diaphragm, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, and patient body mass index. Results: Tumor visualization was satisfactory for 88 patients (66%) and unsatisfactory for 45 patients (34%). Median time to treatment start was 6 days in the success group (range, 2-18 days) and 15 days (range, 3-63 days) in the failure group. A stage T2 (P=.04), larger tumor size (volume of 15.3 cm{sup 3} vs 6.5 cm{sup 3} in success and failure group, respectively) (P<.0001), and higher tumor density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3} vs 0.79 g/cm{sup 3}) were predictive of adequate detection. There was a 63% decrease in failure risk with every 1-cm increase in maximum tumor dimension (relative risk for failure = 0.37, CI=0.23-0.60, P=.001). A diameter of 3.6 cm predicted a success probability of 80%. Histology, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, distance to diaphragm, patient's body mass index, and tumor projection on vertebral column and mediastinum were not found to be predictive of success. Conclusions: Tumor size, volume, and density were the most predictive factors of a successful XSight Lung tumor tracking. Tumors >3.5 cm have ?80% chance of being adequately visualized and therefore should all be considered for direct tumor tracking.

  9. Assessment of interpatient heterogeneity in tumor radiosensitivity for nonsmall cell lung cancer using tumor-volume variation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V. Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Mayr, Nina; Yartsev, Slav

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous work, the authors showed that a distribution of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients could be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. In this research study, the authors show that this algorithm can be applied to other tumors, specifically in nonsmall cell lung cancer. This new application includes larger patient volumes and includes comparison of data sets obtained at independent institutions. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage computed tomography. Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} and clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T{sub 1/2} have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population model of tumor response and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Nonsmall cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} for nonsmall cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Conclusions: The data obtained in this work, when taken together with the data obtained previously for head and neck cancer, suggests that the cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured during radiotherapy with conventional fractionation. The proposed method can be used for treatment evaluation and adaptation.

  10. A high incidence of BRCA1 mutations in 20 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serova, O.; Montagna, M.; Sylla, B.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed 20 breast-ovarian cancer families, the majority of which show positive evidence of linkage to chromosome 17q12, for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 mutations cosegregating with breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility were identified in 16 families, including 1 family with a case of male breast cancer. Nine of these mutations have not been reported previously. The majority of mutations were found to generate a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated BRCA1 protein of 2%-88% of the expected normal length. Two mutations altered the RING finger domain. Sequencing of genomic DNA led to the identification of a mutation in the coding region of BRCA1 in 12 families, and cDNA analysis revealed an abnormal or missing BRCA1 transcript in 4 of the 8 remaining families. A total of eight mutations were associated with a reduced quantity of BRCA1 transcript. We were unable to detect BRCA1 mutations in 4 of the 20 families, but only 1 of these was clearly linked to BRCA1. It is expected that the majority of clear examples of the breast-ovarian cancer syndrome will be associated with germ-line mutations in the coding region of BRCA1. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival: A cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Centre: J. Lundgren#, O. Kirk*, A. Mocroft, A. Cozzi-Lepri,22. Kowalska JD, Friis-Moller N, Kirk O, et al: The codingShiels MS, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD: Lung cancer incidence

  12. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival: a cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Centre: J. Lundgren#, O. Kirk*, A. Mocroft, A. Cozzi-Lepri,22. Kowalska JD, Friis-Moller N, Kirk O, et al: The codingShiels MS, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD: Lung cancer incidence

  13. Method using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine for treating cancers of the lung

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Dean A. (Germantown, MD); Moody, III, David C. (Superior, CO); Ellinwood, L. Edward (Grand Junction, CO); Klein, M. Gerard (Grand Junction, CO)

    1995-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  14. Evaluation of image guided motion management methods in lung cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Yan, Di; Liang, Jian; Ionascu, Dan; Mangona, Victor; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jun, E-mail: jun.zhou@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of three target localization methods for image guided motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Three online image localization methods, including (1) 2D method based on 2D cone beam (CB) projection images, (2) 3D method using 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging, and (3) 4D method using 4D CBCT imaging, have been evaluated using a moving phantom controlled by (a) 1D theoretical breathing motion curves and (b) 3D target motion patterns obtained from daily treatment of 3 lung cancer patients. While all methods are able to provide target mean position (MP), the 2D and 4D methods can also provide target motion standard deviation (SD) and excursion (EX). For each method, the detected MP/SD/EX values are compared to the analytically calculated actual values to calculate the errors. The MP errors are compared among three methods and the SD/EX errors are compared between the 2D and 4D methods. In the theoretical motion study (a), the dependency of MP/SD/EX error on EX is investigated with EX varying from 2.0 cm to 3.0 cm with an increment step of 0.2 cm. In the patient motion study (b), the dependency of MP error on target sizes (2.0 cm and 3.0 cm), motion patterns (four motions per patient) and EX variations is investigated using multivariant linear regression analysis. Results: In the theoretical motion study (a), the MP detection errors are ?0.2 ± 0.2, ?1.5 ± 1.1, and ?0.2 ± 0.2 mm for 2D, 3D, and 4D methods, respectively. Both the 2D and 4D methods could accurately detect motion pattern EX (error < 1.2 mm) and SD (error < 1.0 mm). In the patient motion study (b), MP detection error vector (mm) with the 2D method (0.7 ± 0.4) is found to be significantly less than with the 3D method (1.7 ± 0.8,p < 0.001) and the 4D method (1.4 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) using paired t-test. However, no significant difference is found between the 4D method and the 3D method. Based on multivariant linear regression analysis, the variances of MP error in SI direction explained by target sizes, motion patterns, and EX variations are 9% with the 2D method, 74.4% with the 3D method, and 27% with the 4D method. The EX/SD detection errors are both < 1.0 mm for the 2D method and < 2.0 mm for the 4D method. Conclusions: The 2D method provides the most accurate MP detection regardless of the motion pattern variations, while its performance is limited by the accuracy of target identification in the projection images. The 3D method causes the largest error in MP determination, and its accuracy significantly depends on target sizes, motion patterns, and EX variations. The 4D method provides moderate MP detection results, while its accuracy relies on a regular motion pattern. In addition, the 2D and 4D methods both provide accurate measurement of the motion SD/EX, providing extra information for motion management.

  15. Impact of Neoadjuvant Radiation on Survival in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshy, Matthew, E-mail: mkoshy@umm.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Goloubeva, Olga; Suntharalingam, Mohan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The role of surgery in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiation therapy for Stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database that included patients who were 18 years and older with NSCLC classified as Stage III and who underwent definitive therapy from 1988 to 2004. Patients were characterized by type of treatment received. Survival functions were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression model was used to analyze trends in overall (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 48,131 patients were selected, with a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 0-203 months). By type of treatment, the 3-year OS was 10% with radiation therapy (RT), 37% with surgery (S), 34% with surgery and postoperative radiation (S-RT), and 45% with neoadjuvant radiation followed by surgery (Neo-RT) (p = 0.0001). Multivariable Cox model identified sex, race, laterality, T stage, N stage, and type of treatment as factors affecting survival. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for other variables in regression model showed the types of treatment: S (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4), S-RT (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), and RT (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.15-2.53) were associated with significantly worse overall survival when compared with Neo-RT (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: This population based study demonstrates that patients with Stage III NSCLC receiving Neo-RT had significantly improved overall survival when compared with other treatment groups.

  16. Rapid Disease Progression With Delay in Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry Llyn, E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner; Battu, Madhu; Fitch, Dwight Lamar [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wong, Ching-yee Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey Harold [Department of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Chmielewski, Gary William; Welsh, Robert James [Department of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To assess rate of disease progression from diagnosis to initiation of treatment for Stage I-IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Forty patients with NSCLC underwent at least two sets of computed tomography (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans at various time intervals before treatment. Progression was defined as development of any new lymph node involvement, site of disease, or stage change. Results: Median time interval between first and second CT scans was 13.4 weeks, and between first and second PET scans was 9.0 weeks. Median initial primary maximum tumor dimension (MTD) was 3.5 cm (0.6-8.5 cm) with a median standardized uptake value (SUV) of 13.0 (1.7-38.5). The median MTD increased by a median of 1.0 cm (mean, 1.6 cm) between scans for a median relative MTD increase of 35% (mean, 59%). Nineteen patients (48%) progressed between scans. Rate of any progression was 13%, 31%, and 46% at 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. Upstaging occurred in 3%, 13%, and 21% at these intervals. Distant metastasis became evident in 3%, 13%, and 13% after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. T and N stage were associated with progression, whereas histology, grade, sex, age, and maximum SUV were not. At 3 years, overall survival for Stage III patients with vs. without progression was 18% vs. 67%, p = 0.05. Conclusions: With NSCLC, treatment delay can lead to disease progression. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment initiation should be expedited. After 4-8 weeks of delay, complete restaging should be strongly considered.

  17. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  18. Recent Progress in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Breast Cancer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coates, Mark

    were diagnosed in the United States and Canada ­ with as many as 45,000 cases leading to death. For women, breast cancer mortality rates are higher than for any other cancer, with the exception of lung as early as possible. This will not only reduce mortality and incidence rates, but also significantly ease

  19. Respiration-Correlated Image Guidance Is the Most Important Radiotherapy Motion Management Strategy for Most Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korreman, Stine, E-mail: korreman@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, Roskilde (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (United States); Persson, Gitte; Nygaard, Ditte [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brink, Carsten [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Juhler-Nottrup, Trine [Department of Oncology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), 4D image guidance (4D-IG), and beam gating on calculated treatment field margins in a lung cancer patient population. Materials and Methods: Images were acquired from 46 lung cancer patients participating in four separate protocols at three institutions in Europe and the United States. Seven patients were imaged using fluoroscopy, and 39 patients were imaged using 4DCT. The magnitude of respiratory tumor motion was measured. The required treatment field margins were calculated using a statistical recipe (van Herk M, et al. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;474:1121-1135), with magnitudes of all uncertainties, except respiratory peak-to-peak displacement, the same for all patients, taken from literature. Required margins for respiratory motion management were calculated using the residual respiratory tumor motion for each patient for various motion management strategies. Margin reductions for respiration management were calculated using 4DCT, 4D-IG, and gated beam delivery. Results: The median tumor motion magnitude was 4.4 mm for the 46 patients (range 0-29.3 mm). This value corresponded to required treatment field margins of 13.7 to 36.3 mm (median 14.4 mm). The use of 4DCT, 4D-IG, and beam gating required margins that were reduced by 0 to 13.9 mm (median 0.5 mm), 3 to 5.2 mm (median 5.1 mm), and 0 to 7 mm (median 0.2 mm), respectively, to a total of 8.5 to 12.4 mm (median 8.6 mm). Conclusion: A respiratory management strategy for lung cancer radiotherapy including planning on 4DCT scans and daily image guidance provides a potential reduction of 37% to 47% in treatment field margins. The 4D image guidance strategy was the most effective strategy for >85% of the patients.

  20. Rsf-1 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancers and regulates cyclinD1 expression and ERK activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qingchang; Dong, Qianze [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China)] [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Enhua, E-mail: wangenhuacmu@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China)] [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 expression is elevated in non-small cell lung cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 depletion inhibits proliferation and increased apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 depletion decreases the level of cyclinD1 and phosphor-ERK expression. -- Abstract: Rsf-1 (HBXAP) was recently reported to be overexpressed in various cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of Rsf-1 in primary lung cancer and its biological roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been reported. The molecular mechanism of Rsf-1 in cancer aggressiveness remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of Rsf-1 in NSCLC tissues and found that Rsf-1 was overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein levels. There was a significant association between Rsf-1 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0220) and poor differentiation (p = 0.0013). Furthermore, knockdown of Rsf-1 expression in H1299 and H460 cells with high endogenous Rsf-1 expression resulted in a decrease of colony formation ability and inhibition of cell cycle progression. Rsf-1 knockdown also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. Further analysis showed that Rsf-1 knockdown decreased cyclin D1 expression and phospho-ERK levels. In conclusion, Rsf-1 is overexpressed in NSCLC and contributes to malignant cell growth by cyclin D1 and ERK modulation, which makes Rsf-1 a candidate therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  1. Phase 1 Study of Dose Escalation in Hypofractionated Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H.; Swanick, Cameron; Alvarado, Tina; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Many patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cannot undergo concurrent chemotherapy because of comorbidities or poor performance status. Hypofractionated radiation regimens, if tolerable, may provide an option to these patients for effective local control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial of proton beam therapy (PBT) from September 2010 through July 2012. Eligible patients had histologically documented lung cancer, thymic tumors, carcinoid tumors, or metastatic thyroid tumors. Concurrent chemotherapy was not allowed, but concurrent treatment with biologic agents was. The dose-escalation schema comprised 15 fractions of 3 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE])/fraction, 3.5 Gy(RBE)/fraction, or 4 Gy(RBE)/fraction. Dose constraints were derived from biologically equivalent doses of standard fractionated treatment. Results: The median follow-up time for patients alive at the time of analysis was 13 months (range, 8-28 months). Fifteen patients received treatment to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity possibly related to treatment; 1 received 3.5-Gy(RBE) fractions and experienced an in-field tracheoesophageal fistula 9 months after PBT and 1 month after bevacizumab. The other patient received 4-Gy(RBE) fractions and was hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia/radiation pneumonitis 4 months after PBT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated PBT to the thorax delivered over 3 weeks was well tolerated even with significant doses to the lungs and mediastinal structures. Phase 2/3 trials are needed to compare the efficacy of this technique with standard treatment for locally advanced NSCLC.

  2. PR-Set7 is degraded in a conditional Cul4A transgenic mouse model of lung cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; Hsieh, David; Au, Alfred; Jablons, David M.; Li, Hui; You, Lian

    2015-06-01

    Background and objective. Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential to ensure normal organismal development and to prevent diseases such as cancer. PR-Set7 (also known as Set8) is a cell cycle regulated enzyme that catalyses monomethylation of histone 4 at Lys20 (H4K20me1) to promote chromosome condensation and prevent DNA damage. Recent studies show that CRL4CDT2-mediated ubiquitylation of PR-Set7 leads to its degradation during S phase and after DNA damage. This might occur to ensure appropriate changes in chromosome structure during the cell cycle or to preserve genome integrity after DNA damage. Methods. We developed a new model of lung tumor developmentmore »in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. We have therefore used a mouse model to demonstrate for the first time that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo. With this model, staining of PR-Set7 in the preneoplastic and tumor lesions in AdenoCre-induced mouse lungs was performed. Meanwhile we identified higher protein level changes of ?-tubulin and pericentrin by IHC. Results. The level of PR-Set7 down-regulated in the preneoplastic and adenocarcinomous lesions following over-expression of Cul4A. We also identified higher levels of the proteins pericentrin and ?-tubulin in Cul4A mouse lungs induced by AdenoCre. Conclusion. PR-Set7 is a direct target of Cul4A for degradation and involved in the formation of lung tumors in the conditional Cul4A transgenic mouse model.« less

  3. Role of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in the development of breast cancer brain and lung metastasis in a syngeneic rat model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Odete Rodrigues

    2005-11-01

    In order to study the expression of MMP2, MMP 3 and MMP9 in breast cancer brain and lung metastasis, we used a syngeneic rat model of distant metastasis of ENU1564, a carcinogen-induced mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. ...

  4. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  5. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohri, Nitin; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Grills, Inga S.; Belderbos, Jose; Hope, Andrew; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Ying

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k} Division-Sign (1 + e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k}), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  6. Factors Associated With Severe Acute Esophagitis From Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Wahlquist, Amy E. M.S. [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Shirai, Keisuke [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Aguero, Eric G.; Fortney, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Sherman, Carol A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Sharma, Anand K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: sharmaak@musc.edu

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To describe incidence and identify factors associated with development of severe acute esophagitis during hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy (BID-CRT) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related variables was performed to identify factors associated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Grade 3 acute esophagitis. Twice-daily chemoradiotherapy (BID-CRT) involved 45 Gy at 1.5 Gy per fraction, treated twice daily with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with esophagitis. Results: Between June 1999 and June 2007, 48 patients underwent curative intent BID-CRT for SCLC and were included in the analysis. Median radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy (range, 42-51 Gy) delivered with a median 4 cycles of chemotherapy (range, 2-6). RTOG Grade 3 acute esophagitis developed in 11 patients. No patient developed Grade 4 or 5 esophagitis. Simple logistic regression analyses demonstrated a highly significant association between Grade 3 acute esophagitis and mean esophageal dose (p = 0.002) as well as relative volume dosimetric area under curve (RV-AUC; p = 0.004). Using multiple regression analysis, RV-AUC was identified as the only factor associated with Grade 3 esophagitis (p = 0.004). The most strongly associated dosimetric volume was the V15 (Grade 3 esophagitis rates of 15% vs. 64% for V15 <60% versus {>=}60%, respectively). Conclusions: RV-AUC is the factor most associated with development of Grade 3 acute esophagitis in limited stage SCLC patients receiving BID-CRT.

  7. SU-E-J-52: Dosimetric Benefit of Adaptive Re-Planning in Lung Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, J; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric benefit of adaptive re-planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy(SBRT). Methods: Five lung cancer patients with SBRT treatment were retrospectively investigated. Our in-house supercomputing online re-planning environment (SCORE) was used to realize the re-planning process. First a deformable image registration was carried out to transfer contours from treatment planning CT to each treatment CBCT. Then an automatic re-planning using original plan DVH guided fluence-map optimization is performed to get a new plan for the up-to-date patient geometry. We compared the re-optimized plan to the original plan projected on the up-to-date patient geometry in critical dosimetric parameters, such as PTV coverage, spinal cord maximum and volumetric constraint dose, esophagus maximum and volumetric constraint dose. Results: The average volume of PTV covered by prescription dose for all patients was improved by 7.56% after the adaptive re-planning. The volume of the spinal cord receiving 14.5Gy and 23Gy (V14.5, V23) decreased by 1.48% and 0.68%, respectively. For the esophagus, the volume receiving 19.5Gy (V19.5) reduced by 1.37%. Meanwhile, the maximum dose dropped off by 2.87% for spinal cord and 4.80% for esophagus. Conclusion: Our experimental results demonstrate that adaptive re-planning for lung SBRT has the potential to minimize the dosimetric effect of inter-fraction deformation and thus improve target coverage while reducing the risk of toxicity to nearby normal tissues.

  8. 3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Song, William Y; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have developed an algorithm for reconstructing volumetric images and extracting 3D tumor motion information from a single x-ray projection. We have demonstrated its feasibility using a digital respiratory phantom with regular breathing patterns. In this work, we present a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of the improved algorithm. The algorithm was improved by incorporating respiratory motion prediction. The accuracy and efficiency were then evaluated on 1) a digital respiratory phantom, 2) a physical respiratory phantom, and 3) five lung cancer patients. These evaluation cases include both regular and irregular breathing patterns that are different from the training dataset. For the digital respiratory phantom with regular and irregular breathing, the average 3D tumor localization error is less than 1 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for 3D tumor localization from each projection ranges between 0.19 and 0.26 seconds, for both regular and irreg...

  9. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  10. Progressive Genomic Instability in the FVB/Kras[superscript LA2] Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacks, Tyler E.

    Alterations in DNA copy number contribute to the development and progression of cancers and are common in epithelial tumors. We have used array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to visualize DNA copy number alterations ...

  11. Stage-specific sensitivity to p53 restoration during lung cancer progression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldser, David M.

    Tumorigenesis is a multistep process that results from the sequential accumulation of mutations in key oncogene and tumour suppressor pathways. Personalized cancer therapy that is based on targeting these underlying genetic ...

  12. Influence of radiation therapy on the lung-tissue in breast cancer patients: CT-assessed density changes and associated symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotstein, S.; Lax, I.; Svane, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The relative electron density of lung tissue was measured from computer tomography (CT) slices in 33 breast cancer patients treated by various techniques of adjuvant radiotherapy. The measurements were made before radiotherapy, 3 months and 9 months after completion of radiation therapy. The changes in lung densities at 3 months and 9 months were compared to radiation induced radiological (CT) findings. In addition, subjective symptoms such as cough and dyspnoea were assessed before and after radiotherapy. It was observed that the mean of the relative electron density of lung tissue varied from 0.25 when the whole lung was considered to 0.17 when only the anterior lateral quarter of the lung was taken into account. In patients with positive radiological (CT) findings the mean lung density of the anterior lateral quarter increased 2.1 times 3 months after radiotherapy and was still increased 1.6 times 6 months later. For those patients without findings, in the CT pictures the corresponding values were 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. The standard deviation of the pixel values within the anterior lateral quarter of the lung increased 3.8 times and 3.2 times at 3 months and 9 months, respectively, in the former group, as opposed to 1.2 and 1.1 in the latter group. Thirteen patients had an increase in either cough or dyspnoea as observed 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. In eleven patients these symptoms persisted 6 months later. No significant correlation was found between radiological findings and subjective symptoms. However, when three different treatment techniques were compared among 29 patients the highest rate of radiological findings was observed in patients in which the largest lung volumes received the target dose. A tendency towards an increased rate of subjective symptoms was also found in this group.

  13. Genetic association with overall survival of taxane-treated lung cancer patients - a genome-wide association study in human lymphoblastoid cell lines followed by a clinical association study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Nifang

    Background: Taxane is one of the first line treatments of lung cancer. In order to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might contribute to taxane response, we performed a genome-wide association study ...

  14. Antiproliferative MCR peptides block physical interaction of insulin with retinoblastoma protein (RB) in human lung cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razvan Tudor Radulescu; Kai Kehe

    2007-06-13

    Fifteen years ago, a structural analysis of the hormone insulin and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) revealed that they may physically interact with one another. Subsequently, an RB peptide corresponding to the proposed RB binding site for insulin was found to recognize full-length insulin in vitro. As part of efforts aimed at developing this RB peptide into an anti-cancer drug, this molecule was chemically coupled to a cellular internalization signal and termed "MCR peptide". Meanwhile, several such MCR peptide variants have been demonstrated to restrain the proliferation of different human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, one of the MCR peptides coined MCR-10 was shown to be capable of interfering with the complex formation between insulin and RB in HepG2 human hepatoma cells, as monitored by immunofluorescence. This latter result indicating an in vivo association between insulin and RB was confirmed by a follow-up study combining the methods of co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of the insulin-RB complex in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Specifically, we demonstrate this heterodimer by means of a magnetic beads-based immunoprecipitation approach and equally show that this dimer can be disrupted by MCR-4 or MCR-10 each of which is known to possess antiproliferative properties, yet to a much lesser extent by a control peptide. Thus, this investigation has yielded another important proof for the occurrence of the insulin-RB dimer and, furthermore, its validity as a target for antineoplastic MCR peptides.

  15. www.yalecancercenter.org A Survivor's Perspective: Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org A Survivor's Perspective: Lung Cancer Guest Expert: Janet Brown www lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas. If you would like to join the conversation, you can contact adenocarcinoma lung cancer. It started in my right lung and spread to 3 spots on my spine and to the pons area

  16. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Kamath, Sunil; Wong, Kenneth; Malvar, Jemily; Sposto, Richard; Goodarzian, Fariba; Freyer, David R.; Keens, Thomas G.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.

  17. Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1 and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.; Easton, D.F.; Peto, J.

