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1

City of Palmyra, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Palmyra Palmyra Place Missouri Utility Id 14400 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Residential -Electric Heat Metered Separately Residential Residential- Partial or All- Electric Heat Residential Security Light Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.1050/kWh Commercial: $0.1020/kWh Industrial: $0.0951/kWh

2

Bikini Atoll groundwater development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work.

Peterson, F.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

4

LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: LQ Energy (LDK Solar & Q-Cells JV) Place: Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based JV between...

5

Radiological cleanup of Enewetak Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For 8 years, from 1972 until 1980, the United States planned and carried out the radiological cleanup, rehabilitation, and resettlement of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. This documentary records, from the perspective of DOD, the background, decisions, actions, and results of this major national and international effort. The documentary is designed: First, to provide a historical document which records with accuracy this major event in the history of Enewetak Atoll, the Marshall Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Micronesia, the Pacific Basin, and the United States. Second, to provide a definitive record of the radiological contamination of the Atoll. Third, to provide a detailed record of the radiological exposure of the cleanup forces themselves. Fourth, to provide a useful guide for subsequent radiological cleanup efforts elsewhere.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations), (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field, (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic, and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Studies similar to (1) and (2) have been previously performed at Enewetak Atoll. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Predicting connectivity of green turtles at Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific: a focus on mtDNA and dispersal modelling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...velocity at 00 : 00 h each day, and is forced using wind stress, wind speed, heat flux and precipitation. HYCOM assimilates...mydas (Linnaeus 1758). Washington, DC: Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. 16 Limpus...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Helix Atoll JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: California-based JV developing products and financing mechanisms for small wind turbines. References: Helix & Atoll JV1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

9

The chronology of Funafuti Atoll: revisiting an old friend  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Quinn et al. 1991) and from Mururoa, Midway, Kita-daito-jima Atolls (Lincoln...hot spots. Funafuti Atoll is located midway between the Marshall Islands, which incorporates...falls related to the geological history of Midway Atoll. Geology 15, 454457. Lincoln...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option.

Robinson, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, A.C.; Hamilton, T.F.

1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll pour stocker Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scale 1 Summary: ,000,000 81002 Caroline Islands-Westem Part (OMEGA) 1,000,000 81007 Bikini Atoll to Mili Atoll (OMEGA) 1... ,000,000 81012 Namorik Atoll to Nonouti (OMEGA)...

12

Uncharted Waters: Bivalves of Midway Atoll and Integrating Mathematics into Biology Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of marine communities of Midway harbor andadjacent lagoon, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiianof hermatypic corals at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern

McCully, Kristin M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll kiritimati insights Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the Pacific atolls: lagoonal, organic matter-rich, Summary: -called kopara of the French Polynesian atolls and equivalent material from Kiritimati Island (Pacific Ocean......

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspects les atolls Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of AToLE met... . The AToLE initiative is - more than ever - highly relevant to broad scientific and societal needs Source: Renner, Susanne - Department of Biology,...

15

A Smoothing SQP Framework for a Class of Composite $L_q ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 28, 2014 ... Abstract: The composite $L_q$ (0

Ya-Feng Liu

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Stabilization of lead-contaminated municipal ash on Johnston Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Johnston Atoll is located approximately 700 nautical miles southwest of the Hawaiian Islands. Johnston Atoll is an unincorporated territory of the United States with operational control administered by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). The atoll serves as a storage and destruction site for chemical munitions under the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS). Previously, the atoll served as a site high and low altitude nuclear testing and more recently, principal overseas base to support the Nation Nuclear Readiness Program`s Safeguard C, which required the capability to promptly resume nuclear testing. Johnston Atoll is also managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as a National Wildlife Refuge. The atoll is comprised of four small islands, Johnston, Sand, North and East, surrounded by a coral reef. Most activities at the atoll are limited to Johnston Island (JI). The Solid Waste Burn Pit (SWBP) is located on the northwest end of JI, approximately 50 feet from the lagoon. Constructed in 1978 or shortly thereafter, the SWBP was utilized to burn refuse generated during the daily operation of the island. Part of the SWBP remains active and is still in use, burning nonhazardous waste material. In the inactive portion of the SWBP, hazardous materials such as batteries, paints, and solvents were burned in the past. This paper addresses the remediation of the inactive portion of the SWBP only.

Lear, P.R. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States); Gemar, D. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Ingoglia, M. [Pacific Air Forces, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Radiologoical Conditions on Rongelap Atoll: Recommendations for Visiting and Food Gathering on the Norhtern Islands of Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rongelap Atoll experienced close-in or local fallout from the U.S. nuclear test program conducted in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. By all internationally agreed scientific criteria, Rongelap Island is considered safe for permanent resettlement. However, the amount of bomb-related radioactivity in soil and vegetation is, on average, about 5 times greater in the northern islands of the atoll because the centerline of the fallout pattern from the 1954 thermonuclear ''Bravo'' test extended over this part of the atoll. The most important radioactive element remaining on the atoll is radioactive cesium (cesium-137). Cesium-137 emits what is called a ''gamma ray'' that can penetrate the body and deliver both an external (outside the body) and internal (from inside the body) gamma dose to inhabitants of Rongelap Atoll. Cesium-137 is taken up from the soil into locally grown foodstuffs such as coconut, Pandanus and breadfruit. Significant quantities of cesium-137 may also be found in coconut crab. The internal dose delivered to people eating these products will be directly proportional to the concentration of cesium-137 in the food and the amount consumed. The external gamma dose will depend on the concentration of cesium-137 in the soil and the amount of time spent in the area. The highest concentration of cesium-137 in surface soils of the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll is about equivalent to that measured on Bikini Island. Under the radiation protection criteria adopted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, permanent resettlement of these islands would require intervention because of the higher radiation doses that could potentially be delivered to inhabitants living on a diet derived largely from local foods. A more realistic lifestyle scenario is that the resettled population on Rongelap Island will occasionally visit the northern part of the atoll for food gathering, fishing and other recreational activities. It is estimated that a person spending 8 hours (1 work day) in the interior of the Rongelap Atoll northern islands will receive a maximum additional external dose of around 0.1-0.2 mrem per day. Furthermore, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's environmental monitoring continues to show that the marine environment contains very low levels of bomb radioactivity. Similarly, the occasional consumption of terrestrial foods including coconut crab from the northern islands is not expected to add significantly to the radiological health risk of living on Rongelap Island. The average annual effective ingestion dose for Rongelap Island resettlement in 2002 is estimated to be around 1-2 mrem per year when imported foods are made available and proposed remediation efforts take effect. This estimate is about twice that of the Rongelap Island resettlement worker population using direct measurements from the whole body counting program. Resettlement workers presently living on the islands receive an average internal dose from cesium-137 of less than 1 mrem (0.01 mSv) per year. These workers are known to eat locally grown foods and coconut crabs collected from the northern islands. The highest individual dose observed was 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) per year. Under the guidelines adopted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, it is concluded that diving, fishing and visiting any northern island of Rongelap Atoll are safe activities for limited periods. Eating local fish and other marine life such as clams would also be considered safe. Consumption of plant foods from the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll depends on successful implementation of specific remediation measures to ensure dietary intakes of cesium-137 remain at or below levels considered safe. The whole body counting program should continue to monitor the actual internal levels of cesium-137 among people eating plants and coconut crabs gathered from the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll islands until such time that the Nuclear Claims Tribunal guidelines are met.

Hamliton, T F

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Radiological Conditions on Rongelap Atoll: Perspective on Resettlement of Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most widely accepted international guidelines for protection of the public from ionizing radiation and in circumstances related to intervention strategies to reduce exposures to preexisting conditions, such as those on Rongelap Island, come from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and the International Atomic Energy Agency. By all internationally agreed scientific criteria, present radiological conditions on Rongelap Island are considered safe for permanent resettlement. Safe implies that no additional cancer deaths are expected among those living on Rongelap Island beyond the number that would occur in a community of the same population size, similar ages and mix of males and females, who do not experience exposure to residual fallout by living on the island. It is expected that the average dose received by Rongelap Island residents will fall well below the dose adopted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal considered a ''safe'' or acceptable health risk. These conclusions are supported by environmental measurements and assessments performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including the results of radiological surveillance of resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island for various lengths of time from 1999 through 2002, and independent studies conducted by Japanese scientists. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons was responsible for the widespread dispersion of radioactive fallout around the globe. Rongelap Island received higher levels of fallout from local or close-in fallout deposition from nuclear testing on Bikini Atoll. The main pathway for exposure to radiation from the bomb testing is ''internally'' through ingestion of radioactive cesium (cesium-137) taken up from the soil into locally grown foodstuffs. Resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island who ate local foods have volunteered to have the cesium-137 content of their bodies measured. The measuring device is called a whole body counter. A person relaxes in a chair for a few minutes while counts are taken using a detector a few inches away from the body. The whole body counting program on Rongelap Island was established under a cooperative agreement between the Rongelap Atoll Local Government (RALG), the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Local technicians from Rongelap continue to operate the facility under supervision of scientists from LLNL. Whole body counting data collected on resettlement workers during the initial phases of resettlement can tell us what exposure level a permanently resettled population could reasonably expect. The average internal dose to resettlement workers from cesium-137 is less than 1 mrem (0.01 mSv) per year. The highest individual dose observed over the last 3-years was less than 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) per year. The RALG-DOE resettlement support plan also calls for spreading potassium fertilizer across the agricultural areas to prevent the uptake of cesium-137 into plants. Fertilization will reduce the dietary intake of cesium-137 and reduce the dose to island residents. By 2004, over 70 percent of the cesium-137 deposition in soil from fallout in 1954 will have decayed to a non-radioactive substance. Over the next 10-20 years, more than one-half of the remaining cesium-137 in the soil and vegetation of the atoll islands will have disappeared by decay or washed out of the soil by rain. Removing some soil, applying crushed coral around living areas, and spreading potassium fertilizer across agricultural areas will reduce the level of radiation exposure in the resettled population to levels below those considered safe by the Nuclear Claims Tribunal and to levels well below those considered safe by the international scientific community.

Hamilton, T F

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Radiation Pneumonitis After Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: Evaluation of the LQ(L) Model and Different Dose Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the linear quadratic (LQ) model for hypofractionated radiotherapy within the context of predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP) and to investigate the effect if a linear (L) model in the high region (LQL model) is used. Methods and Materials: The radiation doses used for 128 patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy were converted to the equivalent doses given in fractions of 2 Gy for a range of {alpha}/{beta} ratios (1 Gy to infinity) according to the LQ(L) model. For the LQL model, different cut-off values between the LQ model and the linear component were used. The Lyman model parameters were fitted to the events of RP grade 2 or higher to derive the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The lung dose was calculated as the mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume (V) receiving doses higher than a threshold dose of xGy (V{sub x}). Results: The best NTCP fit was found if the mean lung dose, or V{sub x}, was calculated with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The NTCP fit of other {alpha}/{beta} ratios and the LQL model were worse but within the 95% confidence interval of the NTCP fit of the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The V{sub 50} NTCP fit was better than the NTCP fit of lower threshold doses. Conclusions: For high fraction doses, the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy was the best method for converting the physical lung dose to predict RP.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ishikawa, Masayori [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nijkamp, Jasper [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll national wildlife Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Changed Pupping and Hauling Summary: . Atoll Research Bulletin 103. 3 pp. US.Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986. Hawaiian IslandsNational Wildlife... Islands National...

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll netherlands antilles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Res. in Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles, Utrecht, Netherlands... of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. Atoll Research ... Source: Hedges, S. Blair - Department of Biology,...

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll coral biodiversity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coral development Figure 1.1. Coral reef types, including atoll, fringing, barrier and patch reefs... -7yearsasdeterminedbygrowthtracksinskeletalsections. Species diversity The...

