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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols to AssessFuel and Lube Effects...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols to AssessFuel and Lube Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment (Agreement 13415) Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols to AssessFuel and Lube Effects on...

2

Hydrocal II process for superior naphthenic lube oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HydroCall II Process is an advanced technology process to produce superior napthenic base lube oil stocks and specialty products. All products will be unlabeled and cover the full viscosity range of 30 to 4000 SUS at 100/sup 0/F. The process features high pressure, multiple stages, a multiple catalyst system and plurality of reactors and catalyst beds to achieve selective conversion of specific aromatic types contained in typical naphthenic lube oil feedstocks. Calumet's new HydroCall II oils will be available to the industry the latter part of 1987.

Rausch, M.K.; Love, G.A.; Tollefsen, G.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

A view of short term biological testing of petroleum lube oil base stocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biological activity of petroleum products has been the subject of continuing scientific studies for several decades. Even prior to 1960, documentation existed which related petroleum products to skin cancer in workers and experimental animals. The Hazard Communication Standard, published in 1983, brought about a general awareness of the situation which had previously been considered an esoteric subject by many. Lube oil refiners who were now required by the Department of Labor to evaluate the potential hazards of their product could look to the IARC Monographs for some direction. Unfortunately, this document is a scientific compendium not worded suitably to become the basis for law, nor was it intended for that purpose. Questions concerning definitions were raised. The author discusses examples of two widely different naphthenic raw distillates. For the evaluation of new candidate distillates this paper presents the key variables which need to be studied.

Lepinske, G.J. (Calumet Industries, Inc., Chicago, IL (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20?25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

Peterson, E.S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W.A.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

5

Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via Lube-Oil-Consumption Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via Lube the effectiveness of reducing engine lube-oil consumption as a means to reduce particulate pollutants. In this study-lube-oil-consumption designs, for example, could be an option with existing engines. AIR POLLUTION FROM SHIPS The motivation

Brown, Alan

6

Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lube Oil Performance and Engine Friction.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The feasibility of using a motored small, single-cylinder 517 cc Hatz 1D50 diesel engine to evaluate lube oil performance and engine friction at conditions typical… (more)

Rohr, William Fredrick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of residual lube stock from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lube stocks from West Siberian crudes are characterized by high contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and by high viscosity indexes of the naphthenic/paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that isoparaffins account for one-third of the total naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons. The study showed that the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of the residual lube stock from West Siberia crudes, even with a variation of molecular weight over broad limits, are relatively uniform in composition. They consist mainly of isoparaffinic and monocyclic and noncondensed naphthenic structures.

Detusheva, E.P.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Khramtsova, L.P.; Nekrasova, A.V.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Composition and structure of resins in lube distillates from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the lower contents of lube components in the crudes being processed today, along with a steady increase of demand for high-quality oils and solid hydrocarbons, as well as the trend toward processing crudes with unregulated composition, it has become necessary to develop new technology for the manufacture of lube stocks, along with the use of additives for various purposes. The effectiveness of additives is determined by their properties and also by the chemical composition of the raw material in each stage of oil production. Resins are important components of raw lube stocks. These resins are complex in composition, and vary in the nature and number of heteroatoms in the molecule and in the structure of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule. The hydrocarbon radicals may include aromatic and naphthenic rings, as well as chains with various configurations. Depending on the structural features of the resin molecules, they may vary in their effects on processes of selective solvent treating, dewaxing, and deoiling with the use of additives. The authors have investigated the resins present in the intermediate and final products of lube oil production.

Kazakova, L.P.; Gundyrev, A.A.; Litvin, N.I.; Shubina, E.S.; Mukhin, M.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of each position within the Combustion Byproducts Recyclcing Consortium.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Characteristics of Baku and eastern crudes as raw materials for lube oil production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents data to show that the lube cuts from the Baku medium-wax crudes, in contrast to the eastern medium-wax crudes, will not give oils with viscosity indexes above 90 even when severly treated. The medium-wax Baku crudes have higher contents of naphthenic-paraffinic hydrocarbons, and their aromatic hydrocarbons are present in smaller amounts and have poorer viscosity-temperature properties. The Baku refineries have become the principal suppliers of lube oils in the USSR because of their use of low-wax crudes and relatively simple manufacturing processes. In recent years, the resources of low-wax crudes have declined while the medium-wax crudes have increased. The Baku medium-wax crudes are distinguished by higher contents of oils, including residual oils. It is concluded that the Baku medium-wax crudes should be processed to produce oils that are in short supply, such as transformer oils, turbine oils, compressor oils, high-viscosity oils of the P-28 type, and special-purpose oils (e.g., white oils, naphthenic oils) for which a high viscosity index is not a requirement. The medium-wax crudes from the eastern districts should be used to produce oils with viscosity indexes above 90. Includes 5 tables.

Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-first Century, Hyderabad, India, February 1999. Department of Civil EngineeringandMechanics College) of foundry by-products, including foundry sand and slag. Most of these by-products are landfilled, primarily due to non-availability of economically attractive use options. Landfilling is not a desirable option

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

12

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion by-products #12;3 generated by using both conventional and clean-coal technologies. A clean-coal that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocksCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

13

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH combustion by-products (such as clean-coal ash) from power plants. Maximum recycling of such by- products

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

14

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

15

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%) were used in producing the concrete mixtures. The water to cementitious materials ratio was kept with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

16

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization DRAFT REPORT CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS-MILWAUKEE #12;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS Progress Report by Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

17

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Refined blowups.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Categorical resolution of singularities has been constructed in arXiv:1212.6170. It proceeds by alternating two steps of seemingly different nature. We show how to use the formalism of filtered derived categories to combine the two steps into one. This results in a certain rather natural categorical refinement of the usual blowup of an algebraic variety in a closed subscheme.

D. Kaledin; A. Kuznetsov

20

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a combination with a number of fuels including coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, etc. In the mid 1990s, the unit was firing a combination of coal and petroleum coke to generate energy. It has been established;1 PROJECT 1 - COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OPTIONS Introduction An AFBC system

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

22

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presentationand Publicationat the CBIP International Conference onFly Ash Disposal & Utilization,New Delhi, India, January 1998 foundry sand and slag. Most of these by-products are landfilled, primarily due to non-availability of economically attractive use options. Landfilling is not a desirable option because it not only causes huge

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

23

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include workability, water requirement, bleeding, segregation, air content, time of set, and temperature with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

24

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-strength materials (CLSM); and, future research needs. The fresh concrete properties discussed are workability, water with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

25

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

26

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project 02-1/3.1D-2 Department of Civil Engineering of technology and market development for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) slurry using Illinois coal ashCenter for By-Products Utilization IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOWABLE SLURRY TECHNOLOGY IN ILLINOIS

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

27

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and paper mills in concrete. INTRODUCTION Concrete is a porous solid that is created by combining four basicCenter for By-Products Utilization CURING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun For presentation and publication at the symposium entitled "High-Performance Concrete and Concrete for Marine

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

28

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori- Lynn C. Pennock, and Bruce Ramme Report No. CBU-2001 with numerous projects on the use of by-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash;2 INTRODUCTION Wood FA is generated due to combustion of wood for energy production at pulp and paper mills, saw

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

29

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL #12;-1- CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLYASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL ASHFOR CEMENT -Milwaukee (UWM) Daniel D.Banerjee, Project Manager,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

30

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

31

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT By Tarun, R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Fethullah Canpolat This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the sequestration

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

32

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

33

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

34

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from advanced clean coal technology clean coal technology combustors. Over 60% of the CCBs are generated as fly ash. An estimate

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

35

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-moon Chun, Fethullah Canpolat #12;USE OF FLY ASH AND LIMESTONE QUARRY BY-PRODUCTS FOR DEVELOPING ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE material in the development of economical self-compacting concrete (SCC). Class C fly ash was also used

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

36

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Yoon-moon Chun Report No. CBU-2004 of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting Concrete Principle Investigator Name. For this proposed project, self-compacting concrete mixtures will be developed for prototype production that utilize

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

37

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) OR SELF- LEVELING CONCRETE (SLC - MILWAUKEE #12;2 SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) OR SELF ­LEVELING CONCRETE (SLC) INTRODUCTION Self-compacting as the concrete which can be placed and compacted into every corner of a form work, purely by means of its self

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

38

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-moon Chun, Fethullah Canpolat ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE by Tarun R. Naik* , Rudolph N. Kraus** , Yoon-moon Chun*** , Fethullah of limestone-quarry by-product material in the development of economical self-compacting concrete (SCC). Class

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

39

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Rakesh Kumar Report No. CBU-2003-15 REP-509 April 2003 CONCRETE April 2003 REP-509 #12;ii Use of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting in the production of economical self-compacting concrete. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this project

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

40

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, compressive strength, concrete testing, fly ash, high-performance concrete, hot weather, permeability, silica Testing of Concrete", Committee 214, "Evaluation of Results of Strength Tests of Concrete", and CommitteeCenter for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF HIGH- PERFORMANCE CONCRETE SUBJECTED

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Rietveld Refinement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September Department ofRiehle. DorothyRefinement

42

Refined Hopf Link Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We establish a relation between the refined Hopf link invariant and the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory. We show that the refined open string partition function corresponding to the Hopf link, calculated using the refined topological vertex, when expressed in the basis of Macdonald polynomials gives the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory.

Amer Iqbal; Can Kozçaz

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

43

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum...

45

ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in...

46

Refined Chern-Simons Theory and Topological String  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that refined Chern-Simons theory and large N duality can be used to study the refined topological string with and without branes. We derive the refined topological vertex of hep-th/0701156 and hep-th/0502061 from a link invariant of the refined SU(N) Chern-Simons theory on S^3, at infinite N. Quiver-like Chern-Simons theories, arising from Calabi-Yau manifolds with branes wrapped on several minimal S^3's, give a dual description of a large class of toric Calabi-Yau. We use this to derive the refined topological string amplitudes on a toric Calabi-Yau containing a shrinking P^2 surface. The result is suggestive of the refined topological vertex formalism for arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau manifolds in terms of a pair of vertices and a choice of a Morse flow on the toric graph, determining the vertex decomposition. The dependence on the flow is reminiscent of the approach to the refined topological string in upcoming work of Nekrasov and Okounkov. As a byproduct, we show that large N duality of the refined topological string explains the ``mirror symmetry`` of the refined colored HOMFLY invariants of knots.

Mina Aganagic; Shamil Shakirov

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

Spectral-element adaptive refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral-element adaptive refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the island coalescence;Abstract A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD statically refined and dynamically refined grids. The island coalescence instability is a fundamental MHD

Ng, Chung-Sang

48

The Refined Topological Vertex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We define a refined topological vertex which depends in addition on a parameter, which physically corresponds to extending the self-dual graviphoton field strength to a more general configuration. Using this refined topological vertex we compute, using geometric engineering, a two-parameter (equivariant) instanton expansion of gauge theories which reproduce the results of Nekrasov. The refined vertex is also expected to be related to Khovanov knot invariants.

Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz; Cumrun Vafa

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented...

Wood, H. A. T.

51

Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Attendees will become familiar with the three components of project refinement: project financing strategies, off-taker agreements, and vendor selection. Project refinement obstacles, particularly...

52

Naphthenic lube oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for increasing the volume of lubricating oil base stocks recovered from a crude oil. A fraction having an atmospheric boiling range of about 675/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ F. is recovered by vacuum distillation. This fraction is treated with furfural to extract a hydrocarbon mixture containing at least 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons. The raffinate is a lubricating oil base stock very high in paraffinic hydrocarbons and low in naphthenic hydrocarbons. The fraction extracted by the furfural contains at least about 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons and less than about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons. The mixture is hydrotreated to hydrogenate a substantial portion of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrotreated product then is catalytically dewaxed. After removal of low boiling components, the finished lubricating oil base stock has a viscosity of at least about 200 SUS at 100/sup 0/ F., a pour point of less than 20/sup 0/ F. and contains at least 50 volume % of naphthenic hydrocarbons, a maximum of about 40 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons, and a maximum of about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons.

Hettinger Jr., W. P.; Beck, H. W.; Rozman, G. J.; Turrill, F. H.

1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Refiners get petchems help  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Refining threshold resummations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe some recent refinements of the techniques of threshold resummation, with emphasis on the usefulness of dimensional regularization when applied to nonabelian exponentiation. Threshold resummation is now under theoretical control for DIS and electroweak annihilation cross sections all the way to the fourth tower of logarithms and up to corrections suppressed by powers of the threshold variable.

Eric Laenen; Lorenzo Magnea

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

55

Issues in adaptive mesh refinement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A Theory of Program Refinement   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a canonical program refinement calculus based on the lambda calculus and classical first-order predicate logic, and study its proof theory and semantics. The intention is to construct a metalanguage for refinement in which basic principles...

Denney, Ewen WKC

57

Worldwide refining and gas processing directory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of the Environment is responsible for regulating fugitive air emissions from the transportation of coal combustion by-products and the permissible beneficial uses of these by...

59

Refining the Elliptic Genus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how special forms of an $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg potential directly imply the presence of an $N=2$ super-$W$ algebra. If the Landau-Ginzburg model has a super-$W$ algebra, we show how the elliptic genus can be refined so as to give much more complete information about the structure of the model. We study the super-$W_3$ model in some detail, and present some results and conjectures about more general models.

D. Nemeschansky; N. P. Warner

1994-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik. Maximize environmental benefits: resource conservation, clean water, and clean air. #12;Center for By-Products, Italy, June 30, 2010. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization UWM Center for By-Products Utilization

Saldin, Dilano

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Refines Efficiency Improvement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

WRI

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Refining thick subcategory theorems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a $K$-theory recipe of Thomason to obtain classifications of triangulated subcategories via refining some standard thick subcategory theorems. We apply this recipe to the full subcategories of finite objects in the derived categories of rings and the stable homotopy category of spectra. This gives, in the derived categories, a complete classification of the triangulated subcategories of perfect complexes over some commutative rings. In the stable homotoy category of spectra we obtain only a partial classification of the triangulated subcategories of the finite $p$-local spectra. We use this partial classification to study the lattice of triangulated subcategories. This study gives some new evidence to a conjecture of Adams that the thick subcategory $\\C_2$ can be generated by iterated cofiberings of the Smith-Toda complex. We also discuss several consequences of these classification theorems.

Sunil K. Chebolu.

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoiding by-product formation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

78 By-Products Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization ECONOMICAL SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE FOR THE WISCONSIN... production using by-product materials to...

64

Modern refining and petrochemical equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum refining and petroleum chemistry are characterized by a whole set of manufacturing processes and methods, whose application depends on the initial raw material and the final products. Therefore, refining and petrochemical equipment has many different operational principles, design solutions, and materials. The activities of the Russian Petroleum Industry are discussed.

Pugach, V.V.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Center for By-Products Utilization Environment, Energy, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

benefits: resource conservation, clean water, and clean air. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Basic;Center for By-Products Utilization RESOURCE CONSERVATION CLEAN WATER and CLEAN AIR "The earth, the seaCenter for By-Products Utilization Environment, Energy, and Economic Benefits of Using Recyclable

Saldin, Dilano

67

Refinement of Inequalities among Means  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we shall consider some famous means such as arithmetic, harmonic, geometric, root-square means, etc. Some new means recently studied are also presented. Different kinds of refinement of inequalities among these means are given.

Inder Jeet Taneja

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

68

Generic refinements for behavioral specifications   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis investigates the properties of generic refinements of behavioral specifications. At the base of this investigation stands the view from algebraic specification that abstract data types can be modeled as ...

Petria, Marius

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawai`i Clean Energy Policies: Scenario Selection agency thereof. #12;Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawaii Clean Energy Policies Selection

70

NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline...

71

Refining the shifted topological vertex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H. [Faculte des Sciences, Laboratory/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco); Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (GNPHE), Siege focal:FS, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

73

Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive.