    1995-12-01

    The majority of multiple-case families that segregate both breast and ovarian cancer in a dominant fashion are due to mutations in the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q. In this paper, we have combined penetrance estimates for BRCA1 with the results of two population-based genetic epidemiological studies to estimate the gene frequency of BRCA1. On the assumption that the excess risk of ovarian cancer in first degree relatives of breast cancer patients and the breast cancer excess in relatives of ovarian cancer patients are both entirely accounted for by BRCA1, we estimate that the BRCA1 gene frequency is 0.0006 (95% confidence interval [0.0002-0.001]) and that the proportion of breast cancer cases in the general population due to BRCA1 is 5.3% below age 40 years, 2.2% between ages 40 and 49 years, and 1.1% between ages 50 and 70 years. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 5.7%, 4.6%, and 2.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of breast cancer families with less than four cases and no ovarian cancer are not due to rare highly penetrant genes such as BRCA1 but are more likely to be due either to chance or to more common genes of lower penetrance. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Incidence Calculus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bundy, Alan

    1992-01-01

    We describe incidence calculus, a logic for probabilistic reasoning. In incidence calculus, probabilities are not directly associated with formulae. Rather sets of possible worlds are directly associated with formulae ...

  19. Mapping the Hallmarks of Lung Adenocarcinoma with Massively Parallel Sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lander, Eric S.

    Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths per year worldwide. Here, we report exome and genome sequences of 183 lung adenocarcinoma tumor/normal ...

  20. Designing Targets for Elective Nodal Irradiation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kepka, Lucyna; Tatro, Daniel; Moran, Jean M.; Quint, Leslie E.; Hayman, James A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong Fengming

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess doses received by mediastinal and hilar lymph node stations (LNS) delineated according to published recommendations when 'standard' two-dimensional (2D) elective fields are applied and to assess doses to critical structures when fields are designed using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning for elective irradiation. Methods and Materials: LNS were delineated on axial CT scans according to existing recommendations. For each case and tumor location, 2D anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) elective fields were applied using the AP-PA CT topograms. From the 2D portal fields, 3D dose distributions were then calculated to particular LNS. Next, 3D plans were prepared for elective nodal irradiation for tumors of different lobes. Doses for critical structures were compared for 2D and 3D plans. Results: LNS 1/2R, 1/2L, 3A, 3P, 5, 6, and 8 were not adequately covered in a substantial part of plans by standard 2D portals when guidelines for delineation were strictly followed. The magnitude of the lack of coverage increased with margin application. There was a trend for a higher yet probably still safe dose delivered to lung for 3D plans compared with 2D plans with a prescription dose of 45 Gy. Conclusions: 2D fields did not entirely cover LNS delineated according to the recommendations for 3D techniques. A strict adherence to these guidelines may lead to larger portals than traditionally constructed using 2D methods. Some modifications for clinical implementation are discussed.

  1. AT NORTHWESTERN EARLY CANCER DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    --including lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer-- there is simply no screening option available, such as pancreatic, ovarian, and lung cancer. · Improve existing screening techniques, such as those for colon cancer, with the THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE EARLY CANCER DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE

  2. Comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lander, Eric S.

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Here we report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adenocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, ...

  3. Use of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halasz, Lia M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Taback, Nathan; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The indications for treatment of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remain controversial. We studied patterns, predictors, and cost of SRS use in elderly patients with NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we identified patients with NSCLC who were diagnosed with brain metastases between 2000 and 2007. Our cohort included patients treated with radiation therapy and not surgical resection as initial treatment for brain metastases. Results: We identified 7684 patients treated with radiation therapy within 2 months after brain metastases diagnosis, of whom 469 (6.1%) cases had billing codes for SRS. Annual SRS use increased from 3.0% in 2000 to 8.2% in 2005 and varied from 3.4% to 12.5% by specific SEER registry site. After controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, we found SRS use was significantly associated with increasing year of diagnosis, specific SEER registry, higher socioeconomic status, admission to a teaching hospital, no history of participation in low-income state buy-in programs (a proxy for Medicaid eligibility), no extracranial metastases, and longer intervals from NSCLC diagnosis. The average cost per patient associated with radiation therapy was 2.19 times greater for those who received SRS than for those who did not. Conclusions: The use of SRS in patients with metastatic NSCLC increased almost 3-fold from 2000 to 2005. In addition, we found significant variations in SRS use across SEER registries and socioeconomic quartiles. National practice patterns in this study suggested both a lack of consensus and an overall limited use of the approach among elderly patients before 2008.

  4. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of patients.

  5. Celecoxib Enhances the Radiosensitizing Effect of 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Mee; Jeong, In-Hye [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Hongryull, E-mail: Quasar93@yahoo.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), a Chk1-specific inhibitor, showed promising in vitro and in vivo chemo- or radiosensitizing activity. However, there have been concerns about its limited therapeutic efficacy and risk of side effects. A method of enhancing the treatment efficacy of UCN-01 while not increasing its side effects on normal tissue may therefore be required to apply this drug in clinical settings. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor that downregulates ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) protein, an upstream kinase of Chk1. In this study, we investigated whether the addition of celecoxib can potentiate the radiosensitizing effect of UCN-01. Methods and Materials: The cooperative radiosensitizing effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of UCN-01 plus celecoxib were determined by clonogenic assay, tumor growth delay assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Synergism of the three agents combined (UCN-01 plus celecoxib plus radiation) were evaluated using median drug effect analysis and drug-independent action model analysis. Results: The combination of UCN-01 and celecoxib could induce synergistic cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing effects in in vitro and in vivo systems. The combination of both drugs also cooperatively inhibited IR-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, and increased the G{sub 2} to mitotic transition. Conclusions: Combined treatment with UCN-01 and celecoxib can exert synergistically enhanced radiosensitizing effects via cooperative inhibition of the ionizing radiation-activated G{sub 2} checkpoint. We propose that this combination strategy may be useful in clinical applications of UCN-01 for radiotherapy of cancer patients.

  6. A Study of Telomeres-Targeting Anticancer Drugs' Effectiveness through Comparative Cancer Mortality and Incidence Rates Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urio, Richard O.

    2015-07-30

    of Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003 will be discussed. The HGP had among its main three future goals the designing of more robust and efficient drugs, vaccines and therapies for cancer prevention or elimination. Analyzing the success of the anticancer.... Completion of the human genome project (HGP) on April 14, 2003 was an exciting moment for people in medical research, as it culminated in successful mapping of the entire human body building blocks, or genes. With completion of this project...

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few of lung cancer, and 2,053 controls recruited from 8 Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self

  8. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persinger, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references.

  9. Clinically Meaningful Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes With Amifostine in Combination With Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 9801

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarna, Linda [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: lsarna@sonnet.ucla.edu; Swann, Suzanne [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langer, Corey [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nicolaou, Nicos [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Byhardt, Roger [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Wasserman, Todd [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in quality of life (QOL) and symptoms from pretreatment to 6 weeks posttreatment in a Phase III randomized study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9801) of amifostine (AM) vs. no AM in patients with Stages II-III non-small-cell lung cancer receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin as induction and then concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-eight patients with baseline and 6-week posttreatment QOL data were analyzed. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics between those who did and did not have QOL data. The QOL and symptoms were assessed by using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Global QOL and Pain subscales and the EORTC-Lung Cancer-13 symptom tool. Clinically relevant changes in QOL were characterized by 10-point differences in individual scores pre/post treatment. A daily diary of patient-rated difficulty swallowing and a weekly physician-rated dysphagia log (using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) were completed during treatment. Weight loss was monitored. Differences in outcomes were examined according to smoking status, alcohol use, and sex. Results: Patients receiving AM reported significantly greater pain reduction after chemoradiation (34% vs. no AM, 21%), less difficulty swallowing during chemoradiation, and less weight loss than patients not receiving AM. However, physician-rated assessments of dysphagia were not significantly different by treatment arm. There were no other significant changes in QOL or symptoms according to treatment arm, smoking status, alcohol use, or sex. Conclusions: Patient evaluations of difficulty swallowing and pain suggest benefits from AM use that are distinct from clinician-rated assessments.

  10. Early prediction of tumor recurrence based on CT texture changes after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 4L6; Division of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 ; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation induced lung injury (RILI) are common following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence. The authors measured the ability of CT image texture analysis, compared to more traditional measures of response, to predict eventual cancer recurrence based on CT images acquired within 5 months of treatment. Methods: A total of 24 lesions from 22 patients treated with SABR were selected for this study: 13 with moderate to severe benign RILI, and 11 with recurrence. Three-dimensional (3D) consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) changes were manually delineated on all follow-up CT scans. Two size measures of the consolidation regions (longest axial diameter and 3D volume) and nine appearance features of the GGO were calculated: 2 first-order features [mean density and standard deviation of density (first-order texture)], and 7 second-order texture features [energy, entropy, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), inertia, cluster shade, and cluster prominence]. For comparison, the corresponding response evaluation criteria in solid tumors measures were also taken for the consolidation regions. Prediction accuracy was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and two-fold cross validation (CV). Results: For this analysis, 46 diagnostic CT scans scheduled for approximately 3 and 6 months post-treatment were binned based on their recorded scan dates into 2–5 month and 5–8 month follow-up time ranges. At 2–5 months post-treatment, first-order texture, energy, and entropy provided AUCs of 0.79–0.81 using a linear classifier. On two-fold CV, first-order texture yielded 73% accuracy versus 76%–77% with the second-order features. The size measures of the consolidative region, longest axial diameter and 3D volume, gave two-fold CV accuracies of 60% and 57%, and AUCs of 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions: Texture measures of the GGO appearance following SABR demonstrated the ability to predict recurrence in individual patients within 5 months of SABR treatment. Appearance changes were also shown to be more accurately predictive of recurrence, as compared to size measures within the same time period. With further validation, these results could form the substrate for a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis tool which could provide earlier salvage of patients with recurrence.

  11. SU-E-J-267: Weekly Volumetric and Dosimetric Changes in Adaptive Conformal Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell-Lung Cancer Using 4D CT and Gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z [the 6th People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shang, Q [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Xiong, F; Zhang, X; Zhang, Q; Fu, S [the 6th People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was to evaluate the significance of weekly imageguided patient setup and to assess the volumetric and dosimetric changes in no-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with adaptive conformal radiotherapy (CRT). Methods: 9 NSCLC patients treated with 3D CRT underwent 4D CT-on-rail every five fractions. ITV was generated from three phases of the 4DCT (the end of exhalation, 25% before and after the end of exhalation). The margin of ITV to PTV is 5mm. 6 weekly CTs were acquired for each patient. The weekly CTs were fused with the planning CT by vertebrae. The couch shift was recorded for each weekly CT to evaluate the setup error. The gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on weekly CT images by a physician. Beams from the original plans were applied to weekly CTs to calculate the delivered doses. All patients underwent replanning after 20 fractions. Results: Among the total 54 CTs, the average setup error was 2.0± 1.7, 2.6± 2.1, 2.7± 2.2 mm in X, Y, and Z direction, respectively. The average volume of the primary GTV was reduced from 42.45 cc to 22.78 cc (47.04%) after 6 weeks. The maximal volume regression occurred between 15 and 20 fractions. Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) reduced the V20 and V5 of the lung by 33.5% and 16.89%, respectively. ART also reduced Dmean and D1/3 of the heart by 31.7% and 32.32%, respectively. Dmax of the spinal cord did not vary much during the treatment course. Conclusion: 5 mm margin is sufficient for 4D weekly CTguided radiotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor regression was observed in the majority of patients. ART significantly reduced the OARs dose. Our preliminary results indicated that an off-line ART approach is appropriate in clinical practice.

  12. Functional Promoter Variant rs2868371 of HSPB1 Is Associated With Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis After Chemoradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Qingsong; Department of Radiation Oncology and Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin ; Wei, Qingyi; Xu, Ting; Yuan, Xianglin; Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Levy, Lawrence B.; Liu, Zhensheng; Gomez, Daniel R.; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Li-E.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To date, no biomarkers have been found to predict, before treatment, which patients will develop radiation pneumonitis (RP), a potentially fatal toxicity, after chemoradiation for lung cancer. We investigated potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HSPB1 and risk of RP after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Subjects were patients with NSCLC treated with chemoradiation at 1 institution. The training data set comprised 146 patients treated from 1999 to July 2004; the validation data set was 125 patients treated from August 2004 to March 2010. We genotyped 2 functional SNPs of HSPB1 (rs2868370 and rs2868371) from all patients. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess the risk of grade ?2 or ?3 RP in both data sets and a parametric log-logistic survival model to evaluate the association of HSPB1 genotypes with that risk. Results: Grade ?3 RP was experienced by 13% of those with CG/GG and 29% of those with CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 in the training data set (P=.028); corresponding rates in the validation data set were 2% CG/GG and 14% CC (P=.02). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the association of CC of HSPB1 rs2868371 with higher risk of grade ?3 RP than CG/GG after adjustment for sex, age, performance status, and lung mean dose. This association was validated both in the validation data set and with Harrell's C statistic. Conclusions: The CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with severe RP after chemoradiation for NSCLC.

  13. Isotoxic Dose Escalation in the Treatment of Lung Cancer by Means of Heterogeneous Dose Distributions in the Presence of Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Hansen, Olfred [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Jahn, Jonas Westberg [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Korreman, Stine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brink, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.brink@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion is considered. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography scanning. The gross tumor volume and clinical target volume (CTV) were outlined in the mid-ventilation phase. The CTV-to-planning target volume (PTV) margin was calculated by use of a standard margin recipe and the patient-specific respiration pattern. Standard three-dimensional treatment plans were generated and recalculated on the remaining respiration phases. The planning was repeated for a CTV-to-PTV margin decreased by 2.5 and 5 mm relative to the initial margin in all directions. Time-averaged dose-volume histograms (four-dimensional dose-volume histograms) were calculated to evaluate the CTV-to-PTV margin. Finally, the dose was escalated in the plans with decreased PTV such that the mean lung dose (predictor of radiation-induced pneumonitis) was equal to mean lung dose in the plan by use of the initially calculated margin. Results: A reduction of the standard margin by 2.5 mm compared with the recipe resulted in too low of a minimum dose for some patients. A combination of dose escalation and use of heterogeneous dose distribution was able to increase the minimum dose to the target by approximately 10% and 20% for a CTV-to-PTV margin reduction of 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The margin recipe is valid for intrafractional respiration-induced tumor motions. It is possible to increase the dose to the target without increased mean lung dose with an inhomogeneous dose distribution.

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Versus Surgery for Medically Operable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Markov Model-Based Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louie, Alexander V.; Rodrigues, George; Palma, David A.; Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Yaremko, Brian P.; Malthaner, Richard; Mocanu, Joseph D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy and overall survival in patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with either stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or surgery. Methods and Materials: We constructed a Markov model to describe health states after either SBRT or lobectomy for Stage I NSCLC for a 5-year time frame. We report various treatment strategy survival outcomes stratified by age, sex, and pack-year history of smoking, and compared these with an external outcome prediction tool (Adjuvant{exclamation_point} Online). Results: Overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and other causes of death as predicted by our model correlated closely with those predicted by the external prediction tool. Overall survival at 5 years as predicted by baseline analysis of our model is in favor of surgery, with a benefit ranging from 2.2% to 3.0% for all cohorts. Mean quality-adjusted life expectancy ranged from 3.28 to 3.78 years after surgery and from 3.35 to 3.87 years for SBRT. The utility threshold for preferring SBRT over surgery was 0.90. Outcomes were sensitive to quality of life, the proportion of local and regional recurrences treated with standard vs. palliative treatments, and the surgery- and SBRT-related mortalities. Conclusions: The role of SBRT in the medically operable patient is yet to be defined. Our model indicates that SBRT may offer comparable overall survival and quality-adjusted life expectancy as compared with surgical resection. Well-powered prospective studies comparing surgery vs. SBRT in early-stage lung cancer are warranted to further investigate the relative survival, quality of life, and cost characteristics of both treatment paradigms.

  15. How much do cancer-related symptoms contribute to health-related quality of life in lung and colorectal cancer patients? A report from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Cancer Society’s studies of cancer survivors. Can- cer.palliative care provider. Cancer J. 2013;19: 31. Catalanoof par- ticipants in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and

  16. A novel molecular pathway for Snail-dependent, SPARC-mediated invasion in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer pathogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    chemoprevention with celecoxib in former smokers, CancerStrieter, S.M. Dubinett, Celecoxib modulates the capacityLovastatin and low dose celecoxib decrease proliferation and

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of Genexol-PM, a Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel, as a Novel Radiosensitizer for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Michael E.; Cummings, Natalie D.; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina C.; Sukumar, Rohit [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States) [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Moore, Dominic T. [Division of Biostatistics and Data Management, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Division of Biostatistics and Data Management, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z., E-mail: zawang@med.unc.edu [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: A key research objective in radiation oncology is to identify agents that can improve chemoradiation therapy. Nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics possess several properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors, that are uniquely suited for chemoradiation therapy. To facilitate the clinical translation of NP chemotherapeutics in chemoradiation therapy, we conducted preclinical evaluation of Genexol-PM, the only clinically approved NP chemotherapeutic with a controlled drug release profile, as a radiosensitizer using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a model disease. Methods and Materials: The physical characteristics and drug release profile of Genexol-PM were characterized. Genexol-PM's efficacy as a radiosensitizer was evaluated in vitro using NSCLC cell lines and in vivo using mouse xenograft models of NSCLC. Paclitaxel dose to normal lung and liver after Genexol-PM administration were quantified and compared with that after Taxol administration. Results: Genexol-PM has a size of 23.91 ± 0.41 nm and surface charge of ?8.1 ± 3.1 mV. It releases paclitaxel in a controlled release profile. In vitro evaluation of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer showed it is an effective radiosensitizer and is more effective than Taxol, its small molecule counterpart, at the half maximal inhibitory concentration. In vivo study of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer demonstrated that it is more effective as a radiosensitizer than Taxol. We also found that Genexol-PM leads to lower paclitaxel exposure to normal lung tissue than Taxol at 6 hours postadministration. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that Genexol-PM is more effective than Taxol as a radiosensitizer in the preclinical setting and holds high potential for clinical translation. Our data support the clinical evaluation of Genexol-PM in chemoradiation therapy for NSCLC.

  18. SU-E-J-265: Practical Issues and Solutions in Reconstructing and Using 4DCT for Radiotherapy Planning of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W; Feigenberg, S; Yi, B; Lasio, G; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To report practical issues and solutions in reconstructing and using 4DCT to account for respiratory motion in radiotherapy planning. Methods: Quiet breathing 4DCT was used to account for respiratory motion for patients with lung or upper abdomen tumor. A planning CT and a 4DCT were acquired consecutively with a Philips Brilliance CT scanner and Varian RPM System. The projections were reconstructed into 10 phases. In Pinnacle RTP system, we contour a GTV in each phase and unite all 10 GTVs as ITV. The ITV is then mapped to the planning CT. We describe practical issues, their causes, our solutions and reasoning during this process. Results: In 6 months, 9 issues were reported for 8 patients with lung cancer. For two patients, part of the GTV (?50% and 10%) in planning CT fell outside the ITV in 4DCT. There was a 7 mm variation in first patient back position because less restricted immobilization had to be used. The second discrepancy was due to moderate variation in breathing amplitude. We extended the ITV to include the GTV since both variations may likely happen during treatment. A LUL tumor showed no motion due to a 10-s long no-breathing period. An RLL tumor appeared double due to an abnormally deeper breath at the tumor region. We repeated 4DCT reiterating the importance of quiet, regular breathing. One patient breathed too light to generate RPM signal. Two issues (no motion in lung, incomplete images in 90% phase) were due to incorrect tag positions. Two unexplainable errors disappeared when repeating reconstruction. In summary, 5 issues were patient-related and 4 were technique issues. Conclusion: Improving breathing regularity avoided large artifacts in 4DCT. One needs to closely monitor patient breathing. For uncontrollable variations, larger PTVs are necessary which requires appropriate communication between physics and the treating physician.

  19. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Nappi, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Storto, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Can Be Used Safely to Boost Residual Disease in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddock, Jonathan; Arnold, Susanne M.; Department of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky ; Shelton, Brent J.; Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary; Chen, Li; Rinehart, John; McGarry, Ronald C.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective, single-institution study evaluating the feasibility of conventional chemoradiation (CRT) followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a means of dose escalation for patients with stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with residual disease. Methods and Materials: Patients without metastatic disease and with radiologic evidence of limited residual disease (?5 cm) within the site of the primary tumor and good or complete nodal responses after standard CRT to a target dose of 60 Gy were considered eligible. The SBRT boost was done to achieve a total combined dose biological equivalent dose >100 Gy to the residual primary tumor, consisting of 10 Gy × 2 fractions (20 Gy total) for peripheral tumors, and 6.5 Gy × 3 fractions (19.5 Gy total) for medial tumors using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0813 definitions. The primary endpoint was the development of grade ?3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, 4 patients developed acute grade 3 RP, and 1 (2.9%) developed late and persistent grade 3 RP. No patients developed grade 4 or 5 RP. Mean lung dose, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 values were calculated for the SBRT boost, and none were found to significantly predict for RP. Only advancing age (P=.0147), previous smoking status (P=.0505), and high CRT mean lung dose (P=.0295) were significantly associated with RP development. At the time of analysis, the actuarial local control rate at the primary tumor site was 82.9%, with only 6 patients demonstrating recurrence. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based SBRT for dose escalation of limited residual NSCLC after definitive CRT was feasible and did not increase the risk for toxicity above that for standard radiation therapy.

  1. Interfraction Displacement of Primary Tumor and Involved Lymph Nodes Relative to Anatomic Landmarks in Image Guided Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan, Nuzhat; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Nitai [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Weiss, Elisabeth, E-mail: eweiss@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze primary tumor (PT) and lymph node (LN) position changes relative to each other and relative to anatomic landmarks during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In 12 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer PT, LN, carina, and 1 thoracic vertebra were manually contoured on weekly 4-dimensional fan-beam CT scans. Systematic and random interfraction displacements of all contoured structures were identified in the 3 cardinal directions, and resulting setup margins were calculated. Time trends and the effect of volume changes on displacements were analyzed. Results: Three-dimensional displacement vectors and systematic/random interfraction displacements were smaller for carina than for vertebra both for PT and LN. For PT, mean (SD) 3-dimensional displacement vectors with carina-based alignment were 7 (4) mm versus 9 (5) mm with bony anatomy (P<.0001). For LN, smaller displacements were found with carina- (5 [3] mm, P<.0001) and vertebra-based (6 [3] mm, P=.002) alignment compared with using PT for setup (8 [5] mm). Primary tumor and LN displacements relative to bone and carina were independent (P>.05). Displacements between PT and bone (P=.04) and between PT and LN (P=.01) were significantly correlated with PT volume regression. Displacements between LN and carina were correlated with LN volume change (P=.03). Conclusions: Carina-based setup results in a more reproducible PT and LN alignment than bony anatomy setup. Considering the independence of PT and LN displacement and the impact of volume regression on displacements over time, repeated CT imaging even with PT-based alignment is recommended in locally advanced disease.