24

The artist, the atom, and the Bikini Atoll : Ralston Crawford paints Operation Crossroads.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis explores Ralston Crawfords canvases painted after witnessing the events of Operation Crossroads at the Bikini Atoll in 1946. Commissioned by Fortune, the artist (more)

Gorski, Susanna Brooks

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Manhattan Project: Operation Crossroads, Bikini Atoll, July 1946  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Crossroads Baker, Bikini Atoll, July 25, 1946 OPERATION CROSSROADS Crossroads Baker, Bikini Atoll, July 25, 1946 OPERATION CROSSROADS (Bikini Atoll, July 1946) Events > Postscript -- The Nuclear Age, 1945-present Informing the Public, August 1945 The Manhattan Engineer District, 1945-1946 First Steps toward International Control, 1944-1945 Search for a Policy on International Control, 1945 Negotiating International Control, 1945-1946 Civilian Control of Atomic Energy, 1945-1946 Operation Crossroads, July 1946 The VENONA Intercepts, 1946-1980 The Cold War, 1945-1990 Nuclear Proliferation, 1949-present Even after the Trinity test and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, military officials still knew far less than they would have liked about the effects, especially on naval targets, of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, the Joint Chiefs of Staff requested and received presidential approval to conduct a series of tests during summer 1946. Vice Admiral W. H. P. Blandy, head of the test series task force, proposed calling the series Operation "Crossroads." "It was apparent," he noted, "that warfare, perhaps civilization itself, had been brought to a turning point by this revolutionary weapon."

26

Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during AprilAugust, while pieces were at their lowest during JuneAugust. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

Christine A. Ribic; Seba B. Sheavly; John Klavitter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of /sup 239 +240/Pu and lesser amounts of /sup 241/Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of /sup 239 +240/Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 ..mu..R/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 ..mu..R/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 ..mu..R/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 ..mu..R/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with /sup 137/Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(3), 1990, pp. 329-338 CAUSES OF MORTALITY OF ALBATROSS CHICKS AT MIDWAY ATOLL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AT MIDWAY ATOLL Louis Sileo, Paul R. Sievert, and Michael D. Samuel National Wildlife Health Research Center immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses

Schweik, Charles M.

31

Radionuclide concentrations in fish and invertebrates from Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As in other global studies, /sub 137/Cs was found in the highest concentrations in edible flesh of all species of fish and in the lowest concentrations in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global-fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, IL, USA, in 1982. Strontium-90 is associated generally with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sub 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sub 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle and other tissues of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sub 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is accumulated significantly in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 g of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines. 24 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

Stuart, M.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described.

Robison, W.L.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Reassessment of the potential radiological doses for residents resettling Enewetak Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation.

Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.

1980-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Ecological risk assessments for protected migratory birds and marine species at Midway Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In June 1997, the US Navy plans to close its Naval Air Facility on Sand Island and transfer the atoll to the US Fish and Wildlife Service for use as a National Wildlife Refuge. Midway provides breeding and feeding habitat for migratory seabirds, terrestrial and marine mammals, sea turtles and other reptiles, and a variety of reef fishes and invertebrates. As part of the base closure and transfer process, 36 sites of potential environmental concern were identified on Sand and Eastern islands. These sites include landfills and uncontrolled disposal areas, hazardous materials storage areas, abandoned transformers, sewer outfalls, and other potential hazardous waste sites. Potential contaminants include pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals. A screening ecological risk assessment was performed at each site with a goal of determining whether contaminants could pose any current or future risks to protected migratory bird or marine mammal wildlife species. Specific exposure pathways investigated were dermal and inhalation routes for ground-nesting and burrowing seabirds; incidental soil ingestion for shore birds; consumption for monk seals and sea turtles. Exposure analysis involved sediment and soil chemistry, marine invertebrate tissue chemistry, bioassays (bioavailability), and food web modeling. Effects analysis involved benthic infauna community analysis, acute and chronic invertebrate sediment bioassays, and extensive literature reviews. Risk characterization used both toxicity quotient methods and weight-of-evidence analysis. Because work by other investigators suggests that birds and perhaps marine wildlife acquire significant contaminant loads while feeding away from the atoll, on-atoll risk investigations had to consider whether atoll sites made significant marginal contributions to existing contaminant loads, particularly with respect to PCBs.

Scatolini, S.; Hope, B.; Lees, D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Meteorological Monitoring on bikini atoll: system description and data summary (May 2000 - April 2001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meteorological data are continuously collected at three sites on Bikini Atoll in support of radioecological research and monitoring programs conducted by the Health and Ecological Assessments Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Weather stations were first established on Bikini Atoll in April 1990, and provide information on rainfall, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, and solar radiation. These data and information are used to interpret results of remediation experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium fertilizer on reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally grown foods. We have also demonstrated that {sup 137}Cs is slowly leached from surface soil by the action of rain water. Long-term meteorological data are crucial to our efforts of developing an understanding of environmental processes controlling the environment loss of {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll soil. In May 2000, older data collection platforms and the DOS-based system that downloaded data from National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Data Automatic Processing System (DAPS) was decommissioned, and new data loggers, GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) transmitters and antennas were installed. Consequently, new procedures were developed to maintain the field systems, download the data, and reduce and archive the data. This document provides an operational description and status report on the three new meteorological monitoring systems on Bikini Atoll as well as an computational summary of previously recorded data. Included are overviews of procedures for sensor exchange, data recovery and reduction, and specific information about the different sensors. We also provide a description of systems maintenance and trouble shooting activities. This report will be updated on an annual basis.

Gouveia F; Bradsher, R; Brunk, J; Hamilton, T

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J. [ESR:Environmental, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)] [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation, soil, animals, cistern water, and ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 for 14 islands at Bikini Atoll. The data for the main residence island, Bikini, and the most important island, Eneu, are extensive; these islands have been the subject of a continuing research and monitoring program since 1974. Data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, and pigs from Bikini and Eneu Islands are presented. Also included are general summaries of our resuspension and rainfall data from Bikini and Eneu Islands. The data for the other 12 islands are much more limited because samples were collected as part of a screening survey and the islands have not been part of a continuing research and monitoring program. Cesium-137 is the radionuclide that produces most of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake by terrestrial foods and secondly by direct external gamma exposure. Remedial measures for reducing the /sup 137/Cs uptake in vegetation are discussed. 40 refs., 32 figs., 131 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Dudresnaya babbittiana (Dumontiaceae, Gigartinales), a new red algal species from Midway Atoll, North Central Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dudresnaya babbittiana I.A. Abbott et McDermid, sp. nov., is described from subtidal habitats at Midway Atoll, among the westernmost reefs and lagoons and series of islets in the Hawaiian archipelago. The new species differs in size, habit, internal rhizoids and auxiliary-cell morphology from the two species that have been previously described from the high islands of Hawaii about 1 400 km to the southeast, D. hawaiiensis R.K.S. Lee and D. littleri I.A. Abbott. Closest affinities appear to be with D. capricornica Robins et Kraft from tropical eastern and western Australia, which differs in having a much greater abundance of medullary rhizoids, more consistently present and larger hexagonal crystals in central-axial cells, a far less regular alignment of surface cortical cells, and differently structured carpogonial and auxiliary-cell filaments.

Isabella A. Abbott; Karla J. McDermid

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are large gaps in the understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into lower trophic level marine organisms and, subsequently to higher marine consumers, particularly for the North Pacific Ocean. In this study, twenty PCB congeners were quantified in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota taken from near-shore waters at Midway Atoll. PCB 138, 153, 180, and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analyzed. Bioaccumulation was shifted in favor of higher chlorinated congeners in all species; only aquatic macrophytes displayed significant accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho substituted congeners with toxic potency were below detection levels in the majority of species. Certain mono-ortho congeners, implicated in marine mammal toxicity, comprised only 4.5% of total congener load in potential forage species.

Titus, E. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Scatolini, S.; Cotter, J. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Honolulu, HI (United States); Hope, B. [Oregon Dept. of Environmental Quality, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

45

Updated radiological dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is part of a continuing effort to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Radionuclide concentration data developed at Bikini Atoll since 1977 have been used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to develop the annual dose rate and 30- and 50-y integral doses presented here for Bikini and Eneu Island living patterns. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant exposure pathway--it contributes more than 50% of the total dose--and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation. Cesium-137 produces more than 85% of the predicted dose; /sup 90/Sr is the second most significant radionuclide; /sup 60/Co contributes to the external gamma exposure in varying degrees, but is a small part of the total predicted dose; the transuranic radionuclides contribute a small portion of the total predicted lung and bone doses but do present a long-term source of exposure. Maximum annual dose rates for Bikini Island are about 1 rem/y for the whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and about 1.9 rem/y when imports are unavailable. Maximum annual dose rates for Eneu Island when imports are available are 130 mrem/y for the whole body and 136 mrem/y for bone marrow. Similar doses when imported foods are unavailable are 245 and 263 mrem/y, respectively. The 30-y integral doses for Bikini Island are about 23 rem for whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and more than 40 rem when imports are unavailable. The Eneu Island 30-y integral doses for whole body and bone marrow are about 3 rem when imports are available and 5.5 and 6.1 rem, respectively, when imports are unavailable. Doses from living patterns involving some combination of Bikini and Eneu Islands fall between the doses listed above for each island separately.

Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Thompson, S.E.; Conrado, C.L.; Stoker, A.C.

1982-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Independent verification of plutonium decontamination on Johnston Atoll (1992--1996)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Field Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (FCDSWA) (formerly FCDNA) contracted Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Technology Section (ETS) to conduct an independent verification (IV) of the Johnston Atoll (JA) Plutonium Decontamination Project by an interagency agreement with the US Department of Energy in 1992. The main island is contaminated with the transuranic elements plutonium and americium, and soil decontamination activities have been ongoing since 1984. FCDSWA has selected a remedy that employs a system of sorting contaminated particles from the coral/soil matrix, allowing uncontaminated soil to be reused. The objective of IV is to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial action. The IV contractor`s task is to determine whether the remedial action contractor has effectively reduced contamination to levels within established criteria and whether the supporting documentation describing the remedial action is adequate. ORNL conducted four interrelated tasks from 1992 through 1996 to accomplish the IV mission. This document is a compilation and summary of those activities, in addition to a comprehensive review of the history of the project.

Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Wilson, J.E.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Egidi, P.V.; Coleman, R.L.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Paleomagnetism of Midway Atoll lavas and northward movement of the Pacific plate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two deep drill holes through the reef limestones of Midway Atoll penetrated 120 m and 19 m of basaltic lavas that were dated by the \\{KAr\\} method at 18 my. Inclinations of natural remanent magnetization have been measured in 173 specimens cut from 57 core samples from 13 of the lava flows. The mean paleomagnetic inclination is27.6 6.8, corresponding to a paleolatitude of14.7 4.2. The present latitude of Midway is 28, suggesting a northward component of motion of the Pacific plate of approximately 13 or 1400 km in the last 18 my. The paleolatitude of Midway is thus not significantly different from the present latitude (19) of the active volcanic island of Hawaii. The paleomagnetic data from the Midway basalts thus support the hypothesis of Wilson and Morgan that volcanic heat sources are fixed with respect to the Earth's mantle below the asthenosphere and their apparent migration with time is due to plate motion.

Sherman Gromm; F.J. Vine

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.

Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in albatrosses from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrations of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs) were determined in plasma and liver of albatrosses collected from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The mean total concentrations of OH-PCBs in plasma of Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) were 11.5 and 27.1 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Total concentrations of OH-PCBs were only one- to fivefold less than those of total PCBs. 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime},6-heptachlorinated biphenyl and 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorinated biphenyl were the predominant polychlorinated biphenylols, constituting 70 to 90% of the total OH-PCBs. Concentrations of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in liver were between 10.6 and 77 ng/g, lipid weight, approximately 250 times less than those of total PCBs. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs congeners retained in the liver were dominated by those having the methylsulfonyl group in the 3-position.

Klasson-Wehler, E.; Bergman, A.; Athanasiadou, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Radiation-induced risk of resettling Bikini atoll. Final report, November 7, 1981-May 28, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu.

Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Accumulation and toxicity assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous chemicals that were used as additives in capacitors and transformers; and heavy contamination in the past of Midway Atoll, a national wildlife refuge, puts the wildlife, including the black-footed albatross (BFAL), at risk. In this study, we assess the profiles and toxicity of the individual PCB congeners at a natural equilibrium state in various tissues of 1-month old and 45-month old BFAL chicks and black-footed and Laysan albatross eggs found on the atoll. In the 1-month old chicks from Midway Atoll, the major seven congeners \\{PCBs\\} 99, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180 and 183 accounted for 3678% of the total \\{PCBs\\} in the various body parts, and the total PCB concentrations in the bird samples are inversely related to the total body weights. In the 45-month old chicks, these same congeners accounted for much lower percentages (726%) than in the 1-month-old chicks, with higher amounts of the less chlorinated congeners. The total toxic equivalents (TEQs) for all of the tissues in the 1-month old chicks ranged from 130 to 11,000pgg?1 (lipid weight, lw), and the total \\{TEQs\\} for the 45-month old chicks ranged from 18,000 to 100,000pgg?1. The average total concentration was 7.9 and 4.6?gg?1lw in the BFAL eggs and Laysan albatross eggs, respectively. The high concentrations could be accounted for by the age and PCB accumulation of the female producing the egg. The average \\{TEQs\\} were 70 and 90pgg?1 in the Laysan albatross eggs and BFAL eggs, respectively. This PCB concentration and toxicity information can be used to determine the toxicological risk of the BFAL chicks while nesting at Midway Atoll, and the analysis of the albatross eggs is an indication of the contamination of the female albatross at the time of egg formation, with the levels acting as an indicator of the total PCB body burdens that the females are experiencing. The information from this study is indicative of the toxicological risk to the seabirds that nest and feed near Midway and of the overall PCB contamination in the North Pacific Ocean.

Sarah A.L. Caccamise; Jun Wang; Liejun Wu; Lee Ann Woodward; Qing X. Li

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

55

A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Uncertainty analysis for an updated dose assessment for a US nuclear test site: Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of uncertainty and interindividual variability in estimated doses was conducted for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Predicted doses were considered for the following fallout-related exposure pathways: ingested Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, external gamma exposure, and inhalation and ingestion of Americium-241 + Plutonium-239+240. Two dietary scenarios were considered: (1) imported foods are available (IA), and (2) imported foods are unavailable (only local foods are consumed) (IUA). Corresponding calculations of uncertainty in estimated population-average dose showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to uncertainty in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its population-average value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). Corresponding calculations of interindividual variability in the expected value of dose with respect to uncertainty showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to interindividual variability in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its expected value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 were estimated to be 1.6 and 5.2 cSv under the IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively.

Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak atolls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs {sup 60}Co and {sup 217}Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and {sup 90}Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

An investigation into the prevalence of thyroid disease on Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the study was to obtain thyroid disease rate statistics on as much of the population as possible that was alive during the years of nuclear testing and to test the hypothesis that described a linearly decreasing prevalence of palpable nodules with increasing distance from the Bikini test site. 1,322 Marshallese born before 1965 were given a thyroid examination using neck palpation, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and high resolution ultrasound imaging. Approximately 40% of the total population living on this island who are at risk from exposure to radioactive fallout during the years 1946-1958 were screened. Of that group, 815 were alive at the time of the BRAVO test on 1 March 1954. Two hundred sixty-six people with thyroid nodules were found (32.6%): 132 were palpable nodules (16.2%), and 134 were nodules that could be diagnosed with ultrasound only (15.7%). Prevalence of palpable nodules was particularly high in men and women older than 60 y, in men who were 6 to 15 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test, and in women 1 to 10 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test. In 22 people, the clinical diagnosis was most likely cancer though histopathological evidence was only available from 11 operated cases. Of the 11 operated cases, 10 were cancer. Cancer prevalence was particularly high in those women born between 1944 and 1953 (7/220 = 3.2%), i.e., who were children during the early years of nuclear testing. The Ebeye data showed a marginally significant correlation between palpable nodule prevalence among women and distance to Bikini (r = -0.44, p = 0.06). This report summarizes the clinical findings of the thyroid examinations, the age distributions for nodular disease and cancer, and examines the relationship between prevalence of nodules and present day levels of {sup 137}Cs in the environment of each atoll. 22 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Takahashi, T.; Fujimori, K.; Kimura, N. [Tohoku Univ. Medical School, Sendai (Japan)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Metals in Albatross Feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of Species, Age, and Nest Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Female birds sequester some heavy metals in their eggs, which are then transferred to the developing embryo. Semiprecocial birds such as albatrosses are fully covered with down at hatching, but are dependent on their parents for food for many weeks. At hatching, levels of metals in the chick's down represent exposure from the female via egg, while levels in fully formed feathers at fledgling, several months later, represent mainly exposure from food provided by their parents. In this paper we examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. We collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. We test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression we found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. We also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated. Lead levels in the down and feathers of chicks close to nonabated buildings were 10 times higher than for chicks from other locations. Conversely, levels of cadmium and tin were lower near the buildings. Near lead-abated buildings, lead levels decreased as a function of distance, indicating residual contamination on the soil. Our results indicate that black-footed albatross adults and chicks generally have higher levels of heavy metals in their feathers than Laysans. Chicks of both species have higher levels in their down than in their contour feathers, indicating potentially higher exposure during the early chick phase.

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

An updated dose assesment for resettlement options at Bikini atoll - A US nuclear test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radio nuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, {sup 137}Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5 % of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.8 mSv, 14 mSv, and 16 mSv, respectively. 44 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Suspended plutonium aerosols near a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll in 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium aerosol monitoring was conducted for one month near the 1992 operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. Pairs of high volume cascade impactors and a high volume air sampler were located at each of three locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quote} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the-hot soil gate of the sorter, and the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, uncontaminated {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The three monitoring locations were extremely dusty, even though there were frequent rains during the period of operation. Total suspended particulate mass loadings were 178 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile, 93 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the plant area, and 79 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the clean pile during this period, when background mass loadings were 41 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There was no practical difference in the aerosol specific activity between the three locations, however, which had a median value of 3.64 pCi/g (135 Bq/kg). The aerosol specific activity is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the specific activity of the processed contaminant soil. This is about the same enhancement factor as found by other studies of road traffic, bulldozing, and agricultural operations. Specific activity of processed soil was 1.35 pCi/g (50 Bq/kg). The median mass-loading of the three downwind sites was 109 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (uncorrected for the sea spray contribution), so that the median concentrations in air using the median aerosol specific activity was calculated to be 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}). Measured Pu concentrations ranged from 280 to 1508 aCi/m{sup 3} (10 to 56 {mu}Bq/m3).

Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.F.; Johnson, J.S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll. [Pulmonary exposure from dust-borne plutonium aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and sea spray of 34 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of /sup 239 +240/Pu were 60 aCi m/sup -3/ in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m/sup -3/ over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m/sup -2/ year/sup -1/ over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 ..mu..m, which decreased to 2.0 ..mu..m above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h/sup -1/ to 12 aCi h/sup -1/ with intermediate values for heavy outdoor work and for light work in and around houses.

Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll (North Pacific Ocean)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To increase our understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into marine organisms, this study quantified 20 PCB congeners in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota (macrophytes, snails, urchins, bivalves, sea cucumbers, fishes) taken from Midway Atoll. \\{PCBs\\} 138, 153, 170, 180 and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analysed. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher (hexa- and above) chlorinated congeners in all species; only aquatic macrophytes displayed significant bioaccumulation of lower (tri- and tetra-) chlorinated congeners. Evidence is presented for the differential metabolism of congeners by marine species. Non-ortho substituted congeners (PCBs 77, 126) with elevated toxic potency were not present at significant levels in the sampled species. Certain mono-ortho congeners (PCBs 105, 118), implicated in marine mammal toxicity, comprised only ?4.5% of total congener load in prey for piscivorous birds and marine mammals.

Bruce Hope; Susan Scatolini; Eric Titus; Jeff Cotter

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Composition, distribution and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (e.g., DDE and DDD), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in 111 soil samples from the Midway Atoll. \\{OCPs\\} were found in all samples analyzed, with predominance of ?-HCH, p,p?-DDD and p,p?-DDT. The total concentrations ranged from 0 to 127ngg?1 with a median concentration of 17ngg?1 for \\{HCHs\\} and 1.4 to 643ngg?1 with a median concentration of 168ngg?1 for DDTs. The possible degradation pathways and potential sources of \\{DDTs\\} and \\{HCHs\\} were investigated. The total concentrations of \\{DDTs\\} and \\{HCHs\\} were used to evaluate the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ?DDTs and ?HCHs.

Jing Ge; Lee Ann Woodward; Qing X. Li; Jun Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Palmyra, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

402322°, -111.6988152° 402322°, -111.6988152° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.1402322,"lon":-111.6988152,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

66

Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

Stone, E R; Robinson, W

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

69

Uncertainty and variability in updated estimates of potential dose and risk at a US Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty and interindividual variability were assessed in estimated doses for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island would be treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Doses were estimated for ingested {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, external gamma-exposure, and inhalation+ingestion of {sup 241}Am + {sup 239+240}Pu. Two dietary scenarios were considered: imported foods are available (IA); imported foods are unavailable with only local foods consumed (IUA). After {approximately}5 y of Bikini residence under either IA or IUA assumptions, upper and lower 95% confidence limits on interindividual variability in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a {approximately}threefold factor of its in population-average value; upper and lower 95% confidence limits on uncertainty in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a {approximately}twofold factor of its expected value. For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 y were estimated to be 16 and 52 mSv under IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively. Under the most likely dietary scenario, involving access to imported foods, this analysis indicates that it is most likely that no additional cancer fatalities (above those normally expected) would arise from the increased radiation exposures considered. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Metal levels in feathers of 12 species of seabirds from Midway Atoll in the northern Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seabirds are excellent subjects for examination of heavy metals because they are long-lived, feed at different distances from land, and exhibit different trophic levels. In this paper we compare the levels of lead, cadmium, mercury arsenic, chromium, manganese, selenium, and tin in the feathers of birds nesting on Midway Atoll in the northern Pacific Ocean. We test the null hypothesis that there are no interspecific differences in the levels of metals in the feathers of the adult black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes), Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis), red-footed booby (Sula sula), great frigatebird (Fregata minor), Bonin petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca), Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis), red-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda), wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), brown noddy (Anous stolidus), sooty tern (Sterna fuscata), grey-backed tern (Sterna lunata), and white tern (Gygis alba), and young of some of these species. There were interspecific differences in the levels of all metals for adults. Christmas shearwater had the highest levels of lead, cadmium, selenium and manganese, but the second lowest levels of mercury. In general, metal levels were the lowest in the smallest species (white tern), but were not the highest in the largest species (black-footed albatross), except for manganese, arsenic and mercury. There was a high variance in metal levels among adults for some species, but not for others. White tern adults were variable for lead, while Christmas shearwaters were variable for lead and cadmium. Compared to the means for metals in other birds generally (after Burger, 1993), Christmas shearwaters had higher levels of lead, white terns, brown noddy, Christmas shearwater, frigatebirds and Laysan albatrosses had higher levels of cadmium, and bonin petrel, wedge-tailed shearwater, tropicbirds, frigatebirds, red-footed boobies, and both albatrosses had higher levels of mercury. Whereas the means for lead and cadmium were below the known effects levels, some individuals had levels high enough to cause adverse effects in the birds. The mean values for mercury in Bonin petrel, red-tailed tropicbird, and black-footed albatross were higher than the levels known to cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects.

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Midway Atoll (Hawaiian Archipelago)  

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Midway is well known for its role in the Battle of Midway. On June 3, 1942, a Japanese occupation fleet was spotted by a Midway patrol plane, and early on June 4 ... of planes to destroy the air base at Midway an...