Tanasescu, D.G. (General Consulting and Procurement, Poolgec Ltd., Bucharest (RO))

1991-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

75

Assembling, analyzing, refining, and cataloging molecular interaction network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSEMBLING, ANALYZING, REFINING, AND CATALOGING MOLECULARASSEMBLING, ANALYZING, REFINING, AND CATALOGING MOLECULAR

Mak, Huajiang Craig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Executive functions in schizophrenia : defining and refining the constructs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schizophrenia: Defining and Refining the Constructs By Gauriin Schizophrenia: Defining and Refining the Constructs A

Savla, Gauri Nayak

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

TreeRefiner: A Tool for Refining a Multiple Alignment on a Phylogenetic Tree  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TreeRefiner: A Tool for Refining a Multiple Alignment on a Phylogenetic Tree Aswath Manohar@cs.stanford.edu, serafim@cs.stanford.edu Abstract We present TreeRefiner, a tool for refining multiple alignments of biological sequences. Given a multiple alignment, a phylogenetic tree, and scoring parameters as input, TreeRefiner

Batzoglou, Serafim

78

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Refining the Shifted Topological Vertex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function $\\mathcal{C}_{3}(q) $ used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex $\\mathcal{S}_{\\lambda \\mu \

Lalla Btissam Drissi; Houda Jehjouh; El Hassan Saidi

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Center for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

landfilling them but also leads to the reduction of the the environmental pollution. #12;Center for ByCenter for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with Industrial and Post-Consumer By Construction Materials and Technologies, Ancona, Italy, June 2010 #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Why

Saldin, Dilano

82

Green Petroleum Refining - Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission Constraints.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Petroleum refining processes provide the daily requirements of energy for the global market. Each refining process produces wastes that have the capacity to harm the… (more)

Ali Yusuf, Yusuf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A design flow based on modular refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a practical methodology based on modular refinement to design complex systems. The methodology relies on modules with latency-insensitive interfaces so that the refinements can change the timing contract of a ...

Dave, Nirav H.

85

Sharp Retrenchment, Modulated Refinement and Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

retrenchment is introduced and briefly justified informally, as a liberalisation of refinement. In sharp as a liberalisation of the notion of refinement, whose purpose was to enable more of the informal aspects of de

Banach, Richard

86

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Refinement in cases of Twinning Lothar Esser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement in cases of Twinning Lothar Esser National Cancer Institute Despite working in crystallography for a number of years, it was only recently that I was asked to refine a structure against twinned was twinned using a model of > 99% sequence identity. As the refinement did not progress as it should

88

Arnold Schwarzenegger REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER- RELATED ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA Energy Technologies · Transportation Refining Estimates of WaterRelated Energy Use in California is the final report for the Refining Estimates of EnergyRelated Energy Use in California project (contract

89

Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement Gaurav Chopraa , Christopher M. Summab structure), also known as the protein structure refinement problem. It has been shown that improve- ment in protein structure refinement. Molecular dynamics in explicit sol- vent and energy minimization in both

Summa, Christopher M.

90

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturing and Petroleum Refining Industries. Office of1994. Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economics, 3 rdProfile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry, Office of

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of...

92

ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry...

93

Refined matrix models from BPS counting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a free fermion and matrix model representation of refined BPS generating functions of D2 and D0 branes bound to a single D6 brane, in a class of toric manifolds without compact four-cycles. In appropriate limit we obtain a matrix model representation of refined topological string amplitudes. We consider a few explicit examples which include a matrix model for the refined resolved conifold, or equivalently five-dimensional U(1) gauge theory, as well as a matrix representation of the refined MacMahon function. Matrix models which we construct have ordinary unitary measure, while their potentials are modified to incorporate the effect of the refinement.

Piotr Su?kowski

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

94

Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years crude oils available to refiners have required more energy to refine and refiners have adjusted their processes to obtain better energy efficiency. In addition, the shift to lead-free gasoline has led to refining adjustments...

White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Relaxations for Production Planning Problems with Increasing By-products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relaxations for Production Planning Problems with Increasing By-products Srikrishna Sridhar, Jeff, James Leudtke SILO Seminars: Feb 1, 2012 #12;One slide summary Problem Description Production process involves desirable & undesirable products. Srikrishna Sridhar, Jeff Linderoth, James Leudtke SILO Seminars

Sheridan, Jennifer

96

animal byproducts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

97

advanced byproduct recovery: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

98

Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X3.AJ.N SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS FEED FOR LIVESTOCK -. Grain sorghum is the leading feed grain produced in Texas and in the Southwest. Its importance as a feed fc farm animals is generally recognized. Recent developments... in Texas have made available 1 livestock producers and the feed industry a considerab tonnage of sorghum gluten meal and sorghum gluten fee as by-products in sorghum grain processing. The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station conduct( a series...

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Representations of finite groups The Alperin-McKay refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Representations of finite groups The Alperin-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The Mc-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The basics Some history The McKay conjecture (for now) Let G groups The Alperin-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The basics Some history The Mc

Cossey, James P.

100

Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

More refined enumerations of alternating sign matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a further refinement of the standard refined enumeration of alternating sign matrices (ASMs) according to their first two rows instead of just the first row, and more general "d-refined" enumerations of ASMs according to the first d rows. For the doubly-refined case of d=2, we derive a system of linear equations satisfied by the doubly-refined enumeration numbers A_{n,i,j} that enumerate such matrices. We give a conjectural explicit formula for A_{n,i,j} and formulate several other conjectures about the sufficiency of the linear equations to determine the A_{n,i,j}'s and about an extension of the linear equations to the general d-refined enumerations.

Ilse Fischer; Dan Romik

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Refined Black Hole Ensembles and Topological Strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate a refined version of the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa (OSV) conjecture. The OSV conjecture that Z_{BH} = |Z_{top}|^2 relates the BPS black hole partition function to the topological string partition function Z_{top}. In the refined conjecture, Z_{BH} is the partition function of BPS black holes counted with spin, or more precisely the protected spin character. Z_{top} becomes the partition function of the refined topological string, which is itself an index. Both the original and the refined conjecture are examples of large N duality in the 't Hooft sense. The refined conjecture applies to non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds only, so the black holes are really BPS particles with large entropy, of order N^2. The refined OSV conjecture states that the refined BPS partition function has a large N dual which is captured by the refined topological string. We provide evidence that the conjecture holds by studying local Calabi-Yau threefolds consisting of line bundles over a genus g Riemann surface. We show that the refined topological string partition function on these geometries is computed by a two-dimensional TQFT. We also study the refined black hole partition function arising from N D4 branes on the Calabi-Yau, and argue that it reduces to a (q,t)-deformed version of two-dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills. Finally, we show that in the large N limit this theory factorizes to the square of the refined topological string in accordance with the refined OSV conjecture.

Mina Aganagic; Kevin Schaeffer

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REAPING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas... years’ energy conservation and demand-side management program participation. The PG&E’s refinery energy efficiency program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from energy-intensive refining processes...

Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

105

Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this collaborative effort between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute, and industry collaborators supplying gasifier char samples were to investigate the potential use of gasifier slag carbons as a source of low cost sorbent for Hg and NOX capture from combustion flue gas, concrete applications, polymer fillers and as a source of activated carbons. Primary objectives were to determine the relationship of surface area, pore size, pore size distribution, and mineral content on Hg storage of gasifier carbons and to define the site of Hg capture. The ability of gasifier slag carbon to capture NOX and the effect of NOX on Hg adsorption were goals. Secondary goals were the determination of the potential for use of the slags for cement and filler applications. Since gasifier chars have already gone through a devolatilization process in a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier, they only required to be activated to be used as activated carbons. Therefore, the principal objective of the work at PSU was to characterize and utilize gasification slag carbons for the production of activated carbons and other carbon fillers. Tests for the Hg and NOX adsorption potential of these activated gasifier carbons were performed at the CAER. During the course of this project, gasifier slag samples chemically and physically characterized at UK were supplied to PSU who also characterized the samples for sorption characteristics and independently tested for Hg-capture. At the CAER as-received slags were tested for Hg and NOX adsorption. The most promising of these were activated chemically. The PSU group applied thermal and steam activation to a representative group of the gasifier slag samples separated by particle sizes. The activated samples were tested at UK for Hg-sorption and NOX capture and the most promising Hg adsorbers were tested for Hg capture in a simulated flue gas. Both UK and PSU tested the use of the gasifier slag samples as fillers. The CAER analyzed the slags for possible use in cement applications

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Land application uses for dry FGD by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Resource recovery - a byproduct of hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three principal areas of a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste disposal system for a typical vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) facility are described: the incinerator, the energy-recovery system, and the byproduct-recovery system. The overall efficiency of the energy- and *byproduct-recovery systems is dependent on the optimization of the primary combustor. An example is presented in table form which lists typical waste quantities for the plant and operating costs, including utility requirements for the incinerator system, the quench, absorber and scrubber. Savings that can result by the addition of the energy- and acid-recovery systems can pay for the waste disposal system and return money to the plant.

Santoleri, J.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

109

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Refining and Extending the Business Model with Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFINING ANDEXTENDING THE REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS MODELfinal version 5-99.doc REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS

Kraemer, Kenneth L; Dedrick, Jason; Yamashiro, Sandra

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Center for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TESTING · Fresh Concrete Properties ·Unit Weight (ASTM C 138) ·Air Content (ASTM C 237) ·Slump (ASTM C 143Center for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using High-Carbon Fly Ash and Pulp Mill-Products Utilization Durable Concrete in Northern Climates · Producing durable concrete in a freezing and thawing

Saldin, Dilano

114

Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flue gas desulfurization by-product from the TU Electric Martin Lake power plant near Tatum, Texas was characterized using thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, microprobe and infrared spectroscopy. The byproduct, called gypsite, consisted of a...

Bhatt, Sandeep

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Relativistic MHD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement. We discuss strong scaling tests of the code, and present evolutions of Michel accretion and a TOV star.

David Neilsen; Eric W. Hirschmann; Matthew Anderson; Steven L. Liebling

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

Smith, Graeme

117

Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as...

118

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995...

119

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997...

120

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study. Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study....

122

The 1987 refining and petrochemical technology yearbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual covers the latest in refining and petrochemical technology written by the experts in the field. Opening with a foreword by Richard Corbett, Refining and Petrochemical Editior of the Oil and Gas Journal. The annual includes nearly 100 articles from the 1986 issues of the Oil and Gas Journal, comprising a collection of new technical information, methods of analysis, forecasts and trends in such subject areas as plants, fuels, gasolines, coking, processing, contents, hydrocracking, equipment, catalysts, and petrochemicals.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Green Petroleum Refining -Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green Petroleum Refining - Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. #12;iii Abstract Petroleum and treating options for petroleum refinery waste streams. The performance of the developed model

Anderson, Charles H.

124

Refined Topological Strings and Toric Calabi-Yau Threefolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The refined topological vertex formulation computes the refined topological string partition function for non-compact toric Calabi-Yau threefolds which engineer N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. For geometries such as the local P^2, which do not give rise to gauge theories, the refined topological vertex alone is not sufficient for directly calculating the refined amplitudes. In this paper, we extend the refined topological vertex formalism and propose a complementary new vertex which, together with the refined topological vertex, determines the refined amplitudes for all toric Calabi-Yau threefolds.

Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

125

Refined Topological Vertex and Instanton Counting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been proposed recently that topological A-model string amplitudes for toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds in non self-dual graviphoton background can be caluculated by a diagrammatic method that is called the ``refined topological vertex''. We compute the extended A-model amplitudes for SU(N)-geometries using the proposed vertex. If the refined topological vertex is valid, these computations should give rise to the Nekrasov's partition functions of N=2 SU(N) gauge theories via the geometric engineering. In this article, we verify the proposal by confirming the equivalence between the refined A-model amplitude and the K-theoretic version of the Nekrasov's partition function by explicit computation.

Masato Taki

2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

Lattice Refining LQC and the Matter Hamiltonian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the context of loop quantum cosmology, we parametrise the lattice refinement by a parameter, $A$, and the matter Hamiltonian by a parameter, $\\delta$. We then solve the Hamiltonian constraint for both a self-adjoint, and a non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator. Demanding that the solutions for the wave-functions obey certain physical restrictions, we impose constraints on the two-dimensional, $(A,\\delta)$, parameter space, thereby restricting the types of matter content that can be supported by a particular lattice refinement model.

William Nelson; Mairi Sakellariadou

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

An independent refiners approach to RFG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was presented by Mike Czeskleba,Senior Business Analyst for Ashland Petroleum Company in Ashland, Kentucky. Ashland is one of the largest independent refiners and a leading marketer of gasoline and other petroleum products in the U.S. The issues addressed in this report concern the use of ethanol as a gasoline extender and renewable oxygenate, and its use in Reformulated Gasolines (RFG). The impact of Clean Air Act requirements for 1995 and beyond on petroleum refiners and producers is discussed. Some of the strategies which Ashland Petroleum Company is using to meet regulation requirements is also presented.

Czeskleba, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Relativistic MHD with Adaptive Mesh Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a new computer code to solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference Convex ENO method (CENO) in 3+1 dimensions, and the AMR is Berger-Oliger. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning is used to control the $\

Matthew Anderson; Eric Hirschmann; Steven L. Liebling; David Neilsen

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

Not Available

1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

Refiners boost crude capacity; Petrochemical production up  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing demand strength in refined products and petrochemical markets caused refiners to boost crude-charging capacity slightly again last year, and petrochemical producers to increase production worldwide. Product demand strength is, in large part, due to stable product prices resulting from a stabilization of crude oil prices. Crude prices strengthened somewhat in 1987. That, coupled with fierce product competition, unfortunately drove refining margins negative in many regions of the U.S. during the last half of 1987. But with continued strong demand for gasoline, and an increased demand for higher octane gasoline, margins could turn positive by 1989 and remain so for a few years. U.S. refiners also had to have facilities in place to meet the final requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead phase-down rules on Jan. 1, 1988. In petrochemicals, plastics demand dept basic petrochemical plants at good utilization levels worldwide. U.S. production of basics such as ethylene and propylene showed solid increases. Many of the derivatives of the basic petrochemical products also showed good production gains. Increased petrochemical production and high plant utilization rates didn't spur plant construction projects, however. Worldwide petrochemical plant projects declined slightly from 1986 figures.

Corbett, R.A.

1988-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

131

Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

Walsh, Toby

132

Refining industry trends: Europe and surroundings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European refining industry, along with its counterparts, is struggling with low profitability due to excess primary and conversion capacity, high operating costs and impending decisions of stringent environmental regulations that will require significant investments with hard to justify returns. This region was also faced in the early 1980s with excess capacity on the order of 4 MMb/d and satisfying the {open_quotes}at that point{close_quotes} demand by operating at very low utilization rates (60%). As was the case in the US, the rebalancing of the capacity led to the closure of some 51 refineries. Since the early 1990s, the increase in demand growth has essentially balanced the capacity threshold and utilization rates are settled around the 90% range. During the last two decades, the major oil companies have reduced their presence in the European refining sector, giving some state oil companies and producing countries the opportunity to gain access to the consumer market through the purchase of refining capacity in various countries-specifically, Kuwait in Italy; Libya and Venezuela in Germany; and Norway in other areas of Scandinavia. Although the market share for this new cast of characters remains small (4%) relative to participation by the majors (35%), their involvement in the European refining business set the foundation whereby US independent refiners relinquished control over assets that could not be operated profitably as part of a previous vertically integrated structure, unless access to the crude was ensured. The passage of time still seems to render this model valid.

Guariguata, U.G.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

phenix.refine: crystallographic structure refinement in PHENIX Pavel V. Afonine, Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve, Peter H. Zwart, Thomas C. Terwilliger, Nigel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phenix.refine: crystallographic structure refinement in PHENIX Pavel V. Afonine, Ralf W. Grosse of automation and robustness in structure refinement. Their implementation in phenix.refine ­ state-of-the-art refinement module of PHENIX package ­ resulted in a complete set of tools that cover most of refinement needs

134

Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hardware/Software Co-Design via Specification Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Rosetta refinement capability extends this by allowing a system's functional behavior and its implementation details to be described separately. The Rosetta Refinement Tool combines the functional behavior and the implementation details to form a system...