  2. A Bronchial Puncture Mechanism for Transoral Access to the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Bronchial Puncture Mechanism for Transoral Access to the Lung Parenchyma Erik P. Lamers, Andria A University 1 Background More people die from lung cancer each year than any other form of cancer. Over 150 tool. The most common lung biopsy approaches are percutaneous and transoral. Percutaneous biopsy

  3. Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Aristofanes C. Silva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endler, Markus

    Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Nodules Arist´ofanes C. Silva e-mail: ari-Rio Inf.MCC09/02 June, 2002 Abstract We propose a method for visualize lung nodule, in order to emphasize, limiar. #12;1 Introduction Lung cancer is known to be the form of cancer with the smallest survival rate

  4. SU-E-T-452: Impact of Respiratory Motion On Robustly-Optimized Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy to Treat Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W; Schild, S; Bues, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Liao, Z; Sahoo, N [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Park, P [Scottsdale, GA (United States); Li, H [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Y [Varian Medical Systems, Houston, TX (United States); Li, X; Shen, J [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AA (United States); Anand, A [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix (United States); Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Zhu, X; Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We compared conventionally optimized intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans against the worst-case robustly optimized treatment plans for lung cancer. The comparison of the two IMPT optimization strategies focused on the resulting plans' ability to retain dose objectives under the influence of patient set-up, inherent proton range uncertainty, and dose perturbation caused by respiratory motion. Methods: For each of the 9 lung cancer cases two treatment plans were created accounting for treatment uncertainties in two different ways: the first used the conventional Method: delivery of prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) that is geometrically expanded from the internal target volume (ITV). The second employed the worst-case robust optimization scheme that addressed set-up and range uncertainties through beamlet optimization. The plan optimality and plan robustness were calculated and compared. Furthermore, the effects on dose distributions of the changes in patient anatomy due to respiratory motion was investigated for both strategies by comparing the corresponding plan evaluation metrics at the end-inspiration and end-expiration phase and absolute differences between these phases. The mean plan evaluation metrics of the two groups were compared using two-sided paired t-tests. Results: Without respiratory motion considered, we affirmed that worst-case robust optimization is superior to PTV-based conventional optimization in terms of plan robustness and optimality. With respiratory motion considered, robust optimization still leads to more robust dose distributions to respiratory motion for targets and comparable or even better plan optimality [D95% ITV: 96.6% versus 96.1% (p=0.26), D5% - D95% ITV: 10.0% versus 12.3% (p=0.082), D1% spinal cord: 31.8% versus 36.5% (p =0.035)]. Conclusion: Worst-case robust optimization led to superior solutions for lung IMPT. Despite of the fact that robust optimization did not explicitly account for respiratory motion it produced motion-resistant treatment plans. However, further research is needed to incorporate respiratory motion into IMPT robust optimization.

  5. SU-E-T-40: Analysis of Composite MVCT Planning Dosimetry with SBRT of Upper Peripheral Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Doxsee, K; Chen, Y [Monmouth Medical Center, Tinton Falls, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Quantitatively evaluate and compare the final adaptive planning doses of upper peripherally located lung SBRT treated with Tomotherapy using 3rd party software tool. Methods: With tumor located in the upper quadrant of lung, a 3rd party software tool was implemented to evaluate the Tomotherapy composite dosimetry created by adaptive fan beam MVCT images described by RTOG 0915 dose criteria (48 Gy / 4 fractions). The composite doses was then summarized with deformable registration in this package with corresponding target and critical structures. The final dosimetry variation, both for target and critical structures, were evaluated in a tabular format and isodose distribution comparisons. Results: Composite SBRT treatment doses were evaluated with adaptive planning. The PTV and several critical structures were mapped/deformed into the package via DICOM from Tomotherapy after the final composite doses were created. Initial plan versus the final composite plan calculated from verification images were compared. The ITV defined by 4D CT and contoured on MVCT images were correlated in patient repositioning. Final composite dose calculated for PTV coverage has shown 0.1–0.17 cGy coverage (0.2–0.4% of prescription dose) variation. Total lung and cord were both less than 0.17 Gy which represented <0.4% difference. All other critical structure were within statistical significance. The adaptive plans justified/included the breathing and motion during the treatment process. Final 95% isotope line coverage from prescription has been met without issues. Conclusions: With lung tumor location in the upper peripheral area, breathing control was not necessary required during SBRT treatment using Tomotherapy technique. Slow fan beam CT provides definitive ITV information and the adaptive composite plan for all fractions were suitable for final dose delivery. The final composite dose calculated with Tomotherapy adaptive tool indicated that the composite dosimetry justified the target location with SBRT delivery, safe with minimum margin of errors.

  6. Chronic cisplatin treatment promotes enhanced damage repair and tumor progression in a mouse model of lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Trudy Gale

    Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment, yet the mechanisms of response to specific therapies have been largely unexplored in vivo. Employing genetic, genomic, and imaging approaches, we examined ...

  7. Network Biology of Tumor Stem-like Cells Identified a Regulatory Role of CBX5 in Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yau-Hua

    Mounting evidence links cancers possessing stem-like properties with worse prognosis. Network biology with signal processing mechanics was explored here using expression profiles of a panel of tumor stem-like cells (TSLCs). ...

  8. NF-?B Fans the Flames of Lung Carcinogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacks, Tyler E.

    This perspective on Deng et al. (beginning on p. 424 in this issue of the journal) examines the link between NF-?B and lung tumorigenesis. Experiments in genetically engineered mouse models of lung cancers are elucidating ...

  9. Response and Resistance to NF-?B Inhibitors in Mouse Models of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Wen

    Lung adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. We recently showed that genetic inhibition of the NF-?B pathway affects both the initiation and the maintenance of lung cancer, identifying this pathway as ...

  10. Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent histologic subtype of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pajarola, Renato B.

    ·Topic Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent histologic subtype of lung cancer displaying a frequency of 25% among all lung cancers. This subtype is morphologically. The aim of this project is to help model the 3D architecture and shape of human lung squamous cell

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 62: A Retrospective Assessment of the Prevalence and Dosimetric Effect of Lateral Electron Disequilibrium in a Population of Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Disher, Brandon; Wade, Laura; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.; Palma, David

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SBRT uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to ablate the tumour. However, small MV x-ray fields may produce lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) within lung tissue, which can reduce the dose to tumour. The goal of this work is to estimate the prevalence of LED in NSCLC patients treated with SBRT, and determine dose effects for patients prone or averse to LED. Thirty NSCLC patients were randomly selected for analysis. 4-dimensional CT lung images were segmented into the right and left upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL, LUL, LLL), and the right middle lobe. Dose calculations were performed using volume-modulated arc therapy in the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS. Most tumours were located in the upper lobes (RUL 53%, LUL 27%) where density was significantly lower (RUL ?808±46 HU vs. RLL ?743±71 HU; LUL ?808 ±56 HU vs. LLL ?746±70 HU; p<0.001). In general, the prevalence of LED increased with higher beam energy. Using 6MV photons, patients with a RUL tumour experienced moderate (81 %), and mild (19%) levels of LED. At 18MV, LED became more prominent with severe (50%) and moderate (50%) LED exhibited. Dosimetrically, for patients prone to LED, poorer target coverage (i.e. increased R100 by 20%) and improved lung sparing (i.e. reduced V20 by ?46%) was observed. The common location of lung cancers in the upper lobes, coupled with lower lung density, results in the potential occurrence of LED, which may underdose the tumour.

  12. Quantification of incidental mediastinal and hilar irradiation delivered during definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Kate L.; Gomez, Jorge; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Warren, Graham W.; Singh, Anurag K.

    2012-07-01

    To determine the amount of incidental radiation dose received by the mediastinal and hilar nodes for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Fifty consecutive patients with NSCLC, treated using an SBRT technique, were identified. Of these patients, 38 had a prescription dose of 60 Gy in 20-Gy fractions and were eligible for analysis. For each patient, ipsilateral upper (level 2) and lower (level 4) paratracheal, and hilar (level 10) nodal regions were contoured on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Using the clinical treatment plan, dose and volume calculations were performed retrospectively for each nodal region. SBRT to upper lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 5.2 and 7.8 Gy for the most proximal paratracheal nodal stations (2R and 4R for right upper lobe lesions, 2L and 4L for left upper lobe lesions). SBRT to lower lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 15.6 and 21.5 Gy for the most proximal hilar nodal stations (10R for right lower lobe lesions, 10 l for left lower lobe lesions). Doses to more distal nodes were substantially lower than 5 Gy. The often substantial incidental irradiation, delivered during SBRT for peripheral NSCLC of the lower lobes to the most proximal hilar lymph nodes may be therapeutic for low-volume, subclinical nodal disease. Treatment of peripheral upper lobe lung tumors delivers less incidental irradiation to the paratracheal lymph nodes with lower likelihood of therapeutic benefit.

  13. Predictive Treatment Management: Incorporating a Predictive Tumor Response Model Into Robust Prospective Treatment Planning for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Mageras, Gig; Rimner, Andreas; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that a treatment planning technique that incorporates predicted lung tumor regression into optimization, predictive treatment planning (PTP), could allow dose escalation to the residual tumor while maintaining coverage of the initial target without increasing dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: We created a model to estimate the geometric presence of residual tumors after radiation therapy using planning computed tomography (CT) and weekly cone beam CT scans of 5 lung cancer patients. For planning purposes, we modeled the dynamic process of tumor shrinkage by morphing the original planning target volume (PTV{sub orig}) in 3 equispaced steps to the predicted residue (PTV{sub pred}). Patients were treated with a uniform prescription dose to PTV{sub orig}. By contrast, PTP optimization started with the same prescription dose to PTV{sub orig} but linearly increased the dose at each step, until reaching the highest dose achievable to PTV{sub pred} consistent with OAR limits. This method is compared with midcourse adaptive replanning. Results: Initial parenchymal gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 3.6 to 186.5 cm{sup 3}. On average, the primary GTV and PTV decreased by 39% and 27%, respectively, at the end of treatment. The PTP approach gave PTV{sub orig} at least the prescription dose, and it increased the mean dose of the true residual tumor by an average of 6.0 Gy above the adaptive approach. Conclusions: PTP, incorporating a tumor regression model from the start, represents a new approach to increase tumor dose without increasing toxicities, and reduce clinical workload compared with the adaptive approach, although model verification using per-patient midcourse imaging would be prudent.

  14. Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok Choudhary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    statistics in the United States [5]. It is a population-based cancer registry which covers about 26 rate being about 15% after 5 years of diagnosis [3]. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (e.g. survival time, cause of death), which makes the SEER data ideal for performing outcome analysis

  15. Lobe-based Estimating Ventilation and Perfusion from 3D CT scans of the Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Joe

    Lobe-based Estimating Ventilation and Perfusion from 3D CT scans of the Lungs Travis McPhail Joe Warren Rice University Thomas Guerrero, M.D. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Introduction Lung cancer for lung cancer includes surgical removal or radiation therapy. 3D imaging technologies such CT, MRI

  16. Radiosensitizing Effects of Ectopic miR-101 on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells Depend on the Endogenous miR-101 Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Susie; Wang Hongyan; Ng, Wooi Loon; Curran, Walter J.; Wang Ya

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Previously, we showed that ectopic miR-101 could sensitize human tumor cells to radiation by targeting ATM and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to inhibit DNA repair, as the endogenous miR-101 levels are low in tumors in general. However, the heterogeneity of human cancers may result in an exception. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a few tumor cell lines with a high level of endogenous miR-101 would prove less response to ectopic miR-101. Methods and Materials: Fourteeen non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and one immortalized non-malignant lung epithelial cell line (NL20) were used for comparing endogenous miR-101 levels by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on the different miR-101 levels, four cell lines with different miR-101 levels were chosen for transfection with a green fluorescent protein-lentiviral plasmid encoding miR-101. The target protein levels were measured by using Western blotting. The radiosensitizing effects of ectopic miR-101 on these NSCLC cell lines were determined by a clonogenic assay and xenograft mouse model. Results: The endogenous miR-101 level was similar or lower in 13 NSCLC cell lines but was 11-fold higher in one cell line (H157) than in NL20 cells. Although ectopic miR-101 efficiently decreased the ATM and DNA-PKcs levels and increased the radiosensitization level in H1299, H1975, and A549 cells, it did not change the levels of the miR-101 targets or radiosensitivity in H157 cells. Similar results were observed in xenograft mice. Conclusions: A small number of NSCLC cell lines could have a high level of endogenous miR-101. The ectopic miR-101 was able to radiosensitize most NSCLC cells, except for the NSCLC cell lines that had a much higher endogenous miR-101 level. These results suggest that when we choose one miRNA as a therapeutic tool, the endogenous level of the miRNA in each tumor should be considered.

  17. Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery as Salvage Therapy After Failure of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Sunit; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Munley, Michael T.; Guzman, Allan F. de; Shaw, Edward G.; Urbanic, James J.; McMullen, Kevin P.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Radiosurgery has been successfully used in selected cases to avoid repeat whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in patients with multiple brain metastases of most solid tumor histological findings. Few data are available for the use of radiosurgery for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and Materials: Between November 1999 and June 2009, 51 patients with SCLC and previous WBI and new brain metastases were treated with GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). A median dose of 18 Gy (range, 10-24 Gy) was prescribed to the margin of each metastasis. Patients were followed with serial imaging. Patient electronic records were reviewed to determine disease-related factors and clinical outcomes after GKSRS. Local and distant brain failure rates, overall survival, and likelihood of neurologic death were determined based on imaging results. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival and local and distant brain control. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to determine strength of association between disease-related factors and survival. Results: Median survival time for the entire cohort was 5.9 months. Local control rates at 1 and 2 years were 57% and 34%, respectively. Distant brain failure rates at 1 and 2 years were 58% and 75%, respectively. Fifty-three percent of patients ultimately died of neurologic death. On multivariate analysis, patients with stable (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.89) or progressive (HR = 6.98) extracranial disease (ECD) had worse overall survival than patients without evidence of ECD (p = 0.00002). Concurrent chemotherapy improved local control (HR = 89; p = 0.006). Conclusions: GKSRS represents a feasible salvage option in patients with SCLC and brain metastases for whom previous WBI has failed. The status of patients' ECD is a dominant factor predictive of overall survival. Local control may be inferior to that seen with other cancer histological results, although the use of concurrent chemotherapy may help to improve this.

  18. Autophagy Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis and Lung Tumor Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsli-Uzunbas, Gizem

    Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) recycles intracellular components to sustain mitochondrial metabolism that promotes the growth, stress tolerance, and malignancy of lung cancers, suggesting that autophagy inhibition ...

  19. Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm for real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Given a set of volumetric images of a patient at N breathing phases as the training data, we perform deformable image registration between a reference phase and the other N-1 phases, resulting in N-1 deformation vector fields (DVFs). These DVFs can be represented efficiently by a few eigenvectors and coefficients obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). By varying the PCA coefficients, we can generate new DVFs, which, when applied on the reference image, lead to new volumetric images. We then can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single projection image by optimizing the PCA coefficients such that its computed projection matches the measured one. The 3D location of the tumor can be derived by applying the inverted DVF on its position in the reference image. Our algorithm was implemented on graphics processing units...

  20. Prognostic Impact of Radiation Therapy to the Primary Tumor in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastasis at Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Daniel, E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Hong, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Heymach, John V. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (<5 metastases) at diagnosis underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy ({>=}45 Gy) to the primary site. Forty-four of these patients also received definitive local treatment for the oligometastases. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed better overall survival (OS) for those patients who received at least 63 Gy of radiation to the primary site (P=.002), received definitive local treatment for oligometastasis (P=.041), had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score >80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume {<=}124 cm{sup 3} (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Conclusions: Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.

  1. Reconstruction of a time-averaged midposition CT scan for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients using deformable registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolthaus, J. W. H.; Sonke, J.-J.; Herk, M. van; Damen, E. M. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: lower lobe lung tumors move with amplitudes of up to 2 cm due to respiration. To reduce respiration imaging artifacts in planning CT scans, 4D imaging techniques are used. Currently, we use a single (midventilation) frame of the 4D data set for clinical delineation of structures and radiotherapy planning. A single frame, however, often contains artifacts due to breathing irregularities, and is noisier than a conventional CT scan since the exposure per frame is lower. Moreover, the tumor may be displaced from the mean tumor position due to hysteresis. The aim of this work is to develop a framework for the acquisition of a good quality scan representing all scanned anatomy in the mean position by averaging transformed (deformed) CT frames, i.e., canceling out motion. A nonrigid registration method is necessary since motion varies over the lung. Methods and Materials: 4D and inspiration breath-hold (BH) CT scans were acquired for 13 patients. An iterative multiscale motion estimation technique was applied to the 4D CT scan, similar to optical flow but using image phase (gray-value transitions from bright to dark and vice versa) instead. From the (4D) deformation vector field (DVF) derived, the local mean position in the respiratory cycle was computed and the 4D DVF was modified to deform all structures of the original 4D CT scan to this mean position. A 3D midposition (MidP) CT scan was then obtained by (arithmetic or median) averaging of the deformed 4D CT scan. Image registration accuracy, tumor shape deviation with respect to the BH CT scan, and noise were determined to evaluate the image fidelity of the MidP CT scan and the performance of the technique. Results: Accuracy of the used deformable image registration method was comparable to established automated locally rigid registration and to manual landmark registration (average difference to both methods <0.5 mm for all directions) for the tumor region. From visual assessment, the registration was good for the clearly visible features (e.g., tumor and diaphragm). The shape of the tumor, with respect to that of the BH CT scan, was better represented by the MidP reconstructions than any of the 4D CT frames (including MidV; reduction of 'shape differences' was 66%). The MidP scans contained about one-third the noise of individual 4D CT scan frames. Conclusions: We implemented an accurate method to estimate the motion of structures in a 4D CT scan. Subsequently, a novel method to create a midposition CT scan (time-weighted average of the anatomy) for treatment planning with reduced noise and artifacts was introduced. Tumor shape and position in the MidP CT scan represents that of the BH CT scan better than MidV CT scan and, therefore, was found to be appropriate for treatment planning.

  2. Bi-plane correlation imaging for improved detection of lung nodules Ehsan Samei1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi-plane correlation imaging for improved detection of lung nodules Ehsan Samei1,2,3 , David M radiography, digital radiography, stereoscopy, lung nodules, lung cancer, computer aided detection (CAD) 1. INTRODUCTION Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in the US, surpassing the mortality associated with breast

  3. HIF-2? deletion promotes Kras-driven lung tumor development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacks, Tyler E.

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The oxygen-sensitive hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional regulators HIF-1? and HIF-2? are overexpressed in many human NSCLCs, ...

  4. Diversity of gene expression in adenocarcinoma of the lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botstein, David

    Diversity of gene expression in adenocarcinoma of the lung Mitchell E. Garber*, Olga G. Troyanskaya Contributed by David Botstein, September 21, 2001 The global gene expression profiles for 67 human lung tumors pathologic analysis. Four main histologic subtypes of lung cancer are regularly distinguished by tumor

  5. VARIATIONAL APPROACH FOR SEGMENTATION OF LUNG NODULES Amal A. Faraga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    VARIATIONAL APPROACH FOR SEGMENTATION OF LUNG NODULES Amal A. Faraga , Hossam Abdelmunimab , James, Louisville, Kentucky g University of Louisville, Department of Radiology ABSTRACT Lung nodules from low dose CT (LDCT) scans may be used for early detection of lung cancer. However, these nodules vary in size

  6. Impact of Weight Change During the Course of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy on Outcomes in Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Retrospective Analysis of 425 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Selek, Ugur

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively investigated the impact of weight change (WC) during concurrent chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) on clinical outcomes of stage 3B non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 425 patients treated with C-CRT were included. All patients received 60 to 66 Gy of thoracic radiation therapy concurrently with 1 to 3 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Pre- and posttreatment weight measurements on first and last days of C-CRT were used for WC. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 = weight loss (WL); group 2 = weight preservation/gain (WP) for comparative analyses. Results: Following C-CRT, 252 patients (59.3%) experienced WL, while 89 patients (20.9%) and 84 patients (19.8%) showed WP or WG. At median 24.2 months of follow-up, 142 patients (33.4%) were alive (84 WP [48.6%] and 58 WL [23.0%]), and 58 (13.6%) of them were free of disease progression (41 [23.7%] for WP and 17 [6.7%] for WL). Median overall survival (OS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for the entire population were 22.8, 14.4, 10.6, and 11.7 months, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between WP and WL cohorts revealed significantly superior OS, LRPFS, PFS, and DMFS in WP patients (P<.05 for each). On multivariate analyses, only WL and advanced T stage were associated with poor prognosis (P<.05). Conclusions: Present results in 425 stage 3B NSCLC patients demonstrated that WL during C-CRT is strongly associated with inferior survival outcomes compared to WP. This emerging finding might be useful by forming an encouraging basis for future investigations in facilitating a way to improve the outcomes of these patients experiencing WL during C-CRT.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Radiofrequency Ablation for Medically Inoperable, Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wee, Jon O. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The standard management of medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conventionally has been fractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). The relatively poor local control rate and inconvenience associated with this therapy have prompted the development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), a technique that delivers very high doses of irradiation typically over 3 to 5 sessions. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has also been investigated as a less costly, single-day therapy that thermally ablates small, peripheral tumors. The cost-effectiveness of these three techniques has never been compared. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 65-year-old men with medically inoperable NSCLC after treatment with 3D-CRT, SBRT, and RFA. Given their frail state, patients were assumed to receive supportive care after recurrence. Utility values, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over 3D-CRT was $6,000/quality-adjusted life-year, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over RFA was $14,100/quality-adjusted life-year. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust across a range of tumor sizes, patient utility values, and costs. This result was confirmed with probabilistic sensitivity analyses that varied local control rates and utilities. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D-CRT and RFA, SBRT was the most cost-effective treatment for medically inoperable NSCLC over a wide range of treatment and disease assumptions. On the basis of efficacy and cost, SBRT should be the primary treatment approach for this disease.

  8. HSPB1 Gene Polymorphisms Predict Risk of Mortality for US Patients After Radio(chemo)therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Ting [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China) [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Wang Lie; Liu Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Lin, Steven Hsesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang Yan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhou Honghao [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)] [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Liao Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We investigated potential associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) gene and overall survival in US patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Using available genomic DNA samples from 224 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy, we genotyped 2 SNPs of HSPB1 (NCBI SNP nos. rs2868370 and rs2868371). We used both Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability and Cox proportional hazards analyses to evaluate the effect of HSPB1 genotypes on survival. Results: Our cohort consisted of 117 men and 107 women, mostly white (79.5%), with a median age of 70 years. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy (range, 63-87.5 Gy), and 183 patients (82%) received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The most common genotype of the rs2868371 SNP was CC (61%). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that this genotype was associated with poorer survival than CG and GG genotypes (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.90; P=.037; multivariate HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.92; P=.045). Conclusions: Our results showed that the CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with NSCLC after radio(chemo)therapy, findings that contradict those of a previous study of Chinese patients. Validation of our findings with larger numbers of similar patients is needed, as are mechanical and clinical studies to determine the mechanism underlying these associations.

  9. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).

  10. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O'Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ?2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ?2 among patients who received a low (?20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  11. Tendons, Concentric Tubes, and a Bevel Tip: Three Steerable Robots in One Transoral Lung Access System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tendons, Concentric Tubes, and a Bevel Tip: Three Steerable Robots in One Transoral Lung Access, and Robert J. Webster III1, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract-- Lung cancer is the most deadly form of cancer between-the-ribs needle insertion because it is less invasive and reduces risk of lung collapse. Yet many

  12. Learning Methods for Lung Tumor Markerless Gating in Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dy, Jennifer G.