James E. Maragos; Donald C. Potts; Barbara Maxfield

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Concentration and Distribution of Depleted Uranium (DU) and Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Air on Illeginni Island at Kwajalein Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Re-entry vehicles on missiles launched at Vandenberg Air Force base in California re-enter at the Western Test Range, the Regan Test Site (RTS) at Kwajalein Atoll. An environmental Assessment (EA) was written at the beginning of the program to assess potential impact of Depleted Uranium (DU) and Beryllium (Be), the major RV materials of interest from a health and environmental perspective. The chemical and structural form of DU and Be in RVs is such that they are insoluble in soil water and sea water. Consequently, residual concentrations of DU and Be observed in soil on the island are not expected to be toxic to plant life because there is essentially no soil to plant uptake. Similarly, due to their insolubility in sea water there is no uptake of either element by marine biota including fish, mollusks, shellfish and sea mammals. No increase in either element has been observed in sea life around Illeginni Island where deposition of DU and Be has occurred. The critical terrestrial exposure pathway for U and Be is inhalation. Concentration of both elements in air over the test period (1989 to 2006) is lower by a factor of 10,000 than the most restrictive U.S. guideline for the general public. Uranium concentrations in air are also lower by factors of 10 to 100 than concentrations of U in air in the U.S. measured by the EPA (Keith et al., 1999). U and Be concentrations in air downwind of deposition areas on Illeginni Island are essentially indistinguishable from natural background concentrations of U in air at the atolls. Thus, there are no health related issues associated with people using the island.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Gouveia, F J; Lindman, T R; Yakuma, S C

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

73

Radiological Conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for ResettlementRadiological Conditions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan: Preliminary assessment and recommendations for further study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiological Conditions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan: Preliminary assessment and recommendations for further study Radiological Assessment Reports Series 1998 (Vienna: IAEA) 43 pp 200 Austr. Sch. ISBN 92 0 104098 9 These two reports stem from requests to the IAEA, from the local Government Authorities, for help and advice in assessing the radiological situations at two former nuclear weapons testing sites. Both reports have similar general structures - a discussion of the geographical context of the sites; a summary of the weapon tests, and their continuing impacts on the local populations; the basis for the IAEA programme; radiological concepts and criteria in the context of the residual contamination arising from the tests, and specifically the bases for intervention and remediation; assessments of the present and future radiation exposures of the actual/potential residents of the areas; and conclusions and recommendations. Because the indigenous Bikinian population is at present relocated elsewhere in the Marshall Islands archipelago, the report for Bikini Atoll is essentially concerned with an assessment of the current radiological situation, the prospects for resettlement, and the justification and available strategies for remedial action to reassure the Bikinians that it would be safe to return. Since the cessation of testing at the atoll in July 1958, there have been continuing radiological surveys of the local environment - the latest being the Marshall Islands Nationwide Radiological Study under an International Scientific Advisory Panel. The Panel report was not accepted by the Marshall Islands Government, who then requested the IAEA to carry out an independent peer review. The IAEA assessment (with some corroboratory data from a monitoring mission) confirmed the estimate of 15 mSv a-1 for the total potential dose rate to individuals relying entirely on locally produced foodstuffs, mainly from 137Cs in coconuts and other fruits. An examination of existing guidelines and practice concluded that 10 mSv a-1 is an appropriate generic action level to trigger consideration of remediation strategies prior to resettlement. From five potential remedial measures, two were considered in more detail - removal and disposal of the surface 40 cm of the topsoil, and treatment of the soil with high potassium fertilizers. It was concluded that the former, although reducing the dose rate from the residual contamination to less than 0.1 mSv a-1, would entail unacceptable environmental and social consequences. Experimental investigation of the latter showed that it would reduce the uptake of 137Cs significantly, with the total dose rate rapidly declining to about 1.2 mSv a-1; it was also found that the application of fertilizer would have to be repeated every 4-5 years to sustain the reduction. The latter was, therefore, the preferred option together with some localised soil removal in the living areas of the village to reduce both the external exposure and the inhalation pathway. The sole remaining concern of the Bikinians appears to relate to the identification of a reliable authority to assume responsibility for maintaining the implementation of the countermeasure to reduce the 137Cs uptake into foodstuffs for the foreseeable future. If this concern can be resolved, it appears that the way is open for the resettlement of the Bikinian people on the atoll. The situation at Semipalatinsk is somewhat different in one respect - the site, although large, has unrestricted access and small numbers of people already live within the boundaries. After the request to the IAEA from the Kazakhstan Government for assistance, the initial objective was to determine the magnitude of the problem. This was achieved on the first mission to the site when the main areas of contamination were identified using information available from the local authorities, and radiation measurements and sample collections were made at identified places both within, and external to, the site. A second mission extended the range of measurements and sample

Dennis Woodhead

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by the natural radionuclides, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. Man-made radionuclides presently contribute less than 0.3% of the dose from these natural radionuclides in the marine food chain.

Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in the 0-4 cm surface layer are estimated to be less than 35% of the total inventory to depth in the sediment column.

Noshkin, V.E.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Concentration of Beryllium (Be) and Depleted Uranium (DU) in Marine Fauna and Sediment Samples from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands at Kwajalein Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel have supported US Air Force (USAF) ballistic missile flight tests for about 15 years for Peacekeeper and Minuteman missiles launched at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Associated re-entry vehicles (RV's) re-enter at Regan Test Site (RTS) at the US Army base at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) where LLNL has supported scoring, recovery operations for RV materials, and environmental assessments. As part of ongoing USAF ballistic missile flight test programs, LLNL is participating in an updated EA being written for flights originating at VFAB. Marine fauna and sediments (beach-sand samples) were collected by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and LLNL at Illeginni Island and Boggerik Island (serving as a control site) at Kwajalein Atoll. Data on the concentration of DU (hereafter, U) and Be in collected samples was requested by USFWS and NMFS to determine whether or not U and Be in RV's entering the Illeginni area are increasing U and Be concentrations in marine fauna and sediments. LLNL agreed to do the analyses for U and Be in support of the EA process and provide a report of the results. There is no statistically significant difference in the concentration of U and Be in six species of marine fauna from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands (p - 0.14 for U and p = 0.34 for Be). Thus, there is no evidence that there has been any increase in U and Be concentrations in marine fauna as a result of the missile flight test program. Concentration of U in beach sand at Illeginni is the same as soil and beach sand in the rest of the Marshall Islands and again reflects an insignificant impact from the flight test program. Beach sand from Illeginni has a mean concentration of Be higher than that from the control site, Boggeik Island. Seven of 21 samples from Ileginni had detectable Be. Four samples had a concentration of Be ranging from 4 to 7 ng g {sup -1} (4 to 7 parts per billion (ppb)), one was 17 ppb, one was 0.14 parts per million (ppm), and one was 0.48 ppm. These extremely low concentrations of an insoluble form of Be again indicate no impact on marine life or human health at Illeginni as a result of the missile flight test program. Concentration of Fe in marine fauna muscle tissue is much higher at Illeginni Island than at Boggerik Island (control site) as a result of legacy iron piers, dump sites for iron metal along the island, and scrap iron randomly distributed along extensive portions of the reef line as part of programs conducted in the 1960's through 1980's that were not part of the recent flight test program.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R

2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

77

Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

78

7KLV LV DQ DXWKRUGHSRVLWHG YHUVLRQ SXEOLVKHG LQ KWWSRDWDRXQLYWRXORXVHIU (SULQWV ,'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metabolites, 4-hydroxycyclophophosphamide, aldophospha- mide, acrolein and phosphoramide mustard (Joqueviel et

Mailhes, Corinne

79

Thin porridges (atoles) prepared from maize and sorghum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology of sorghum is still inadequate, good progress has been made in the production of flours acceptable for processing into foods. ~Rt t The raw flavor and consistency of cereals, beans, and seeds may be modified by roasting. Heat treatment...) Aguilera et al (1982) d) Doi et al (1980) e) Buckholtz et al (1980) f) Matz (1970) and other nuts and cereals are roasted in this manner. Roasting of grains and seeds eliminates raw flavor and produces a pleasant, fami- liar roasted flavor. The aroma...

Vivas Rodriguez, Nancy Esther

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

on the best possible character of the lq norm in some a priori ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 3, 2003 ... ?1. We denote by dg the bi-invariant Haar measure on G obtained ..... methods for solving elliptic equations, Nauka, Moscow, 1965. MR.

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

([SHULHQFHV IURP 8VLQJ 06& 80/ DQG 6'/ LQ WKH 'HYHORSPHQW RI WKH )$0( &RPPXQLFDWLRQ 0DQDJHU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was carried out in full at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. The FCM development reports was carried out in full at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. The first Stølen SINTEF Telecom and Informatics, Oslo, Norway Peter Mohn Deimos AG, Zurich, Switzerland DEVWUDFW

Stølen, Ketil

82

Marine Geophysics: A Navy Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seismic refraction studies of Bikini and Kwajalein atolls.Seismic refraction studies of Bikini and Kwajalein atolls.refraction studies of Bikini and Kwajalein atolls and

Shor, Elizabeth N; Ebrahimi, Carolyn L

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Siphonophores of the Pacific with a Review of the World Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sumatra Marshall Islands: Bikini Atoll (inside and outsideIslands (outside lagoon Bikini Atoll, inside lagoon Rongelapinside and outside lagoon in Bikini Atoll, inside lagoon in

Alvarino, Angeles

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Rise of Oceanography in the United States, 1900-1940  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Crossroads: The Navy, Bikini Atoll, and Americanat the Crossroads: The Navy, Bikini Atoll, and Americanat the Crossroads: The Navy, Bikini Atoll, and American

Han, Ki Won

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The language of militarism : engendering Filipino masculinity in the U.S. Empire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from atomic bomb tests off Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands,his painstaking work in Bikini Atoll, Mr. Fedalizo remembersairplanes go through that Bikini Atoll and Midway Island are

Suarez, Theresa Cenidoza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Uncharted Waters: Bivalves of Midway Atoll and Integrating Mathematics into Biology Education.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??To protect and conserve the Earth's biodiversity and ecosystem services, it is important not only to understand and conserve species and ecosystems, but also to (more)

McCully, Kristin M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Investigating the effects of higher spatial resolution on benthic classification accuracy at Midway Atoll .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Effective monitoring of coral reefs is important for ecological and economic reasons, and satellite remote sensing has been shown to be useful for mapping and (more)

Hatcher, Ervin B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Uncharted Waters: Bivalves of Midway Atoll and Integrating Mathematics into Biology Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

agents for heavy metal pollution (Sarver et al. 2003,heavy metal remediation by a small pearl oyster (Pinctada imbricata) farm at Port Stephens, Australia. Marine Pollution

McCully, Kristin M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoll french polynesia Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: .1365-246X.2007.03475.x GJISeismology Upper-mantle flow beneath French Polynesia from shear wave... broad-band stations deployed in French Polynesia from...

90

The Evolution of an Atoll: The Depositional and Erosional History of Aldabra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...into a broad shallow bank, with an almost flat ring-like rim around the periphery...then stood as a ring of narrow, low, rocky islets surrounding a broad shallow lagoon...glaciation left Aldabra as a steep-sided rocky island, perhaps up to 100 m high. This...

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Scripps Institution of Oceanography Contributions Index Vols. 1-39, 1938-1969  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy of coral reefs, Bikini and nearby atolls, Marshallrefraction studies of Bikini and Kwajalein atolls andin Bikini Lagoon ..... ... ...

Anonymous,

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Quantitative interface models for simulating microstructure evolution J.Z. Zhu *, T. Wang, S.H. Zhou, Z.K. Liu, L.Q. Chen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-814-865- 2917. E-mail address: zhu@ems.psu.edu (J.Z. Zhu). 1359-6454/$30.00 ? 2003 Acta Materialia Inc Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA Received 27 May 2003; received in revised form 22 of each model as applied to microstructure evolution in alloys. ? 2003 Acta Materialia Inc. Published

Chen, Long-Qing

93

:,/0$5 Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets :,/0$5 :LQG 3RZHU ,QWHJUDWLRQ LQ /LEHUDOLVHG (OHFWULFLW\\ 0DUNHWV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:,/0$5 Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets 1 :,/0$5 :LQG 3RZHU ,QWHJUDWLRQ a cost-effective integration of wind power in large liberalised electricity systems. The main recommendations concern reducing imbalances caused by wind power by bidding closer to delivery hour

94

Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Midway Atoll, and Kure Atoll (Antonelis et...Reef, and Kure Atoll, up to 6.4km2 at Midway Atoll (Juvik Juvik 1998). Subpopulation...sites (1984-2004). The exception was Midway Atoll, which was included even though...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Catalog of the Benthic Invertebrate Collections of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Echinodermata  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S 1265~.3'E Apr. 8, 1961 82m shell dredge Bikini Atoll,1946 Bikini Atoll,1946 Bikini Atoll, 1946 NAGA S9A 60-1077 Gulf of Thailand

Luke, Spencer R

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Early Bomb Radiocarbon Detected in Palau Archipelago Corals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based nuclear explosions at Bikini Atoll (11?35?N, 165?23?E)explosion on 1 March 1954 at Bikini Atoll liberated andsite is ~3400 km west of Bikini Atoll, where the largest US

Glynn, Danielle; Druffel, Ellen; Griffin, Sheila; Dunbar, R. B.; Osbourne, M.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

EARLY BOMB RADIOCARBON DETECTED IN PALAU ARCHIPELAGO CORALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based nuclear explosions at Bikini Atoll (11?35?N, 165?23?E)explosion on 1 March 1954 at Bikini Atoll liberated andsite is ~3400 km west of Bikini Atoll, where the largest US

Glynn, Danielle S; Druffel, Ellen R.M.; Griffin, Sheila; Dunbar, Robert; Osborne, Michael; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

COASTAL CHARTS Stock Number Title Scale =1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000,000 81002 Caroline Islands-Westem Part (OMEGA) 1,000,000 81007 Bikini Atoll to Mili Atoll (OMEGA) 1

Russell, Lynn

99

E-Print Network 3.0 - arno pllume jonne Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atolls (Motteler, 1986) are as follows - Ailuk, Arno, Bikar, Bokaak... , 1950b) from Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Rongrik, by Dawson (1956) from the southern atolls of Arno......