Peck, Wesley Graham

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

5.067 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

Mueller, Peter

137

5.841 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

Mueller, Peter

138

Refined Cigar and Omega-deformed Conifold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Antoniadis et al proposed a relation between the Omega-deformation and refined correlation functions of the topological string theory. We investigate the proposal for the deformed conifold geometry from a non-compact Gepner model approach. The topological string theory on the deformed conifold has a dual description in terms of the c=1 non-critical string theory at the self-dual radius, and the Omega-deformation yields the radius deformation. We show that the refined correlation functions computed from the twisted SL(2,R)/U(1) Kazama-Suzuki coset model at level k=1 have direct c=1 non-critical string theory interpretations. After subtracting the leading singularity to procure the 1PI effective action, we obtain the agreement with the proposal.

Yu Nakayama

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

In quantum gravity, summing is refining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In perturbative QED, the approximation is improved by summing more Feynman graphs; in non-perturbative QCD, by refining the lattice. Here we observe that in quantum gravity the two procedures may well be the same. We outline the combinatorial structure of spinfoam quantum gravity, define the continuum limit, and show that under general conditions refining foams is the same as summing over them. The conditions bear on the cylindrical consistency of the spinfoam amplitudes and on the presence of appropriate combinatorial factors, related to the implementation of diffeomorphisms invariance. Intuitively, the sites of the lattice are points of space: these are themselves quanta of the gravitational field, and thus a lattice discretization is also a Feynman history of quanta.

Carlo Rovelli; Matteo Smerlak

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

140

Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

Chuang, Wu-yen; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

Treat, J.E. [Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

Yarbro, Stephen Lee

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

143

Improve corrosion control in refining processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New guidelines show how to control corrosion and environmental cracking of process equipment when processing feedstocks containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acids. To be cost competitive refiners must be able to process crudes of opportunity. These feedstocks when processed under high temperatures and pressures and alkaline conditions can cause brittle cracks and blisters in susceptible steel-fabricated equipment. Even with advances in steel metallurgy, wet H{sub 2}S cracking continues to be a problem. New research data shows that process conditions such as temperature, pH and flowrate are key factors in the corrosion process. Before selecting equipment material, operators must understand the corrosion mechanisms present within process conditions. Several case histories investigate the corrosion reactions found when refining naphthenic crudes and operating amine gas-sweetening systems. These examples show how to use process controls, inhibitors and/or metallurgy to control corrosion and environmental cracking, to improve material selection and to extend equipment service life.

Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S. [CLI International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

fCourse: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fCourse: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement Purpose To further learn how to coordinate and refine strokes Prerequisites Valid American Red Cross Learn-to-Swim Level 4: Fundamental Aquatic Skills, but not required) Course: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement #12;

Hemmers, Oliver

145

Parametric Rietveld Refinement Prof. John S.O. Evans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parametric Rietveld Refinement Prof. John S.O. Evans APD IV Gaithersburg, 2013 Durham Chemistry Outline · What is parametric Rietveld refinement? · Should you do it? · How do you do it? · What can you., 40, 2007, 87 X+N refinements Jean Francois Berar, XND #12;john.evans@durham.ac.uk www

Magee, Joseph W.

146

Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Redistribution on Distributed Memory Computers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Redistribution on Distributed Memory Computers C. ¨ Ozturan Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12181 Abstract A procedure to support parallel refinement and redistribution the required adjacency information. Mesh refinement is done by employing links back to the geometric

Bystroff, Chris

147

RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions Li Li,1 Rong Chen,1 and Zhiping Weng1 RDOCK for refining unbound predictions generated by a rigid-body docking algorithm ZDOCK, which has been, RDOCK represents the simplest approach toward refining unbound docking predictions. Despite its simplic

Weng, Zhiping

148

Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held-oriented mesh refinement for single and multiple aerodynamic force coefficients as well as residual-based mesh refinement applied to various three-dimensional lam- inar and turbulent aerodynamic test cases defined

Hartmann, Ralf

149

Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies , Gerd Groener2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies Yuan Ren1 , Gerd Groener2 , Jens Lemcke3 , Tirdad University of Koblenz-Landau, 3 SAP AG Abstract. A crucial task in process management is the validation of process refinements. A process refinement is a process description in a more fine-grained representation

Staab, Steffen

150

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry, prepared byBandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes, prepared byKaiser, M.J. , Petroleum Refining Technology & Economics,

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Synthetic aggregates prepared from flue gas desulfurization by-products using various binder materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products can be converted into environmentally safe and structurally stable aggregates. One type of synthetic aggregate was prepared using an optimum mixture of (FGD) by-products, fly ash, and water. Mineral reactions have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

Bellucci, J.; Graham, U.M.; Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature CombustionGlass MECS 2006 - GlassPetroleum Refining

154

Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico:CommunityNorthwest Basin and RangeNorvento USA LLC JumpRefining

155

Valero Refining Company - NJ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save Energy NowNew HampshireValero Refining Company - NJ Jump to:

156

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aHydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating a

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A CSP Account of Event-B Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Event-B provides a flexible framework for stepwise system development via refinement. The framework supports steps for (a) refining events (one-by-one), (b) splitting events (one-by-many), and (c) introducing new events. In each of the steps events can moreover possibly be anticipated or convergent. All such steps are accompanied with precise proof obligations. Still, it remains unclear what the exact relationship - in terms of a behaviour-oriented semantics - between an Event-B machine and its refinement is. In this paper, we give a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP semantics for Event-B and show how the different forms of Event-B refinement can be captured as CSP refinement.

Schneider, Steve; Wehrheim, Heike; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.9

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

B. Eynard; C. Kozcaz

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996...

163

Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997...

164

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

165

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

166

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

167

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

168

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

169

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

170

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

171

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

172

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

173

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

174

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

175

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

176

New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

Dr. Joseph A. Megy

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

177

Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? ? ? Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization KIMMO M?KINEN BUSINESS MANAGER TONI KYM?L?INEN PRODUCT MANAGER JAAKKO JUNTTILA SALES MANAGER ABB OY HELSINKI FINLAND...

Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

atmospheric oxidation by-products: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Engineering Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied...

179

arc-induced toxic by-products: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Engineering Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied...

180

animal protein by-products: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Engineering Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Utilization of by-products from alkaline hydroxide preservation of whole broiler carcasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM ALKALINE HYDROXIDE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE BROILER CARCASSES A Thesis by TRUITT PRESTON NIEMEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2002 Major Subject: Poultry Science UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM ALKALINE HYDROXIDE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE BROILER CARCASSES A Thesis by TRUITT PRESTON NIEMEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

Niemeyer, Truitt Preston

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Optimum energy and by-product recovery in chlorinated hydrocarbon disposal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper covers the three principal areas of a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste disposal system for a typical vinyl chloride monomer facility. These are the incineration, the energy recovery system, and the by-product recovery system. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the energy and by-product recovery systems is dependent on the optimization of the primary combustor (incineration system). 11 refs.

Santoleri, J.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

Sandu, Adrian

184

11 California Petroleum Supply, Transportation, Refining and Marketing Trends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 California Petroleum Supply, Transportation, Refining and Marketing Trends Chapter 2 CALIFORNIA PETROLEUM SUPPLY, TRANSPORTATION, REFINING AND MARKETING TRENDS INTRODUCTION California is an integral part of the world oil market as a world-scale petroleum consumer. Historically, about 50 percent of this petroleum

185

Refining Landscape Change Models through Outlier Analysis in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refining Landscape Change Models through Outlier Analysis in the Muskegon Watershed of Michigan significantly to the state economy, accounting for nearly 20% of its economic output (Michigan Land Use, 1965; Lee, 1973; Wegener, 1994), and model refinement/advancement, in large part due to advances

Walker, Robert T.

186

Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be inferred from their physical and chemical properties. The developed porosity of the activated carbon was a function of the oxygen content, porosity and H/C ratio of the parent unburned carbon feedstock. It was observed that extended activation times and high activation temperatures increased the porosity of the produced activated carbon at the expense of the solid yield. The development of activated carbon from unburned carbon in fly ash has been proven to be a success by this study in terms of the higher surface areas of the resultant activated carbons, which are comparable with commercial activated carbons. However, unburned carbon samples obtained from coal-fired power plants as by-product have high ash content, which is unwanted for the production of activated carbons. Therefore, the separation of unburned carbon from the fly ash is expected to be beneficial for the utilization of unburned carbon to produce activated carbons with low ash content.

Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Refined BPS state counting from Nekrasov's formula and Macdonald functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been argued that the Nekrasov's partition function gives the generating function of refined BPS state counting in the compactification of M theory on local Calabi-Yau spaces. We show that a refined version of the topological vertex we proposed before (hep-th/0502061) is a building block of the Nekrasov's partition function with two equivariant parameters. Compared with another refined topological vertex by Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa (hep-th/0701156), our refined vertex is expressed entirely in terms of the specialization of the Macdonald symmetric functions which is related to the equivariant character of the Hilbert scheme of points on C^2. We provide diagrammatic rules for computing the partition function from the web diagrams appearing in geometric engineering of Yang-Mills theory with eight supercharges. Our refined vertex has a simple transformation law under the flop operation of the diagram, which suggests that homological invariants of the Hopf link are related to the Macdonald functions.

Hidetoshi Awata; Hiroaki Kanno

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

1988-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

191

GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into black holes. As an illustration of its AMR capability, we demonstrate the evolution of triple black hole merger, which can be set up trivially in GRChombo.

Katy Clough; Pau Figueras; Hal Finkel; Markus Kunesch; Eugene A. Lim; Saran Tunyasuvunakool

2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

Lowe, J.H.C. [Axel Johnson Metals, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

Doran, Simon J.

196

Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Flop Invariance of Refined Topological Vertex and Link Homologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been proposed recently that the topological A-model string theory on local toric Calabi-Yau manifolds has a two parameter extension. Amplitudes of the two parameter topological strings can be computed using a diagrammatic method called the refined topological vertex. In this paper we study properties of the refined amplitudes under the flop transition of toric Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also discuss that the slicing invariance and the flop transition imply a simple formula for the homological sl(N) invariants of the Hopf link. The new expression for the invariants gives a simple refinement of the Hopf link invariant of Chern-Simons theory.

Masato Taki

2008-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

200

Multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we describe in detail the computational algorithm used by our parallel multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement. Our code uses truncation error estimates to adaptively refine the grid as part of the solution process. The presentation includes a discussion of the orders of accuracy that we use for prolongation and restriction operators to ensure second order accurate results and to minimize computational work. Code tests are presented that confirm the overall second order accuracy and demonstrate the savings in computational resources provided by adaptive mesh refinement.

J. David Brown; Lisa L. Lowe

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Refined Analytic Torsion as an Element of the Determinant Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a canonical element, called the refined analytic torsion, of the determinant line of the cohomology of a closed oriented odd-dimensional manifold M with coefficients in a flat complex vector bundle E. We compute the Ray-Singer norm of the refined analytic torsion. In particular, if there exists a flat Hermitian metric on E, we show that this norm is equal to 1. We prove a duality theorem, establishing a relationship between the refined analytic torsions corresponding to a flat connection and its dual.

Maxim Braverman; Thomas Kappeler

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Refining Social Justice Through Collaborative Inquiry: Key Rewards and Challenges for Teacher Educators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Researcher, 25 (5), 5-15. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—35social justice. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—27 REFERENCESCollege Press. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—28 Cochran-

Cooper, Camille Wilson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann1 and Paul Houston2 1 Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology DLR (German Aerospace Center) Lilienthalplatz 7

Hartmann, Ralf

206

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices and...

207

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

208

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

209

Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.

NONE

1996-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

210

Polygons in Buildings and their Refined Side Lengths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1999. [Bro] K. Brown, Buildings, Springer, 1989. [BuBI] D.AMS, 2001. [D] M. Davis, Buildings are CAT(0), in “Geometryat Springerlink.com POLYGONS IN BUILDINGS AND THEIR REFINED

Kapovich, Michael; Leeb, Bernhard; Millson, John J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

133.6 - 276.4 See footnotes at end of table. 220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

212

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

201.3 - 453.3 See footnotes at end of table. 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

213

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

April 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the MessageHydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating athe communication problem. Hydrogen and fuel cells have now

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and densitytool for iterative model- building, structure refinement andusing RESOLVE or TEXTAL model- building, RESOLVE statistical

Terwilliger, T. C.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aApril 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Messagethe communication problem. Hydrogen and fuel cells have now

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

M Moodley; Pm Schorn

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

218

RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Direct Refinement against ProtonProton Dipolar Couplings in NMR Structure Determination of Macromolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Refinement against Proton­Proton Dipolar Couplings in NMR Structure Determination in macromolecular structure refinement are pre- sented. Potentials are described for direct refinement against 1 H­1 dipolar coupling refinement is illustrated using the small protein ubiquitin. It is shown that direct 1 H

Clore, G. Marius

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the Fermentation; accepted 13 July 2000 Abstract: Succinic acid was produced by fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum-product acetic acid. The gram ratio of suc- cinic acid to acetic acid was 25.8:1, which is 6.5 times higher than

224

US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

Rhodes, A.K.

1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner Net Production"

228

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Mutually refining DPCM system with applications in frame erasure channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the design of a mutually refining DPCM (MR-DPCM) system and its applications to frame erasure channels. MR-DPCM is a system that uses diversity to overcome channel impairments. In this thesis the design for a two channel system...

Sutharsan, Thirunathan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A Refined Difference Field Theory for Symbolic Summation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we present a refined summation theory based on Karr's difference field approach. The resulting algorithms find sum representations with optimal nested depth. For instance, the algorithms have been applied successively to evaluate Feynman integrals from Perturbative Quantum Field Theory.

Carsten Schneider

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Note on refined topological vertex, Jack polynomials and instanton counting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we calculated the refined topological vertex for the one parameter case using the Jack symmetric functions. Also, we obtain the partition function for elliptic N=2 models, the results coincide with those of Nekrasov instanton counting partition functions for the $N=2^{\\ast}$ theories.

Jianfeng Wu

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

Refined Chern-Simons Theory and Knot Homology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The refined Chern-Simons theory is a one-parameter deformation of the ordinary Chern-Simons theory on Seifert manifolds. It is defined via an index of the theory on N M5 branes, where the corresponding one-parameter deformation is a natural deformation of the geometric background. Analogously with the unrefined case, the solution of refined Chern-Simons theory is given in terms of S and T matrices, which are the proper Macdonald deformations of the usual ones. This provides a direct way to compute refined Chern-Simons invariants of a wide class of three-manifolds and knots. The knot invariants of refined Chern-Simons theory are conjectured to coincide with the knot superpolynomials -- Poincare polynomials of the triply graded knot homology theory. This conjecture is checked for a large number of torus knots in S^3, colored by the fundamental representation. This is a short, expository version of arXiv:1105.5117, with some new results included.

Mina Aganagic; Shamil Shakirov

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we refine the method of [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation is originated from the dynamical Yang-Baxter algebra and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

W. Galleas

2012-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

#PRL --A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#µPRL -- A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning in Computational Type Theory Nuria, 14482 Potsdam, Germany {brede,kreitz}@cs.uni­potsdam.de Abstract. We present a hybrid proof calculus #µPRL to con­ structive proofs and show that the restriction of #µPRL to µ­safe proof terms is sound

Kreitz, Christoph

235

PRL A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

µPRL ­ A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning in Computational Type Theory Nuria Brede, Germany {brede,kreitz}@cs.uni-potsdam.de Abstract. We present a hybrid proof calculus µPRL that combines and show that the restriction of µPRL to µ-safe proof terms is sound and complete for intuitionistic

Kreitz, Christoph

236

Kenney: The USSOCOM Trinity The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was that the American military would plan, train, and equip to conduct major combat operations on opposite sidesKenney: The USSOCOM Trinity 1 The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations Commitment to 21st on the United States Special Operations Command and recommends means and methods to capitalize on current

237

Electron beam melting and refining state of the art 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the proceedings of the Electron Beam Melting and Refining - State of the Art 1995 Conference. It contains 23 of the 30 scheduled papers. Papers cover an array of electron beam melting applications, from industrial plating of metal strip, through government work on manufacturing and processing fissile alloys. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this proceedings.