    Learning Methods for Lung Tumor Markerless Gating in Image-Guided Radiotherapy Ying Cui Dept. For gated lung cancer radiotherapy, it is difficult to generate ac- curate gating signals due to the large techniques, we apply them on five sequences of fluoroscopic images from five lung cancer patients against

  13. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12930 Alveolar progenitorand stem cells in lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12930 Alveolar progenitorand stem cells in lung development, renewal or maintain AT1 and AT2 cells, and alveoli are a major site of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death2cellsisobservedfollowingbulklabellingofAT2cellpopulations8,9 . To circumvent slow turnover, lung injury models have been used and provide

  14. Neural Network Classifiers and Gene Selection Methods for Microarray Data on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    Neural Network Classifiers and Gene Selection Methods for Microarray Data on Human Lung with lung cancer gene expression data sets available from the CAMDA website. Many different classification several new methods for classifying gene expression data from lung cancer patients. Our approach uses

  15. Differential regulation of RANTES and IL-8 expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Differential regulation of RANTES and IL-8 expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells Corinne expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00143972,version1 HAL author manuscript Lung Cancer 56, 2 (2007) 167-74 #12;2 Summary In lung adenocarcinoma, expression of Regulated upon

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Sharif Burgette

    2012-01-01

    and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. Anticancerand reduced risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-between vitamin D and breast cancer incidence and natural

  17. SU-E-T-481: Dosimetric Comparison of Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm with Commercial Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation Algorithm for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M; Tenn, S; Lee, C; Yang, Y; Lamb, J; Agazaryan, N; Lee, P; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate performance of three commercially available treatment planning systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer using the following algorithms: Boltzmann transport equation based algorithm (AcurosXB AXB), convolution based algorithm Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA); and Monte Carlo based algorithm (XVMC). Methods: A total of 10 patients with early stage non-small cell peripheral lung cancer were included. The initial clinical plans were generated using the XVMC based treatment planning system with a prescription of 54Gy in 3 fractions following RTOG0613 protocol. The plans were recalculated with the same beam parameters and monitor units using AAA and AXB algorithms. A calculation grid size of 2mm was used for all algorithms. The dose distribution, conformity, and dosimetric parameters for the targets and organs at risk (OAR) are compared between the algorithms. Results: The average PTV volume was 19.6mL (range 4.2–47.2mL). The volume of PTV covered by the prescribed dose (PTV-V100) were 93.97±2.00%, 95.07±2.07% and 95.10±2.97% for XVMC, AXB and AAA algorithms, respectively. There was no significant difference in high dose conformity index; however, XVMC predicted slightly higher values (p=0.04) for the ratio of 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV (R50%). The percentage volume of total lungs receiving dose >20Gy (LungV20Gy) were 4.03±2.26%, 3.86±2.22% and 3.85±2.21% for XVMC, AXB and AAA algorithms. Examination of dose volume histograms (DVH) revealed small differences in targets and OARs for most patients. However, the AAA algorithm was found to predict considerable higher PTV coverage compared with AXB and XVMC algorithms in two cases. The dose difference was found to be primarily located at the periphery region of the target. Conclusion: For clinical SBRT lung treatment planning, the dosimetric differences between three commercially available algorithms are generally small except at target periphery. XVMC and AXB algorithms are recommended for accurate dose estimation at tissue boundaries.

  18. Predicting Pneumonitis Risk: A Dosimetric Alternative to Mean Lung Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Mohan, Radhe; Liengsawangwong, Raweewan; Martel, Mary K.; Liao Zhongxing

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the association between mean lung dose (MLD) and risk of severe (grade {>=}3) radiation pneumonitis (RP) depends on the dose distribution pattern to normal lung among patients receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Three cohorts treated with different beam arrangements were identified. One cohort (2-field boost [2FB]) received 2 parallel-opposed (anteroposterior-posteroanterior) fields per fraction initially, followed by a sequential boost delivered using 2 oblique beams. The other 2 cohorts received 3 or 4 straight fields (3FS and 4FS, respectively), ie, all fields were irradiated every day. The incidence of severe RP was plotted against MLD in each cohort, and data were analyzed using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: The incidence of grade {>=}3 RP rose more steeply as a function of MLD in the 2FB cohort (N=120) than in the 4FS cohort (N=138), with an intermediate slope for the 3FS group (N=99). The estimated volume parameter from the LKB model was n=0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.0) and led to a significant improvement in fit (P=.05) compared to a fit with volume parameter fixed at n=1 (the MLD model). Unlike the MLD model, the LKB model with n=0.41 provided a consistent description of the risk of severe RP in all three cohorts (2FB, 3FS, 4FS) simultaneously. Conclusions: When predicting risk of grade {>=}3 RP, the mean lung dose does not adequately take into account the effects of high doses. Instead, the effective dose, computed from the LKB model using volume parameter n=0.41, may provide a better dosimetric parameter for predicting RP risk. If confirmed, these findings support the conclusion that for the same MLD, high doses to small lung volumes ('a lot to a little') are worse than low doses to large volumes ('a little to a lot').

  19. Does Response to Induction Chemotherapy Predict Survival for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Secondary Analysis of RTOG 8804/8808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Cox, James D.; Sause, William T.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) improves survival compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) patients with good prognostic factors. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to ICT followed by RT. The question arises whether ICT response predicts the outcome of patients subsequently treated with CCRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 194 LANSCLC patients were treated prospectively with ICT (two cycles of vinblastine and cisplatin) and then CCRT (cisplatin plus 63 Gy for 7 weeks) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8804 trial (n = 30) or ICT and then RT (60 Gy/6 wk) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8808 trial (n = 164). Of the 194 patients, 183 were evaluable and 141 had undergone a postinduction assessment. The overall survival (OS) of those with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was compared with that of patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) after ICT. Results: Of the 141 patients, 6, 30, 99, and 6 had CR, PR, SD, and PD, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference (p <0.0001) in OS when the response groups were compared (CR/PR vs. SD/PD). On univariate and multivariate analyses, a trend was seen toward a response to ICT with OS (p = 0.097 and p = 0.06, respectively). A squamous histologic type was associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.031 and p = 0.018, respectively). SD/PD plus a squamous histologic type had a hazard ratio of 2.25 vs. CR/PR plus a nonsquamous histologic type (p = 0.007) on covariate analysis. Conclusion: The response to ICT was associated with a significant survival difference when the response groups were compared. A response to ICT showed a trend toward, but was not predictive of, improved OS in LANSCLC patients. Patients with SD/PD after ICT and a squamous histologic type had the poorest OS. These data suggest that patients with squamous LANSCLC might benefit from immediate RT or CCRT.

  20. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ? Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ? Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ? Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ? Cooking with biomass increases cancer risk in the airways via Akt activation.

  1. The Impact of Extent and Location of Mediastinal Lymph Node Involvement on Survival in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Mitra, Nandita; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Kucharczuk, John C.; Lin, Lilie; Rengan, Ramesh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Several surgical series have identified subcarinal, contralateral, and multilevel nodal involvement as predictors of poor overall survival in patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive resection. This retrospective study evaluates the impact of extent and location of mediastinal lymph node (LN) involvement on survival in patients with Stage III NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 106 consecutive patients with T1-4 N2-3 Stage III NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy at University of Pennsylvania between January 2003 and February 2009. For this analysis, mediastinal LN stations were divided into four mutually exclusive groups: supraclavicular, ipsilateral mediastinum, contralateral mediastinum, and subcarinal. Patients' conditions were then analyzed according to the extent of involvement and location of mediastinal LN stations. Results: The majority (88%) of patients received sequential or concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 32.6 months. By multivariable Cox modeling, chemotherapy use (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07-0.63]) was associated with improved overall survival. Increasing primary tumor [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose avidity (HR: 1.11 [CI: 1.06-1.19]), and subcarinal involvement (HR: 2.29 [CI: 1.11-4.73]) were significant negative predictors of overall survival. On univariate analysis, contralateral nodal involvement (HR: 0.70 [CI: 0.33-1.47]), supraclavicular nodal involvement (HR: 0.78 [CI: 0.38-1.67]), multilevel nodal involvement (HR: 0.97 [CI: 0.58-1.61]), and tumor size (HR: 1.04 [CI: 0.94-1.14]) did not predict for overall survival. Patients with subcarinal involvement also had lower rates of 2-year nodal control (51.2% vs. 74.9%, p = 0.047) and 2-year distant control (28.4% vs. 61.2%, p = 0.043). Conclusions: These data suggest that the factors that determine oncologic outcome in Stage III NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy are distinct from those observed in patients who undergo surgical resection. The ultimate efficacy of radiation in locally advanced NSCLC is dependent on the intrinsic biology of the tumor.

  2. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: deasyj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts acute esophagitis risk in combined-data WUSTL and RTOG 93-11 trial datasets.

  3. Colorectal cancer and diet in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodoratou, Evropi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is a cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon and/ or rectum and more than 95% of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas. It is the third most common cancer in incidence and mortality ...

  4. Harvard University recognizes that smoking is dangerous to the health of the smoker and that involuntary smoking is a cause of disease, including lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    and that involuntary smoking is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. The simple separation

  5. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  6. Integrated training in Lung Biology and Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Integrated training in Lung Biology and Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Pulmonary Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, Emphysema) 3 Pulmonary Infections 4 Lung Cancer 5 Cystic Fibrosis 6 Lung Transplantation 7 Pulmonary Hypertension 8 Pulmonary Embolism 9 Occupational Lung Diseases 10 Airway Allergic

  7. Digital Tomosynthesis: Advanced Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    Digital Tomosynthesis: Advanced Breast Cancer Imaging Technique Max Wiedmann #12;Digital in CT. #12;Breast Cancer · The leading Cause of death for women ages 40-55. · Is only behind lung and bronchus cancer in terms of number of deaths in US. · Early detection of breast cancer is believed to save

  8. 2 Incidence 2.1 Incidence Axioms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Carl

    .3 A Tetrahedron Model The Incidence Axioms do not force the existence of an infinite number of points. We can in the commands yourself. Once you have a picture, use the mouse to drag the picture to different orientations, ping­pong balls, oranges or L'en'art spheres. Also, consider the question of whether

  9. Enterprise Incidents Issue 12 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaton, Rosemarie

    1995-01-01

    stream_source_info Star Trek Enterprise_Incidents_12_-_The_Legacy.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 89 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Star Trek Enterprise_Incidents_12_-_The_Legacy.pdf.txt Content...

  10. Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Aristofanes C. Silva a,, Paulo Cezar P. Carvalho b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Nodules Arist´ofanes C. Silva a,, Paulo Cezar P de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil Abstract We propose a method for visualize lung nodule, in order to emphasize submitted to Medical Image Analysis 27 May 2002 #12;1 Introduction Lung cancer is known to be the form

  11. Using Continuum Robots to Enable Transoral Access to the Peripheral Lung for Minimally Invasive Biopsy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Continuum Robots to Enable Transoral Access to the Peripheral Lung for Minimally Invasive Biopsy Arthur W. Mahoney, Philip J. Swaney, and Robert J. Webster III Lung cancer kills more people than reach regions adjacent to bronchii. Enables access to the peripheral lung for biopsy without puncturing

  12. Reduced Order Constrained Optimization (ROCO):1 Clinical Application to Lung IMRT2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced Order Constrained Optimization (ROCO):1 Clinical Application to Lung IMRT2 Hans Stabenau,1 quickly and automatically for advanced lung cancer patients. Our new ROCO imple- mentation works constrained optimization computationally efficient. Results: We apply ROCO to 12 stage III non-small-cell lung

  13. Feasibility Study of Dual Energy Radiographic Imaging for Target Localization in Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Lung Tumors Jie Huo1 , Xianfeng Zhu1 , Yang Dong2 , Zhiyong Yuan2 , Ping Wang2 *, Xuemin Wang1 , Gang. 10 lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy each with gold markers implanted in the tumor were Imaging for Target Localization in Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors. PLoS ONE 9(9): e108823. doi:10

  14. Motion Planning for a Three-Stage Multilumen Transoral Lung Access System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alterovitz, Ron

    Motion Planning for a Three-Stage Multilumen Transoral Lung Access System Alan Kuntz, Luis G. Torres, Richard H. Feins, Robert J. Webster III, and Ron Alterovitz Abstract-- Lung cancer is the leading required for a definitive diagnosis, but current low-risk clinical options for lung biopsy cannot access

  15. Location registration and recognition (LRR) for serial analysis of nodules in lung CT scans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Location registration and recognition (LRR) for serial analysis of nodules in lung CT scans Michal t In the clinical workflow for lung cancer management, the comparison of nodules between CT scans from subsequent in investigating the condition of the lung. The algorithm uses a combination of feature extraction, indexing

  16. Multi-level Ground Glass Nodule Detection and Segmentation in CT Lung Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corso, Jason J.

    Multi-level Ground Glass Nodule Detection and Segmentation in CT Lung Images Yimo Tao1,2 , Le Lu1. Early detection of Ground Glass Nodule (GGN) in lung Computed Tomography (CT) images is important for lung cancer prog- nosis. Due to its indistinct boundaries, manual detection and segmenta- tion of GGN

  17. Original Contribution Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Comparison with Lung and Bladder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Original Contribution Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Comparison with Lung and Bladder, 2007; accepted for publication July 27, 2007. Arsenic in drinking water is known to be a cause of lung lung and bladder cancer, AMI mortality was the predominant cause of excess

  18. A Framework for Automatic Segmentation of Lung Nodules from Low Dose Chest CT Scans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    A Framework for Automatic Segmentation of Lung Nodules from Low Dose Chest CT Scans Ayman El-Baz1 the high accuracy of the proposed approach. 1 Introduction Because lung cancer is the most common cause 1, an initial LDCT slice is segmented with our algorithms introduced in [3] to isolate lung tissues

  19. Nonbreast Second Malignancies After Treatment of Primary Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Budhi S. Sharma, Suresh C.; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajinder

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and risk factors for nonbreast second malignancies (NBSMs) in women after treatment for primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and December 1995, a total of 1,084 breast cancer patients were analyzed for NBSMs. Detailed analysis was carried out for age, family history, disease stage, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, other clinical/pathologic characteristics, and site of NBSMs. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the relative risk of NBSMs. Results: Median follow-up was 12 years. In total, 33 cases of NBSMs were noted in 29 patients. The overall incidence of NBSM was 3%, and the median time for NBSMs was 7 years. The most common NBSMs were gynecologic (22 patients), gastrointestinal (4 patients), head and neck (3 patients), hematologic (2 patients), lung (1 patient), and thyroid (1 patient). The NBSMs rate at 12 years was 2.4% for both mastectomy and radiation therapy groups. In the subset of patients less than 45 years of age at the time of treatment, the NBSMs rate was 0.7% as compared with 4.6% in patients more than 45 years of age (p = 0.001). Statistically significant higher incidences of endometrial and ovarian cancer were seen in patients with hormonal therapy (5.2%) as compared with patients without hormonal therapy (1.8%, p = 0.002). Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher incidence (6%) of endometrial and ovarian malignancy compared with women without such a history (2.1%, p = 0.003). Chemotherapy did not affect the risk of second malignancy. Conclusion: The most common NBSMs in this study were gynecologic. Family history of breast cancer was a high risk factor for NBSMs. No risk of NBSMs with radiotherapy was observed.

  20. Analysis of Assembly Bill 547: Ovarian Cancer Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2004-01-01

    al. (1999). Screening for ovarian cancer: a pilot randomizedLung, Colorectal & Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ( P L CA Snapshot of Ovarian Cancer. http://prg.nci.nih.gov/

  1. 2 Incidence 2.1 Incidence Axioms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Carl

    of Theorem 2.4.2 can be found in the book. 9 #12;2.3 A Tetrahedron Model The Incidence Axioms do not force to drag the picture to di erent orientations. 10 #12;2.4 Geometrical Worlds Here are some geometrical to draw on, such as very smooth tennis balls, ping-pong balls, oranges or L en art spheres. Also, consider

  2. Advances in Lung Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    Advances in Lung Volume Reduction Surgery The Ohio University Medical Center Lung Volume Reduction LungVolumeReductionSurgery Spring 2010 © 2010 The Ohio State University Medical Center ­ 04 Consult Ohio State's #12;The Ohio State University Medical Center Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Patient

  3. July 2013 Cyber Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a cyber incident that occurred at the end of July and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of federal employee Personally Identifiable Information ...

  4. January 2013 Cyber Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a recent cyber incident that occurred in mid-January 2013 which targeted the Headquarters' network and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of...

  5. Incidents of Security Concern

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-03-17

    Sets forth requirements for the DOE Incidents of Security Concern Program, including timely identification and notification of, response to, inquiry into, reporting of, and closure actions for incidents of security concern. Cancels Chapter VII of DOE O 470.1; DOE N 471.3; and Chapter IV of DOE M 471.2-1B (Note: Paragraphs 1 and 2 of Chapter III remain in effect.) Canceled by DOE O 470.4.

  6. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China)] [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China); Luo, Cheng, E-mail: Luo58@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  7. Tumor Volume Combined With Number of Positive Lymph Node Stations Is a More Important Prognostic Factor Than TNM Stage for Survival of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With (Chemo)radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehing-Oberije, Cary [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maastricht, University Maastricht, MAASTRO Clinic, Research Institute Growth and Development (GROW), Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: cary.dehing@maastro.nl; Ruysscher, Dirk de; Weide, Hiska van der [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maastricht, University Maastricht, MAASTRO Clinic, Research Institute Growth and Development (GROW), Maastricht (Netherlands); Hochstenbag, Monique [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bootsma, Gerben [Department of Pulmonology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen (Netherlands); Geraedts, Wiel [Department of Pulmonology, Maasland Hospital, Sittard (Netherlands); Pitz, Cordula [Department of Pulmonology, Laurentius Hospital, Roermond (Netherlands); Simons, Jean [Department of Pulmonology, Sint Jans Hospital, Weert (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Rahmy, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen (Netherlands); Thimister, Paul [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maasland Hospital, Sittard (Netherlands); Steck, Harald [Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maastricht, University Maastricht, MAASTRO Clinic, Research Institute Growth and Development (GROW), Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: The current tumor, node, metastasis system needs refinement to improve its ability to predict survival of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with (chemo)radiation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of tumor volume and N status, assessed by using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET). Patients and Methods: Clinical data from 270 consecutive patients with inoperable NSCLC Stages I-IIIB treated radically with (chemo)radiation were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic imaging was performed using either integrated PET-computed tomography or computed tomography and PET separately. The Kaplan-Meier method, as well as Cox regression, was used to analyze data. Results: Univariate survival analysis showed that number of positive lymph node stations (PLNSs), as well as N stage on PET, was associated significantly with survival. The final multivariate Cox model consisted of number of PLNSs, gross tumor volume (i.e., volume of the primary tumor plus lymph nodes), sex, World Health Organization performance status, and equivalent radiation dose corrected for time; N stage was no longer significant. Conclusions: Number of PLNSs, assessed by means of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, was a significant factor for survival of patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with (chemo)radiation. Risk stratification for this group of patients should be based on gross tumor volume, number of PLNSs, sex, World Health Organization performance status, and equivalent radiation dose corrected for time.

  8. Effects of Respiratory Motion on Passively Scattered Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Therapy for Stage III Lung Cancer: Are Proton Plans More Sensitive to Breathing Motion?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matney, Jason; Park, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Bluett, Jaques [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Yi Pei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Wei; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe, E-mail: rmohan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To quantify and compare the effects of respiratory motion on paired passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT) plans; and to establish the relationship between the magnitude of tumor motion and the respiratory-induced dose difference for both modalities. Methods and Materials: In a randomized clinical trial comparing PSPT and IMRT, radiation therapy plans have been designed according to common planning protocols. Four-dimensional (4D) dose was computed for PSPT and IMRT plans for a patient cohort with respiratory motion ranging from 3 to 17 mm. Image registration and dose accumulation were performed using grayscale-based deformable image registration algorithms. The dose–volume histogram (DVH) differences (4D-3D [3D = 3-dimensional]) were compared for PSPT and IMRT. Changes in 4D-3D dose were correlated to the magnitude of tumor respiratory motion. Results: The average 4D-3D dose to 95% of the internal target volume was close to zero, with 19 of 20 patients within 1% of prescribed dose for both modalities. The mean 4D-3D between the 2 modalities was not statistically significant (P<.05) for all dose–volume histogram indices (mean ± SD) except the lung V5 (PSPT: +1.1% ± 0.9%; IMRT: +0.4% ± 1.2%) and maximum cord dose (PSPT: +1.5 ± 2.9 Gy; IMRT: 0.0 ± 0.2 Gy). Changes in 4D-3D dose were correlated to tumor motion for only 2 indices: dose to 95% planning target volume, and heterogeneity index. Conclusions: With our current margin formalisms, target coverage was maintained in the presence of respiratory motion up to 17 mm for both PSPT and IMRT. Only 2 of 11 4D-3D indices (lung V5 and spinal cord maximum) were statistically distinguishable between PSPT and IMRT, contrary to the notion that proton therapy will be more susceptible to respiratory motion. Because of the lack of strong correlations with 4D-3D dose differences in PSPT and IMRT, the extent of tumor motion was not an adequate predictor of potential dosimetric error caused by breathing motion.

  9. TARGETING CANCER STEM CELLS Summary of technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    TARGETING CANCER STEM CELLS Summary of technology Cancerstemcells(CSCs)playasignificantroleinleukemia, glioma, and breast, lung, gastrointestinal, prostate and ovarian cancer etiology, causing therapy of a new adjunct for targeted therapy of cancer involving CSCs, for use in combination with existing cancer

  10. T4DT: Processing 4D CT scans of the Lungs Robert Fowler Joe Warren Yin Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Joe

    T4DT: Processing 4D CT scans of the Lungs Robert Fowler Joe Warren Yin Zhang Rice University technology for processing time-varying CT scans (4D CT) of the lungs. In particular, we propose to develop these tools to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of current treatments for lung cancer. #12;T4DT

  11. Non-rigid registration method to assess the reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Christian

    1 Non-rigid registration method to assess the reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools were developed to analyze lung interfraction deformation with 3D non

  12. Identification of novel lung genes in bronchial epithelium by serial analysis of gene Kim M. Lonergan*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Raymond T.

    1 Identification of novel lung genes in bronchial epithelium by serial analysis of gene expression of human bronchial epithelium should provide a basis for studying lung diseases including cancer. We have deduced global gene expression profiles of bronchial epithelium and lung parenchyma, based upon a vast

  13. SU-E-T-85: Comparison of Treatment Plans Calculated Using Ray Tracing and Monte Carlo Algorithms for Lung Cancer Patients Having Undergone Radiotherapy with Cyberknife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennington, A; Selvaraj, R; Kirkpatrick, S; Oliveira, S [21st Century Oncology, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Leventouri, T [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The latest publications indicate that the Ray Tracing algorithm significantly overestimates the dose delivered as compared to the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. The purpose of this study is to quantify this overestimation and to identify significant correlations between the RT and MC calculated dose distributions. Methods: Preliminary results are based on 50 preexisting RT algorithm dose optimization and calculation treatment plans prepared on the Multiplan treatment planning system (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). The analysis will be expanded to include 100 plans. These plans are recalculated using the MC algorithm, with high resolution and 1% uncertainty. The geometry and number of beams for a given plan, as well as the number of monitor units, is constant for the calculations for both algorithms and normalized differences are compared. Results: MC calculated doses were significantly smaller than RT doses. The D95 of the PTV was 27% lower for the MC calculation. The GTV and PTV mean coverage were 13 and 39% less for MC calculation. The first parameter of conformality, as defined as the ratio of the Prescription Isodose Volume to the PTV Volume was on average 1.18 for RT and 0.62 for MC. Maximum doses delivered to OARs was reduced in the MC plans. The doses for 1000 and 1500 cc of total lung minus PTV, respectively were reduced by 39% and 53% for the MC plans. The correlation of the ratio of air in PTV to the PTV with the difference in PTV coverage had a coefficient of ?0.54. Conclusion: The preliminary results confirm that the RT algorithm significantly overestimates the dosages delivered confirming previous analyses. Finally, subdividing the data into different size regimes increased the correlation for the smaller size PTVs indicating the MC algorithm improvement verses the RT algorithm is dependent upon the size of the PTV.