100

U.S. Department of the Interior USGS FS 2005-3128 U.S. Geological Survey November 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In 2003, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (Midway Atoll NWR) was chosen by the Laysan Duck Recov- ery). Once the site was selected, USGS and USFWS collaborated on restoration of Midway Atoll NWR to benefit CONSERVATION OF HAWAI`I'S UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES Translocation of Endangered Laysan Ducks to Midway Atoll

Torgersen, Christian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Keeley Belva 808.294.0932  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge/Battle of Midway National

102
103

The ACT vision mission study simulation effort Cornelia B. Wunderer a,*, R.M. Kippen b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alamos National Laboratory, Bikini Atoll Road, SM 30, NM 87545, USA c Space Science Center, University

California at Berkeley, University of

104

postdoc:Postdoc Program:Career Fair:2013:Shipping Info_2013.docx Shipping Information and Display Setup  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

address: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Attn: Jeanette Gallegos/Mary Anne With Bikini Atoll Road

105

SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-2864  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratory Bikini Atoll Road, MS F600 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract Sandia's Dakota software

106

Deep..CwaRe~earchI ~,ol ..141No ~ pp 4,1--.-k~2.lq~3 (~'41,3"r/~';~l~III 4.-(p(]lJ PrintedmGreatBritain ~ |'.~13PergamonPressLid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Slope Water species Spcctc,, al'q.lntlallces Oil a tr:uhng tlank transect (upstrcan! of the ttp from the colder, nutrient-richSlope Water to the north. Originally, the current witsregarded as a distinctbiogcographic~,lboundary separating the cold,Slope Water fauna to the north and west from the warm water

Ashjian, Carin

107

Heterogeneity and Depositional Variability of Reef Sand Aprons: Integrated Field and Modeling of the Dynamics of Holocene Aranuka Atoll, Republic of Kiribati, Equatorial Pacific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environment, 2007). These factors include bottom shear stress, wind shear stress, wave radiation stress, flooding and drying, barometric pressure gradient, momentum dispersion, evaporation, and sources and sinks (DHI Water and Environment, 2007). Three..., and which include a range of grain sizes, from coral-algal boulders and rubble to sand. Bathymetrically above and platformward of the spur and groove system, a pavement of encrusting coralline red algae forms the reef crest (James, 1983; comparable...

Wasserman, Hannah

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

A map of human impacts to a pristine coral reef ecosystem, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Kure/ Kanemilohai 2. Midway/ Pihemanu 3. Pearl & Hermes/28:635650 1. Kure 2. Midway 3. Pearl & Hermes Kilometers7.9), and Kure Atoll and Midway Islands are the atolls with

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Saratoga update Thoughts on the evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scuba- US Navy Bikini Atoll Chris Jackson 1946 Technology Ltd (SSTL) by Chris Jackson, after scuba- diving the wreck of the USS Saratoga in Bikini Atoll. ­ Now used on Disaster Monitoring Constellation

Wood, Lloyd

110

Seeking Signals in the Sea: Recollections of the Marine Physical Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Marshall Islands and Bikini Atoll in particular. All theof one of the islands of Bikini Atoll: a huge bonfIre, beer,in the lagoon, unlike Bikini during Mid-Pac, where we were

Shor, Elizabeth N

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Shipboard Report, Capricorn Expedition 26 September 1952 21 February 1953  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order as that found at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls. Duringof the volcanic layer beneath Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls andfor Subsidence. The evidence at Bikini now consists of (a) a

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Wave setup over a Pacific Island fringing reef O. Vetter,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Sargent [1948] based on visual observations at Bikini Atoll reef. More recent observations of wave setup

Boyer, Edmond

114

Structural and Functional Studies on a 3-Epimerase Involved in the Biosynthesis of dTDP-6-deoxyDallose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a soil-dwelling microbe first isolated from the Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Here we describe a combined

Holden, Hazel

115

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 17691780 Sedimentation in the Southern Okinawa Trough: enhanced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted by the US during AD 1952­1954 at the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The vertical offset between

Huh, Chih-An

116

7.21 Genus Cyphastrea 7.21.1 Cyphastrea agassizi Vaughan, 1907  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Japan, Hawai`i, and the Solomon Islands. Cyphastrea agassizi is also found in Bikini Atoll (Richards et

117

The Condor 113(3):518527 The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, un pequeño espécimen colectado en el Atolón Midway en el Océano Pacífico Norte fue identificado como. A NEW SPECIES OF SHEARWATER (PUFFINUS) RECORDED FROM MIDWAY ATOLL, NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS Una Nueva Especie de Puffinus del Atolón Midway, Islas Hawaianas del Noroeste Abstract. Small black

DeSante, David F.

118

Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...throughout the Main Hawaiian Islands and at Midway Atoll over 2000 km northwest of Oahu...the distance between Hawaii Island and Midway Atoll), whereas CES is recorded as 529...proteus was secondarily transported to Midway Atoll on the hull of a boat or on fishing...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

POSTGRADUATE MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is unlimited DEPTH ANALYSIS OF MIDWAY ATOLL USING QUICKBIRD MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGING OVER VARIABLE SUBSTRATES of Midway Atoll using QuickBird Multi-Spectral Imaging over Variable Substrates. 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark A is evaluated using a QuickBird high resolution multispectral image of the remote Midway Atoll

120

POSTGRADUATE MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESOLUTION ON BENTHIC CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY AT MIDWAY ATOLL by Richard K. Arledge Ervin B. Hatcher Classification Accuracy at Midway Atoll 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arledge, Richard K., Hatcher, Ervin B. 7 in the highly heterogeneous coral reef environment of Midway Atoll. It will evaluate the utility of Quick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pacific Islands Region News Release  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of twins ever documented ­ was brought to Honolulu from Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge aboard a US with the final goal of returning them back to Midway Atoll in the fall. The monk seal twins were born on Midway of the Midway twins was first identified on Kure Atoll in 1987. The twins were first observed on April 4

122

Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p{bar p} beams operating at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb{sup -1} of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of {sigma} < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 {yields} b{tau}) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of m{sub V LQ3} > 317 GeV=c{sup 2}. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are {sigma} < 360fb and m{sub V LQ3} > 294 GeV=c{sup 2}. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of {sigma} < 493fb ({sigma} < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is m{sub V LQ3} > 251 GeV=c{sup 2} (m{sub V LQ3} > 223 GeV=c{sup 2}) for the nominal (1{sigma} varied) theoretical expectation.

Forrester, Stanley Scott; /UC, Davis

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

SpatialSpatialSpatial Spatial Characteristics of Characteristics of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Islands 160W 20N 170W 150W 10N Johnston I Palau Papua New Guinea Federated States of Micronesia Gilbert CNMI 160E 180170E Marshall Islands 160W 20N 170W 150W 10N Johnston I Palau Papua New Guinea Federated Northern Marianas Guam Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Johnston Palmyra 10N Palau Papua New

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

124

Dose assessment, radioecology, and community interaction at former nuclear test sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. A total of 66 nuclear devices were tested--23 at Bikini Atoll (total yield of 77 megatons) and 43 at Enewetak Atoll (total yield of 33 megatons). This resulted in contamination of many of the islands at each atoll. The BRAVO test (yield 15 megatons) on March 1, 1954 contaminated several atolls to the east of Bikini Atoll some of which were inhabited. The author has conducted an experimental, monitoring, and dose assessment program at atolls in the northern Marshall Islands for the past 20 years. The goals have been to: (1) determine the radiological conditions at the atolls; (2) provide dose assessments for resettlement options and alternate living patterns; (3) develop and evaluate remedial measures to reduce the dose to people reinhabiting the atolls; and (4) discuss the results with each of the communities and the Republic of the Marshall Islands government officials to help them understand the data as a basis for resettlement decisions. The remaining radionuclides at the atolls that contribute any significant dose are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am.

Robison, W.L.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Ingush Grammar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

niilxa d.elx oalx talx xalx -lgh- joalghuu ghalghaa mulghashol+goara -lq- hwal+qoud -lgh- hwal+ghott 'garden fence' (

Nichols, Johanna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrate in aerosols on Midway Island, 1981 2000: EvidenceAtoll Samoa New Zealand Midway Fanning Greenland Coastalsources. The station in Midway Island (15), in central North

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

SURVEY OF THE FISHERIES FORMER JAPANESE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Kapingamarangi Atoll 25 E. Truk Islands .30 F. Palau Islands 39 1. Peleliu 39 2. Koror ' 39 3. Kayangel Islands 4

128

Timeline of Events: 1951 to 1970 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Test October 31, 1952: Mike Test The Atomic Energy Commission detonates the first thermonuclear device, code-named "Mike," at Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific. Read more December...

129

October 31, 1952: Mike Test | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1952: Mike Test October 31, 1952 The Atomic Energy Commission detonates the first thermonuclear device, code-named "Mike," at Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific. The device explodes...

130

SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT For LANS Welfare Benefit Plan for Retirees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the main office of the plan (Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Bikini Atoll, MS SM30, Los Alamos, NM 87545

131

Memories of War: Exploring Victim-Victimizer Perspectives in Critical Content-Based Instruction in Japanese  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

no rekishi: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Bikini [A history ofHiroshima, Nagasaki, and Bikini]. In A. Kurasawa et al. (Bravo hydrogen bomb test in Bikini Atoll prompted a major

Kubota, Ryuko

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Excerpt from Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

She demonstrates how the Marshallese term "bikini" andimages of bikini- clad female bod- ies function to obscurenuclear devastation in Bikini Atoll, the Marshall Islands,

Shigematsu, Setsu; Camacho, Keith L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Shores of US Empire: Islands and Geographies of Historical Struggle in the Literary Imagination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1987. Friede, Eva. ?The Bikini Explosion. ? The Gazette.University Press. 1993. Kili/Bikini/Ejit Local GovernmentCouncil. ?Bikini Atoll. ? 22 Feb 2007

Scheese, Emily Ann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Pour citer cet article Soraya Boudia, Naissance, extinction et rebonds d'une controverse scientifique : les dangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trouve à 160 km environ au nord-est de l'atoll Bikini dans les Iles Marshall, soit en dehors de la zone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

2012JINST7P03010 PUBLISHED BY IOP PUBLISHING FOR SISSA MEDIALAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Livermore, CA 94550, U.S.A. dLos Alamos National Laboratory, Bikini Atoll Rd., Los Alamos, NM 87545, U

California at Los Angles, University of

136

paratre in P. Bacot et A. Geslin (dir.), Insularit et scurit. L'le entre scurit et conflictualit, coll. tudes stratgiques internationales, Bruylant, 2014.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ces îles ont été le lieu d'expérimentations militaires, notamment les atolls de Bikini, Moruroa et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fungi. American... Republic. July, 1994. Consultant on Mycorrhizal Colonization in the Bikini Atoll. Lawrence Livermore... technology of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) through ......

138

Shipping Information and Display Setup Prior to the Career Fair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be shipped to the following address: LANL Bikini Atoll Road, SM-30 Mary Anne With, MS-M719 TA-00, 199, Drop

139

THE BEST SOBOLEV TRACE CONSTANT IN DOMAINS WITH HOLES FOR CRITICAL OR SUBCRITICAL EXPONENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE BEST SOBOLEV TRACE CONSTANT IN DOMAINS WITH HOLES FOR CRITICAL OR SUBCRITICAL EXPONENTS JULI in the Sobolev trace embedding H1() Lq() in a bounded smooth domain for critical or subcritical q, that is 1 embedding H1 () Lq () for critical or subcritical exponents, 1

Rossi, Julio D.