Bakish, R. [ed.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

239

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

240

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

242

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

243

Time Critical Isosurface Refinement And Smoothing V. Pascucci  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the global geometry of the embedding (no self- intersections) of any approximated level of detail: (i) a progressive al- gorithm that builds a multi-resolution surface by successive refine- ments so of the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

Texas at Austin, University of

244

An accuracy study of mesh refinement on mapped grids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An accuracy study of mesh refinement on mapped grids D. Calhoun and R. J. LeVeque, October, 2003 on a highly skewed portion of a mapped grid. Smooth and shock-wave solutions to the Euler equations are used interface. Key words: gas dynamics, finite-volume, finite-difference, Cartesian grid, mapped grids

Calhoun, Donna

245

Department of Computing Stepwise Refinement in Event-B||CSP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Event-B||CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne and Heike Wehrheim March 12th 2011 #12;Stepwise Refinement in Event-B CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider1 Helen Treharne1 Heike Wehrheim2 1, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 CSP 3 2.1 Notation

Doran, Simon J.

246

TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass to Fuels, Chemicals that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance energy security, improve the economy, dispose of such products, and sugar costs are predicted to drop with plant size as a result of economies of scale

California at Riverside, University of

247

Indirect lattice evidence for the Refined Gribov-Zwanziger formalism and the gluon condensate $\\braket{A^2}$ in the Landau gauge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the gluon propagator $D(p^2)$ at various lattice sizes and spacings in the case of pure SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theories using the Landau gauge fixing. We discuss a class of fits in the infrared region in order to (in)validate the tree level analytical prediction in terms of the (Refined) Gribov-Zwanziger framework. It turns out that an important role is played by the presence of the widely studied dimension two gluon condensate $\\braket{A^2}$. Including this effect allows to obtain an acceptable fit up to 1 \\'{a} 1.5 GeV, while corroborating the Refined Gribov-Zwanziger prediction for the gluon propagator. We also discuss the infinite volume extrapolation, leading to the estimate $D(0)=8.3\\pm0.5\\text{GeV}^{-2}$. As a byproduct, we can also provide the prediction $\\braket{g^2 A^2}\\approx 3\\text{GeV}^2$ obtained at the renormalization scale $\\mu=10\\text{GeV}$.

D. Dudal; O. Oliveira; N. Vandersickel

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

Not Available

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPENDIX D. TEST PROCEDURES APPENDIX E. CONVERSION TABLES VITA 85 90 93 96 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Model for FGD Waste By-Product Research Unconfined Compressive Strength for Fly Ash Mixed with Various Inductions of Portland Cement 15... properties such as weight, durability, strength, density, etc. Varying mixes of bottom ash, fly ash, portland cement, and sand will be tested for possible enhancement of the hemihydrate. Also, a mix design that best utilizes all the waste by...

Berryman, Charles Wayne

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

None

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Joint Test Plan to Identify the Gaseous By-Products of CH3I Loading on AgZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this test plan is to describe research to determine the gaseous by-products of the adsorption of CH3I on hydrogen reduced silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ).

R. T. Jubin; N. R. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan; T. M. Nenoff; B. B. Spencer

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE Final Report AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE 5. Report Date June 2007 Final Report 6

Bertini, Robert L.

256

WELDABILITY OF GRAIN-REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Cryogenic Nickel Steels, WRC Bull, 205, May, 1975.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.E.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.

Morris Jr., J.W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Coupled Elliptic-Hyperbolic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a modification to the Berger and Oliger adaptive mesh refinement algorithm designed to solve systems of coupled, non-linear, hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations. Such systems typically arise during constrained evolution of the field equations of general relativity. The novel aspect of this algorithm is a technique of "extrapolation and delayed solution" used to deal with the non-local nature of the solution of the elliptic equations, driven by dynamical sources, within the usual Berger and Oliger time-stepping framework. We show empirical results demonstrating the effectiveness of this technique in axisymmetric gravitational collapse simulations. We also describe several other details of the code, including truncation error estimation using a self-shadow hierarchy, and the refinement-boundary interpolation operators that are used to help suppress spurious high-frequency solution components ("noise").

Frans Pretorius; Matthew W. Choptuik

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A refined position catalog of the Swift XRT afterglows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a catalogue of refined positions of 68 gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) from the launch up to 2005 Oct 16. This is a result of the refinement of the XRT boresight calibration. We tested this correction by means of a systematic study of a large sample of X-ray sources observed by XRT with well established optical counterparts. We found that we can reduce the systematic error radius of the measurements by a factor of two, from 6.5" to 3.2" (90% of confidence). We corrected all the positions of the afterglows observed by XRT in the first 11 months of the Swift mission. This is particularly important for the 37 X-ray afterglows without optical counterpart. Optical follow-up of dark GRBs, in fact, will be more efficient with the use of the more accurate XRT positions.

A. Moretti; M. Perri; M. Capalbi; L. Angelini; J. E. Hill; S. Campana; D. N. Burrows; J. P. Osborne; G. Tagliaferri; G. Cusumano; P. Giommi; P. Romano; T. Mineo; J. Kennea; D. Morris; J. Nousek; C. Pagani; J. Racusin; A. F. Abbey; A. P. Beardmore; O. Godet; M. R. Goad; K. L. Page; A. A. Wells; G. Chincarini

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

p-Adic refinable functions and MRA-based wavelets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We described a wide class of $p$-adic refinable equations generating $p$-adic multiresolution analysis. A method for the construction of $p$-adic orthogonal wavelet bases within the framework of the MRA theory is suggested. A realization of this method is illustrated by an example, which gives a new 3-adic wavelet basis. Another realization leads to the $p$-adic Haar bases which were known before.

A. Yu. Khrennikov; V. M. Shelkovich; M. Skopina

2007-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

260

Refined topological amplitudes in N=1 flux compactification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the implication of refined topological string amplitudes in the supersymmetric N=1 flux compactification. They generate higher derivative couplings among the vector multiplets and graviphoton with generically non-holomorphic moduli dependence. For a particular term, we can compute them by assuming the geometric engineering. We claim that the Dijkgraaf-Vafa large N matrix model with the beta-ensemble measure directly computes the higher derivative corrections to the supersymmetric effective action of the supersymmetric N=1$ gauge theory.

Yu Nakayama

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

China`s refining/petrochemical industry continues expansion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China`s downstream petroleum industry decreased refinery throughput and increased petrochemical production in 1994, compared to 1993 data. A report titled ``China Petroleum Industry `94,`` issued by China Petroleum Newsletter, a publication of China Petroleum Information Institute, summarized China`s refined products and petrochemical production figures for 1994. The report also listed important construction projects at China`s downstream plants. This paper presents data from this report.

NONE

1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

263

Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and Launches theResidentialRecoveryWaste and SaveRefining

264

Protein extraction in the refinement of Coastal Bermudagrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, phosphoric acid, gaseous hydrochloric acid, anhydrous ammonia and ethylendiamine (Chang et aL, 1981; Wylie and Steen, 1988). Also the use of organic solvents such as hexane or cadoxen ([Cd(ethylendiamine)3](OH)2, cadmium ethylendiamine) (Ladisch et al... and lignin. Integrated conversion of the entire "barrel of biomass" (also referred to as biomass refining), is essential to obtain good system economics. This study evaluated the use of the Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX) process in an integrated conversion...

De La Rosa Perez, Luis Bernardo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Lattice refining loop quantum cosmology, anisotropic models and stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general class of loop quantizations for anisotropic models is introduced and discussed, which enhances loop quantum cosmology by relevant features seen in inhomogeneous situations. The main new effect is an underlying lattice which is being refined during dynamical changes of the volume. In general, this leads to a new feature of dynamical difference equations which may not have constant step-size, posing new mathematical problems. It is discussed how such models can be evaluated and what lattice refinements imply for semiclassical behavior. Two detailed examples illustrate that stability conditions can put strong constraints on suitable refinement models, even in the absence of a fundamental Hamiltonian which defines changes of the underlying lattice. Thus, a large class of consistency tests of loop quantum gravity becomes available. In this context, it will also be seen that quantum corrections due to inverse powers of metric components in a constraint are much larger than they appeared recently in more special treatments of isotropic, free scalar models where they were artificially suppressed.

Martin Bojowald; Daniel Cartin; Gaurav Khanna

2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

266

Refinements of the Weyl tensor classification in five dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We refine the null alignment classification of the Weyl tensor of a five-dimensional spacetime. The paper focusses on the algebraically special alignment types {\\bf {N}}, {\\bf {III}}, {\\bf {II}} and {\\bf {D}}, while types {\\bf {I}} and {\\bf {G}} are briefly discussed. A first refinement is provided by the notion of spin type of the components of highest boost weight. Second, we analyze the Segre types of the Weyl operator acting on bivector space and examine the intersection with the spin type classification. We present a full treatment for types {\\bf {N}} and {\\bf {III}}, and illustrate the classification from different viewpoints (Segre type, rank, spin type) for types {\\bf {II}} and {\\bf {D}}, paying particular attention to possible nilpotence, which is a new feature of higher dimensions. We also point out other essential differences with the four-dimensional case. In passing, we exemplify the refined classification by mentioning the special subtypes associated to certain important spacetimes, such as Myers-Perry black holes, black strings, Robinson-Trautman spacetimes, and purely electric/magnetic type {\\bf {D}} spacetimes.

Alan Coley; Sigbjorn Hervik; Marcello Ortaggio; Lode Wylleman

2012-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Refined similarity hypotheses in shell models of turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A major challenge in turbulence research is to understand from first principles the origin of anomalous scaling of the velocity fluctuations in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. One important idea was proposed by Kolmogorov [J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 13}, 82 (1962)], which attributes the anomaly to the variations of the locally averaged energy dissipation rate. Kraichnan later pointed out [J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 62}, 305 (1973)] that the locally averaged energy dissipation rate is not an inertial-range quantity and a proper inertial-range quantity would be the local energy transfer rate. As a result, Kraichnan's idea attributes the anomaly to the variations of the local energy transfer rate. These ideas, generally known as refined similarity hypotheses, can also be extended to study the anomalous scaling of fluctuations of an active scalar, like the temperature in turbulent convection. In this paper, we examine the validity of these refined similarity hypotheses and their extensions to an active scalar in shell models of turbulence. We find that Kraichnan's refined similarity hypothesis and its extension are valid.

Emily S. C. Ching; H. Guo; T. S. Lo

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evolutions in 3D numerical relativity using fixed mesh refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of 3D numerical simulations using a finite difference code featuring fixed mesh refinement (FMR), in which a subset of the computational domain is refined in space and time. We apply this code to a series of test cases including a robust stability test, a nonlinear gauge wave and an excised Schwarzschild black hole in an evolving gauge. We find that the mesh refinement results are comparable in accuracy, stability and convergence to unigrid simulations with the same effective resolution. At the same time, the use of FMR reduces the computational resources needed to obtain a given accuracy. Particular care must be taken at the interfaces between coarse and fine grids to avoid a loss of convergence at higher resolutions, and we introduce the use of "buffer zones" as one resolution of this issue. We also introduce a new method for initial data generation, which enables higher-order interpolation in time even from the initial time slice. This FMR system, "Carpet", is a driver module in the freely available Cactus computational infrastructure, and is able to endow generic existing Cactus simulation modules ("thorns") with FMR with little or no extra effort.

Erik Schnetter; Scott H. Hawley; Ian Hawke

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Crystal Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Information ABSTRACT: We have found that refinement of protein NMR structures using Rosetta with experimental in the PDB using standard refinement protocols. Using 40 pairs of NMR and X-ray crystal structures determined

Baker, David

271

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS A combination of rescoring and refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS A combination of rescoring and refinement in protein docking allow for atomic-scale protein complex predictions,3 yet work needs to be done to refine,10,11 reranking,12 and structural refinement13 of the initial set of predictions. Structural

Weng, Zhiping

272

Refinement of the differential gravimetry approach for future inter-satellite observations Matthias Weigelt, Wolfgang Keller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of the differential gravimetry approach for future inter-satellite observations Matthias Applicability to GRACE ­ Follow On Refinement of the approach Conclusions: Loss of accuracy of several order. For the GRACE Follow-On mission this approach is not working anymore and thus a refinement of the solution

Stuttgart, Universität

273

A comparison of spectral element and finite difference methods using statically refined  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparison of spectral element and finite difference methods using statically refined elements on a refined grid, using spectral method (polynomials of order p). · Accuracy convergence rate refinement dynamically or statically. Why considering spectral element? #12;Motivation · Since the main

Ng, Chung-Sang

274

Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The current functionality provides automatic generation the use of a longer time step. We have developed an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) dynamical core

Jablonowski, Christiane

275

ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL- TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE (OTREC PHASE I) Final Report #12;#12;ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE (OTREC PHASE 1) 5. Report

Bertini, Robert L.

276

A Multi-Tiered Genetic Algorithm for Data Mining and Hypothesis Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The second stage of testing was on the ability to take results from a previous algorithm and perform refinement on the data model. Initially, Arcanum was used to refine its own data models. Of the six data models used for hypothesis refinement, Arcanum...

Taylor, Christopher M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Refining GAL4-Driven Transgene Expression in Drosophila With a GAL80 Enhancer-Trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTER Refining GAL4-Driven Transgene Expression in Drosophila With a GAL80 Enhancer-trap element, P{GAL80}, that encodes the yeast GAL80 repressor to refine expression of transgenes driven neurons. This line was used to refine GFP expression from a set of over 200 neurons to a subset of 20

Sokolowski, Marla

278

Decorrelation of neural activity during fixational instability: Possible implications for the refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the refinement of V1 receptive fields MICHELE RUCCI1 and ANTONINO CASILE2 1 Department of Cognitive and Neural June 10, 2004) Abstract Early in life, visual experience appears to influence the refinement in the experience-dependent refinement of cell response characteristics. To investigate the possible influences

Rucci, Michele

279

Comment on "Data for Refinement and Deposition/Publication" Mariusz Jaskolski (July 13, 2014)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comment on "Data for Refinement and Deposition/Publication" Mariusz Jaskolski (July 13, 2014) 1. My and should be included in the refinement. Therefore, I do not truncate my data only because the high used in the refinement. 3. My leniency toward completeness at high-resolution does not extend

280

Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part I --Vertical wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part a new linear iterative refinement method to simulate nuclear borehole measurements accurately included in the in- tegral form of Boltzmann's equation. The linear iterative refine- ment method accounts

Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in ObjectZ and CSP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in Object­Z and CSP Graeme Smith­Z and CSP. A common semantic basis for the two languages enables a unified method of refinement to be used, based upon CSP refinement. To enable state­based techniques to be used for the Object­Z components

Smith, Graeme

282

Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part 2 --High-angle and horizontal wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part refinement method to rapidly simulate borehole nuclear measurements acquired in vertical wells neutron and density measurements. Based on new research, we implemented the linear iterative refinement

Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

283

Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evolving a puncture black hole with fixed mesh refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an algorithm for treating mesh refinement interfaces in numerical relativity. We detail the behavior of the solution near such interfaces located in the strong field regions of dynamical black hole spacetimes, with particular attention to the convergence properties of the simulations. In our applications of this technique to the evolution of puncture initial data with vanishing shift, we demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously maintain second order convergence near the puncture and extend the outer boundary beyond 100M, thereby approaching the asymptotically flat region in which boundary condition problems are less difficult and wave extraction is meaningful.

Breno Imbiriba; John Baker; Dae-Il Choi; Joan Centrella; David R. Fiske; J. David Brown; James R. van Meter; Kevin Olson

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

290

Exact results on ABJ theory and the refined topological string  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the partition function of the ABJ theory, which is the N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory with gauge group U(N)xU(N+M) and Chern-Simons levels (k,-k). We exactly compute the ABJ partition function on a three sphere for various k, M and N via the Fermi gas approach. By using these exact data, we show that the ABJ partition function is completely determined by the refined topological string on local P^1 x P^1, including membrane instanton effects in the M-theory dual.

Masazumi Honda; Kazumi Okuyama

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

291

Bethe roots and refined enumeration of alternating-sign matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The properties of the most probable ground state candidate for the XXZ spin chain with the anisotropy parameter equal to -1/2 and an odd number of sites is considered. Some linear combinations of the components of the considered state, divided by the maximal component, coincide with the elementary symmetric polynomials in the corresponding Bethe roots. It is proved that those polynomials are equal to the numbers providing the refined enumeration of the alternating-sign matrices of order M+1 divided by the total number of the alternating-sign matrices of order M, for the chain of length 2M+1.