  14. Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Inhibition Reverses the Vascular Leakage that Causes Malignant Ascites in Late-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moughon, Diana Louise

    2015-01-01

    HC, Ledermann JA. Ovarian cancer. The Lancet. 2014 Oct88. Quirk JT, Natarajan N. Ovarian cancer incidence in theand Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: Shifting from Early Stage

  15. Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose to the ipsilateral lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    breast, lung dose, secondary cancer, low dose measurements, breast cancer I. INTRODUCTION Radiation position, using 50 Gy prescription dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3D-CRT plans radiotherapy is of potentially considerable significance. The dose-response relation for radiation-induced lung

  16. Radiotherapy With 8-MHz Radiofrequency-Capacitive Regional Hyperthermia for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Radiofrequency-Output Power Correlates With the Intraesophageal Temperature and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohguri, Takayuki [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)], E-mail: ogurieye@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Terashima, Hiromi [Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Korogi, Yukunori [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with regional hyperthermia (HT) guided by radiofrequency (RF)-output power and intraesophageal temperature and evaluate the potential contribution of HT to clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with Stage III NSCLC treated with RT plus regional HT were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-two of the 35 patients underwent intraesophageal temperature measurements. Patients with subcutaneous fat of 2.5 cm or greater, older age, or other serious complications did not undergo this therapy. The 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating device was applied, and in all patients, both the upper and lower electrodes were 30 cm in diameter, placed on opposite sides of the whole thoracic region, and treatment posture was the prone position. The HT was applied within 15 minutes after RT once or twice a week. Results: All thermal parameters, minimum, maximum, and mean of the four intraesophageal temperature measurements at the end of each session and the proportion of the time during which at least one of the four intraesophageal measurements was 41{sup o}C or higher in the total period of each session of HT, of the intraesophageal temperature significantly correlated with median RF-output power. Median RF-output power ({>=}1,200 W) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall, local recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: The RT combined with regional HT using a higher RF-output power could contribute to better clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III NSCLC. The RF-output power thus may be used as a promising parameter to assess the treatment of deep regional HT if deep heating using this device is performed with the same size electrodes and in the same body posture.

  17. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  18. STATISTICAL MODELING OF THE LUNG NODULES IN LOW DOSE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANS OF THE CHEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farag, Aly A.

    the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of the United States reported 90139 men and 69078 women death cases due cancer is the second most common cancer in the United States among white, African American and American]. Research studies to reach an optimal detection rate for early detection of lung cancer, is the hope

  19. Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Incident Reporting System Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System CAIRS Database The Computerized AccidentIncident Reporting System is a database used to collect and...

  20. Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm Related to Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurai, Jun, E-mail: sakurai@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We describe a case of pulmonary artery (PA) pseudoaneurysm related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumor. We performed RFA for a pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma directly adjacent to a branch of the PA. Seventeen days later, the patient complained of hemoptysis. A chest CT image revealed PA pseudoaneurysm. Transcatheter coil embolization was performed 59 days after RFA. Although PA pseudoaneurysm is rare, with an incidence of 0.2% (1/538 sessions) at our institution, it should be recognized as a risk when treating lung tumors adjacent to a branch of the PA.

  1. Reporting Incidents Of Security Concern

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-04-03

    To enhance the Department of Energy (DOE) Incidents of Security Concern Reporting Program through more consistent reporting, better information tracking, and interactive coordination. DOE N 251.54, dated 07/08/03, extends this directive until 07/08/04. Cancels Deputy Secretary Glauthier memorandum, subject: Reporting Security Incidents, dated 9-7-99.

  2. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. No cancellations.

  3. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. No cancellations. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09.

  4. Development of a Standardized Method for Contouring the Lumbosacral Plexus: A Preliminary Dosimetric Analysis of this Organ at Risk Among 15 Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers and the Incidence of Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Sun K., E-mail: sun.yi@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mak, Walter [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yang, Claus C.; Liu Tianxiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Cui Jing; Chen, Allen M.; Purdy, James A.; Monjazeb, Arta M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Do, Ly [Cancer Care Institute, San Jose, CA (United States)] [Cancer Care Institute, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To generate a reproducible step-wise guideline for the delineation of the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) on axial computed tomography (CT) planning images and to provide a preliminary dosimetric analysis on 15 representative patients with rectal or anal cancers treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: A standardized method for contouring the LSP on axial CT images was devised. The LSP was referenced to identifiable anatomic structures from the L4-5 interspace to the level of the sciatic nerve. It was then contoured retrospectively on 15 patients treated with IMRT for rectal or anal cancer. No dose limitations were placed on this organ at risk during initial treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were evaluated. The incidence of radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP) was calculated. Results: Total prescribed dose to 95% of the planned target volume ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy (median 54 Gy). The mean ({+-}standard deviation [SD]) LSP volume for the 15 patients was 100 {+-} 22 cm{sup 3} (range, 71-138 cm{sup 3}). The mean maximal dose to the LSP was 52.6 {+-} 3.9 Gy (range, 44.5-58.6 Gy). The mean irradiated volumes of the LSP were V40Gy = 58% {+-} 19%, V50Gy = 22% {+-} 23%, and V55Gy = 0.5% {+-} 0.9%. One patient (7%) was found to have developed RILSP at 13 months after treatment. Conclusions: The true incidence of RILSP in the literature is likely underreported and is not a toxicity commonly assessed by radiation oncologists. In our analysis the LSP commonly received doses approaching the prescribed target dose, and 1 patient developed RILSP. Identification of the LSP during IMRT planning may reduce RILSP. We have provided a reproducible method for delineation of the LSP on CT images and a preliminary dosimetric analysis for potential future dose constraints.

  5. High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cancer accounts for about 30% of all cancers and 15% of all cancer deaths in women in the United States in the United States. Women living in North America have the highest rate of breast cancer in the world [1]. In spite of the increase in the incidence of the disease, the death rates of breast cancer continue

  6. Prediction of Breast Cancer Biopsy Outcomes Using a Distributed Genetic Programming Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Simone

    Prediction of Breast Cancer Biopsy Outcomes Using a Distributed Genetic Programming Approach Simone@cs.usask.ca ABSTRACT Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common type of can- cer after lung cancer and the fifth most common cause of cancer death. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide

  7. Computer Security Incident Handling Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Security Incident Handling Guide Recommendationsof the National Institute of Standards Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD Tom Millar United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team National Cyber Security Division

  8. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09; Admin Chg 2 dated 12-22-09. Canceled by DOE O 205.1B.

  9. Research results on biomagnetic imaging of the lung tumors Laurel O. Silleruda,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coutsias, Evangelos

    of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. One of the difficulties associated that the death rate for lung cancer is so high is a reflection of the suboptimal state of current therapeutic of initial diagnosis 5-year cure rates are ~50% 1 . For patients with more-advanced, nonresectable initial

  10. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and others who require it. This report summarizes the rise in frequency of cyber attacks, describes the perpetrators, and identifies the means of attack. This type of analysis, when used in conjunction with vulnerability analyses, can be used to support a proactive approach to prevent cyber attacks. CSSC will use this document to evolve a standardized approach to incident reporting and analysis. This document will be updated as needed to record additional event analyses and insights regarding incident reporting. This report represents 120 cyber security incidents documented in a number of sources, including: the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Industrial Security Incident Database, the 2003 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey, the KEMA, Inc., Database, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Energy Incident Database, the INL Cyber Incident Database, and other open-source data. The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) database was also interrogated but, interestingly, failed to yield any cyber attack incidents. The results of this evaluation indicate that historical evidence provides insight into control system related incidents or failures; however, that the limited available information provides little support to future risk estimates. The documented case history shows that activity has increased significantly since 1988. The majority of incidents come from the Internet by way of opportunistic viruses, Trojans, and worms, but a surprisingly large number are directed acts of sabotage. A substantial number of confirmed, unconfirmed, and potential events that directly or potentially impact control systems worldwide are also identified. Twelve selected cyber incidents are presented at the end of this report as examples of the documented case studies (see Appendix B).

  11. Lung pair phantom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  13. MIDAS : minor incident decision analysis software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horng, Tze-Chieh, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    MIDAS is the minor incident decision analysis software that acts as an advisory tool for plant decision makers and operators to analyze the available decision alternatives for resolving minor incidents. The minor incidents ...

  14. Suppression of Rev3, the catalytic subunit of Pol zeta, sensitizes drug-resistant lung tumors to chemotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doles, Jason D.

    Platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs are front-line therapies for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. However, intrinsic drug resistance limits the clinical efficacy of these agents. Recent evidence suggests that ...

  15. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; Hung, Ming -Szu; Hsieh, David; Au, Alfred; Jablons, David M.; You, Liang

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods:more »Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.« less

  16. Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers occurring in 1-2% of individuals in their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers occurring in 1-2% of individuals in their lifetime. The current incidence in the United States is approximately 60,000-cases/ year. While many cancers were believed to occur sporadically, it's now understood approximately 5-8% of kidney cancers have a genetic

  17. Dose impact in radiographic lung injury following lung SBRT: Statistical analysis and geometric interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Victoria; Kishan, Amar U.; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a new method of evaluating dose response of treatment-induced lung radiographic injury post-SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) treatment and the discovery of bimodal dose behavior within clinically identified injury volumes. Methods: Follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, and 12 months were acquired from 24 patients treated with SBRT for stage-1 primary lung cancers or oligometastic lesions. Injury regions in these scans were propagated to the planning CT coordinates by performing deformable registration of the follow-ups to the planning CTs. A bimodal behavior was repeatedly observed from the probability distribution for dose values within the deformed injury regions. Based on a mixture-Gaussian assumption, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain characteristic parameters for such distribution. Geometric analysis was performed to interpret such parameters and infer the critical dose level that is potentially inductive of post-SBRT lung injury. Results: The Gaussian mixture obtained from the EM algorithm closely approximates the empirical dose histogram within the injury volume with good consistency. The average Kullback-Leibler divergence values between the empirical differential dose volume histogram and the EM-obtained Gaussian mixture distribution were calculated to be 0.069, 0.063, and 0.092 for the 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up groups, respectively. The lower Gaussian component was located at approximately 70% prescription dose (35 Gy) for all three follow-up time points. The higher Gaussian component, contributed by the dose received by planning target volume, was located at around 107% of the prescription dose. Geometrical analysis suggests the mean of the lower Gaussian component, located at 35 Gy, as a possible indicator for a critical dose that induces lung injury after SBRT. Conclusions: An innovative and improved method for analyzing the correspondence between lung radiographic injury and SBRT treatment dose has been demonstrated. Bimodal behavior was observed in the dose distribution of lung injury after SBRT. Novel statistical and geometrical analysis has shown that the systematically quantified low-dose peak at approximately 35 Gy, or 70% prescription dose, is a good indication of a critical dose for injury. The determined critical dose of 35 Gy resembles the critical dose volume limit of 30 Gy for ipsilateral bronchus in RTOG 0618 and results from previous studies. The authors seek to further extend this improved analysis method to a larger cohort to better understand the interpatient variation in radiographic lung injury dose response post-SBRT.

  18. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Catherine R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

    2007-09-06

    number not for citation purposes) tion, as well as estimates stratified by age and sex. The published 95% confidence intervals for the relative risks The proportion by which the incidence rate of the out- come of interest (here, incident tuberculosis... of charge "BioMed Central will be the most significant development for disseminating the results of biomedical research in our lifetime." Sir Paul Nurse, Cancer Research UK Your research papers will be: available free of charge to the entire biomedical...

  19. Identification of low penetrance alleles for lung cancer: The GEnetic Lung CAncer Predisposition Study (GELCAPS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Tim; Matakidou, Athena; Consortium, Gelcaps; Houlston, Richard

    2008-08-20

    ascertainment. For all participants, sex, ethnicity and age at sampling have been documented. The geographical area of birth and area of residence within the UK is known for all of the individuals and this informa- tion can be used to allow analyses stratified... , Houlston RS: Search for low penetrance alleles Publish with BioMed Central and every scientist can read your work free of charge "BioMed Central will be the most significant development for disseminating the results of biomedical research in our...

  20. Lung Transplantation for Advanced Bronchiectasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Lung Transplantation for Advanced Bronchiectasis Don Hayes Jr., M.D., F.A.A.P., F.A.C.P., F.C.C.P.1 and Keith C. Meyer, M.D., M.S., F.A.C.P., F.C.C.P.2 ABSTRACT Lung transplant (LT) can be successfully performed on patients with advanced bronchiectatic lung disease with subsequent good posttransplant quality

  1. Projection of tuberculosis incidence with increasing immigration ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-27

    May 29, 2008 ... lung (Smith and Moss, 1994). Characteristics of the host immune response dictate whether an exposed individual will develop latent infection ...

  2. DEFENSA PERSONAL -GAU LUNG SAT FUNDAMENTACIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    DEFENSA PERSONAL - GAU LUNG SAT FUNDAMENTACIÓN El Gau Lung Sat es un programa de entrenamiento cuyo aprendizaje la innovadora metodología del Gau Lung Sat. Esta establece diferentes áreas de trabajo

  3. Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics 2007 http://journal.imbio.de/ An integrated medical software system for early lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Will, Sebastian

    and ca. 140 000 deaths each year in the European Union. The 5-year survival rate is approx. 10% for both sexes [10]. The National Cancer Institute of the United States estimates ca. 213,000 new cases and ca dollars are spent in the United States on the treatment of lung cancer. Nowadays, the screening of blood

  4. Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne

    2012-02-14

    Incidents affecting the livestock industry are unavoidable in today's society. These incidents can happen at livestock shows across the country putting thousands of exhibitors, visitors, employees and livestock in danger. The purpose of this study...

  5. Campus Security Authority Incident Report Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Crimes Murder/NonNegligent Manslaughter Negligent Manslaughter Robbery Aggravated Assault Burglary Crimes Definitions & Incident Classifications CLERY REPORTABLE CRIMES Murder

  6. Incidence algebra of a presentation Eric Reynaud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Incidence algebra of a presentation Eric Reynaud D´epartement de Math´ematiques, Universit´e de an incidence algebra of a poset associated to a presentation by a quiver and relations of a finite dimensional algebra. We provide an exact sequence relying the fundamental groups of the incidence algebra

  7. Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung Hemorrhage in Adult Rats Role of Pulse of an earlier ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage study (Ultrasound Med Biol 2003; 29:1625­1634) that estimated, at least for the lung. Key Words: duty factor; lung hemorrhage; pulsed ultrasound; pulse duration; pulse

  8. Automated segmentation of lungs with severe interstitial lung disease in CT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automated segmentation of lungs with severe interstitial lung disease in CT Jiahui Wang Department: Accurate segmentation of lungs with severe interstitial lung disease ILD in thoracic computed tomography CT developed in this study a texture analysis-based method for accurate segmentation of lungs with severe ILD

  9. Diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervino, Laura I; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B

    2009-01-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between the tumor motion and the diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from 10 lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accoun...

  10. Nuclear Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear...

  11. Use of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Ventilation Imaging to Correlate Lung Dose and Function With Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Departments of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Departments of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Martel, Mary K. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based ventilation is an emerging imaging modality that can be used in the thoracic treatment planning process. The clinical benefit of using ventilation images in radiation treatment plans remains to be tested. The purpose of the current work was to test the potential benefit of using ventilation in treatment planning by evaluating whether dose to highly ventilated regions of the lung resulted in increased incidence of clinical toxicity. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment 4DCT data were used to compute pretreatment ventilation images for 96 lung cancer patients. Ventilation images were calculated using 4DCT data, deformable image registration, and a density-change based algorithm. Dose–volume and ventilation-based dose function metrics were computed for each patient. The ability of the dose–volume and ventilation-based dose–function metrics to predict for severe (grade 3+) radiation pneumonitis was assessed using logistic regression analysis, area under the curve (AUC) metrics, and bootstrap methods. Results: A specific patient example is presented that demonstrates how incorporating ventilation-based functional information can help separate patients with and without toxicity. The logistic regression significance values were all lower for the dose–function metrics (range P=.093-.250) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, P=.331-.580). The AUC values were all greater for the dose–function metrics (range, 0.569-0.620) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, 0.500-0.544). Bootstrap results revealed an improvement in model fit using dose–function metrics compared to dose–volume metrics that approached significance (range, P=.118-.155). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to correlate lung dose and 4DCT ventilation-based function to thoracic toxicity after radiation therapy. Although the results were not significant at the .05 level, our data suggests that incorporating ventilation-based functional imaging can improve prediction for radiation pneumonitis. We present an important first step toward validating the use of 4DCT-based ventilation imaging in thoracic treatment planning.

  12. SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    of specimens with unclear diagnoses sent from throughout the United States. Our pathologists are thus some than 75 percent of skin cancer deaths. It is now estimated that one in every 55 people will be diagnosed with melanoma. The incidence also is rising at a rate faster than that of the seven most common

  13. Metabolite Signatures in Hydrophilic Extracts of Mouse Lungs Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Revealed By 1H NMR Metabolomics Investigation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Xuan; Feng, Ju; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.; Liu, Maili; Hu, Mary Y.

    2015-05-12

    Herein, 1H-NMR metabolomics are carried out to evaluate the changes of metabolites in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. It is found that the concentrations of adenosine derivatives (i.e. ATP, ADP and AMP), inosine and uridine are significantly fluctuated in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with those of controls regardless the mouse is obese or regular weight. The decreased ATP, ADP, AMP and elevated inosine predict that the deaminases in charge of adenosine derivatives to inosine derivatives conversion are altered in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Transcriptional analysis reveals that the concentrations ofmore »adenosine monophosphate deaminase and adenosine deaminase are different in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke, confirming the prediction from metabolomics studies. We also found, for the first time, that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) to phosphocholine (PC) is significantly increased in the lungs of obese mice compared with regular weight mice. The ratio of GPC/PC is further elevated in the lungs of obese group by cigarette smoke exposure. Since GPC/PC ratio is a known biomarker for cancer, these results may suggest that obese group is more susceptible to lung cancer when exposed to cigarette smoke.« less

  14. An ex vivo co-culture model system to evaluate stromalepithelial interactions in breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    An ex vivo co-culture model system to evaluate stromal­epithelial interactions in breast cancer T, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. High breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, especially in obese patients, emphasize

  15. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  16. PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE SOCIAL INCIDENCE OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE SOCIAL INCIDENCE OF MANGROVE CONVERSION IN VIETNAM by W. Neil Adger Mick INCIDENCE OF MANGROVE CONVERSION IN VIETNAM by W. Neil Adger1 Mick Kelly1,2 Nguyen Huu Ninh3 Ngo Cam Thanh3 and Univesity College London 2 Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia 3 Centre for Environment

  17. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  18. Edinburgh Research Explorer Lung Microbiota Changes Associated with Chronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Lung Microbiota Changes Associated with Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection and the Impact of Intravenous Colistimethate Sodium Citation for published version, 'Lung Microbiota Changes Associated with Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection and the Impact

  19. Pretreatment [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography Maximum Standardized Uptake Value as Predictor of Distant Metastasis in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy: Rethinking the Role of Positron Emission Tomography in Personalizing Treatment Based on Risk Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, Vimoj J.; MacRae, Robert; Sirisegaram, Abby; Pantarotto, Jason R.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether the preradiation maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor for [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has a prognostic significance in patients with Stage T1 or T2N0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative radiation therapy, whether conventional or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2007 and December 2011, a total of 163 patients (180 tumors) with medically inoperable histologically proven Stage T1 or T2N0 NSCLC and treated with radiation therapy (both conventional and SBRT) were entered in a research ethics board approved database. All patients received pretreatment FDG-PET / computed tomography (CT) at 1 institution with consistent acquisition technique. The medical records and radiologic images of these patients were analyzed. Results: The overall survival at 2 years and 3 years for the whole group was 76% and 67%, respectively. The mean and median SUV{sub max} were 8.1 and 7, respectively. Progression-free survival at 2 years with SUV{sub max} <7 was better than that of the patients with tumor SUV{sub max} ?7 (67% vs 51%; P=.0096). Tumors with SUV{sub max} ?7 were associated with a worse regional recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival. In the multivariate analysis, SUV{sub max} ?7 was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: In early-stage NSCLC managed with radiation alone, patients with SUV{sub max} ?7 on FDG-PET / CT scan have poorer outcomes and high risk of progression, possibly because of aggressive biology. There is a potential role for adjuvant therapies for these high-risk patients with intent to improve outcomes.

  20. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : What You Need To Know About High on lowering cholesterol is available from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Web site

  1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Coronary Heart Disease C oronary is available from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Web site at www.nhlbi.nih.gov (under

  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Physical Activity and Your Heart benefits. It can strengthen your heart and improve lung func- tion, and it may help prevent certain types

  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Atherosclerosis A therosclerosis, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Web site at www.nhlbi.nih.gov (under Health Information

  4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Facts About Healthy Weight Why indicator of your risk for a variety of diseases. To check your BMI, use the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Healthy Sleep S leep is not just information on healthy sleep and sleep disorders is available from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  6. Incident Prevention, Warning, and Response (IPWAR) Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-09-30

    This Manual defines a structured, cohesive, and consistent process for performing incident prevention, warning, and response for DOE's Federal information systems and is consistent with the requirements of Federal laws, Executive orders, national security directives, and other regulations. The Manual also provides requirements and implementation instructions for the Department's Incident Prevention, Warning and Response process, and supplements DOE O 205.1, Department of Energy Cyber Security Management Program, dated 3-21-03. DOE N 205.17 cancels this manual. This manual cancels DOE N 205.4, Handling Cyber Security Alerts and Advisories and Reporting Cyber Security Incidents, dated 3/18/2002.

  7. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  8. Biomarker for Lung and Inflammatory Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heydari, Payam

    Biomarker for Lung and Inflammatory Diseases Tech ID: 23381 / UC Case 2012-660-0 BACKGROUND and clinical research. We describe herein a novel biomarker and method of detecting interstitial lung disease have discovered that patients with interstitial lung and intestinal inflammatory diseases, for example

  9. Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung Hemorrhage in Adult Rats Role of Pulse and reevaluate the ultra- sound-induced lung hemorrhage findings of a previous 5 × 3 factorial design study, 250, and 500 Hz) and exposure duration (ED; 5, 10, and 20 s) on ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage

  10. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Asthma A sthma is a chronic (longterm) lung dis ease that inflames and narrows the air ways. This makes the airways swollen and very, the muscles around them tighten. This causes the airways to nar row, and less air flows to your lungs

  11. The branching programme of mouse lung development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLES The branching programme of mouse lung development Ross J. Metzger1 {, Ophir D. Klein2 {, Gail R. Martin2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Mammalian lungs are branched networks containing thousands by three geometrically simple local modes of branching used in three different orders throughout the lung

  12. Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality (1950–1999) and incidence (1969–1999) in the Eldorado uranium workers cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Lane, Rachel S.D.; Frost, Stanley E.; Thompson, Patsy A.