140

Synthetic active site probes for PKS and NRPS biosynthetic enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7R D VROXWLRQ RI WKH D]LGH PJ PPRO LQ 7+) P/ 33K PJ PPRO DQGM 6\\QWKHVLV RI %LRWLQ$]LGH %LRWLQ PJ PPRO D]LGRHWKDQDPLQH PJIRXQG 7R D VROXWLRQ RI WKH D]LGH E PJ PPRO LQ 7+) P/ 33K PJ

Meier, Jordan Leslie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Search for Pair Production of Second Generation Scalar Leptoquarks in ppbar Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=1.96 TeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a search for the pair production of second generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ_2) in ppbar collisions at the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 294 +- 19 pb^-1 recorded with the D0 detector. No evidence for a leptoquark signal in the LQ_2 LQ_2 -> muq muq channel has been observed, and upper bounds on the product of cross section times branching fraction were set. This yields lower mass limits of m(LQ_2) > 247 GeV for beta = Br(LQ_2->muq) = 1 and m(LQ_2) > 182 GeV for beta = 1/2. Combining these limits with previous D0 results, the lower limits on the mass of a second generation scalar leptoquark are m(LQ_2) > 251 GeV and m(LQ_2) > 204 GeV for beta = 1 and beta = 1/2, respectively.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Bentez, J; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besanon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Bhnlein, A; Bhler, M; Bscher, V; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clment, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; De, K; Degenhardt, J D; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Dliot, F; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garca, C; Garca-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelhaus, R; Gel, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grnendahl, S; Grnewald, M W; Guo, J; Guterrez, G; Guterrez, P; Gmez, B; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffr, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Kfer, D; Khl, T; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lesne, V; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajcek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Lvque, J; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Mttig, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Search for first-generation scalar leptoquarks in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 203 pb{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF experiment. We observe no evidence for LQ production in the topologies arising from LQLQ{yields}eqeq and LQLQ{yields}eq{nu}q, and derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the LQ production cross section. The results are combined with those obtained from a separately reported CDF search in the topology arising from LQLQ{yields}{nu}q{nu}q and 95% C.L. lower limits on the LQ mass as a function of {beta}=BR(LQ{yields}eq) are derived. The limits are 236, 205 and 145 GeV/c{sup 2} for {beta}=1, {beta}=0.5 and {beta}=0.1, respectively.

Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawaii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...kasmira proliferated rapidly, reaching Midway Atoll in the far northwest of the archipelago...the far reaches of the archipelago at Midway Atoll [42] over 2100 km from the release...21 18 0.98 0.02 0.036 0.018 Midway - - - - - - - - 40 33 0.99 0.01 0...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

Bliss, W. (comp.)

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Summary Annual Report For LANS 401(k) Retirement Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or any part thereof, write or call LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC, BIKINI ATOLL RD, SM 30, LOS ALAMOS of the plan at LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC, BIKINI ATOLL RD, SM 30, LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545, and at the U

146

ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment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

147

The relation GR = R allows us to lift the action of the group G by the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conformally and univalently onto [w:Rew>0}, T(oo)=oo, q>0 (Fig. i). positive .... We denote the obtained function by w t. It ... we have (l +r~e):u(lq-rMe) ~--.

2005-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

148

CeCap LLP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: CeCap LLP Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 2LQ Product: London-based investment boutique which provides investment advice to, and invests in, small to mediun size...

149

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 25(4): 931943 (October 2009) C 2009 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

January 2008 F Immature 215 Midway atoll a The 2007 Lana`i and the 1986 Kalaupapa stranding date represent for dwarf sperm whales). For the Midway individual, genetic analyses performed by the Southwest Fisheries

Baird, Robin W.

150

MFR PAPER 1071 Valued for meat and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F isheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96812. have an ex-vessel value in Koror, Palau Islands Reef (Fig. I). a mall atoll to the south-southwest of th e Palau Islands in the Palau Oi tnct. W estern

151

ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for the atoll communities, the major threat of climate change lies in the prospect of sea level rise. For the many inhabitants of the low-lying islands, a maximum freeboard of two...

152

Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base. (ACR)

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The ecology of coral-microbe interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algal symbioses. Molecular Ecology 18:1823-1833. Webster, N.F. Rohwer. 2008. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls inin Caribbean coral reefs. Ecology Letters 9:818-826. Porter,

Marhaver, Kristen Laura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Pelagic Fishing at 42,000 Years Before the Present and the Maritime Skills of Modern Humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Nukuoro Atolls, Micronesia . Micronesica...Belau Islands, Micronesia, Part...Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia...Washington, DC United States 2011 11 25...tables, sketch map United States 201211 10.1126...

Sue OConnor; Rintaro Ono; Chris Clarkson

2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

untitled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

annual report, or any part thereof, write or call LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC, BIKINI ATOLL RD, SM 30, LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545, (505) 664-0367. You also have the right to...

156

Notice of Intent to Investigate  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Director Los Alamos National Security, LLC Mail Stop A-100, Drop Point 03140071S Bikini Atoll Road, TA-3 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545-1663 Dear Dr. McMillan: This letter...

157

SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT For LANS Welfare Benefit Plan for Employees  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the annual report at the main office of the plan (Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Bikini Atoll Road, MS SM30, Los Alamos, NM 87545) and at the U.S. Department of Labor in...

158

LANL Contacts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

P.O. Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Shipping address Los Alamos National Laboratory Bikini Atoll Rd., SM 30 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Update, operating schedule Closures, delays,...

159

Castle series, 1954. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CASTLE was an atmospheric nuclear weapons test series held in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1954. This is a report of DOD peronnel in CASTLE with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

Martin, E.J.; Rowland, R.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE MARINE BENTHIC ALGAE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Pokak, Taongi), Likiep, Majuro, and Utrik (Utirik) in the Ratak Chain, and Bikini, Enewetak (Eniwetok, 1950b) from Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Rongrik, by Dawson (1956) from the southern atolls of Arno

Mcilwain, Jenny

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Microsoft Word - Shipping Info_2014.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

your shipment by the Career Fair: LANL Attn: Jeanette GallegosMary Anne With Bikini Atoll Road, SM-30 MS M714 TA-00, Bldg. 199 Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 Questions:...

162

Operation Crossroads-1946. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crossroads was the first peacetime nuclear weapons test series. It was conducted at Bikini Atoll in 1946. Report emphasis is on the radiological safety of the personnel. Available records on personnel exposure are summarized.

Berkhouse, L.; Hallowell, J.H.; McMullan, F.W.; Davis, S.E.; Jones, C.B.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Sea Off Southern California, A Modern Habitat Of Petroleum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1954, References Geology of Bikini and nearby atolls: PartAnalyses made at Guam and Bikini (Revelle and Emery, 1957)atomic bombs of the 1946 Bikini variety, these being rated

Emery, K O

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

MagLab - Travel Information to Los Alamos  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shipping address: Los Alamos National Laboratory Attn: RECIPIENT NAME NHMFL, MS E536 Bikini Atoll Road, SM-30 TA-35127O1U Los Alamos, NM 87545 For more information please...

165

The use of comparative {sup 137}Cs body burden estimates from environmental data/models and whole body counting to evaluate diet models for the ingestion pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rongelap and Utirik Atolls were contaminated on 1 March 1954, by a U.S. nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code named BRAVO. The people at both atolls were removed from their atolls in the first few days after the detonation and were returned to their atolls at different times. Detailed studies have been carried out over the years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls and estimate the doses to the populations. The contribution of each exposure pathway and radionuclide have been evaluated. All dose assessments show that the major potential contribution to the estimated dose is {sup 137}Cs uptake via the terrestrial food chain. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has carried out an extensive whole body counting program at both atolls over several years to directly measure the {sup 137}Cs body burden. Here we compare the estimates of the body burdens from the LLNL environmental method with body burdens measured by the BNL whole body counting method. The combination of the results from both methods is used to evaluate proposed diet models to establish more realistic dose assessments. Very good agreement is achieved between the two methods with a diet model that includes both local and imported foods. Other diet models greatly overestimate the body burdens (i.e., dose) observed by whole body counting. The upper 95% confidence limit of interindividual variability around the population mean value based on the environmental method is similar to that calculated from direct measurement by whole body counting. Moreover, the uncertainty in the population mean value based on the environmental method is in very good agreement with the whole body counting data. This provides additional confidence in extrapolating the estimated doses calculated by the environmental method to other islands and atolls. 46 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Search for first generation leptoquark pair production in the electron + missing energy + jets final state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a search for the pair production of first generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. In the channel LQLQ{yields}eq{nu}{sub e}q{sup '}, where q, q{sup '} are u or d quarks, no significant excess of data over background is observed, and we set a 95% C.L. lower limit of 326 GeV on the LQ mass, assuming equal probabilities of LQ decays to eq and {nu}{sub e}q{sup '}.

Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Golovanov, G.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Malyshev, V. L.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Yatsunenko, Y. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Jayasinghe, A.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M.; Svoisky, P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Acharya, B. S.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Bazterra, V. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

1981-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

168

Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am as well as naturally occurring /sup 40/K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. This document is the bibliography.

Schultz, V. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA)); Schultz, S.C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA)); Robison, W.L. (ed.) (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Acta mater. 49 (2001) 18791890 www.elsevier.com/locate/actamat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0016. E-mail address: chen@ems.psu.edu (L.Q. Chen) 1359-6454/01/$20.00 2001 Acta Materialia Inc and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA ( Received 17 July 2000 with strong elastic inhomogeneity. 2001 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

Chen, Long-Qing

171

Acta mater. 49 (2001) 463472 www.elsevier.com/locate/actamat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: chen@ems.psu.edu (L.Q. Chen) 1359-6454/01/$20.00 © 2001 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier University, University Park, PA 16802, USA ( Received 24 July 2000; received in revised form 15 September of a dislocation. © 2001 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

Chen, Long-Qing

172

Models for Mixed Irradiation with a 'Reciprocal-Time' Pattern of the Repair Function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......pattern of the repair function (R; Eq. (10)) assuming the...pattern of repair function (R) using the LQ model parameters...P. D., DeLuca, P. M. Jr., Peason, D. W. and Gould...Radiat Res 95: 4556. 3. McNally, N. J., Ronde, J. De......

Shozo Suzuki; Yuri Miura; Shoichi Mizuno; Yoshiya Furusawa

173

Search for second-generation leptoquark pairs in (p)over-barp collisions at root s=1.8 TeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have searched for second-generation leptoquark (LQ) pairs in the mu mu + jets channel using 94 +/- 5 pb(-1) of (p) over bar p collider data collected by the DO experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron during 1993-1996. No ...

Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion L.Q. Guo 1 abilities of deep formability and fatigue resistance [1,2]. As the main material of the automobile's body. The high susceptibility to atmospheric corrosion limits the automobile steel applications. Although

Volinsky, Alex A.

175

Upper bounds and asymptotics in a quantitative version of the Oppenheim conjecture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Upper bounds and asymptotics in a quantitative version of the Oppenheim variables. Let LQ = Q(* *Zn) denote the set of values of Q at integral points. The Oppenheim conjecture, the Oppenheim conjecture enjoyed attention and many studies, mostly using analy* *tic number theory methods

Eskin, Alex

176

Ris-I-2320(EN) Comparison between a PI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø-I-2320(EN) Comparison between a PI and LQ-regulation for a 2 MW wind turbine Niels K. Poulsen This paper deals with the design of controllers for pitch regulated, variable speed wind turbines where train, wings and tower are in focus. The test turbine is a 2 MW turbine used as a bench mark example

177

Enhanced Self-Focusing of an Ion Beam Pulse Propagating through a Background Plasma along a Solenoidal Magnetic Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Self-Focusing of an Ion Beam Pulse Propagating through a Background Plasma along.58.Lq, 52.59.?f Neutralization and focusing of charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma form plasma elec- trons. The effects of the enhanced self-focusing are of particular importance

Kaganovich, Igor

178

BOUNDS FOR SPECTRAL CLUSTERS HART F. SMITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lq BOUNDS FOR SPECTRAL CLUSTERS HART F. SMITH Abstract. In these notes, we review recent results] establish the same estimates under the assumption that the metric is C1,1. It is known by examples of Smith to the wave equation. The author was supported in part by NSF grant DMS-0140499. 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH

Smith, Hart F.