A. V. Razumov; Yu. G. Stroganov

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

292

Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

The refined transfer, bundle structures and algebraic K-theory.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give new homotopy theoretic criteria for deciding when a fibration with homotopy finite fibers admits a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers. The criteria lead to a new and unexpected result about homeomorphism groups of manifolds. A tool used in the proof is a surjective splitting of the assembly map for Waldhausen's functor A(X). We also give concrete examples of fibrations having a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers but which fail to admit a compact fiber smoothing. The examples are detected by algebraic K-theory invariants. We consider a refinement of the Becker-Gottlieb transfer. We show that a version of the axioms described by Becker and Schultz uniquely determines the refined transfer for the class of fibrations admitting a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers. In an appendix, we sketch a theory of characteristic classes for fibrations. The classes are primary obstructions to finding a compact fiber smoothing.

John R. Klein; Bruce Williams

298

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Supersonic Molecular Cloud Turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed a series of three-dimensional numerical simulations of supersonic homogeneous Euler turbulence with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and effective grid resolution up to 1024^3 zones. Our experiments describe non-magnetized driven supersonic turbulent flows with an isothermal equation of state. Mesh refinement on shocks and shear is implemented to cover dynamically important structures with the highest resolution subgrids and calibrated to match the turbulence statistics obtained from the equivalent uniform grid simulations. We found that at a level of resolution slightly below 512^3, when a sufficient integral/dissipation scale separation is first achieved, the fraction of the box volume covered by the AMR subgrids first becomes smaller than unity. At the higher AMR levels subgrids start covering smaller and smaller fractions of the whole volume, which scale with the Reynolds number as Re^{-1/4}. We demonstrate the consistency of this scaling with a hypothesis that the most dynamically important structures in intermittent supersonic turbulence are strong shocks with a fractal dimension of two. We show that turbulence statistics derived from AMR simulations and simulations performed on uniform grids agree surprisingly well, even though only a fraction of the volume is covered by AMR subgrids. Based on these results, we discuss the signature of dissipative structures in the statistical properties of supersonic turbulence and their role in overall flow dynamics.

Alexei G. Kritsuk; Michael L. Norman; Paolo Padoan

2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

299

A refined model for characterizing x-ray multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to quickly and accurately characterize arbitrary multilayers is very valuable for not only can we use the characterizations to predict the reflectivity of a multilayer for any soft x-ray wavelength, we also can generalize the results to apply to other multilayers of the same type. In addition, we can use the characterizations as a means of evaluating various sputtering environments and refining sputtering techniques to obtain better multilayers. In this report we have obtained improved characterizations for sample molybdenum-silicon and vanadium-silicon multilayers. However, we only examined five crystals overall, so the conclusions that we could draw about the structure of general multilayers is limited. Research involving many multilayers manufactured under the same sputtering conditions is clearly in order. In order to best understand multilayer structures it may be necessary to further refine our model, e.g., adopting a Gaussian form for the interface regions. With such improvements we can expect even better agreement with experimental values and continued concurrence with other characterization techniques. 18 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

Oren, A.L.; Henke, B.L.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

California refiners move smoothly into next phase of RFG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California RFG program (CARB RFG) began at the refinery level in March, the terminal level in April and will begin being enforced at the retail level June 1. By all accounts, early implementation is proceeding smoothly, with prices for both gasoline and oxygenates remaining fairly steady. Analysts labeled the introduction of the world`s cleanest gasoline {open_quotes}a non-event{close_quotes}. By April 1, more than half of the retail gasoline stations in California had fully complying CARB RFG. With cumulative investments of more than $3 billion, California`s refiners will be looking to recapture as much of the cost in the marketplace as possible. The incremental cost of CARB RFG production over federal RFG is estimated by refiners to be about 10{cents}/gal, mainly due to the capital investments needed for hydrotreating to reduce sulfur levels. Early batches of fuel on the spot market sold for about 8{cents}/gal over conventional prices, about 4.5{cents}/gal above federal RFG, according to the Oil Price Information Service (OPIS).

Schaffer, S. [ed.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to absorption from ambient surroundings. Mercury loss of 18-26% was detected after 3 and 6 months at 100 F and 140 F from samples of the fixated FGD sludge. Water samples were collected from existing ground water monitoring wells around an active FGD disposal site (8 wells) and an active fly ash slurry impoundment (14 wells). These were wells that the plants have installed to comply with ground water monitoring requirements of their permits. Mercury was not detected in any of the water samples collected from monitoring wells at either site. A literature review concluded that coal combustion byproducts can be disposed of in properly designed landfills that minimize the potentially negative impacts of water intrusion that carries dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dissolved organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria can promote the transformation of elemental or oxidized mercury into methyl mercury. The landfill should be properly designed and capped with clays or similar materials to minimize the wet-dry cycles that promote the release of methylmercury.

J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Haefner, R. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

Nodjomian, S.M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

305

Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

Didziulis, V.S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

NPRA (National Petroleum Refiners Association) Q and A--5. Refiners stress H/sub 2/ and treating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Questions and answers (Q and A) reported at the NPRA Convention (1979) covered hydrogen manufacturing and purification, including hydrogen utilization in refineries, the use of purification processes for by-product hydrogen, and cryogenic hydrogen-purification units; the presence of a bellows expansion joint in the transfer line between reformer outlet and waste-heat boiler; combustion (oxygen) control in steam-reforming furnaces; hydrotreater problems, including modification of the inlet distributor to obtain uniform scale and coke deposition, procedures for avoiding excessive exchanger fouling in a 700 psig reformer feed pretreater, the reduction of exchanger fouling in a diesel hydrodesulfurizer, metals that withstand corrosion in effluent exchangers of a naphtha hydrotreater, corrosion problems in naphtha processing at high (> 15 ppm) chloride levels, smothering with steam in cases of tube rupture in a hydrotreater reactor charge heater, the processing of coker naphtha in a simple low-pressure naphtha hydrotreater with once-through hydrogen, and the prevention of fouling and pressure drops in hydrotreating pyrolysis naphtha.

Not Available

1980-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

308

The uses of the refined matrix model recursion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study matrix models in the beta ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first beta-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the beta deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the Omega-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the beta-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

Andrea Brini; Marcos Marino; Sebastien Stevan

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

309

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Refinements in Effective Potential Calculations in the MSSM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The one-loop effective potential is a powerful tool in studying the electroweak symmetry breaking of supersymmetric theories, whose precise calculation may have important phenomenological consequences. In this work, we are correctly treating the contribution of the Higgs sector to the effective potential and refine the radiative corrections to the Higgs mixing parameter $\\mu$, which is known to affect greatly the supersymmetric spectrum. Working at the average stop scale to minimize the effect of the stop sector, we find additional corrections which can play a dominant role in the Focus Point region of the parameter space of the MSSM. The comparison of our results with those of the literature is discussed. We also discuss the gauge dependence of the effective potential and its effect on the $\\mu$ parameter in analyses where this is determined from the 1-loop minimization conditions of the effective potential.

M. Argyrou; A. Katsikatsou; I. Malamos

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

311

Refinements in electroweak contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of strong interactions on the two loop electroweak radiative corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, $a_\\mu=(g_\\mu-2)/2$, are examined. Short-distance logs are shown to be unaffected. Computation of long-distance contributions is improved by use of an effective field theory approach that preserves the chiral properties of QCD and accounts for constraints from the operator product expansion. Small, previously neglected, two loop contributions, suppressed by a $1-4\\sin^2\\theta_W$ factor, are computed and the complete three loop leading short-distance logs are reevaluated. These refinements lead to a reduction in uncertainties and a slight shift in the total electroweak contribution to $a_\\mu^{\\rm EW} = 154(1)(2)\\times 10^{-11}$ where the first error corresponds to hadronic uncertainties and the second is primarily due to the allowed Higgs mass range.

Andrzej Czarnecki; William J. Marciano; Arkady Vainshtein

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

Global refining beyond the year 2000 - A European perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new French publication from Editions Technip contains a broad-based discussion on the economic and processing parameters that will shape the refinery of the future. Process experts from Institut Francais Du Petrole (IFP) have constructed a {open_quotes}road map{close_quotes} for refining and petrochemical flow schemes that should interest industry planners and decision makers throughout the world. The importance attributed to the characterization of crude oils and petroleum products is stressed. On a directional basis, the industry will see more emphasis on methodologies to improve existing conversion and separation processes. Buzzwords such as biorefining, refinery integrated information systems, petrochemical/refinery integration and many others will find a forum in future publications.

Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Quantitative Methods for Strategic and Investment Planning in the Oil-Refining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by one refinery Refinery Opera*onal Planning - Simulate the Refining Scenarios Supply Chain Investments Planning - Test the refinery best scenarios

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

315

E-Print Network 3.0 - administered refined olive Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refined olive Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 EUROMED SUSTAINABLE CONNECTIONS ANNA LINDH FOUNDATION Summary: most common to the Mediterranean region - the production of Olive Oil. The...

316

Refining and Extending the Business Model with Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Dell’s Direct Business Model Fuels Fifteenth ConsecutiveAND EXTENDING THE REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS MODELBUSINESS MODEL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Kraemer, Kenneth L; Dedrick, Jason; Yamashiro, Sandra

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

318

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

319

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

320

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

322

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

323

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

324

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

325

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

326

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

327

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

328

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloys grain refinement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in iron substitutional alloys (Grain size effects on iron... ;14 Objective Grain Size Varistors Hall- Petch Creep Grain refinement A crucial engineering consequence... of the...

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy grain refined Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in iron substitutional alloys (Grain size effects on iron... ;14 Objective Grain Size Varistors Hall- Petch Creep Grain refinement A crucial engineering consequence... of the...

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - amerya petroleum refining Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 DOEBCW-31-109-Eng-38-1 (DE96001296) Summary: and Solutions in Exploration, Production and Refining, proceedings of the Second International Petroleum... , Production and...

332

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

333

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

334

Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Recovery of solvent and by-products from organosolv black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of alcohol and by-products from ethanol-water and methanol-water pulping liquors was studied. The recovery system proposed consists of three stages: black liquor flashing, lignin precipitation, and precipitation distillation of mother liquor. At the flash stage, 47 and 51% of the alcohol in the black liquor are recovered for ethanol and methanol processes, respectively. The lignin recovery yield at the precipitation stage is 67% for ethanol black liquor and 73% for methanol black liquor. The distillation of precipitation mother liquors enables recovery of 98% ethanol and 96% methanol from this stream as distillate, whereas the distillation residue contains significant amounts of sugars, furfural, and acetic acid that can be recovered. The study concludes with the overall mass balance for the recovery system proposed.

Botello, J.I.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M. [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

More evidence for a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this proceeding is twofold. Firstly, we shall make the refining of the Gribov-Zwanziger action more complete by taking into account more condensates than considered so far. Secondly, we shall provide more evidence for the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach.

N. Vandersickel; D. Dudal; S. P. Sorella

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology the effects of various types of wastewater produced in oil-sand-refining on the survival, hematology, gill. In con- trast, all fish did not survive a 28-day period in any of the wastewaters tested and, in some

Farrell, Anthony P.

344

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement Steve Schneider Department of Computing a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP seman- tics for Event-B and show how the different forms

Doran, Simon J.

345

FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its in- ternal representation of CSP processes

Oxford, University of

346

FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its internal representation of CSP processes

Oxford, University of

347

Refined Properties of the HD 130322 Planetary System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exoplanetary systems closest to the Sun, with the brightest host stars, provide the most favorable opportunities for characterization studies of the host star and their planet(s). The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey uses both new radial velocity measurements and photometry in order to greatly improve planetary orbit uncertainties and the fundamental properties of the star, in this case HD 130322. The only companion, HD 130322b, orbits in a relatively circular orbit, e = 0.029 every ~10.7 days. Radial velocity measurements from multiple sources, including 12 unpublished from the Keck I telescope, over the course of ~14 years have reduced the uncertainty in the transit midpoint to ~2 hours. The transit probability for the b-companion is 4.7%, where M_p sin i = 1.15 M_J and a = 0.0925 AU. In this paper, we compile photometric data from the T11 0.8m Automated Photoelectric Telescope at Fairborn Observatory taken over ~14 years, including the constrained transit window, which results in a dispos...

Hinkel, Natalie R; Henry, Gregory W; Feng, Y Katherina; Boyajian, Tabetha; Wright, Jason; Fischer, Debra A; Howard, Andrew W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations in fixed background spacetimes using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. It provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threaded oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

Peter Anninos; P. Chris Fragile; Jay D. Salmonson

2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Model Refinement Needs A model developed by Peters and Marmorek (2003) will be used to generate predictions for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

449 Model Refinement Needs A model developed by Peters and Marmorek (2003) will be used to generate and will enable us in a future project to develop a refined model to evaluate reintroduction of sockeye

351

Refining the fundamental plane of accreting black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The idea of a unified description of supermassive and stellar black holes has been supported by the extension of the empirical radio/X-ray correlation from X-ray binaries to active galactic nuclei through the inclusion of a mass term. This has lead to the so-called fundamental plane of black hole activity in the black hole mass, radio and X-ray luminosity space. Two incarnations of this fundamental plane have so far been suggested using different underlying models and using two different samples of accreting black holes. We present revised samples for both studies together with a refined statistical analysis using measured errors of the observables. This method is used to compare the two samples, discuss selection effects, and infer parameters for the fundamental plane in a homogeneous way. We show that strongly sub-Eddington objects in a state equivalent to the low/hard state of X-ray binaries follow the fundamental plane very tightly; the scatter is comparable to the measurement errors. However, we find that the estimated parameters depend strongly on the assumptions made on the sources of scatter and the relative weight of the different AGN classes in the sample. Using only hard state objects, the fundamental plane is in agreement with the prediction of a simple uncooled synchrotron/jet model for the emitted radiation. Inclusion of high-state objects increases the scatter and moves the correlation closer to a disk/jet model. This is qualitatively consistent with a picture where low-state objects are largely dominated by jet emission while high-state objects have a strong contribution from an accretion disk.

Elmar Koerding; Heino Falcke; Sephane Corbel

2006-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

352

RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

Zhang, Wei-Qun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

353

State of heavy oil production and refining in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California is unique in the United States because it has the largest heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees}API gravity) resource, estimated to be in excess of 40 billion barrels. Of the current 941,543 barrels/day of oil produced in California (14% of the U.S. total), 70% or 625,312 barrels/day is heavy oil. Heavy oil constituted only 20% of California`s oil production in the early 1940s, but development of thermal oil production technology in the 1960s allowed the heavy industry to grow and prosper to the point where by the mid-1980s, heavy oil constituted 70% of the state`s oil production. Similar to the rest of the United States, light oil production in the Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Region, and San Joaquin Valley peaked and then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Unlike other states, California developed a heavy oil industry that replaced declining light oil production and increased the states total oil production, despite low heavy oil prices, stringent environmental regulations and long and costly delays in developing known oil resources. California`s deep conversion refineries process the nation`s highest sulfur, lowest API gravity crude to make the cleanest transportation fuels available. More efficient vehicles burning cleaner reformulated fuels have significantly reduced the level of ozone precursors (the main contributor to California`s air pollution) and have improved air quality over the last 20 years. In a state where major oil companies dominate, the infrastructure is highly dependent on the 60% of ANS production being refined in California, and California`s own oil production. When this oil is combined with the small volume of imported crude, a local surplus of marketed oil exists that inhibits exploitation of California`s heavy oil resources. As ANS production declines, or if the export restrictions on ANS sales are lifted, a window of opportunity develops for increased heavy oil production.

Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

Schenewerk, William Ernest [self, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

357

On Some Computations of Higher Rank Refined Donaldson-Thomas Invariants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present some computations of higher rank refined Donaldson-Thomas invariants on local curve geometries, corresponding to local D6-D2-D0 or D4-D2-D0 configurations. A refined wall-crossing formula for invariants with higher D6 or D4 ranks is derived and verified to agree with the existing formulas under the unrefined limit. Using the formula, refined invariants on the $(-1,-1)$ and $(-2,0)$ local rational curve with higher D6 or D4 ranks are computed.