    2014-04-01

    Uranium workers are chronically exposed to low levels of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (?) radiation. Risks of leukemia from acute and high doses of ?-radiation are well-characterized, but risks from lower doses and dose-rates and from RDP exposures are controversial. Few studies have evaluated risks of other hematologic cancers in uranium workers. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiation-related risks of hematologic cancers in the cohort of Eldorado uranium miners and processors first employed in 1932–1980 in relation to cumulative RDP exposures and ?-ray doses. The average cumulative RDP exposure was 100.2 working level months and the average cumulative whole-body ?-radiation dose was 52.2 millisievert. We identified 101 deaths and 160 cases of hematologic cancers in the cohort. Overall, male workers had lower mortality and cancer incidence rates for all outcomes compared with the general Canadian male population, a likely healthy worker effect. No statistically significant association between RDP exposure or ?-ray doses, or a combination of both, and mortality or incidence of any hematologic cancer was found. We observed consistent but non-statistically significant increases in risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality with increasing ?-ray doses. These findings are consistent with recent studies of increased risks of CLL and NHL incidence after ?-radiation exposure. Further research is necessary to understand risks of other hematologic cancers from low-dose exposures to ?-radiation. - Highlights: • We analyzed long-term follow-up for hematologic cancers of the Eldorado uranium workers. • Workers were exposed to a unique combination of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (?) ray doses. • Exposures to RDP and ?-ray doses were not associated with significantly increased risks of cancers. • Radiation risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin lymphoma were increased. • Study findings provide additional support for radiation-related risks of CLL.

  13. Mechanistic Investigation of Tolfenamic Acid, Betulinic Acid, and Aspirin in Anti-Cancer Therapy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xinyi

    2012-10-19

    to high levels of certain aromatic amines, the N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) slow acetylator phenotype confers a higher risk of bladder cancer [17]. Mutations in glutathione S- transferase genes are associated with increased lung cancer risk [18... proto-oncogene and its corresponding protein product. For example, amplification of the N-myc proto-oncogene has been linked to a number of human neuroblastomas, retinoblastomas, small cell lung carcinomas, and astrocytomas [23]; ErbB2 amplifications...

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Techniques (Presentation) Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray...

  15. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): Group Crisis Intervention, 4th June 2006, International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): Group Crisis Intervention, 4th Edition, June 2006 Management (CISM): Group Crisis Intervention, 4th Edition, June 2006, International Critical Incident Stress

  16. Thursday, April 10, 2008 A Fuller Picture of Your Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Thursday, April 10, 2008 A Fuller Picture of Your Lungs A cheap MRI machine images lung function poor pictures of the lungs, which are full of air, and gives an incomplete picture of lung functions a cheap MRI machine that uses a weak magnetic field to image critical aspects of lung physiology

  17. www.yalecancercenter.org Coping with a Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    rates of breast cancer. However, Asians who migrate and live in the United States have a higher rate are not at risk of breast cancer. It's a very common disease and in the United States at this time almost one out the fact that the incidence has been increasing, the death rate for most of the last century has remained

  18. Primary research Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Myles

    Primary research Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk Christopher A Haiman assessed the association between a glutamine repeat polymorphism in AIB1 and breast cancer risk in a case no association between AIB1 genotype and breast cancer incidence, or specific tumor characteristics

  19. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals, accidentally spilled, or released. In addition to laboratory chemicals, hazardous materials may include common not involve highly toxic or noxious hazardous materials, a fire, or an injury requiring medical attention

  20. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up, or there is a small spill where personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit

  1. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up spill where personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit

  2. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit is not available? Call 561

  3. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    84. Gerlitz G, Bustin M. Efficient cell migration requiresmigration and metastatic efficiency; however, utilizing the

  4. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    properties . 34 Abstract . 35 Introduction . 36 Results .. 38 vii Discussion 47 Materialsproperties of micropore-selected highly migratory cells .. 103 Introduction .. 104 Results 104 Discussion and Future Directions . 112 Materials

  5. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    might prevent a cell from moving at full capacity because itfull malignant phenotype on human bronchial epithelial cells.full malignant phenotype on human bronchial epithelial cells.

  6. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Akihiro, E-mail: tdakihiro@gmail.com; Hiraki, Takao [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iguchi, Toshihiro [Fukuyama City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Toyooka, Shinichi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan); Tsuda, Toshihide [Okayama University Graduate School, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Graduate School of Environmental Science (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Epidemiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  7. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    NT, Chang J, et al. Microfluidics separation reveals theNT, Chang J, et al. Microfluidics separation reveals the

  8. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    medium and placed in a 37°C water bath. 500µL 2x DMEM wasin a room-temperature water bath and equilibrated with

  9. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    I. The crossroads of oncogenesis and metastasis. N Engl JI. The crossroads of oncogenesis and metastasis. N Engl JI. The crossroads of oncogenesis and metastasis. N Engl J

  10. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Disposable Microfluidic Cartridge." PLoS One 6(11): e26925.D. Flexible pouch and cartridge with fluidic circuits. US

  11. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    than H3mut-Snail cells (CDH2 hi ). 100x total magnification.H3mut-Snail cells (CDH2 hi ). Note: both H3mut-Vector/H3mut-

  12. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    30), with the exception that 100 ng DNA was used. Activatedmedium with that containing 15 ng/mL TGF? or BSA (control).

  13. Cell Motility and Deformability in the Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagano, Paul Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    tumor-initiating cells (TICs), cells capable of repopulatingby deformability and analyzed for TIC properties, includingdeformability relates to the TIC phenotype and how they

  14. Biomechanics of the Lung 1 HUMAN RESPIRATORY MECHANICS, part 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prestwich, Ken

    Biomechanics of the Lung 1 HUMAN RESPIRATORY MECHANICS, part 1: THE BIOMECHANICS OF THE LUNG1 Summary: We begin a detailed study of ventilation and then examine the static forces that exist in lungs at different volumes

  15. Diesel Exhaust Dispersion in a Phospholipid Lung Surfactant ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Dispersion in a Phospholipid Lung Surfactant Diesel Exhaust Dispersion in a Phospholipid Lung Surfactant 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  16. Software Architecture Decomposition Using Attributes Chung-Horng Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung, Chung-Horng

    1 Software Architecture Decomposition Using Attributes Chung-Horng Lung Xia Xu Department and Eppinger [29] in other engineering disciplines. Inspired by Alexander, Andreu [2] and Lung,

  17. Automatic Lung Vessel Segmentation via Stacked Multiscale Feature Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Automatic Lung Vessel Segmentation via Stacked Multiscale Feature Learning Ryan Kiros, Karteek We introduce a representation learning approach to segmenting vessels in the lungs. Our algorithm

  18. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang, Tao [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710038 (China)] [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710038 (China); Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Yin, Hong, E-mail: yinnhong@yahoo.com [The Medical Image Center, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [The Medical Image Center, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  19. A poroelastic model of the lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Lorenz; Burrowes, Kelly; Grau, Vicente; Tavener, Simon; Bordas, Rafel

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by the modelling of ventilation and deformation in the lung for understanding the biomechanics of respiratory diseases. The main contribution is the derivation and implementation of a lung model that tightly couples a poroelastic model of lung parenchyma to an airway fluid network. The poroelastic model approximates the porous structure of lung parenchyma using a continuum model that allows us to naturally model changes in physiology by spatially varying material parameters, whilst conserving mass and momentum within the tissue. The proposed model will also take advantage of realistic deformation boundary conditions obtained from image registration, to drive the simulation. A finite element method is presented to discretize the equations in a monolithic way to ensure convergence of the nonlinear problem. To demonstrate the coupling between the poroelastic medium and the network flow model numerical simulations on a realistic lung geometry are presented. These numerical simulations are a...

  20. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  1. Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies Associated With Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor; Xu Yanguang; Clifford Chao, K.S.; Brenner, David J.; Burri, Ryan J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The risk of secondary lung malignancy (SLM) is a significant concern for women treated with whole-breast radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. In this study, a biologically based secondary malignancy model was used to quantify the risk of secondary lung malignancies (SLMs) associated with several common methods of delivering whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Both supine and prone computed tomography simulations of 15 women with early breast cancer were used to generate standard fractionated and hypofractionated whole-breast RT treatment plans for each patient. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the ipsilateral breast and lung were calculated for each patient on each plan. A model of spontaneous and radiation-induced carcinogenesis was used to determine the relative risks of SLMs for the different treatment techniques. Results: A higher risk of SLMs was predicted for supine breast irradiation when compared with prone breast irradiation for both the standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules (relative risk [RR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.30-2.88, and RR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.39-2.98, respectively). No difference in risk of SLMs was noted between standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules in either the supine position (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97-1.14) or the prone position (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.88-1.15). Conclusions: Compared with supine whole-breast irradiation, prone breast irradiation is associated with a significantly lower predicted risk of secondary lung malignancy. In this modeling study, fractionation schedule did not have an impact on the risk of SLMs in women treated with whole-breast RT for early breast cancer.

  2. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation? – Revisiting the “go or grow” hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garay, Tamás; Juhász, Éva; Molnár, Eszter; Eisenbauer, Maria; Czirók, András; Dekan, Barbara; László, Viktória; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Döme, Balázs; Tímár, József; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter; Heged?s, Balázs

    2013-12-10

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The “go or grow” hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found in melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. - Highlights: • We investigated the “go or grow” hypothesis in human cancer cells in vitro. • Proliferation and migration positively correlate in melanoma and lung cancer cells. • Duration of cytokinesis and migration shows inverse correlation. • Increased FAK activation is present in highly motile melanoma cells.

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  4. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Mapping incident photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS data over China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Mapping incident photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS data over China Ronggao Liu a Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is a key input parameter for almost all terrestrial ecosystem models of incident photosynthetically active radiation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data. Journal

  6. A Decision Support System for chemical incident information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Gaurav

    2002-01-01

    . This thesis proposes the development of such a DSS based on chemical incident information. Chemical incident information is mostly qualitative in nature. Therefore, mathematical and statistical analysis of this information is an extremely challenging...

  7. Immune Reactions of the Lung in Infection and Allergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Immune Reactions of the Lung in Infection and Allergy ¡ Interactions of microorganisms with cells of the lung ¡ Cells and mediators in immune reactions of the lung Sabine Ehrt, New York, USA Rees Kassen, Hannover Characterization of pulmonary host defense mechanisms in chronic lung disease 10.00 ­ 10.40 Albert

  8. Virtual Lung Project Animated Film Series The Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitton, Mary C.

    Virtual Lung Project Animated Film Series The Challenge This film series seeks to educate lung. Each video describes a process the lung undergoes to function properly. Through integration of 3D of the lung's functions and purposes. Because mucus flow and ciliary movement are groundbreaking research

  9. NHLBI Workshop Summaries Resident Cellular Components of the Human Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelhardt, John F.

    NHLBI Workshop Summaries Resident Cellular Components of the Human Lung Current Knowledge and Goals, Maryland; 5 Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health and Cell Biology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; 11 Developmental Lung Biology Research

  10. Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel Kristie A. Henchir University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs currently of the lung, which is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide. Current artificial lungs are also

  11. GREIT: towards a consensus EIT algorithm for lung images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    GREIT: towards a consensus EIT algorithm for lung images Andy Adler1 , John Arnold2 , Richard in the patient's lungs. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruc- tion algorithm for EIT

  12. Collapsibility of Lung Volume by Paired Inspiratory and Expiratory CT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collapsibility of Lung Volume by Paired Inspiratory and Expiratory CT Scans: Correlations with Lung Function and Mean Lung Density Tsuneo Yamashiro, MD, Shin Matsuoka, MD, PhD, Brian J. Bartholmai, MD, Rau: To evaluate the relationship between measurements of lung volume (LV) on inspiratory/expiratory computed

  13. Analysis of Senate Bill 961: Cancer Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2010-01-01

    endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, andagents No Epithelial ovarian cancer, Hodgkins lymphomacancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine sarcoma

  14. BREAST CANCER SUPPORT RESOURCES Smilow Cancer Hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    BREAST CANCER SUPPORT RESOURCES Smilow Cancer Hospital · Early Stage Breast Cancer Support Group · Advanced Stage Cancer Support Group · IMPACT ­ Young Cancer Survivors' Group Contact: Angela Khairallah, LCSW at 203-200-2360 Reach to Recovery ­ American Cancer Society 1-800-227-2345 www.cancer.org Sisters

  15. Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.

  16. ORISE: Incident Command System (ICS) Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE TheForensic ScienceHow to Work WithIncident Command

  17. Modeling of Radiation Pneumonitis after Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Bayesian Network Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sangkyu; Jeyaseelan, Krishinima; Faria, Sergio; Kopek, Neil; Brisebois, Pascale; Vu, Toni; Filion, Edith; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Lambert, Louise; Del Vecchio, Pierre; Trudel, Diane; El-Sokhn, Nidale; Roach, Michael; Robinson, Clifford; Naqa, Issam El

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer accompanies a non-negligible risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP). This study presents a Bayesian network (BN) model that connects biological, dosimetric, and clinical RP risk factors. Material and Methods: 43 non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with SBRT with 5 fractions or less were studied. Candidate RP risk factors included dose-volume parameters, previously reported clinical RP factors, 6 protein biomarkers at baseline and 6 weeks post-treatment. A BN ensemble model was built from a subset of the variables in a training cohort (N=32), and further tested in an independent validation cohort (N=11). Results: Key factors identified in the BN ensemble for predicting RP risk were ipsilateral V5, lung volume receiving more than 105% of prescription, and decrease in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) from baseline to 6 weeks. External validation of the BN ensemble model yielded an area under the curve of 0.8. Conclusions: The BN...

  18. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingos, T.I.; Recht, A.; Vicini, F.; Abner, A.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The likelihood of radiation pneumonitis and factors associated with its development in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy have not been well established. To assess these, the authors retrospectively reviewed 1624 patients treated between 1968 and 1985. Median follow-up for patients without local or distant failure was 77 months. Patients were treated with either tangential fields alone (n = 508) or tangents with a third field to the supraclavicular (SC) or SC-axillary (AX) region (n = 1116). Lung volume treated in the tangential fields was generally limited by keeping the perpendicular distance (demagnified) at the isocenter from the deep field edges to the posterior chest wall (CLD) to 3 cm or less. Seventeen patients with radiation pneumonitis were identified (1.0%). Radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed when patients presented with cough (15/17, 88%), fever (9/17, 53%), and/or dyspnea (6/17, 35%) and radiographic changes (17/17) following completion of RT. Radiographic infiltrates corresponded to treatment portals in all patients, and in 12 of the 17 patients, returned to baseline within 1-12 months. Five patients had permanent scarring on chest X ray. No patient had late or persistent pulmonary symptoms. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was correlated with the combined use of chemotherapy (CT) and a third field. Three percent (11/328) of patients treated with a 3-field technique who received chemotherapy developed radiation pneumonitis compared to 0.5% (6 of 1296) for all other patients (p = 0.0001). When patients treated with a 3-field technique received chemotherapy concurrently with radiation therapy, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis was 8.8% (8/92) compared with 1.3% (3/236) for those who received sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p = 0.002).

  19. 82 SESSION 9. LUNGS II Using EIT to determine the role of gestational age on lung volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    82 SESSION 9. LUNGS II Using EIT to determine the role of gestational age on lung volume response calculated for preterm and extremely preterm lambs. 1 Introduction Lung aeration is the first process the newly born lung needs to achieve at birth if the transition from in-utero life is to be successful

  20. PCA-based lung motion model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Organ motion induced by respiration may cause clinically significant targeting errors and greatly degrade the effectiveness of conformal radiotherapy. It is therefore crucial to be able to model respiratory motion accurately. A recently proposed lung motion model based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been shown to be promising on a few patients. However, there is still a need to understand the underlying reason why it works. In this paper, we present a much deeper and detailed analysis of the PCA-based lung motion model. We provide the theoretical justification of the effectiveness of PCA in modeling lung motion. We also prove that under certain conditions, the PCA motion model is equivalent to 5D motion model, which is based on physiology and anatomy of the lung. The modeling power of PCA model was tested on clinical data and the average 3D error was found to be below 1 mm.

  1. Lung Nodule Detection in Screening Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gori, I; Cerello, P; Cheran, S C; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M E; Kasae, P; Masala, G L; Pérez-Martínez, A; Retico, A

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of pulmonary nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images with 1.25 mm slice thickness is presented. The basic modules of our lung-CAD system, a dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a neural classifier for false-positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on the collected database of lung CT scans are discussed.

  2. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  3. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  4. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  5. On using an adaptive neural network to predict lung tumor motion during respiration for radiotherapy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaksson, Marcus; Jalden, Joakim; Murphy, Martin J.

    2005-12-15

    In this study we address the problem of predicting the position of a moving lung tumor during respiration on the basis of external breathing signals--a technique used for beam gating, tracking, and other dynamic motion management techniques in radiation therapy. We demonstrate the use of neural network filters to correlate tumor position with external surrogate markers while simultaneously predicting the motion ahead in time, for situations in which neither the breathing pattern nor the correlation between moving anatomical elements is constant in time. One pancreatic cancer patient and two lung cancer patients with mid/upper lobe tumors were fluoroscopically imaged to observe tumor motion synchronously with the movement of external chest markers during free breathing. The external marker position was provided as input to a feed-forward neural network that correlated the marker and tumor movement to predict the tumor position up to 800 ms in advance. The predicted tumor position was compared to its observed position to establish the accuracy with which the filter could dynamically track tumor motion under nonstationary conditions. These results were compared to simplified linear versions of the filter. The two lung cancer patients exhibited complex respiratory behavior in which the correlation between surrogate marker and tumor position changed with each cycle of breathing. By automatically and continuously adjusting its parameters to the observations, the neural network achieved better tracking accuracy than the fixed and adaptive linear filters. Variability and instability in human respiration complicate the task of predicting tumor position from surrogate breathing signals. Our results show that adaptive signal-processing filters can provide more accurate tumor position estimates than simpler stationary filters when presented with nonstationary breathing motion.

  6. Active and Knowledge-based Process Safety Incident Retrieval System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Sara Shammni

    2011-10-21

    information using folder search as well as word search option via a user friendly interface. A program coded in JAVA is prepared for integrating the incident database with a Management of Change (MOC) software prototype. A collection of keywords... for the users to retrieve incident was developed using JAVA. Besides folder search, the users are provided with the option of word search to retrieve incident information. Folder searching along with word searching will help narrow down the users? scope...

  7. Analysis of the HSEES Chemical Incident Database Using Data and Text Mining Methodologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdiyati, -

    2012-07-16

    incidents from both the causal and consequence elements of the incidents. A subset of incidents data reported to the Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) chemical incident database from 2002-2006 was analyzed using data mining...

  8. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Christine S., E-mail: chungc1@sutterhealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nelson, Kerrie [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Xu, Yang [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Keating, Nancy L. [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Office of the Executive Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study, these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating.

  9. CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, ASTHMA AND LUNG BIOLOGY PUBLICATIONS (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crews, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, ASTHMA AND LUNG BIOLOGY PUBLICATIONS (2008) Alexis NE, Muhlebach MS, Peden DB, Noah TL. Attenuation of host defense function of lung phagocytes in early cystic

  10. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Chung-Horng Lung Joseph E. Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung, Chung-Horng

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Chung-Horng Lung Æ Joseph E. Urban Gerald T. Mackulak Analogy-based domain problem that shares significant aspects with the past problem and C.-H. Lung (&) Department of Systems

  11. Polarized Helium to Image the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leduc, M; Leduc, Mich\\`{e}le; Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    2006-01-01

    The main findings of the european PHIL project (Polarised Helium to Image the Lung) are reported. State of the art optical pumping techniques for polarising ^3He gas are described. MRI methodological improvements allow dynamical ventilation images with a good resolution, ultimately limited by gas diffusion. Diffusion imaging appears as a robust method of lung diagnosis. A discussion of the potential advantage of low field MRI is presented. Selected PHIL results for emphysema are given, with the perspectives that this joint work opens up for the future of respiratory medicine.