Wu-yen Chuang; Chien-Hsun Wang

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

358

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

359

EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

360

Utilization of low NO{sub x} coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is studying a beneficiation process to make power plant fly ash a more useful by-product. The tasks include: (1) Laboratory characterization: Sample collection; Material characterization; and Lab testing of ash processing operations; (2) Pilot plant testing of the separation of carbon from fly ash; (3) Product testing: Concrete testing and Plastic fillers; and (4) Market and economic analysis. Appendices present information on material characterization, laboratory testing of a flotation process, pilot runs, and concrete testing results.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Voronoi, Delaunay and Block Structured Mesh Refinement for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structured Mesh Refinement for Solution of the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere HILARY WELLER NCAS meshes of the sphere and adaptive mesh refinement could be immensely beneficial for weather and climate forecasts but it is not clear how mesh refinement should be achieved. A finite-volume model which solves

Weller, Hilary Spencer

362

2009 US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Simulation Methods in Plasma Physics Plasma Particle Simulation with Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique for Multi-scale Phenomena Masanori Nunami1,5 , Hideyuki Usui2,5 , Toseo electromagnetic plasma particle code by using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. AMR technique, which dynamically according to certain refinement criteria, monitoring all cells where high-resolution is needed

Ito, Atsushi

363

Acta Cryst. (1978). A34, 931-935 Refinement of Large Structures by Simultaneous Minimization of Energy and R Factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acta Cryst. (1978). A34, 931-935 Refinement of Large Structures by Simultaneous Minimization method of crystallographic structure refinement, especially suitabte for large molecules, is described residual. The method has already proved its worth in the final stages of refinement of two structures

Levitt, Michael

364

Modeling LGN Responses during Free-Viewing: A Possible Role of Microscopic Eye Movements in the Refinement of Cortical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Refinement of Cortical Orientation Selectivity Michele Rucci,1 Gerald M. Edelman,2 and Jonathan Wray2 1 affect the refinement of orientation tuning in the presence of a Hebbian scheme of synaptic plasticity an important role for the eye movements occurring during fixation in the refinement of orientation selectivity

Rucci, Michele

365

Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Changes in the Firing Patterns of ON and OFF Retinal Ganglion Cells during Refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cells during Refinement of their Central Projections Karen L. Myhr,1 Peter D. Lukasiewicz,1,2 and Rachel School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 Patterned neuronal activity is implicated in the refinement patterns of spontaneous activity as their axonal projections undergo refinement. OFF RGCs be- come

Myhr, Karen

366

Mineralogical and physical considerations related to the separation and recovery of constituents from aluminum smelter by-products and wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several by-products and waste products of aluminum smelting were characterized mineralogically and physically, in order to evaluate the potential for their decontamination or separation and recovery into valuable products using mineral processing techniques. The test samples were selected from among Bayer process red mud, bath-alumina mixture, cleaned anode butts, anode recycle residues, spent potlining, saltcake and fluorogypsum. Several of these materials were shown to be composed either of highly liberated, potentially separable mineral phases, or of locked minerals which could be partially liberated by grinding to smaller but practical particle sizes. An analysis of specific physical properties of the liberated constituent mineral phases was accompanied by preliminary experimental evaluation of their separability. An assessment was made of potential mineral processing techniques including size and form differentiation, gravitational and magnetic field separation, flotation, separation based on surface charging phenomena or work function, and pneumatic tabling. The results confirmed the suitability of low-cost physical separation techniques for the treatment of some by-products and wastes. This paper presents results of a preliminary evaluation of two smelter products. The conference paper will analyze and discuss in more detail the potential for the mineral processing of these and other smelter by-products and wastes.

Plumpton, A.J.; Wilhelmy, J.F.; Blackburn, D.; Caouette, J.L. [Centre de Recherches Minerales, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels standard requires 36 billion gallons of renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels studies. Current research focuses on impacts of feeding by-prod- ucts of the bioenergy industry on Animal

369

Improving transport fuel quality in China: Implications for the refining sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study reviews the state of the Chinese refining system and examines the relative costs of 10 scenarios to increase petroleum product quality to Euro III, IV, and V levels.

Yamaguchi, Nancy; Fridley, David; Xiaoming, Ke

2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Adaptive mesh refinement for a finite difference scheme using a quadtree decomposition approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some numerical simulations of multi-scale physical phenomena consume a significant amount of computational resources, since their domains are discretized on high resolution meshes. An enormous wastage of these resources occurs in refinement...

Auviur Srinivasa, Nandagopalan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently...

Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

374

An Assessment of carbon reduction technology opportunities in the petroleum refining industry.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The refining industry is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial sector and therefore in the future can expect to face increasing pressures to reduce emission levels. The energy used in refining is impacted by market dictates, crude quality, and environmental regulations. While the industry is technologically advanced and relatively efficient opportunities nevertheless exist to reduce energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions. The opportunities will vary from refinery to refinery and will necessarily have to be economically viable and compatible with each refiner's strategic plans. Recognizing the many factors involved, a target of 15-20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from the refining sector does not appear to be unreasonable, assuming a favorable investment climate.

Petrick, M.

1998-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

375

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

376

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

377

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

378

Using a conformation-dependent stereochemical library improves crystallographic refinement of proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major macromolecular crystallographic refinement packages restrain models to ideal geometry targets defined as single values that are independent of molecular conformation. However, ultrahigh-resolution X-ray models of proteins are not consistent with this concept of ideality and have been used to develop a library of ideal main-chain bond lengths and angles that are parameterized by the {phi}/{psi} angle of the residue [Berkholz et al. (2009), Structure, 17, 1316-1325]. Here, it is first shown that the new conformation-dependent library does not suffer from poor agreement with ultrahigh-resolution structures, whereas current libraries have this problem. Using the TNT refinement package, it is then shown that protein structure refinement using this conformation-dependent library results in models that have much better agreement with library values of bond angles with little change in the R values. These tests support the value of revising refinement software to account for this new paradigm.

Tronrud, Dale E.; Berkholz, Donald S.; Karplus, P. Andrew (Oregon State U.)

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

379

Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

380

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

382

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

383

Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

384

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

385

Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

386

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

387

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

388

Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.7 5.9 3.9 12.7 W 16.6 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

389

Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains...

390

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

391

Parcel Per Parcel Toward A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CAof lifestyle on carbon emissions in the residential sector [an all-time low in carbon emissions, though most use overall

Živanovi?, Ana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A comparison of the performance of waterfloods using similar refined and crude oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFI, GODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFLOODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman f...

Walton, Daylon Lynn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Refine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://psu.summon.serialssolutions.comhttp://psu.summon.serialssolutions.com F I N A L LY : RESEARCH AS EASYAS 1-2-3 #12;1 Enter search term into search box. 2 Refine results relevant articles were published in that year. Include or Exclude subject terms from your searchRefine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand side of the results screen

Yener, Aylin

394

New perspectives on the cancer risks of trichloroethylene, its metabolites, and chlorination by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific developments in the 1990`s have important implications for the assessment of cancer risks posed by exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). These new developments include: epidemiological studies; experimental studies of TCE carcinogenicity, metabolism and metabolite carcinogenicity; applications of new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for TCE; and new pharmacodynamic data obtained for TCE and its rhetabolites. Following a review of previous assessments of TCE carcinogenicity, each of these new sets of developments is summarized. The new epidemiological data do not provide evidence of TCE carcinogenicity in humans, and the new pharmacodynamic data support the hypothesis that TCE carcinogenicity is caused by TCE-induced cytotoxicity. Based on this information, PBPK-based estimates for likely no-adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for human exposures to TCE are calculated to be 16 ppb for TCE in air respired 24 hr/day, and 210 ppb for TCE in drinking water. Cancer risks of zero are predicted for TCE exposures below these calculated NOAELs. For comparison, hypothetical cancer risks posed by lifetime ingestive and multiroute household exposures to TCE in drinking water, at the currently enforced Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) concentration of 5 ppb are extrapolated from animal bioassay data using a conservative, linear dose-response model. These TCE-related risks are compared to corresponding ones associated with concentrations of chlorination by-products (CBP) in household water. It is shown that, from the standpoint of comparative hypothetical cancer risks, based on conservative linear dose-response extrapolations, there would likely be no health benefit, and more likely a possible health detriment, associated with any switch from a household water supply containing <375 ppb TCE to one containing CBP at levels corresponding to the currently proposed 80-ppb MCL for total trihalomethanes.

Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Slone, T.; Gold, L.S.; Manley, N.; Revzan, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. The Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) was commissioned to conduct studies on pyrolysis of Rose Bottoms using spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and gasification of this carbon over a temperature range of 1,600 to 1,700 F. The Rose Bottoms (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) was produced in the Rose unit. Studies were done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to develop suitable catalyst formulations and to study the steam reforming of methane and propane in support of the experiments to be conducted in the TRTU. Studies were also conducted on gasification of coke breeze, petroleum cokes and carbon deposited on FCC catalyst. The catalytic effect of potassium on gasification of these solids was studied. Studies were conducted in the CFS (cold flow simulator) to investigate flow problems experienced in the TRTU. Results from these studies are presented in this report.

Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y.; O`Donnell, J.

1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

Ali, Muhammad Aslam [Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Lee, Chang Hoon [Functional Cereal Crop Research Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, 1085, Naey-dong, Milyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School (Brain Korea 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School (Brain Korea 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Thickness-based adaptive mesh refinement methods for multi-phase flow simulations with thin regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In numerical simulations of multi-scale, multi-phase flows, grid refinement is required to resolve regions with small scales. A notable example is liquid-jet atomization and subsequent droplet dynamics. It is essential to characterize the detailed flow physics with variable length scales with high fidelity, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, two thickness-based mesh refinement schemes are developed based on distance- and topology-oriented criteria for thin regions with confining wall/plane of symmetry and in any situation, respectively. Both techniques are implemented in a general framework with a volume-of-fluid formulation and an adaptive-mesh-refinement capability. The distance-oriented technique compares against a critical value, the ratio of an interfacial cell size to the distance between the mass center of the cell and a reference plane. The topology-oriented technique is developed from digital topology theories to handle more general conditions. The requirement for interfacial mesh refinement can be detected swiftly, without the need of thickness information, equation solving, variable averaging or mesh repairing. The mesh refinement level increases smoothly on demand in thin regions. The schemes have been verified and validated against several benchmark cases to demonstrate their effectiveness and robustness. These include the dynamics of colliding droplets, droplet motions in a microchannel, and atomization of liquid impinging jets. Overall, the thickness-based refinement technique provides highly adaptive meshes for problems with thin regions in an efficient and fully automatic manner.

Chen, Xiaodong [The State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Vigor, E-mail: vigor.yang@aerospace.gatech.edu [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

AFCI Transmutation Fuel Processes and By-Products Planning: Interim Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program are to reduce high-level waste volume, reduce long-lived and radiotoxic elements, and reclaim valuable energy content of spent nuclear fuel. The AFCI chartered the Fuel Development Working Group (FDWG) to develop advanced fuels in support of the AFCI goals. The FDWG organized a phased strategy of fuel development that is designed to match the needs of the AFCI program: Phase 1 - High-burnup fuels for light-water reactors (LWRs) and tri-isotopic (TRISO) fuel for gas-cooled reactors Phase 2 – Mixed oxide fuels with minor actinides for LWRs, Am transmutation targets for LWRs, inert matrix fuels for LWRs, and TRISO fuel containing Pu and other transuranium for gas-cooled reactors Phase 3 – Fertile free or low-fertile metal, ceramic, ceramic dispersed in a metal matrix (CERMET), and ceramics dispersed in a ceramic matrix (CERCER) that would be used primarily in fast reactors. Development of advanced fuels requires the fabrication, assembly, and irradiation of prototypic fuel under bounding reactor conditions. At specialized national laboratory facilities small quantities of actinides are being fabricated into such fuel for irradiation tests. Fabrication of demonstration quantities of selected fuels for qualification testing is needed but not currently feasible, because existing manual glovebox fabrication approaches result in significant radiation exposures when larger quantities of actinides are involved. The earliest demonstration test fuels needed in the AFCI program are expected to be variants of commercial mixed oxide fuel for use in an LWR as lead test assemblies. Manufacture of such test assemblies will require isolated fabrication lines at a facility not currently available in the U.S. Such facilities are now being planned as part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). Adequate planning for and specification of actinide fuel fabrication facilities capable of producing transmutation fuels dictates the need for detailed process flows, mass balances, batch size data, and radiological dose estimates. Full definition of the materials that will need to be handled in the facility as feed material inputs, in-process fuel, scrap recycle, scrap requiring recovery, and by-product wastes is required. The feed material for demonstrating transmutation fuel fabrication will need to come from the separations of actinides from spent nuclear fuel processed in the same AFCF.

Eric L. Shaber

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fast and Effective Query Refinement Bienvenido V'elez 1 , Ron Weiss 1 , Mark A. Sheldon 2 , David K. Gifford 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast and Effective Query Refinement Bienvenido V'elez 1 , Ron Weiss 1 , Mark A. Sheldon 2 , David K Corporation Abstract Query Refinement is an essential information retrieval tool that interactively recommends­ cal query refinement algorithm that refines multiple term queries by dynamically combining precomputed

Gifford, David K.

402

The third, use of quantum mechanics to evaluate the molecular energy and forces, holds promise for future refinements when applied wholesale,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for future refinements when applied wholesale, but is already capable of producing valuable insight when

Sali, Andrej

403

Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

Ali, M.S.S. (Bahrain National Oil Co., Awali (Bahrain))

1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, February--May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon the laboratory treatment of six wastes with three by-products and the evaluation of the stability of the resulting eighteen materials. Other efforts during the third quarter have been directed toward completion of the collection and analysis of by-products, the identification of a suitable fourth by-product, and the definition of the approach to the solidification tests. The activity on the project during the third quarter of Phase One has fallen into three major areas: acquiring and analyzing by-products; treating hazardous wastes with by-products in the laboratory and analyzing the results; and conducting administrative activities, including public relations and personnel additions. The hazardous wastes that are used include industrial wastewater treatment residue from battery manufacturing plant; contaminated soil from a remediation project conducted at a munitions depot; contaminated soil from a remediation project conducted at an abandoned industrial site; contaminated soil from a remediation project conducted at a former sewage treatment plant; air pollution control dust from basic oxygen furnace steel production; and air pollution control ash from municipal waste incineration.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Empirical examination of allegations of ''below-cost'' retail selling of gasoline by refiners: Research study No. 038  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is alleged by some dealers that (major) refiners consistently sell their gasoline through directly operated stations at retail prices below the prices charged to resellers. The results of this examination, involving more than 2000 price comparisons, failed to reveal a single instance where the average monthly retail price at refiner operated stations was below the price charged resellers by refiners. This result obtained not only for all gasoline sales by major refiners, but also for specific grades of gasoline sold by all refiners. Moreover, a large majority of the average monthly price differentials were greater than 6 cents per gallon, and exceeded 10 cents per gallon in a significant number of instances. Thus, the data do not support the allegation of widespread ''below-cost'' selling by refiners through outlets which they own and operate. Therefore, the rationale offered for legislation mandating retail divorcement, or prohibiting ''below-cost'' is not supported by the evidence. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Hogarty, T.F.; Lindstrom, P.M.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Refined Topological Vertex, Cylindric Partitions and the U(1) Adjoint Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the partition function of the compactified 5D U(1) gauge theory (in the Omega-background) with a single adjoint hypermultiplet, calculated using the refined topological vertex. We show that this partition function is an example a periodic Schur process and is a refinement of the generating function of cylindric plane partitions. The size of the cylinder is given by the mass of adjoint hypermultiplet and the parameters of the Omega-background. We also show that this partition function can be written as a trace of operators which are generalizations of vertex operators studied by Carlsson and Okounkov. In the last part of the paper we describe a way to obtain (q,t) identities using the refined topological vertex.

Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz; Khurram Shabbir

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Refined Glauber model versus Faddeev calculations and experimental data for pd spin observables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spin-dependent observables in intermediate-energy pd elastic scattering within the framework of the refined Glauber model are considered. The improvements include an account of all ten pp and pn helicity amplitudes at respective energies constructed on the basis of modern phase-shift analysis, accurate deuteron wave functions taken from the modern NN force model and account of charge-exchange effects. Predictions of the refined diffraction model for differential cross section and analyzing powers are compared with exact three-body Faddeev calculations and the recent experimental data. An amazingly good agreement between the results of both theoretical approaches as well as between the refined Glauber model and experiment in a wide angular range not only for differential cross section but also for vector and tensor analyzing powers has been found for the first time. Possible reasons for this agreement are discussed.

Platonova, M. N.; Kukulin, V. I. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow RU-119991 (Russian Federation)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Liquid-liquid extraction as the means of refining cottonseed oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY A 4 AI CvLLEGE OF TEXAS LIOVID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OI REFINING CCTTONSEFZ OIL A Thesis By 1'RVUBHAI CHIINIBHAI PATEL a 0 U z A R 0 Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Auuust 1996 Major Subject Chemical ineeri LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OF REFINING COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis By MANUBHAI CHUNIBHAI PATEL Approved as to style...

Patel, Manubhai Chunibhai

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Circuit QED: Implementation of the three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a protocol to construct the 35 $f$-controlled phase gates of a three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm, by using single-qubit $\\sigma_z$ gates, two-qubit controlled phase gates, and two-target-qubit controlled phase gates. Using this protocol, we discuss how to implement the three-qubit refined DJ algorithm with superconducting transmon qutrits resonantly coupled to a single cavity. Our numerical calculation shows that implementation of this quantum algorithm is feasible within the present circuit QED technique. The experimental realization of this algorithm would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in circuit QED.

Qi-Ping Su; Chui-Ping Yang

2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Comparison of the refined analytic and the Burghelea-Haller torsions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The refined analytic torsion associated to a flat vector bundle over a closed odd-dimensional manifold canonically defines a quadratic form $\\tau$ on the determinant line of the cohomology. Both $\\tau$ and the Burghelea-Haller torsion are refinements of the Ray-Singer torsion. We show that whenever the Burghelea-Haller torsion is defined it is equal to $\\pm\\tau$. As an application we obtain new results about the Burghelea-Haller torsion. In particular, we prove a weak version of the Burghelea-Haller conjecture relating their torsion with the square of the Farber-Turaev combinatorial torsion.

Maxim Braverman; Thomas Kappeler

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Design refinements and support systems for Texas A&M Automatic Marine Corer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN REFINEMENTS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE TEXAS AQf AUTOMATIC MARINE CORER A Thesis by HERMAN GLEN HENDERSON, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1971 Major Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN REFINEMENTS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE TEXAS AAM AUTOMATIC MARINE CORER R m 8 CC m a m A Thesis by HERMAN OLEN HENDERSON, JR. Approved as to style and content by...

Henderson, Herman Olen

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cavity QED implementation of the multi-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically study the realization of a multi-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm using resonant interaction of many Rydberg atoms with a single-mode microwave cavity, in which the multi-qubit controlled phase gates could be accomplished efficiently. We show how to achieve a multi-qubit refined DJ algorithm in high fidelity, even in the case of a weak cavity decay and some imperfection. We argue that the required operations in our scheme are almost within the present experimental possibilities.

Wan Li Yang; Chang Yong Chen; Zhen Yu Xu; Mang Feng

2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Refined Error Estimates for the Riccati Equation with Applications to the Angular Teukolsky Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive refined rigorous error estimates for approximate solutions of Sturm-Liouville and Riccati equations with real or complex potentials. The approximate solutions include WKB approximations, Airy and parabolic cylinder functions, and certain Bessel functions. Our estimates are applied to solutions of the angular Teukolsky equation with a complex aspherical parameter in a rotating black hole Kerr geometry.

Felix Finster; Joel Smoller

2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

NWS Product Definition Document (PDD) for: Refinement of SPC Experimental Enhanced Resolution Thunderstorm Outlook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NWS Product Definition Document (PDD) for: Refinement of SPC Experimental Enhanced Resolution replaces an existing PDD, whose evaluation period expired on 15 February 2008, and revises the current SPC will also evaluate changes in the distribution of SPC forecaster workload and the ability to maintain

417

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

Peterson, Robert K. D.

418

Error estimation and anisotropic mesh refinement for 3d laminar aerodynamic flow simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Error estimation and anisotropic mesh refinement for 3d laminar aerodynamic flow simulations Tobias Leichta,b , Ralf Hartmann,a,b aInstitute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, DLR (German Aerospace Center-dimensional laminar aerodynamic flow simulations. The optimal order symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin

Hartmann, Ralf

419

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Refinement of protein termini in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by template- based methods is particularly important.1 For example, in recent CASP (Critical Assessments of techniques for protein Structure Prediction) experiments refinement methods have been evaluated both by consider- ing the extent of model quality improvement over the best available templates for template

Lee, Jooyoung

420

Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured...

Im, Jae-taek

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Proceedings of the conference on electron beam melting and refining - state of the art 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference proceedings summarizes state-of-the-art work in the field of electron-beam melting and refining, as presented at the 1996 conference. Papers are grouped as follows: invited papers; tutorial papers; electron beam melting related fundamentals; electron beam evaporation papers; and miscellaneous papers. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for some contributions to this proceedings.

Bakish, R. [ed.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

REFINING AND MAINTAINING THE OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE CEBAF SRF SYSTEMS *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFINING AND MAINTAINING THE OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE CEBAF SRF SYSTEMS * C. Reece, J. Benesch CEBAF at Jefferson Lab is striving to achieve its maximum reliability at the maximum deliverable energy beam time when CEBAF is run near its maximum energy. Operation at increased rf power levels has

423

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

425

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

426

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

427

Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

428

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

429

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

430

Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

431

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Multilevel Iteration for Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including support from Mobil Exploration and Production Technical Center, Dallas. 2 Supported by NSF grant; Abstract An adaptive local mesh refinement algorithm originally developed for unsteady gas dynamics are provided. #12; 1 Introduction. The numerical treatment of field­scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery

Trangenstein, John A.

433

Refined Asymptotics for the subcritical Keller-Segel system and Related Functional Inequalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refined Asymptotics for the subcritical Keller-Segel system and Related Functional Inequalities self-similarity for the subcritical Keller- Segel system in the radially symmetric two-dimensional case that the one-dimensional equation is a contraction with respect to Fourier distance in the subcritical case. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Estimation and projection of the demand for refined petroleum products in Iran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this study is to construct an econometric model for estimation and projection of oil-refined products in Iran based on the situation of the Iranian energy market. Part 1 reviews the existing literature and contains the salient socio-economic futures of OPEC countries in general and of Iran in particular. Explanation of the structure of Iran's domestic energy market (demand, supply, and price) is the main purpose of this part. In Part 2, the demand function for each refined petroleum product is analyzed, formulated, and estimated. The price and income elasticities of the demands for gasoline, kerosene, gas oil and fuel oil are analyzed and compared with those of other countries. In Part 3, after analyzing and estimating the demand functions for total refined products, first, the full model, including all the estimated demand functions is dynamically simulated over the sample periods (1955-1978) in order to evaluate the performance power of the model, then the amount of consumption of each refined product for the next decade (1979-1988), under three scenarios of the rate of growth of real GNP, 9%, 7% and 5% is projected.

Kianian, S.A.; Amin, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water with other domain decomposition and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction First­order linear hyperbolic interfaces that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling

Sharpley, Robert

436

A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water, the movement of aerosols and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction First­order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling of transport processes

South Carolina, University of

437

A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and Space Time Local Refinement Method for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cause severe numerical difficulties [1­5]. Conventional finite difference or finite element methods­Lagrangian methods; linear hyperbolic problems; local refinement techniques I. INTRODUCTION First-order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface

Sharpley, Robert

438

Refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment method for Mid-Atlantic tidal wetlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment method for Mid-Atlantic tidal wetlands (EPA of wetland resources across the Mid-Atlantic physiographic region, efforts are currently underway in a number of states, most notably Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia, to develop and implement wetland

439

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Use of Re-Refined Oil in Vehicle Fleets Copyright 1996 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A literature search to identify deleterious effects of using re-refined oil did not disclose any validated occurrences. Significant engine testing using re-refined lubricating oil is reported and no cases were discovered in which engine operation was affected negatively by the use of re-refined oil. The American Petroleum Institute (AFT) allows the use of re-refined base stock oils in the blending of end use lubricants. Based on oil sample testing performed in this research as well as other authoritative sources, it was determined that no significant chemical or physical differences exist between rerefined and virgin oils. Differences noted in this research were related to higher levels of polynuclear aromatics (PNA’s) in the re-refined oil. PNA’s

Timothy T. Maxwell; Glen Hagler; Jesse C. Jones; Raghu Narayan; Atila Ertas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modification of the EIC hydrogen sulfide abatement process to produce valuable by-products. Final report, May 4, 1981-May 4, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program of analytical and experimental studies has been carried out to develop modifications of the CUPROSUL process for the desulfurization of geothermal steam. The objective of the program was to devise practical means to manipulate the chemistry of the process so that the consumption of raw materials could be controlled and a variety of valuable by-products could be produced. The process had been demonstrated, at one-tenth commercial scale, for steam of the Geysers' average composition in a configuration which resulted in essentially complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The ability to control the extent of oxidation would increase process flexibility and extend its range of applicability to steams of widely varying composition. Preliminary market surveys of raw materials required for the process and by-products which could be produced indicated that controlling the oxidation of sulfides to produce elemental sulfur would probably be the preferred process option. Use of lime to treat sulfate-containing purge streams to produce by-product gypsum and ammonia for recycle or sale could also be justified for certain steam compositions. Recovery of ammonium sulfate alone from the purge stream would not normally be justified unless corecovery of other valuable by-products, such as boric acid, was possible at incremental cost. It was found that ferric sulfate was a highly effective, selective oxidant for the controlled oxidation of copper sulfide solids to produce elemental sulfur for sale and copper sulfate for recycle.

Offenhartz, P. O'D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A refined threshold theorem for (1+2)-dimensional wave maps into surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recently established threshold theorem for energy critical wave maps states that wave maps with energy less than that of the ground state (i.e., a minimal energy nontrivial harmonic map) are globally regular and scatter on (1+2)-dimensional Minkowski space. In this note we give a refinement of this theorem when the target is a closed orientable surface by taking into account an additional invariant of the problem, namely the topological degree. We show that the sharp energy threshold for global regularity and scattering is in fact twice the energy of the ground state for wave maps with degree zero, whereas wave maps with nonzero degree necessarily have at least the energy of the ground state. We also give a discussion on the formulation of a refined threshold conjecture for the energy critical $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills equation on (1+4)-dimensional Minkowski space.

Andrew Lawrie; Sung-Jin Oh

2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

443

A one-parameter refinement of the Razumov-Stroganov correspondence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and prove a one-parameter refinement of the Razumov-Stroganov correspondence. This is achieved for fully-packed loop configurations (FPL) on domains which generalize the square domain, and which are endowed with the gyration operation. We consider one given side of the domain, and FPLs such that the only straight-line tile on this side is black. We show that the enumeration vector associated to such FPLs, weighted according to the position of the straight line and refined according to the link pattern for the black boundary points, is the ground state of the scattering matrix, an integrable one-parameter deformation of the O(1) Dense Loop Model Hamiltonian. We show how the original Razumov-Stroganov correspondence, and a conjecture formulated by Di Francesco in 2004, follow from our results.

Luigi Cantini; Andrea Sportiello

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

444

Refined Topological Vertex and Duality of Gauge Theories in Generic Omega Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The partition functions of refined topological strings(A-models) are computed, which give rise to the circle-compactified five-dimensional supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories in generic (not necessarily self-dual) Omega backgrounds. Based on the slicing independence conjecture of refined topological string partition functions, it is demonstrated explicitly that the duality exists between $SU(N)^{M-1}$ and $SU(M)^{N-1}$ supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories, even in generic Omega backgrounds. It is found that the relations between string moduli and gauge moduli are deformed from the self-dual case. However if the duality map which preserves the ratio of the Omega background parameters q and t, is considered, duality maps of the gauge moduli are not changed from the self-dual case.

Kei Ito

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

445

Refined Partition Functions for Open Superstrings with 4, 8 and 16 Supercharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyse the perturbative massive open string spectrum of even dimensional superstring compactifications with four, eight and sixteen supercharges. In each of such cases, we focus on universal states that exist independently on the internal geometry and other compatification details. We analytically compute refined partition functions that count these states at each mass level. Such refined partition functions are written in a super-Poincare covariant form, providing information on how supermultiplets transform under the little group and the R symmetry. Various asymptotic limits of the partition functions and their associated quantities, such as the leading and subleading Regge trajectories, are studied empirically and analytically. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four supercharges, the partition function can be cast into the most compact form and the asymptotic formula in the large spin limit is derived explicitly.

Dieter Lust; Noppadol Mekareeya; Oliver Schlotterer; Andrew Thomson

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

446

Analysis of cadmium in undissolved anode materials of Mark-IV electro-refiner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mark-IV electro-refiner (Mk-IV ER) is a unit process in the FCF (Fuel Conditioning Facility), which is primarily assigned to treating the used driver fuels. Mk-IV ER contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation. (authors)

Yoo, Tae-Sic; Fredrickson, G.L.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B. [Separation Department, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

unknown authors

448

A consistent approach to large eddy simulation using adaptive mesh refinement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is discussed with particular attention paid to the issue of commutation of differentiation and filtering. Multi-level adaptive mesh refinement is proposed as a means of mostly avoiding commutation errors where increased grid resolution is required to capture key flow features. The strategy is to employ multiple uniform grids in a nested hierarchy using a constant-width filter for each grid. It is shown that commutivity of fine and coarse grid filters must be enforced in order to consistently relate variables at different refinement levels. Methods for treating fine grid boundaries and walls are also discussed. It is shown that errors associated with boundary treatments are small and localized.

Cook, A.W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

A refined Bloch group and the third homology of SL_2 of a field.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the properties of the refined Bloch group of a field to prove that H_3 of SL_2 of a global field is never finitely generated, and to calculate - up to some 2-torsion - H_3 of SL_2 of local fields with finite residue field of odd characteristic. We also give lower bounds for the 3-torsion in the H_3 of SL_2 of rings of S-integers.

Kevin Hutchinson

450

Grain refinement of cast niobium via equal channel angular extrusion/annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Production of 11 km Long Nb3Al Strand by Jelly Roll??????????.......... 10 7. Cryogen-Free 23 T Hybrid Magnet???????????????????? 11 C. Niobium Based Variable Capacitors???????????????????.......... 11 D. Niobium Based Electrolyte Capacitors...????????????????????????. 17 3. Goforth?s Strain Model????????????????????????... 18 H. Grain Refinement of Tantalum via ECAE/Annealing??????????????... 18 I. Previous Work on Cold-Rolled Niobium Bicrystal???????????????... 19 J. Previous Work of the Effects...

Bryant, Don O.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

451

Vacuum-induction melting, refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum-induction melting (VIM), refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Emphasis is placed on historical development, VIM equipment, crucible and mold design, furnace atmospheres, melting parameters, impurity pickup, ingot quality, and economics. The VIM procedures used to produce high-purity, high-quality sound ingots at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant are discussed in detail.

Jackson, R.J.