  12. Analysis of Assembly Bill 1000: Cancer Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2011-01-01

    endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, andagents No Epithelial ovarian cancer, melanoma, multiplein advanced, inoperable ovarian cancer; used as palliative

  13. Nanostructure Changes in Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Interactions between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    Nanostructure Changes in Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Interactions between: October 4, 2002 Developing synthetic lung surfactants to replace animal extracts requires a fundamental understanding of the roles of the various lipids and proteins in native lung surfactant. We used Brewster angle

  14. Cardiopulmonary Function in RatsWith Lung Hemorrhage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Cardiopulmonary Function in RatsWith Lung Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed Ultrasound Exposure Jeffery using superthreshold exposure conditions known to produce sig- nificant lung hemorrhage. Methods. In 1 in the left lung of each rat. In a second group of 6 rats, 5 foci of ultrasound-induced hemorrhage were

  15. The Comprehensive Imaging-Based Analysis of the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    The Comprehensive Imaging-Based Analysis of the Lung: A Forum for Team Science1 Eric A. Hoffman, Ph description and understanding of the human lung and its response to disease, injury, and treatment, which for the need to volumetrically im- age the lung and to provide objective, quantitative measures characterizing

  16. Dynamic Lung Morphology of Methacholine-Induced Heterogeneous Bronchoconstriction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic Lung Morphology of Methacholine-Induced Heterogeneous Bronchoconstriction Ben T. Chen and G). The method provides direct visualization of the venti- lated regions within the lung. Heterogeneous bronchoconstric- tion following the i.v. MCh injection was evident using this technique. These 3 He dynamic lung

  17. Tomographic Digital Subtraction Angiography for Lung Perfusion Estimation in Rodents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomographic Digital Subtraction Angiography for Lung Perfusion Estimation in Rodents Cristian T. The capabilities of TDSA are established in studies on lung perfusion in rats. Using an imaging system developed in to therapeutics. Keywords X-ray; digital subtraction angiography; tomosynthesis; small animal; lung; perfusion

  18. Computerised lung sound analysis to improve the specificity of paediatric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elhilali, Mounya

    Computerised lung sound analysis to improve the specificity of paediatric pneumonia diagnosis that pulmonary pathology can be differentiated from normal using computerised lung sound analysis (CLSA). The authors will record lung sounds from 600 children aged #5 years, 100 each with consolidative pneumonia

  19. Predicting Panel Ratings for Semantic Characteristics of Lung Nodules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Predicting Panel Ratings for Semantic Characteristics of Lung Nodules Dmitriy Zinovev De@cdm.depaul.edu ABSTRACT In reading CT scans with potentially malignant lung nodules, radiologists make use of high level a second opinion - predicting these semantic characteristics for lung nodules. In our previous work, we

  20. INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broman, Karl W.

    INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin Tumorigenesis in the Mouse Antonella Galvan to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus

  1. Measurement of Regional Lung Function in Rats Using Hyperpolarized 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of Regional Lung Function in Rats Using Hyperpolarized 3 Helium Dynamic MRI Ben T. Chen,* Anja C.S. Brau, and G. Allan Johnson Dynamic regional lung function was investigated in rats using by a constant flow ventila- tor. Based on regional differences in the behavior of inspired air, the lung

  2. Early Recognition of Lung's Air Sacs Wall Collapsing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Early Recognition of Lung's Air Sacs Wall Collapsing M. EMAM, J-F RENAUD de la Faverie, N. GHARBI discusses the possibility of applying a non- liner analysis approach on air density distribution within lung airways tree at any level of branching1. Computed Tomography (CT) 2 source images of the lung

  3. Cell Stem Cell Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway Progenitors from Mouse ESCs.01.018 SUMMARY Deriving lung progenitors from patient-specific pluripotent cells is a key step in producing differenti- ated lung epithelium for disease modeling and trans- plantation. By mimicking the signaling

  4. NHLBI Workshop Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelhardt, John F.

    NHLBI Workshop Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research An NHLBI Workshop of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; 3 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National substantial progress toward under- standing the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery

  5. Original article Lentivirus-induced interstitial lung disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Lentivirus-induced interstitial lung disease: pulmonary pathology in sheep a chronic disease in sheep affecting, among other organs, the lungs. Interstitial pneumonitis is similar the pathological features of lungs of sheep naturally infected with visna-maedi virus with the results obtained

  6. Lung Disease in Pediatrics: is it all in the Genes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung Disease in Pediatrics: is it all in the Genes? Jay K. Kolls, M.D.Jay K. Kolls, M.D. Chair with CF do worse than other? #12;· Outcomes are better at CF centers · There is huge variation in lung with the same mutation do worse than others? · Modifier genes ­ lung disease ­ Tgfb1 ­ Irfd1 ­ neutrophil

  7. Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid Frank Bringezu, Junqi Ding of model lung surfactant lipid monolayers. Adding increasing fractions of palmitic acid (PA) to a 77/23 (wt to the rational design of replacement lung surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome

  8. Biomaterials 28 (2007) 31313139 Towards improved artificial lungs through biocatalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomaterials 28 (2007) 3131­3139 Towards improved artificial lungs through biocatalysis Joel L in the development of artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices, which use hollow fiber membranes (HFMs intervention involves the use of mechan- ical ventilators to provide breathing support while the lungs recover

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effect of Different Sitting Postures on Lung Capacity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makhsous, Mohsen

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effect of Different Sitting Postures on Lung Capacity, Expiratory Flow, and Lumbar, Makhsous M. Effect of different sitting postures on lung capacity, expiratory flow, and lumbar lordosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87:504-9. Objective: To investigate the effect of sitting posture on lung

  10. Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel Robert G. Svitek University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs are medical devices designed to take over or supplement the respiratory function of the lung: oxygenating the blood

  11. Evaluation of Plasma Resistant Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Evaluation of Plasma Resistant Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lungs HEIDE J. EASH,* HEATHER in artificial lungs (ox- ygenators) undergo plasma leakage (or wetting) in which blood plasma slowly fills2 gas permeance of a plasma resistant fiber imposes the greatest constraint upon artificial lung

  12. Lung Segmentation from CT with Severe Pathologies Using Anatomical Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung Segmentation from CT with Severe Pathologies Using Anatomical Constraints Neil Birkbeck Healthcare, Oxford, UK Abstract. The diversity in appearance of diseased lung tissue makes automatic segmentation of lungs from CT with severe pathologies chal- lenging. To overcome this challenge, we rely

  13. Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs ADAM G. POLAK 1 losses along the airway branches. Calculations done for succeeding lung volumes result in the semidynamic to the choke points, characteristic differences of lung regional pressures and volumes, and a shape

  14. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Vascular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardel, Margaret

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Vascular Stiffening by Lipoxin Reduces Lung Inflammation Fanyong Meng1 , Isa Mambetsariev1 , Yufeng Tian1 , Yvonne Beckham2 , Angelo. Birukova1 1 Lung Injury Center, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine

  15. Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the COPDGene Study George R interstitial lung disease (ILD) on chest computed tomographic (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: The CT scans: Early interstitial lung disease; CT scan; smoker. ªAUR, 2010 I diopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF

  16. Asymmetries in Electrical Impedance Tomography Lung Images Bartlomiej Grychtol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Asymmetries in Electrical Impedance Tomography Lung Images Bartlomiej Grychtol1 and Andy Adler2 1, it has been used to image the thorax, to monitor the movement of blood and gas in the heart and lungs. One key application of EIT is to determine the distribution of ventilation within the lungs

  17. -Glutamyl transferase deficiency results in lung oxidant stress in normoxia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc, Robert E.

    -Glutamyl transferase deficiency results in lung oxidant stress in normoxia JYH CHANG JEAN,1 YUE E. Marc, Elizabeth Klings, and Martin Joyce-Brady. -Glutamyl transferase deficiency results in lung oxidant stress in normoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 283: L766­L776, 2002. First published May 3

  18. a bStomach Lung cell zone Clara cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    a bStomach Lung Chief-cell zone Stem-cell zone Mucus- cell zone Clara cell Tracheal airway Basal independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act and the other by Stange et al.2 published in Cell, find that followingdepletionofstemcellsinthestomach or lung

  19. EIT measurement of heart and lung perfusion Helga Ross1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    EIT measurement of heart and lung perfusion Helga Ross1 , Benjamin J.W. Chow2 , and Andy Adler1 1. Introduction Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) shows promise for monitoring a patient's heart and lungs matching in the lungs. The goal of this research is to determine the accuracy of EIT measurements of blood

  20. Special Article Elucidating Nature's Solutions to Heart, Lung, and Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storz, Jay F.

    Special Article Elucidating Nature's Solutions to Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases and Sleep defenses, and oxygen transport. In 2006, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released a funding understanding of nature's solutions to heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders through future research

  1. A Case Report of 20 Lung Radiofrequency Ablation Sessions for 50 Lung Metastases from Parathyroid Carcinoma Causing Hyperparathyroidism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tochio, Maki, E-mail: m-tochio@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takao, Motoshi; Shimamoto, Akira; Tarukawa, Tomohito; Shimpo, Hideto [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    A 47-year-old man presented with multiple lung metastases from parathyroid carcinoma that caused hyperparathyroidism and refractory hypercalcemia. Lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation was repeated to decrease the serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and improve general fatigue. Pulmonary resection was combined for lung hilum metastases. The patient is still alive 4 years after the initial RF session. He has received 20 RF sessions for 50 lung metastases during this period.

  2. INCIDENT CONTAMINATION LEPTON DOSES MEASURED USING RADIOCHROMIC FILM IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    INCIDENT CONTAMINATION LEPTON DOSES MEASURED USING RADIOCHROMIC FILM IN RADIOTHERAPY MARTIN J) AbstractÐMeasurement of lepton contamination is achieved across a radiotherapy photon beam and peripheral in air to measure incident contamination without the eects of phantom scatter. Surface dose was measured

  3. Novel applications of data mining methodologies to incident databases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Sumit

    2006-08-16

    similar to the one proposed by Chung et. al [17] was used after incorporating changes required for the NRC database. 21 Following categories of type of equipment failure involved were created: 1. Storage Vessel ? this includes all the storage... 1.4 Incident Investigation...........................................................................5 II INCIDENT DATABASES.............................................................................7 2.1...

  4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : What You Need To Know About High- tors for heart disease. In fact, the higher your blood cholesterol, the greater your risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Heart disease is the #1 killer of men and women in the United

  5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Physical Activity and Your Heart, is that even modest amounts of physi- cal activity are good for your health, especially your heart health activity is the type of physical activity that benefits your heart the most. This type of activity moves

  6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Coronary Heart Disease C oronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease, is the leading cause of death in the United. These arteries supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium

  7. Lung dosimetry in a linac-MRI radiotherapy unit with a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkby, C.; Murray, B.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology and Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: There is interest in developing linac-MR systems for MRI-guided radiation therapy. To date, the designs for such linac-MR devices have been restricted to a transverse geometry where the static magnetic field is oriented perpendicular to the direction of the incident photon beam. This work extends possibilities in this field by proposing and examining by Monte Carlo simulations, a probable longitudinal configuration where the magnetic field is oriented in the same direction as the photon beam. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes with algorithms implemented to account for the magnetic field deflection of charged particles were used to compare dose distributions for linac-MR systems in transverse and longitudinal geometries. Specifically, the responses to a 6 MV pencil photon beam incident on water and lung slabs were investigated for 1.5 and 3.0 T magnetic fields. Further a five field lung plan was simulated in the longitudinal and transverse geometries across a range of magnetic field strengths from 0.2 through 3.0 T. Results: In a longitudinal geometry, the magnetic field is shown to restrict the radial spread of secondary electrons to a small degree in water, but significantly in low density tissues such as lung in contrast to the lateral shift in dose distribution seen in the transverse geometry. These effects extend to the patient case, where the longitudinal configuration demonstrated dose distributions more tightly confined to the primary photon fields, which increased dose to the planning target volume (PTV), bettered dose homogeneity within a heterogeneous (in density) PTV, and reduced the tissue interface effects associated with the transverse geometry. Conclusions: Dosimetry issues observed in a transverse linac-MR geometry such as changes to the depth dose distribution and tissue interface effects were significantly reduced or eliminated in a longitudinal geometry on a representative lung plan. Further, an increase in dose to the PTV, resulting from the magnetic field confining electrons to the forward direction, shows potential for a reduction in dose to the surrounding tissues.

  8. The Kauai Skin Cancer Study--1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reizner, G.T. )

    1993-05-01

    The Kauai Skin Cancer Study began as a modest effort in 1983 to look at this island's skin cancer incidence. David Elpern MD, Kauai's only dermatologist at the time, was interested in the large number of these tumors in his practice. He first enlisted his office staff to help keep track of the numbers and type of these skin cancers. Along with this information, the basic demographic data on each patient was collected. These records became the first entries into what has become a decade-long project.

  9. Drug Resistance and Molecular Cancer Therapy: Apoptosis Versus Autophagy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Rebecca T.; Tsao, Bryan W.; Faust, Nicholas F.; Xu, Liang

    2013-04-15

    with AML refractory to a single induction regimen.[87] YM155 Advanced refractory solid tumors Phase 1 None The safety profile, plasma concentrations achieved, and antitumor activity.[209] NSCLC Phase 2 None Modest single-agent activity... in patients with refractory, advanced NSCLC. A favorable safety/tolerability profile was reported.[210] AML– Acute myeloid leukemia; Non-small cell lung cancer – NSCLC Table 1. Selective list of IAP antagonists undergoing clinical trials with and without...

  10. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  11. Whole Slide Image Analysis Quantification using Aperio Digital Imaging in a Mouse Lung Metastasis Ronne L. Surface2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Whole Slide Image Analysis Quantification using Aperio Digital Imaging in a Mouse Lung Metastasis quantitate metastatic mouse lung tumors in a lung section using a H&E stain. Lung sections from a mouse lung of view from each slide representing a whole lung lobe with multiple lung metastases was selected

  12. Final Report DOE Grant# DE-FG02-98ER62592: Second Cancers, Tumor p53, and Archaea Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel M. Lesko, MD, MPH

    2006-01-14

    The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute conducted cancer surveillance in Northeast Pennsylvania using data from the instituteâ??s population-based regional cancer registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. The results of this surveillance have been used to set priorities for research and outreach activities at the Cancer Institute and selected results have been reported to medical professionals at member hospitals and in the community. One consistent observation of this surveillance was that colorectal cancer was unusually common in Northeast Pennsylvania; incidence was approximately 25% higher than the rate published for NCIâ??s Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. In addition, death rates form colorectal cancer in several counties in this region were above the 90Th percentile for colorectal cancer mortality in the United States. As a result of these observations, several activities have been developed to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and the value of screening for this cancer in both the lay and medical communities. Funding from this grant also provided support for a population-based study of cancer risk factors, screening practices, and related behaviors. This project continues beyond the termination of the present grant with funding from other sources. This project gathers data from a representative sample of adults residing in a six county area of Northeast Pennsylvania. Analyses conducted to date of the established risk factors for colorectal cancer have not revealed an explanation for the high incidence of this cancer in this population.

  13. A preliminary evaluation of a speed threshold incident detection algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolb, Stephanie Lang

    1996-01-01

    and California algorithm #8 using Fuzzy Logic to evaluate the new algorithm's effectiveness in detecting incidents on freeways. To test these algorithms, real data from TransGuide were run through the algorithms. Algorithm output were compared with CCTV (closed...

  14. Bloggers as Citizen Journalists: The 2012 Pink Slime Incident 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannone, Anthony

    2013-08-22

    and added to ground beef to make lean affordable beef blends. News reports questioning the safety and quality of LFTB began in March 2012. A qualitative content analysis was performed on 44 blogs that mentioned the pink slime incident between...

  15. Tax Incidence Varies Across the Price Distribution Jeffrey M. Perloff*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    , CA 94720-3310 #12;Tax Incidence Varies Across the Price Distribution Standard treatments of tax pass a generic good at marginal cost: p = m. A branded-good manufacturer--a dominant firm--sells its

  16. ORISE: REAC/TS Medical Management of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Management of Radiation Incidents As part of its primary mission for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS)...

  17. Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Solbrig

    2011-12-01

    The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

  18. Josephine Ford Cancer Center Cancer Research Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Josephine Ford Cancer Center Cancer Research Programs presented to WSU SOM PAD January 10, 2012 presented by Sandra A. Rempel, Ph.D. Associate Director of Research, JFCC #12;JFCC Cancer Research Programs Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program Members: Gwen Alexander, Andrea Cassidy

  19. Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the EPIC-Norfolk study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Heather A; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-04-17

    of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective...

  20. Characterization of Lung Tissues using Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter and Hyperspectral Imaging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won, Chang-Hee

    Characterization of Lung Tissues using Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter and Hyperspectral Imaging to characterize lung tissue for detecting emphysematous tissues in lung volume reduction surgery. The system, the spectral signature of healthy lung tissue and simulated smokers lung tissue is obtained and compared

  1. Lung EIT: Should we reconstruct resistivity or conductivity? Bartlomiej Grychtol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Lung EIT: Should we reconstruct resistivity or conductivity? Bartlomiej Grychtol1 , Andy Adler2 1.grychtol@dkfz.de MOTIVATION: In lung EIT, the quantity of interest is the change in regional air volume in the lungs. However. The model contains two non-conductive objects that represent the lungs. Assuming that lung resistivity

  2. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHK2 that contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, amplification of ERBB2 (formerly HER2) and mutations of elements of the PI3-kinase pathway that activate aspects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and deletion of CDKN2A/B that contributes to cell cycle deregulation and genome instability. It is now apparent that accumulation of these aberrations is a time-dependent process that accelerates with age. Although American women living to an age of 85 have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer, the incidence of cancer in women younger than 30 years is uncommon. This is consistent with a multistep cancer progression model whereby mutation and selection drive the tumor's development, analogous to traditional Darwinian evolution. In the case of cancer, the driving events are changes in sequence, copy number, and structure of DNA and alterations in chromatin structure or other epigenetic marks. Our understanding of the genetic, genomic, and epigenomic events that influence the development and progression of breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate through application of powerful analysis tools that enable genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence and structure, copy number, allelic loss, and epigenomic modification. Application of these techniques to elucidation of the nature and timing of these events is enriching our understanding of mechanisms that increase breast cancer susceptibility, enable tumor initiation and progression to metastatic disease, and determine therapeutic response or resistance. These studies also reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  3. Data-Driven Lung Nodule Models for Robust Nodule Detection in Chest CT Amal A. Farag, James Graham, Salwa Elshazly and Aly Farag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    States for men is 84.6 and 55.2 for women, while death rate for men is 69.4 and 40.6 for women [1 to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of the United States, in 2005 alone 90139 men and 69078 women in the United States died of Lung cancer. During that same year 89271 women and 107416 men were diagnosed

  4. Incident detection using the Standard Normal Deviate model and travel time information from probe vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountain, Christopher Eugene

    1993-01-01

    One application of travel time information explored in this thesis is freeway incident detection. It is vital to develop reliable methods for automatically detecting incidents to facilitate the quick response and removal of incidents before...

  5. Use of incident databases for cause and consequence analysis and national estimates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obidullah, A.S.M.

    2007-04-25

    Many incidents have occurred because industries have ignored past incidents or failed to learn lessons from the past. Incident databases provide an effective option for managing large amounts of information about the past ...

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA); Goulding, Frederick S. (Lafayette, CA)

    1991-01-01

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  7. A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field I.C. RUSET,1 L.L. TSAI,2,3 R describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50­200 kHz, including

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P

    2013-01-01

    Press. 12. Armitage P, Doll R (1954) The age distribution of1183. 14. Armitage P, Doll R (2004) The age distribution ofRev Genet 11: 446–450. 50. Doll R, Wakeford R (1997) Risk of

  10. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Press. 12. Armitage P, Doll R (1954) The age distribution of1183. 14. Armitage P, Doll R (2004) The age distribution ofRev Genet 11: 446–450. 50. Doll R, Wakeford R (1997) Risk of

  11. Toward A Quantitative Understanding of Gas Exchange in the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Yulin V

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a mathematical framework that quantifies the gas-exchange processes in the lung. The theory is based on the solution of the one-dimensional diffusion equation on a simplified model of lung septum. Gases dissolved into different compartments of the lung are all treated separately with physiologically important parameters. The model can be applied in magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized xenon for quantification of lung parameters such as surface-to-volume ratio and the air-blood barrier thickness. In general this model provides a description of a broad range of biological exchange processes that are driven by diffusion.

  12. Resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT via group-sparsity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Arnav; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)] [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lian, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: 4D-CT typically delivers more accurate information about anatomical structures in the lung, over 3D-CT, due to its ability to capture visual information of the lung motion across different respiratory phases. This helps to better determine the dose during radiation therapy for lung cancer. However, a critical concern with 4D-CT that substantially compromises this advantage is the low superior-inferior resolution due to less number of acquired slices, in order to control the CT radiation dose. To address this limitation, the authors propose an approach to reconstruct missing intermediate slices, so as to improve the superior-inferior resolution.Methods: In this method the authors exploit the observation that sampling information across respiratory phases in 4D-CT can be complimentary due to lung motion. The authors’ approach uses this locally complimentary information across phases in a patch-based sparse-representation framework. Moreover, unlike some recent approaches that treat local patches independently, the authors’ approach employs the group-sparsity framework that imposes neighborhood and similarity constraints between patches. This helps in mitigating the trade-off between noise robustness and structure preservation, which is an important consideration in resolution enhancement. The authors discuss the regularizing ability of group-sparsity, which helps in reducing the effect of noise and enables better structural localization and enhancement.Results: The authors perform extensive experiments on the publicly available DIR-Lab Lung 4D-CT dataset [R. Castillo, E. Castillo, R. Guerra, V. Johnson, T. McPhail, A. Garg, and T. Guerrero, “A framework for evaluation of deformable image registration spatial accuracy using large landmark point sets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1849–1870 (2009)]. First, the authors carry out empirical parametric analysis of some important parameters in their approach. The authors then demonstrate, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the ability of their approach to achieve more accurate and better localized results over bicubic interpolation as well as a related state-of-the-art approach. The authors also show results on some datasets with tumor, to further emphasize the clinical importance of their method.Conclusions: The authors have proposed to improve the superior-inferior resolution of 4D-CT by estimating intermediate slices. The authors’ approach exploits neighboring constraints in the group-sparsity framework, toward the goal of achieving better localization and noise robustness. The authors’ results are encouraging, and positively demonstrate the role of group-sparsity for 4D-CT resolution enhancement.

  13. 2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 11, Incidents of Security Concern

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 11, Incidents of Security Concern Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for reporting, investigating, and correcting Incidents of Security Concern.

  14. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2?) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2? levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  15. Bruce Walcheck: Role of neutrophils in acute lung injury, bacterial lung infection, and sepsis (cell based assays and in vivo studies in mice).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Bruce Walcheck: Role of neutrophils in acute lung injury, bacterial lung infection, and sepsis, eosinophils, and macrophages in the ( ) oapplie lungs (cell based assays and in vivo studies in mice) Alice). Mike Murtaugh: Pathogenesis of lung inflammation during bacterial and viral pneumonia (cell based

  16. Physiological and Computed Tomographic Predictors of Outcome from Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physiological and Computed Tomographic Predictors of Outcome from Lung Volume Reduction Surgery: Previous investigations have identified several potential predictors of outcomes from lung volume reduction: To identify objective radiographic and physiological indices of lung disease that have prognostic value

  17. Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis on High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA Abstract. Regional assessment of lung disease specific to different lung regions on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) datasets. We present

  18. Preparation of Pulmonary SMC Pulmonary smooth muscle cells are isolated from ten 6-day neonatal rat lungs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mecham, Robert

    lungs. The lungs are dissected with the trachea still attached and placed in Puck's saline A solution

  19. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

  20. A Systematic Analysis of Epigenetic Genes across Different Stages of Lung Adenocarcinoma Akshay Desai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    A Systematic Analysis of Epigenetic Genes across Different Stages of Lung Adenocarcinoma Akshay across different stages of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Method: An integrative system biology approach

  1. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Cancer Center on Ground Floor Emergency Room Parking Ardmore Cafeteria Ardmore Tower North Tower Janeway

  2. Resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT data using multiscale interphase iterative nonlocal means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China and Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Yap, Pew-Thian; Wu Guorong [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Feng Qianjin; Chen Wufan [School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Lian Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shen Dinggang [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computer tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in lung cancer radiotherapy due to its capability in providing important tumor motion information. However, the prolonged scanning duration required by 4D-CT causes considerable increase in radiation dose. To minimize the radiation-related health risk, radiation dose is often reduced at the expense of interslice spatial resolution. However, inadequate resolution in 4D-CT causes artifacts and increases uncertainty in tumor localization, which eventually results in extra damages of healthy tissues during radiotherapy. In this paper, the authors propose a novel postprocessing algorithm to enhance the resolution of lung 4D-CT data. Methods: The authors' premise is that anatomical information missing in one phase can be recovered from the complementary information embedded in other phases. The authors employ a patch-based mechanism to propagate information across phases for the reconstruction of intermediate slices in the longitudinal direction, where resolution is normally the lowest. Specifically, the structurally matching and spatially nearby patches are combined for reconstruction of each patch. For greater sensitivity to anatomical details, the authors employ a quad-tree technique to adaptively partition the image for more fine-grained refinement. The authors further devise an iterative strategy for significant enhancement of anatomical details. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm using a publicly available lung data that consist of 10 4D-CT cases. The authors' algorithm gives very promising results with significantly enhanced image structures and much less artifacts. Quantitative analysis shows that the authors' algorithm increases peak signal-to-noise ratio by 3-4 dB and the structural similarity index by 3%-5% when compared with the standard interpolation-based algorithms. Conclusions: The authors have developed a new algorithm to improve the resolution of 4D-CT. It outperforms the conventional interpolation-based approaches by producing images with the markedly improved structural clarity and greatly reduced artifacts.

  3. Mechanism-based inhibition of cancer metastasis with (?)-epigallocatechin gallate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570; Green Tea Laboratory, Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama 358-0042 ; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Mondal, Anupom; Suzuki, Kaori; Kurusu-Kanno, Miki; Li, Zhenghao; Yamazaki, Takashi; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 ; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •EGCG reduced cell motility of highly metastatic human lung cancer cells. •EGCG increased cell stiffness of the cells, indicating the inhibition of phenotypes of EMT. •EGCG inhibited expression of vimentin and Slug in the cells at the leading edge of scratch. •Treatment of M?CD increased cell stiffness, and inhibited cell motility and vimentin expression. •Inhibition of EMT phenotypes with EGCG is a mechanism-based inhibition of cancer metastasis. -- Abstract: Cell motility and cell stiffness are closely related to metastatic activity of cancer cells. (?)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to inhibit spontaneous metastasis of melanoma cell line into the lungs of mice, so we studied the effects of EGCG on cell motility, cell stiffness, and expression of vimentin and Slug, which are molecular phenotypes of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Treatments of human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines H1299 and Lu99 with 50 and 100 ?M EGCG reduced cell motility to 67.5% and 43.7% in H1299, and 71.7% and 31.5% in Lu99, respectively in in vitro wound healing assay. Studies on cell stiffness using atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that treatment with 50 ?M EGCG increased Young’s modulus of H1299 from 1.24 to 2.25 kPa and that of Lu99 from 1.29 to 2.28 kPa, showing a 2-fold increase in cell stiffness, i.e. rigid elasticity of cell membrane. Furthermore, treatment with 50 ?M EGCG inhibited high expression of vimentin and Slug in the cells at a leading edge of scratch. Methyl-?-cyclodextrin, a reagent to deplete cholesterol in plasma membrane, showed inhibition of EMT phenotypes similar that by EGCG, suggesting that EGCG induces inhibition of EMT phenotypes by alteration of membrane organization.

  4. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  5. Lung tissue engineering : in vitro synthesis of lung tissue from neonatal and fetal rat lung cells cultured in a three-dimensional collagen matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Patty P., 1981-

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the histology of tissue formed when fetal (16-20 days gestation) and neonatal (2 days old) rat lung cells were grown in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold. This project employed ...

  6. CLERY INCIDENT REPORT FORM NON-POLICE CAMPUS SECURITY AUTHORITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    to promote crime awareness and to enhance campus safety through reliable statistical records. The purpose reportable crimes and/or non-criminal hate motivated incidents that have occurred within one of the four.depts.ttu.edu/ttpd/. For the purposes of CLERY, CSA's are required to document certain reportable crimes and non-criminal hate motivated

  7. PSM case history: Regulatory compliance can prevent catastrophic incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiihne, E.J.; Mannan, M. [RMT/Jones and Neuse, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration promulgated on February 24, 1992 the Process Safety Management (PSM) rule: 29 CFR 1910.119. The PSM rule represents a holistic program which requires facilities to develop, implement and practice 14 different elements. Each of the 14 elements are significant in the protection of health and safety of all employees and personnel working in and around the plant site. PSM programs developed in compliance with the PSM rule are expected to reduce the probability and consequence of occurrence of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plant before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of non compliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety system.

  8. Violation of Laws, Losses, and Incidents of Security Concerns

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-09-15

    To set forth Department of Energy (DOE) procedures to assure timely and effective action relating to violations of criminal, laws, loses, and incidents of security concern to DOE. Cancels DOE O 5631.5. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 of 9-28-1995.

  9. A categorical model for traffic incident likelihood estimation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchangi, Shamanth

    2007-04-25

    In this thesis an incident prediction model is formulated and calibrated. The primary idea of the model developed is to correlate the expected number of crashes on any section of a freeway to a set of traffic stream characteristics, so that a...

  10. 16 November 2015 UCT investigating allegation of rape incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tadross, Mark

    16 November 2015 UCT investigating allegation of rape incident Please cite Gerda Kruger, Executive allegations on social media of a rape that allegedly occurred in a building on its campus. Once it was made the matter properly. We ask people to consider the fact that rape and sexual assault is a dreadful reality

  11. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  12. The National Cancer Institute,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Cancer Institute, International Cancer Information Center Bldg. 82, Rm 123 Bethesda, MD 20892 The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the Federal Government. NCI coordinates the government's cancer research program. It is the largest of the 17 biomedical research institutes and centers

  13. Cancer Statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2012 Rebecca Siegel, MPH1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    in the United States, accounting for 16.3% (50.5 million/310 million) of the US population in 2010 and 0.3% per year among women, while cancer death rates declined by 2.3% per year in men and 1.4% per year in women. Hispanics have lower incidence and death rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers

  14. Single-Session Radiofrequency Ablation of Bilateral Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: palussiere@bergonie.org; Gomez, Fernando; Cannella, Matthieu; Ferron, Stephane; Descat, Edouard [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology, Regional Cancer Centre (France); Fonck, Marianne [Institut Bergonie, Department of Digestive Oncology (France); Brouste, Veronique [Institut Bergonie, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit (France); Avril, Antoine [Institut Bergonie, Department of Surgery (France)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study examined the feasibility and efficacy of bilateral lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in a single session. Methods: From 2002-2009, patients with bilateral lung metastases were treated by RFA, where possible in a single session under general anesthesia with CT guidance. The second lung was punctured only if no complications occurred after treatment of the first lung. Five lung metastases maximum per patient were treated by RFA and prospectively followed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of acute and delayed complications. Secondary endpoints were calculation of hospitalization duration, local efficacy, median survival, and median time to tumor progression. Local efficacy was evaluated on CT or positron emission tomography (PET) CT. Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated for bilateral lung metastases with RFA (mean age, 62 years). Single-session treatment was not possible in 40 due to severe pneumothoraces (n = 24), bilateral pleural contact (n = 14), and operational exclusions (n = 2). Twenty-seven (41%) received single-session RFA of lesions in both lungs for 66 metastases overall. Fourteen unilateral and four bilateral pneumothoraces occurred (18 overall, 66.7%). Unilateral (n = 13) and bilateral (n = 2) chest tube drainage was required. Median hospitalization was 3 (range, 2-8) days. Median survival was 26 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-33). Four recurrences on RFA sites were observed (4 patients). Median time to tumor progression was 9.5 months (95% CI, 4.2-23.5). Conclusions: Although performing single-session bilateral lung RFA is not always possible due to pneumothoraces after RFA of first lung, when it is performed, this technique is safe and effective.

  15. He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human Magnetic Resonance Imaging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    3 He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human Magnetic Resonance Imaging System R. W. Butler,6 F. W. Hersman,4 and R. L. Walsworth1 The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive lung restrict sub- jects to lying horizontally. Imaging of human lungs using inhaled laser-polarized 3

  16. COMPUTERS AND BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 17, 580-589 ( 1984) Multicompartment Model of Lung Dynamics*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longtin, André

    COMPUTERS AND BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 17, 580-589 ( 1984) Multicompartment Model of Lung Dynamics* B of the lungs. The lungs are represented by 24 compartments each corresponding to a generation of the Weibel model A. In the model it is assumed that gases are transported in the lungs by convection and diffusion

  17. Automated Lung Nodule Segmentation Using Dynamic Programming and EM Based Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahuja, Narendra

    Automated Lung Nodule Segmentation Using Dynamic Programming and EM Based Classification Ning Xua a robust and automated algorithm to segment lung nodules in three dimensional (3D) Computed Tomography (CT nodules but also the nodules attached to lung walls and vessels. Keywords: Lung nodule, Segmentation

  18. Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface intercostal tissue and lung was evaluated as a possible explanation for the enhanced lung damage the volume of air inspired and expired. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung

  19. NEURAL PCA NETWORK FOR LUNG OUTLINE RECONSTRUCTION IN VQ SCAN IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serpen, Gursel

    NEURAL PCA NETWORK FOR LUNG OUTLINE RECONSTRUCTION IN VQ SCAN IMAGES G. Serpen1 , Ph. D., R. Iyer1 system takes the digitized ventilation-perfusion scan images of lungs as input, identify a template according to the size and shape of the lungs and thereby approximate and reconstruct the outline of the lung

  20. EFFECT OF VELOCITY CONTROL ON KINESTHETIC LUNG TUMOUR LOCALIZATION M. D. Naish1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naish, Michael D.

    EFFECT OF VELOCITY CONTROL ON KINESTHETIC LUNG TUMOUR LOCALIZATION M. D. Naish1,2,3 , G. L. Mc precludes manual palpation, making the localization of lung tumours chal- lenging. This paper investigates on stiffness variations of the lung parenchyma. Agar injected into ex vivo porcine lungs produced a model

  1. Automatic Lung Nodule Detection from Chest CT Data Using Geometrical Features: Initial Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Automatic Lung Nodule Detection from Chest CT Data Using Geometrical Features: Initial Results for automatic lung nodule detection from Chest CT data is proposed. The proposed system includes the methods of lung segmentation and nodule detection from CT data. The algorithm for lung segmentation consists

  2. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 131 (2002) 233243 Relative motion of lung and chest wall promotes uniform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 131 (2002) 233­243 Relative motion of lung and chest wall, USA b Artificial Lung Program, Uni6ersity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA c Department of lung par- enchyma and effective inspiratory action of the diaphragm, the lungs and chest wall must

  3. Impedance measurements of ex vivo rat lung at different volumes of inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Impedance measurements of ex vivo rat lung at different volumes of inflation Michael L. Oelze that the occurrence of ultrasonically induced lung hemorrhage in rats was directly correlated to the level of lung inflation. In that study, it was hypothesized that the lung could be modeled as two components consisting

  4. Evaluation of a Pumping Assist Lung That Uses a Rotating Fiber Bundle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Evaluation of a Pumping Assist Lung That Uses a Rotating Fiber Bundle ROBERT G. SVITEK,* BRIAN J. FRANKOWSKI,* AND WILLIAM J. FEDERSPIEL,*§ A paracorporeal respiratory assist lung (PRAL) is being devel- oped for supplemental gas exchange to allow the native lungs of acute lung failure patients to heal. The device consists

  5. Mesenchymal Nuclear factor I B regulates cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation during lung maturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gronostajski, Richard M.

    lung maturation Yu-Chih Hsu a , Jason Osinski a , Christine E. Campbell a , E. David Litwack b , Dan 2011 Accepted 6 April 2011 Available online 13 April 2011 Keywords: NFI-B Lung development Mesenchymal is expressed in both lung mesenchyme and epithelium and mice lacking Nfib have severe lung maturation defects

  6. A Novel Laminin E8 Cell Adhesion Site Required for Lung Alveolar Formation In Vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Novel Laminin E8 Cell Adhesion Site Required for Lung Alveolar Formation In Vitro Michelle L,UniversityofVirginia,Charlottesville,Virginia22908 Abstract. Basement membrane-adherent type II alveo- lar cells isolated from lung assemble with a key role in lung alveolar morphogenesis. M ORPHOGENESISof lung alveoli, the functional unit ofbi

  7. Synthetic Lung Tumor Data Sets for Comparison of Volumetric Algorithms1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Javier

    Synthetic Lung Tumor Data Sets for Comparison of Volumetric Algorithms1 Adele P. Peskin of synthetic lung tumor data in which synthetic tumors of known volume are embedded in clinical lung computerized tomographic (CT) data in different background settings in the lung. Because the change

  8. Level Set based Reconstruction Algorithm for EIT Lung Images: First Clinical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Level Set based Reconstruction Algorithm for EIT Lung Images: First Clinical Results Peyman Rahmati of a slow flow inflation pressure-volume manoeuvre in lung healthy and adult lung injury patients. Images conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the level set based reconstruction method. 1

  9. Elastin protein levels are a vital modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility to emphysema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mecham, Robert

    Elastin protein levels are a vital modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility to emphysema. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol-induced emphysema is highly variable, and numerous genetic and environmental factors are thought to mitigate lung

  10. CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, S. Murray

    CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER PROGRESS REPORT 2014 TRA NSFO RMING LIVES THRO UG H RE SE ARC H #12;CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER PROGRESS REPORT 2014 TRANSFORMING LIVES THROUGH RESEARCH #12;II AACR Cancer Progress Report 2014

  11. Cancer Stage at Diagnosis, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    of avoiding death due to a particular cancer. Stage atdiagnosis by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual, sixth edition. Source:

  12. Multi-scale analysis of lung computed tomography images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gori, I; Fantacci, M E; Martinez, A Preite; Retico, A; De Mitri, I; Donadio, S; Fulcheri, C; Gargano, G; Magro, R; Santoro, M; Stumbo, S; 10.1088/1748-0221/2/09/P09007

    2009-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of lung internal nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images was developed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 project. The three modules of our lung CAD system, a segmentation algorithm for lung internal region identification, a multi-scale dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a multi-scale neural technique for false positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on a dataset of low-dose and thin-slice CT scans are shown in terms of free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves and discussed.

  13. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 03: Dosmetric evaluation of single versus multi-arc VMAT for lung SBRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karan, T; Taremi, M; Comsa, D; Allibhai, Z; Ryan, M; Le, K

    2014-08-15

    Five non-small cell lung cancer patients previously treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy using the VMAT (volumetric modulated arc therapy) technique were selected for this retrospective study. Plans were re-optimized using Pinnacle treatment planning system (v9.0, Philips Medical), with the basis for comparison a two-arc plan involving a 360° arc in addition to a 90° arc with a couch kick. Additionally a single 360° arc was optimized for comparison, as well as a partial arc covering ?230°, avoiding the contralateral lung. All plans met target coverage criteria as dictated by RTOG0236. Plans were evaluated based on conformity, sparing of organs at risk and practical considerations of delivery. Conformity was best in the two-arc plan; however the decrease seen in one- and partial arc plans was not statistically significant as tested by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The partial-arc plan resulted in the lowest esophagus and trachea dose and the highest heart dose, however none of the plans exceeded organ at risk tolerances for lung SBRT. Partial arcs resulted in plans with slightly cooler dose distributions, a decrease in low dose spillage and an overall lower mean lung dose. The decrease in treatment time was on average 36 and 40 seconds for single and partial arcs, respectively, with partial arcs requiring the lowest number of MUs. The slight decrease in conformity seen in one-arc plans is offset by an increase in efficiency (optimization and treatment time, MUs) making the implementation of a single or partial-arc treatment technique clinically desirable.

  14. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-09-15

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report 'Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.' The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  15. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  16. Functional lung imaging in humans using Positron Emission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layfield, Dominick, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with a method of functional lung imaging using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this technique, a radioactive tracer, nitrogen-13, is dissolved in saline solution, and injected into a peripheral ...

  17. Classification of skin abnormalties using oblique incident diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Uribe, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    benign from cancerous abnormalities. Genetic Algorithm was used to obtain the most effective set of image features for each classifier. A total of 584 images from 65 cases, 23 cases in group-1 and 42 cases in group-2, were used to train the classifiers. A...

  18. Post-diagnosis weight gain and breast cancer recurrence in women with early stage breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1996): Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7:of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.BiomarkersDiagnosis Weight Gain and Breast Cancer Recurrence In Women

  19. Familial Breast Cancer Julie Saffarian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Familial Breast Cancer Julie Saffarian Genomics & Medicine Stanford University #12;Definitions metastasis" ­ Wikipedia.com What is Breast Cancer? - Breast Cancer is a disease in which the uncontrollable Breast Cancer? - Sporadic Breast Cancer is non-hereditary and represents 85-90% of Cancer cases

  20. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan ; Huang, Ya-Li; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan ; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  1. Cancer: A suppression switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starobinets, H; Debnath, J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer A suppression switch The status of the protein p53it seems that p53 acts as a switch in pancreatic cancer thatthe ability of p53 to switch the clinical outcome of

  2. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Cancer Center on Ground Floor Emergency Room Parking Pedestrian Link to Parking on 4th Floor Surgical

  3. INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that commercially caught lobsters from ports off Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island had incidences of missing

  4. ORISE: Incident Management Training Put to Test in Gulf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer underI REEECNO OFChicago No-Noticel lIncident

  5. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiological Incident Medical Consultation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHow ORISE is Making a DifferenceRadiological Incident

  6. PROSTATE CANCER EVIDENCE ACADEMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    PROSTATE CANCER EVIDENCE ACADEMY CME/CNE-Certified Course The Inn at Penn 3600 Sansom Street:30 PM R E G I S T E R O N L I N E AT PENNCMEONLINE.COM/NODE/57378 #12;OVERVIEW The Prostate Cancer, and model programs that are proven effective or being studied to improve prostate cancer prevention, control

  7. Forecasting Spatiotemporal Impact of Traffic Incidents on Road Networks Bei Pan, Ugur Demiryurek, Cyrus Shahabi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Forecasting Spatiotemporal Impact of Traffic Incidents on Road Networks Bei Pan, Ugur Demiryurek and quantifying the impact of traffic incidents. Traffic incidents include any non-recurring events on road networks, including accidents, weather hazard, road construction or work zone closures. By analyzing

  8. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivekanandan, Nagarajan, E-mail: viveknaren@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India); Sriram, Padmanaban; Syam Kumar, S.A.; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India)

    2012-04-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V{sub 20Gy} and V{sub 30Gy} dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D{sub 35%} of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans.

  9. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-?B-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-?B binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-?B activity by inhibiting I?B-? degradation and NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ? Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ? Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-?B binding activity. ? Osthole inhibits I?B? degradation and NF-?B nucleus translocation. ? Osthole suppresses EMT by repressing vimentin and inducing E-cadherin expression.

  10. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.A. [Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stearns, L.J. [Shaw Environmental, Inc, Monroeville, PA (United States); Davie, A.D. [Shaw Environmental, Inc, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Day, E. [PELL Resources Company, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  11. Evidence That New Hypnotics Cause Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: evidence from twowere associated with ovarian cancer (Harlow et al. 1998;

  12. Mature Follow-Up for High-Risk Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Sublobar Resection and Intraoperative Iodine-125 Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colonias, Athanasios, E-mail: acolonia@wpahs.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Betler, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Trombetta, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigdeli, Ghazaleh [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gayou, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Keenan, Robert [Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Werts, E. Day; Parda, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Allegheny General Hospital experience of high-risk Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with sublobar resection and intraoperative {sup 125}I Vicryl mesh brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 5, 1996 and February 19, 2008, 145 patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer who were not lobectomy candidates because of cardiopulmonary compromise underwent sublobar resection and placement of {sup 125}I seeds along the resection line. The {sup 125}I seeds embedded in Vicryl suture were attached with surgical clips to a sheet of Vicryl mesh, inserted over the target area, and prescribed to a 0.5-cm planar margin. Results: The mean target area, total activity, number of seeds implanted, and prescribed total dose was 33.3 cm{sup 2} (range, 18.0-100.8), 20.2 mCi (range, 11.1-29.7), 46 (range, 30-100), and 117 Gy (range, 80-180), respectively. The median length of the surgical stay was 6 days (range, 1-111), with a perioperative mortality rate of 3.4%. At a median follow-up of 38.3 months (range, 1-133), 6 patients had developed local recurrence (4.1%), 9 had developed regional failure (6.2%), and 25 had distant failure (17.2%). On multivariate analysis, no patient- or tumor-specific factors or surgical or dosimetric factors were predictive of local recurrence. The overall median survival was 30.5 months with a 3- and 5-year overall survival rate of 65% and 35%, respectively. Conclusion: {sup 125}I brachytherapy for high-risk, Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer after sublobar resection is well tolerated and associated with a low local failure rate.

  13. Figure 6: An MTAH for 11 lung tumor contours generated by MDISC based on area, circularity, and extrusiveness.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Figure 6: An MTAH for 11 lung tumor contours generated by M­DISC based on area, circularity, and extrusiveness. Figure 7: The CT scanned lung image for image 6 (in Figure 3) with the lung tumor contour

  14. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Le, Lisa W.; Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Bezjak, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  15. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%±72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%±2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.2±8.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  16. The potential of positron emission tomography for intratreatment dynamic lung tumor tracking: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jaewon [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Yamamoto, Tokihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Mazin, Samuel R. [RefleXion Medical, Inc., Burlingame, California 94010 (United States)] [RefleXion Medical, Inc., Burlingame, California 94010 (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the potential and feasibility of positron emission tomography for dynamic lung tumor tracking during radiation treatment. The authors propose a center of mass (CoM) tumor tracking algorithm using gated-PET images combined with a respiratory monitor and investigate the geometric accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Methods: The proposed PET dynamic lung tumor tracking algorithm estimated the target position information through the CoM of the segmented target volume on gated PET images reconstructed from accumulated coincidence events. The information was continuously updated throughout a scan based on the assumption that real-time processing was supported (actual processing time at each frame ?10?s). External respiratory motion and list-mode PET data were acquired from a phantom programmed to move with measured respiratory traces (external respiratory motion and internal target motion) from human subjects, for which the ground truth target position was known as a function of time. The phantom was cylindrical with six hollow sphere targets (10, 13, 17, 22, 28, and 37 mm in diameter). The measured respiratory traces consisted of two sets: (1) 1D-measured motion from ten healthy volunteers and (2) 3D-measured motion from four lung cancer patients. The authors evaluated the geometric accuracy of the proposed algorithm by quantifying estimation errors (Euclidean distance) between the actual motion of targets (1D-motion and 3D-motion traces) and CoM trajectories estimated by the proposed algorithm as a function of time. Results: The time-averaged error of 1D-motion traces over all trajectories of all targets was 1.6 mm. The error trajectories decreased with time as coincidence events were accumulated. The overall error trajectory of 1D-motion traces converged to within 2 mm in approximately 90 s. As expected, more accurate results were obtained for larger targets. For example, for the 37 mm target, the average error over all 1D-motion traces was 1.1 mm; and for the 10 mm target, the average error over all 1D-motion traces was 2.8 mm. The overall time-averaged error of 3D-motion traces was 1.6 mm, which was comparable to that of the 1D-motion traces. There were small variations in the errors between the 3D-motion traces, although the motion trajectories were very different. The accuracy of the estimates was consistent for all targets except for the smallest. Conclusions: The authors developed an algorithm for dynamic lung tumor tracking using list-mode PET data and a respiratory motion signal, and demonstrated proof-of-principle for PET-guided lung tumor tracking. The overall tracking error in phantom studies is less than 2 mm.

  17. UNM PCI Incident Response Plan V1.2 Last Updated: 6/14/13 Credit Card (PCI) Security Incident Response Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    UNM PCI Incident Response Plan V1.2 Last Updated: 6/14/13 Credit Card (PCI) Security IncidentCard, American Express, Discover & JCB) jointly established the PCI Security Standards Council to administer the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (PCI DSS) that provide specific guidelines for safeguarding

  18. Traffic Incident Analysis on Urban Arterials Using Extended Spectral Envelope Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-zhen; Gao, Zi-you; Sun, Ya-fu; Guo, Sheng-min

    2015-01-01

    A traffic incident analysis method based on extended spectral envelope (ESE) method is presented to detect the key incident time. Sensitivity analysis of parameters (the length of time window, the length of sliding window and the study period) are discussed on four real traffic incidents in Beijing. The results show that: (1) Moderate length of time window got the best accurate in detection. (2) The shorter the sliding window is, the more accurate the key incident time are detected. (3) If the study period is too short, the end time of an incident cannot be detected. Empirical studies show that the proposed method can effectively discover the key incident time, which can provide a theoretic basis for traffic incident management.

  19. FIGHTING CANCER Cancer Research at the University of Notre Dame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Steven

    FIGHTING CANCER Cancer Research at the University of Notre Dame College of Science 168 Hurley Hall Fighting Cancer 5 Ani Aprahamian Isotopes for cancer therapy and immuno-diagnosis 7 Brian Baker Development of improved immunological therapies for cancer based on cellular immunity 9 Suzanne Bohlson Inflammation

  20. CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME (HBOC) ­ BRCA1 PATIENT INFORMATION What is Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome? Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC) is the most common hereditary form of breast and ovarian cancer. About 2% of women