1989-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

452

Characterization of U-6Nb ingots produced via the electron beam cold hearth refining process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6% niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting, hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt/VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium and trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. This material was also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

McKoon, R.H.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales Volumes

454

,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSales

455

Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Constrained-Transport Magnetohydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh-Refinement in CHARM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the implementation of a three-dimensional, second order accurate Godunov-type algorithm for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD), in the adaptivemesh-refinement (AMR) cosmological code CHARM. The algorithm is based on the full 12-solve spatially unsplit Corner-Transport-Upwind (CTU) scheme. Thefluid quantities are cell-centered and are updated using the Piecewise-Parabolic- Method (PPM), while the magnetic field variables are face-centered and areevolved through application of the Stokes theorem on cell edges via a Constrained- Transport (CT) method. The so-called ?multidimensional MHD source terms?required in the predictor step for high-order accuracy are applied in a simplified form which reduces their complexity in three dimensions without loss of accuracyor robustness. The algorithm is implemented on an AMR framework which requires specific synchronization steps across refinement levels. These includeface-centered restriction and prolongation operations and a reflux-curl operation, which maintains a solenoidal magnetic field across refinement boundaries. Thecode is tested against a large suite of test problems, including convergence tests in smooth flows, shock-tube tests, classical two- and three-dimensional MHD tests,a three-dimensional shock-cloud interaction problem and the formation of a cluster of galaxies in a fully cosmological context. The magnetic field divergence isshown to remain negligible throughout. Subject headings: cosmology: theory - methods: numerical

Miniatii, Francesco; Martin, Daniel

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

457

Acta Cryst. (1992). B48, 42-59 Refinement of Rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris at 1.0 ~ with and without  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

42 Acta Cryst. (1992). B48, 42-59 Refinement of Rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris at 1- ing R(I) factor between symmetry-related reflections was 5.8%. The model was refined by least parameters and isotropic temperature factors for non-H atoms were used in the refinement. There were 18532

458

MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6 BRYAN A. BAUM, W. PAUL MENZEL, RICHARD A. FREY, DAVID C. TOBIN, ROBERT E. HOLZ,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6 BRYAN A. BAUM, W. PAUL MENZEL, RICHARD A the Collection-6 refinements in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational cloud Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) instantaneous cloud products throughout the course of algorithm refinement

Baum, Bryan A.

459

Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1-65/~ with Data from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

833 Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1 has been analysed and refined at 1-65 A. The space group is/222, with cell dimensions a = 93.9 (1), b data took less than 2 days. The coordinates of the Arthrobacterglucose isomerase refined

460

Adaptive Mesh Refinement Solution Techniques for the Multigroup SN Transport Equation Using a Higher-Order Discontinuous Finite Element Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, we develop Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques for the steady-state multigroup SN neutron transport equation using a higher-order Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM). We propose two error estimations, a...

Wang, Yaqi

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

On the Doubly Refined Enumeration of Alternating Sign Matrices and Totally Symmetric Self-Complementary Plane Partitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the equality of doubly refined enumerations of Alternating Sign Matrices and of Totally Symmetric Self-Complementary Plane Partitions using integral formulae originating from certain solutions of the quantum Knizhnik--Zamolodchikov equation.

T. Fonseca; P. Zinn-Justin

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

462

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Refined understanding of sulfur amino acid nutrition in hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops (male symbol) x M. saxatilis (female symbol)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to methionine supported the lowest responses. Inclusion of MHA or AlimetTM did not affect TAN excretion of HSB. These findings will aid in refining diet formulations for HSB to ensure adequate sulfur amino acid nutrition....

Kelly, Mark Christopher

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

Grain refinement using equal channel angular extrusion in bulk sections of copper 101 and aluminum alloys 3003 and 6061  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GRAIN REFINEMENT USING EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION IN BULK SECTIONS OF COPPER 101 AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS 3003 AND 6061 A Thesis by STEPHANE FERRASSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1995 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering GRAIN REFINEMENT USING EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION IN BULK SECTIONS OF COPPER 101 AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS 3003 AND 6061 A Thesis by STEPHANE FERRASSE...

Ferrasse, Stephane

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Review Chlorination Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water and Congenital Anomalies: Review and Meta-Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Objectives: The aim of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence, provide summary risk estimates of the association between exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) and congenital anomalies, and provide recommendations for future studies. Data s o u r c e s a n d extraction: We included all published epidemiologic studies that evaluated a relationship between an index of DBP exposure (treatment, water source, DBP measurements, and both DBP measurements and personal characteristics) and risk of congenital anomalies. When three or more studies examined the same exposure index and congenital anomaly, we conducted a metaanalysis to obtain a summary risk estimate comparing the highest exposure group with the lowest exposure group. When five or more studies examined total trihalomethane (TTHM) exposure and a specific congenital anomaly, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain exposure–response risk estimates per 10 µg/L TTHM. Data synthesis: For all congenital anomalies combined, the meta-analysis gave a statistically significant excess risk for high versus low exposure to water chlorination or TTHM [17%; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 3–34] based on a small number of studies. The meta-analysis also suggested a statistically significant excess risk for ventricular septal defects (58%; 95 % CI, 21–107), but this was

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen; David Martinez; James Grellier; James Bennett; Nicky Best; Nina Iszatt; Martine Vrijheid; Mireille B. Toledano

467

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Beta Inc. (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M. [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)] [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

A modeling approach for the purification of group III metals (Ga and In) by zone refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An 'experimental friendly' model for zone refining process is proposed which predicts effective zone length in each refining passes that would lead to maximal solute removal, thereby leading to ultrapurification of the material for use in high-end electronic applications. The effectiveness of the model is experimentally tested and validated by purifying gallium from 4N (99.99%) to 6N5 (99.99995%) purity level at 30% yield and {approx}6 N at 70% yield with respect to targeted metallic impurities such as, Zn, Cu, Al, Ca, Bi, Si, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Fe, as analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution coefficient (k) of all the targeted impurities, detected in the purified gallium, was found to be less than 1. By comparing the experimentally obtained axial concentration profiles with the theoretical calculations, the k values of some detected impurities, such as Ca and Al, are determined to be {approx}0.8, Pb and Bi to be 0.7, Cu to be 0.65, and Fe to be 0.68, which prove the efficiency of the proposed model in reducing the concentration of these vulnerable impurities significantly. Following the model and as evidenced from the theoretical predictions, degradation of material purification containing a mixture of impurities having k less than as well as greater than 1 was elucidated experimentally by zone refining of 4N6 indium. Only a 40% yield of 5N6 indium was obtained, thereby highlighting the intricacies and problem areas in ultrapurification of these types of material.

Ghosh, K.; Dhar, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92 A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Mani, V. N. [Ultra-pure Materials Division, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), IDA Phase-III, Cherlapally, HCL (Post), Hyderabad 500051 (India)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Anomalous Scaling and Refined Similarity of an Active Scalar in a Model of Homogeneous Turbulent Convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous scaling in the statistics of an active scalar in homogeneous turbulent convection is studied using a dynamical shell model. We extend refined similarity ideas for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence to homogeneous turbulent convection and attribute the origin of the anomalous scaling to variations of the entropy transfer rate. We verify the consequences and thus the validity of our hypothesis by showing that the conditional statistics of the active scalar and the velocity at fixed values of entropy transfer rate are not anomalous but have simple scaling with exponents given by dimensional considerations, and that the intermittency corrections are given by the scaling exponents of the moments of the entropy transfer rate.

Emily S. C. Ching; W. C. Cheng

2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

A new refined theory of plates with transverse shear deformation for moderately thick and thick plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we propose a new refined shear deformation plate theory which possesses a series of desirable features, the most salient of which are as follows: (i) The loads, which are generally considered to be applied on the middle surface of the plate, act on the upper surface of the plate; (ii) The equations are applicable to the calculation of the stresses in isotropic plates and provide the same order of accuracy as several theories with second order shear deformation effects; (iii) It constitutes a theory, in the sense defined by Love, since it gives easy expressions for application to problems in different fields in architecture and civil engineering

Valle, Jose Miguel Martinez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Refined reconstruction and calibration of the missing transverse energy in the ATLAS detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measurement of the missing transverse energy Etmiss is fundamental for many analyses at LHC. Good Etmiss resolution and calibration are essential for searches of new physics as well as precise measurements. We describe a refined reconstruction and calibration of Etmiss developed by ATLAS and its performances on events containing Z and W bosons. The data sample was collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about 36 pb-1. The determination of the absolute scale of the Etmiss, fundamental for determining systematic uncertainties in all analysis involving Etmiss measurements, is also presented.

Marianna Testa on behalf of the ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

474

Refined Cauchy and Littlewood identities, plane partitions and symmetry classes of alternating sign matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove and conjecture some new symmetric function identities, which equate the generating series of 1. Plane partitions, subject to certain restrictions and weightings, and 2. Alternating sign matrices, subject to certain symmetry properties. The left hand side of each of our identities is a simple refinement of a relevant Cauchy or Littlewood identity, allowing them to be interpreted as generating series for plane partitions. The right hand side of each identity is a partition function of the six-vertex model, on a relevant domain. These can be interpreted as generating series for alternating sign matrices, using the well known bijection with six-vertex model configurations.

Dan Betea; Michael Wheeler

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

475

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H.

1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

477

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium 6% niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Studies of the refining of crude cottonseed oil and its solutions in commercial hexane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oil. In a more recent patent (17) Clayton used 1.5 per cent by weight of 29 per cent ammonium hydroxide to refine soybean oil. The well-mixed oil and ammonia solution is heated to 200?F., then rapidly cooled to 150?F., and then centrifuged... neutralized by soda ash. The soap- stock is removed in a multi-tray thickener. The neutralized miscella is then washed countercurrently with dilute caustic soda solution then with water. It is claimed that this method substantially reduces oil loss...

Zeitoun, Mohamed Ali

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

Balaji, V., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Senthilkumaran, S., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry- 605014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lube refining byproducts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Microstructural refinement of W-Ni-Fe heavy alloys by alloying additions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This communication describes the effect of alloying additions on grain refinement in tungsten heavy alloys and the resulting changes in mechanical properties. The body-centered-cubic refractory metals, like molybdenum and tantalum, have total solubility in tungsten and a high solubility in the matrix. The solubility of the additive in tungsten provides a means to increase the strength by solid-solution hardening. Alternatively, the solubility of tungsten in the matrix is the key to grain growth and possible strengthening by a reduction in the grain-growth size.

German, R.M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Implementation of the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithn on a 3-bit NMR quantum computer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We implemented the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on a 3-bit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer, which is the meaningful test of quantum parallelism because qubits are entangled. All of the balanced and constant functions were realized exactly. The results agree well with theoretical predictions and clearly distinguish the balanced functions from constant functions. Efficient refocusing schemes were proposed for the soft z-pulse and J-coupling and it is proved that the thermal equilibrium state gives the same results as the pure state for this algorithm.

Jaehyun Kim; Jae-Seung Lee; Soonchil Lee; Chaejoon Cheong

1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

483

,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"BruneiReserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionNatural GasRefiner

484

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c : U.S.Welcome toTotala. Imported Refiner

485

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

486

,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative2. Occupancy ofAviationPrices" ,"ClickRefiner

487

Powder River Basin coalbed methane: The USGS role in investigating this ultimate clean coal by-product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past few decades, the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin has supplied the Nation with comparatively clean low ash and low sulfur coal. However, within the past few years, coalbed methane from the same Fort Union coal has become an important energy by-product. The recently completed US Geological Survey coal resource assessment of the Fort Union coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999) has added useful information to coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin has rapidly accelerated in the past three years. During this time more than 800 wells have been drilled and recent operator forecasts projected more than 5,000 additional wells to be drilled over the next few years. Development of shallow (less than 1,000 ft. deep) Fort Union coal-bed methane is confined to Campbell and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming, and Big Horn County, Montana. The purpose of this paper is to report on the US Geological Survey's role on a cooperative coalbed methane project with the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Wyoming Reservoir Management Group and several gas operators. This paper will also discuss the methodology that the USGS and the BLM will be utilizing for analysis and evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The USGS and BLM need additional information of coalbed methane reservoirs to accomplish their respective resource evaluation and management missions.

Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stanton, R.W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

Chugh, Y.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Refining Chandra/ACIS Subpixel Event Repositioning Using a Backside Illuminated CCD Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subpixel event repositioning (SER) techniques have been demonstrated to significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. ACIS SER models proposed thus far are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events, and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners. To improve the event counting statistics, we modified the ACIS SER algorithms to include 2-pixel split events and single pixel events, using refined estimates for photon impact locations. Furthermore, simulations that make use of a high-fidelity backside illuminated (BI) CCD model demonstrate that mean photon impact positions for split events are energy dependent leading to further modification of subpixel event locations according to event type and energy, for BI ACIS devices. Testing on Chandra CCD X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster indicates that these modified SER algorithms further improve the spatial resolution of Chandra/ACIS, to the extent that the spreading in the spatial distribution of photons is dominated by the High Resolution Mirror Assembly, rather than by ACIS pixelization.

Jingqiang Li; Joel H. Kastner; Gregory Y. Prigozhin; Norbert S. Schulz

2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

492

A refined empirical stability criterion for nonlinear Schroedinger solitons under spatiotemporal forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of travelling oscillating solitons of the cubic NLS equation under an external spatiotemporal forcing of the form $f(x,t) = a \\exp[iK(t)x]$. For the case of time-independent forcing a stability criterion for these solitons, which is based on a collective coordinate theory, was recently conjectured. We show that the proposed criterion has a limited applicability and present a refined criterion which is generally applicable, as confirmed by direct simulations. This includes more general situations where $K(t)$ is harmonic or biharmonic, with or without a damping term in the NLS equation. The refined criterion states that the soliton will be unstable if the "stability curve" $p(\\v)$, where $p(t)$ and $\\v(t)$ are the normalized momentum and the velocity of the soliton, has a section with a negative slope. Moreover, for the case of constant $K$ and zero damping we use the collective coordinate solutions to compute a "phase portrait" of the soliton where its dynamics is represented by two-dimensional projections of its trajectories in the four-dimensional space of collective coordinates. We conjecture, and confirm by simulations, that the soliton is unstable if a section of the resulting closed curve on the portrait has a negative sense of rotation.

Franz G. Mertens; Niurka R. Quintero; I. V. Barashenkov; A. R. Bishop

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

493

Hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement simulations of turbulent flows - II. Cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of turbulent gas flows in the intra-cluster medium and in the core of a galaxy cluster is studied by means of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations. A series of six runs was performed, employing identical simulation parameters but different criteria for triggering the mesh refinement. In particular, two different AMR strategies were followed, based on the regional variability of control variables of the flow and on the overdensity of subclumps, respectively. We show that both approaches, albeit with different results, are useful to get an improved resolution of the turbulent flow in the ICM. The vorticity is used as a diagnostic for turbulence, showing that the turbulent flow is not highly volume-filling but has a large area-covering factor, in agreement with previous theoretical expectations. The measured turbulent velocity in the cluster core is larger than 200 km/s, and the level of turbulent pressure contribution to the cluster hydrostatic equilibrium is increased by using the improved AMR criteria.

L. Iapichino; J. C. Niemeyer

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Environmental-control considerations in the production and use of solvent-refined coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an environmental-control study of the solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. The report complements a previous Argonne report: Assessment of Status of Technology for Solvent Refining of Coal (ANL/ECT-3, Appendix B). The current review separates discussion of environmental control into two broad sections: production of SRC fuels, both solid and liquid, and their utilization. Control technologies are briefly reviewed for the gas, liquid, and solid wastes generated by the production of SRC. For an SRC-I plant, producing solid product, potential waste streams are then identified and discussed in terms of applicable control technologies and promulgated EPA standards. The SRC-production section concludes with a discussion of the biological activity of certain products of an SRC-II plant, producing liquid fuel. The author summarizes recent experimental findings and recommends accelerated research at SRC plants to quantify the effects of biological activity and develop measures needed to reduce those effects. No unusual environmental-control problems have been detected in the combustion of SRC fuels. It is recommended, however, that more SRC combustion studies be made and that the solid and liquid fuels used in them be derived from a variety of parent coals. Such studies will establish the broad data base needed to demonstrate that SRC fuels burn efficiently within environmentally safe limits.

Huang, H.S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Baker, Fred S [ORNL; Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL; Boeman, Raymond G [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the National Seminar on Building Materials and Technology for Sustainable Developments, CEPT-SBST, Ahmedabad a leading role in the sustainable development of the cement and concrete industry in this century. Sustainable design and construction of structures have a small impact on the environment, use "green

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

499

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suitable for highway construction applications. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Scrapped tires are produced in the U. At the present time, landfilling is the major technique for scrap tire disposal in the country. Scrap tires used as economic advantages. Scrap tires are primarily composed of natural rubber, steel, synthetic rubber

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

500

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-28 REP-482 November 2002 Final Technical Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of