179

CX-005999: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

999: Categorical Exclusion Determination 999: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005999: Categorical Exclusion Determination Missouri Independent Energy Efficiency Program: Continental Casting, LLC - Compressed Air Improvements CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/31/2011 Location(s): Monroe City, Missouri Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Missouri Department of Natural Resources proposes to provide $69,066 of State Energy Program funds to Continental Casting, LLC, at the Monroe City Plant and the Palmyra Plant. Continental Castings is proposing lighting replacement and compressed air system improvement projects. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-005999.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-005998: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006024: Categorical Exclusion Determination

180

The rise and fall of the Aldabran giant tortoise population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aldabra atoll in the western Indian Ocean. Dashed line indicates...a radius of 56.4 m of that point was systematically searched...Assumption and Glorioso Islands, Indian Ocean. Proc. US Natl Mus...442. Gaymer, R. 1968 The Indian Ocean giant tortoise Testudo...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's atmosphere, it forms a high-density ionized plasma column immersed in the ionosphere between approximately 70 is an HPLA radar operating simultaneously at 160 MHz and 422 MHz on the Kwajalein Atoll. First, we and the background magnetic field increases, the signal strength falls off 3 to 4 dB per degree at 160 MHz

Oppenheim, Meers

182

Midway Islands: Language Situation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Midway Islands, a coral atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, is a U.S.-administered wildlife refuge currently closed to the public. The population now consists of about 40 people, the staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a division of the Department of the Interior. The official language of Midway is English.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

JIMAR ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2000 P.I. Name: Kim Holland, HIMB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Island of Hawaii to Midway Atoll at the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago. During the past year, additional tuna were tagged and released at Midway for an overall total of 1,619 releases from this location and adjacent seamounts. Initial recaptures suggest that the Midway releases might be especially

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

184

Submitted on February 16, 2007. Accepted on May 8, 2007. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, IB, Departamento de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundo, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: POLYCHAETA) FROM ROCAS ATOLL, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL 1 (With 3 figures) R?MULO BARROSO 2, 3 PAULO CESAR PAIVA 3, 1995). This paper describes the amphinomids species #12;358 R.BARROSO & P.C.PAIVA Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio

Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

185

MFR PAPER 1183 Helen Reef's large tridacnid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Giant Clam Stocks (Tridacnidae) on Helen Reef, Palau, Western Caroline Islands, April 1975 Philippines exploited. - INTRODUCTION Helen Reef is a small atoll lying on the southernmost border of Palau District. the Palau Marine Resources Office chartered the Oceanic Society's flagship New World in April 1975 to carry

186

Tridacnid Clam Stocks on Helen Reef, Palau, Western CaroUnels Sli~s WENDY HIRSCHBERGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tridacnid Clam Stocks on Helen Reef, Palau, Western CaroUnels Sli~s WENDY HIRSCHBERGER Introduction in the south Palau District, Western Caroline Is- lands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Is- lands.-Helen Island at Helen Reef atoll, in Palau's southwest islands. remote area is uninhabited and receives only

187

Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

ARM - ENA Contacts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory PO Box 1663, MS J577 Los Alamos, NM 87545 U.S.A. Shipping Address: SM-30 Bikini Atoll Road TA-51, Bldg. 82, DP 01U Attn: NAME, MS J577 Los Alamos, NM 87545 U.S.A....

189

Operation hardtack I-1958. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HARDTACK I was an atmospheric nuclear weapon test series held at Johnston Island and in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1958. This is a report of DOD personnel in HARDTACK with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

Gladeck, F.R.; Gould, K.G.; Hallowell, J.H.; Martin, E.J.; McMullan, F.W.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Operation REDWING 1956. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

REDWING was a 17-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapons test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in spring and summer 1956. This is a report of DOD personnel in REDWING with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

Bruce-Henderson, S.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Martin, E.J.; McMullan, F.W.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

1981-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Roses and Lavender Issue 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#ORRN#ZLWK#DV#PXFK#HTXDQLPLW\\#DV#KH FRXOG#PXVWHU1#+H#ZRXOGQ?W#DVN1#+H#QHHGHG 'R\\OH#RII0EDODQFH#LI#KH#ZDV#JRLQJ#WR#NHHS#KLP RXW#RI#WKLV1#,I#KH#ZDV#JRLQJ#WR#EH#IUHH#WR#DFW/ ZKDWHYHU#KLV#GHFLVLRQ1#$QG#KH#FRXOG#HDVLO\\ RXWZDLW#'R\\OH#LQ#FRQYHUVDWLRQ1 )DPLOLDU...#ZLWK#%RGLH?V#WDFWLFV/#'R\\OH SOD\\HG#KLV#RZQ#WUXPS1#?+H#VDLG#KH#ZDV#GLVDS0 SRLQWHG#LQ#PH1? ?:KDW"?#%RGLH#GHPDQGHG1#?:K\\"? ?:H?UH#IXFNLQJ#XS#WKH#DVVHVVPHQWV1? ?RII1#)RUFHG KLPVHOI#WR#VWRS#VSHDNLQJ1 ?

Multiple Contributors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Review: Miran tuhec: ive besede in prodorne misli. Antologija slovenske esejistike prve polovice 20. stoletja  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

105 2FHQH#15;#3;]DSLVNL#15;#3;SRURLOD#3;#3;5HYLHZV#15;#3;1RWHV#15;#3;5HSRUWV 0,5$1#3;78+(#3;,9(#3;%(6('(#3; ,1#3;352'251(#3;0,6/,#17;#3;$QWRORJLMD#3; VORYHQVNH#3;HVHMLVWLNH#3;SUYH#3;SRORYLFH#3; #21;#19;#17;#3;VWROHWMD#17;#3...;/MXEOMDQD#15;#3;WXGHQWVND#3; ]DORED#17;#3;#21;#19;#20;#22;#17;#3;#11;=EULND#3;%HOHWULQD#12;#17; 1DMQRYHMH#3; GHOR#3; UHGQHJD#3; SURIHVRUMD#3; GRNWRUMD#3;0LUDQD#3;WXKHFD#3;QDP#3;QD#3;SUHIL- QMHQ#15;#3;]YHGDY#3;LQ#3;SUHPLOMHQ#3;QDLQ#3;SULQDD#3; YSRJOHG...

Zgoznik, Vita

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

Review: Besedotvorni tematski blok na petnajstem mednarodnem slvisti?nem kongresu v Minsku (2013)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#20;#19;#28; 2FHQH#15;#3;]DSLVNL#15;#3;SRURLOD#3;#3;5HYLHZV#15;#3;1RWHV#15;#3;5HSRUWV Y#3; HNVSUHVLRQLVWLQR#3; VWLOQR#3; SDUDGLJPR#3; #11;#20;#28;#20;#23;#20;#28;#21;#22;#12;#3;RSUDYLOD#3;L]MHPQR#3;]DKWHYQR#3; LQ#3; REVHQR#3;GHOR#17;#3...;8VSHOR#3; ML#3; MH#3; ]DSROQLWL#3; YU]HO#3;PHG#3;HNVSUHVLRQLVWLQR#3;SRH]LMR#3; LQ#3; GUDPDWLNR#15;#3; GR#3; VHGDM#3; EROM#3; UD]LVNDQLPD#3; SRGURMHPD#17;#3; WXGLMH#3; V#3; SRGURMD#3;PHWD- IRULNH#3;]JRGQMH#3;HNVSUHVLRQLVWLQH#3;NUDWNH#3; SUR]H#3;XYU...

Voric, Ines; Stramlji? Breznik, Irena

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Committee Departm t Nember (Eember August 1981 111 ABSTRACT The use of Indole as a Potential Quality Index for Fresh Frozen, Cooked. and. Canned Shrimp. (August lq81) Olivia Hui-Fen Chang, B. S. , Fu-Jen University Chairman of Advisory Committee... in the canned shrimp. This study concludes that the absence of indole could not insure good quality in either fresh, frozen, cooked or canned shrimp. How- ever, the presence of indole indicates mishandling of shrimp before processing, eventhough...

Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

Posterior vs. Parameter Sparsity in Latent Variable Supplementary Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(1) The Lagrangian becomes: L(q, c, , ) = KL(q||p) + wt cwt + wti wti(Eq[fwti] - cwt) - · c (2, , ) cwt = - i wti - wt (5) setting this to zero gives us wt = - i wti. Knowing that wt 0 we will have to introduce the constraint i wti. Substituting into the KL term we have: yields: KL(q||p) = z p(z) exp

Plotkin, Joshua B.

197

Estimation of aboveground biomass and inorganic nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON MOUSER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lqBO Major Si bject: Forestry ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON HOUSER Approved...

Houser, James Nelson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The SeventhAsian Congressof Fluid Mechanics Dec8 -12, 1997,Chennai (Madras)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S~A~q~M'V"S!duI"Spoq1~wOM1~q1jOf.:)U~1S!stia:,~~qS!lq~1S~ --1u~II~:)x~~qL"~~:)J~!IJv.~~q101p~Jv.dwo:)P~1~:)!ldwo:)001Jv

Mittal, Sanjay

199

Fractionated Grid Therapy in Treating Cervical Cancers: Conventional Fractionation or Hypofractionation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the conventionally fractionated and hypofractionated grid therapy in debulking cervical cancers using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods and Materials: A Monte Carlo technique was used to calculate the dose distribution of a commercially available grid in a 6-MV photon beam. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of both the conventionally fractionated (2 Gy/fraction) and hypofractionated (15 Gy/fraction) grid therapy regimens to debulk cervical cancers with different LQ parameters. The equivalent open-field dose (EOD) to the cancer cells and therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from 114 patients were used to verify our theoretical model. Results: The cervical cancer and normal tissue cell survival statistics for grid therapy in two regimens were calculated. The EODs and TRs were derived. The EOD was only a fraction of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and the LQ parameters of both the tumor and normal tissue cells. The grid therapy favors the acutely responding tumors inside radiosensitive normal tissues. Theoretical model predictions were consistent with the clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Grid therapy provided a pronounced therapeutic advantage in both the hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated regimens compared with that seen with single fraction, open debulking field regimens, but the true therapeutic advantage exists only in the hypofractionated grid therapy. The clinical outcomes and our study indicated that a course of open-field radiotherapy is necessary to control tumor growth fully after a grid therapy.

Zhang Hualin [Department of Radiation Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)], E-mail: zhang.568@osu.edu; Wang, Jian Z.; Mayr, Nina; Kong Xiang; Yuan Jiankui; Gupta, Nilendu; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John; Montebello, Joseph; Martin, Douglas [Department of Radiation Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Yuh, William [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Minimal Index Surface Subgroups of Noneuclidean Crystallographic Groups  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......group G has the presentation with generators c10, cu, c20, c2U eu e2, and relators c2 lQ, c2 n, c\\Q, c\\x, (cwcu...El (2/-1,2/), (fl-l)/2 f(c2k-ul)=f(c2U))= n (2/,2/ + l), forl^A:^2r, >=' f{e2k-x......

Milagros Izquierdo

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A Note on Arbitrage and Closed Convex Cones Walter Schachermayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the negative orthant Lp -(, F, P) and s.t. C Lp +(, F, P) = {0}. If C is closed (w.r. to the norm-topology in the case 1 p r. to the weak-star topology in the case p = ) there is an element g Lq (, F, P-martingales. In 1990 C. Stricker ([St 90, Theorem 1 and 2]), extended Yan's result and applied it to Mathematical

Schachermayer, Walter

202

Development and Coil Fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb{sub 3}Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.

Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Jochen, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kovach, P.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore,, J.; Nobreaga, F.; Novitsky, I.; Peggs, S.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A. V.

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Development and coil fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m long Nb3Sn quadruple  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.

Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; /Fermilab /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Texas A-M

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cytogenetic characterization of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in Cobalt-60 irradiated human lymphoblastoid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The dose-effect relationships of cells exposed to ionizing radiation are frequently described by linear quadratic (LQ) models over an extended dose range. However, many mammalian cell lines, when acutely irradiated in G2 at doses ?0.3Gy, show hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) as measured by reduced clonogenic cell survival, thereby indicating greater cell lethality than is predicted by extrapolation from high-dose responses. We therefore hypothesized that the cytogenetic response in G2 cells to low doses would also be steeper than predicted by LQ extrapolation from high doses. We tested our hypothesis by exposing four normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines to 0400cGy of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay was used to determine the frequencies of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. To characterize the dependence of the cytogenetic damage on dose, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare the responses in the low- (HRS) and high-dose response regions. Our data indicate that the slope of the response for all four cell lines at ?20cGy during G2 is greater than predicted by an LQ extrapolation from the high-dose responses for both micronuclei and bridges. These results suggest that the biological consequences of low-dose exposures could be underestimated and may not provide accurate risk assessments following such exposures.

Gnanada S. Joshi; Michael C. Joiner; James D. Tucker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from {sup 137}Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y{sup -1}. The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} to 4.5 mSv y{sup -1}. The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

An Assessment of the Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the U.S. Nuclear Test Program in the Marshall Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different stable elements, and some natural and man-made radionuclides, were used as tracers or associated in other ways with nuclear devices that were detonated at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls as part of the U.S. nuclear testing program from 1946 through 1958. The question has been raised whether any of these materials dispersed by the explosions could be of sufficient concentration in either the marine environment or on the coral islands to be of a health concern to people living, or planning to live, on the atolls. This report addresses that concern. An inventory of the materials involved during the test period was prepared and provided to us by the Office of Defense Programs (DP) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The materials that the DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) ask to be evaluated are--sulfur, arsenic, yttrium, tantalum, gold, rhodium, indium, tungsten, thallium, thorium-230,232 ({sup 230,232}Th), uranium-233,238 ({sup 233,238}U), polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), curium-232 ({sup 232}Cu), and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). The stable elements were used primarily as tracers for determining neutron energy and flux, and for other diagnostic purposes in the larger yield, multistage devices. It is reasonable to assume that these materials would be distributed in a similar manner as the fission products subsequent to detonation. A large inventory of fission product and uranium data was available for assessment. Detailed calculations show only a very small fraction of the fission products produced during the entire test series remain at the test site atolls. Consequently, based on the information provided, we conclude that the concentration of these materials in the atoll environment pose no adverse health effects to humans.

Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Bogen, K T

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

2004-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of /sup 113m/Cd previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. /sup 113m/Cd has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States in an area contaminated only with global fallout debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (T/sub 1/2/ = 14.6 yr) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominant anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analyzed. Dose to man from /sup 113m/Cd ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be done at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the doseresponse relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (?/? = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant doseresponse relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

Karlsson, Kristin, E-mail: kristin.karlsson@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baumann, Pia; Wersll, Peter [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Drugge, Ninni [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Persson, Jan-Olov [Statistical Research Group, Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutkowska, Eva [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Tullgren, Owe [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lax, Ingmar [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Search for first generation leptoquark pair production in the electron + missing energy + jets final state  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We present a search for the pair production of first generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in pp? collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV. In the channel LQLQ ? eq?eq?, where q,q? are u or d quarks, no significant excess of data over background is observed, and we set a 95% C.L. lower limit of 326 GeV on the leptoquark mass, assuming equal probabilities of leptoquark decays to eq and ?eq?.

Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Aoki, Masato

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

211

Simulation performance of sampled receivers with narrowband signaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver: L = '2, 3V = 10, 20 and /3 = 0. 5 21 Sequence Error Probability for the Noninterpolating Receiver L = S, rV = 10, a. nd 13 = I, 0. 75, 0. 5, 0. '25 22 Receiver Comparison for 33 = 1 26 Receiver Comparison for t'3 = 0. 75 lq 24 Receiver... 8 10 12 14 16 SNR [dB] Fig. 5. Comparison of Performance Between Simulation Results and Analytical Lower Bound for the Viterbi Receiver: L = 1, N = 20, M = 16 and P = 1, 0. 75, 0. 5 10 v Lower Bound Beta = 1 Lower Bound Beta = 0. 75 Lower...

Matias Cavalheiro, Luis Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

212

A parallel textured algorithm for optimal routing in data networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is defined as [12]: fiw(j) 2 exf'-(j) (2. 13) 16 where f~(j ) denotes the flow on link (i, k) with destination j, and i, j, k, m E X The basic idea of this formulation is that each node in the network establishes its routing table. The routing table... of Network ORP, f (0), w = 1, 2, . . . ~W~; set l = 1, j = 1 and f (j ) = f (0), w = 1, 2, . . . , ~W~. 29 ( j denotes the number of iterations. ) Step 2: for processor i = lq to l?, do in parallel (2. 1) Compute e; (f(j)), for each m = 1, 2, . . . , (W...

Hsieh, Wen-Lin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

The effects of chlorine, washing and evisceration on microbial population and storage-life of fresh fish  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF CHLORINE, WASHING AND EVISCERATION ON THE MICROBIAL POPULATION AND STORAGE-LIFE OF FRESH FISH A Thesis by CHARLES MADE NEAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM Univ rsity in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Augu t 1977 Major Subject: Food Technology THE EFFECTS OF CHLORINE& WASHING lQ', D EVISCEPATION ON THE MICROBIAL POPULATION AND STORAGE-LIFE OF FRESH FISH A Thesis by CHARLES WADE NEAL Approved as to style and content...

Neal, Charles Wade

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

214

Suitability of salt-gradient solar ponds for electrical power generation in the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Guam, and American Samoa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The procedures and findings of a study to assess the suitability of salt-gradient solar ponds for base-load (firm) electricity generation in the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), Guam and American Samoa are described. The general conclusion is that solar pond power plants (SPPPs) are viable both technically and economically for some applications, possibly including atolls. The most practical immediate application would be to small and intermediate power users such as villages and airports. It is recommended that (1) at least one small SPPP be built immediately on a dry land site such as for the main village on Peleliu, Palau, (considered in this report) or at other identified feasible sites, and (2) that a design study be conducted to adapt the technology to atoll sites. This study was carried out by first reviewing all available literature on solar ponds and the regions concerned. All the regions in question were visited. Several sites were selected for specific study and SPPP conceptual designs were developed for these sites. These sites are (1) North Peleliu, Palau, with (2) Peleliu airport as an auxiliary site, (3) Aimeliik, Palau, and (4) atoll environments. Cultural, political, environmental and legal considerations were given equal weight with technical and economic factors, and locally resident persons were used as interpreters and liaisons. There exists strong support in the government and the community to develop these proposed site-specific SPPPs and land is available. Power needs were defined, construction and operation costs were calculated and performance was predicted for the site-specific designs. The results of the Palau site-specific studies were generalized to other areas and environments in the TTPI, Guam and American Samoa. An economic analysis of the SPPP conceptual design developed for Palau was made using the discounted cash flow method.

McCord, T.B.; Bathen, K.H.; Boesgaard, H.; Fanale, F.P.; McCord, C.S.; Scudder, R.J.; Weeks, D.D.; Yuen, J.W.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and {sup 137}Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Greenhouse, N.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Equatorial spread {ital F} effects on an HF path: Doppler spread, spatial coherence, and frequency coherence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1990 we participated in the Equatorial Ionospheric Studies sounding rocket campaign near Kwajalein Atoll in the equatorial Pacific region. The campaign included measurements of plasma density using rocket probes and coherent and incoherent scatter radar. During the campaign we fielded high-frequency ionospheric sounders over a bistatic path between Maloelap Atoll and Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The distance between the transmitters and receivers was 700 km; the ionospheric-reflection region was at 10.18; {degree}N, 168.40;{degree}E, near the magnetic equator. We made three types of measurements: Doppler spread and spatial coherence for a single-frequency CW path; frequency coherence of multiple CW paths; and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for a 60-kHz bandwidth path. We obtained such data over a period of 2 weeks for approximately 2 hours each evening; during this period spread {ital F} was common. Fifty percent of the evenings showed Doppler spread of greater than 6 Hz at the {minus}10 dB level (relative to the peak signal power) and greater than 15 Hz at the {minus}30 dB level. Forty percent of the evenings showed spatial coherence distance of less than 180 m in the direction normal to the bistatic path; 40{percent} of the evenings showed spatial coherence of less than 75 m in the direction parallel to the path. Seventy-five percent of the evenings showed coherence bandwidths of less than 1.5 kHz. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

Fitzgerald, T.J.; Argo, P.E.; Carlos, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), Plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values range from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil.

Conrado, C L; Hamilton, T F; Robison, W L; Stoker, A C

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

First Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > First Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested First Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested December 31, 1952 Enewetak Atoll First Thermonuclear Device Successfully Tested

219

Wind-energy assessment for the western Pacific based on ship reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over 468,000 wind reports from ships traversing the Pacific Islands (Micronesia) affiliated with the United States have been examined. From these data, maps were prepared of annual and seasonal average wind speed and wind energy density and wind rose summaries for 100 2/sup 0/ by 5/sup 0/ (latitude by longitude) boxes. The Northern Marshall Islands possess the best wind energy resource in the region, the Northern Marianas the next best. Tropical storms exert a limited influence on the wind statistics. Future research should first concentrate on evaluating wind characteristics on one atoll, and then on one high island.

Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Post-accident inhalation exposure and experience with plutonium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the issue of inhalation exposure immediately afterward and for a long time following a nuclear accident. For the cases where either a nuclear weapon burns or explodes prior to nuclear fission, or at locations close to a nuclear reactor accident containing fission products, a major concern is the inhalation of aerosolized plutonium (Pu) particles producing alpha-radiation. We have conducted field studies of Pu- contaminated real and simulated accident sites at Bikini, Johnston Atoll, Tonopah (Nevada), Palomares (Spain), Chernobyl, and Maralinga (Australia).

Shinn, J

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Report of Project 1-M-54 on thirty service men exposed to residual radiation at Operation castle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 1954 report is part of the NTPR (Nuclear Test Personnel Review) Program. Following the detonation at Bikini Atoll, thirty service men who had been exposed to debris from the 1 March detonation were returned to Tripler Army Hospital at Honolulu where the Tripler facilities and professional staff could be used. The clinical observations on the thirty patients were completed by 15 May and the patients were discharged to duty on 17 May. Special emphasis was placed upon examination of the lens of the eyes so as to establish a firm base-line to aid in the evaluation.

Not Available

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Operation redwing: Report to the scientific director. Timing and firing (sanitized version)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Task Unit 5 (YU-5) was organized to accomplish the following tasks during Operation Redwing (May - June 1956): (1) To supply timing signals and voice count-down to meet the principal requirements of the experimental programs; (2) To supply the arming and firing pulses to the devices tested; (3) To furnish personnel as members of the arming and firing parties; (4) To provide and maintain the Task Group 7.1 (TG 7.1) short-range commercial radio communications at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls; and (5) To perform such scientific measurements and photography as provided for under existing contractual agreements.

NONE

1996-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

223

Mortality of veteran participants in the crossroads nuclear test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation CROSSROADS, conducted at Bikini Atoll in 1946, was the first post World War II test of nuclear weapons. Mortality experience of 40,000 military veteran participants in CROSSROADS was compared to that of a similar cohort of nonparticipating veterans. All-cause mortality of the participants was slightly increased over nonparticipants by 5% (p < .001). Smaller increases in participant mortality for all malignancies (1.4%, p = 0.26) or leukemia (2.0%, p = 0.9) were not statistically significant. These results do not support a hypothesis that radiation had increased participant cancer mortality over that of nonparticipants. 8 refs.

Johnson, J.C.; Thaul, S.; Page, W.F. [Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

LARP Long Quadrupole: A "Long" Step Toward an LHC  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The beginning of the development of Nb3Sn magnets for particle accelerators goes back to the 1960?s. But only very recently has this development begun to face the challenges of fabricating Nb3Sn magnets which can meet the requirements of modern particle accelerators. LARP (the LHC Accelerator Research Program) is leading this effort focusing on long models of the Interaction Region quadrupoles for a possible luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. A major milestone in this development is to test, by the end of 2009, 4m-long quadrupole models, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator-type magnets approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are ?Proof-of-Principle? magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is sufficiently mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, under development at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. Several challenges must be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb3Sn coils and magnets. These challenges and the solutions adopted will be presented together with the main features of the LQ magnets. Several R&D lines are participating to this effort and their contributions will be also presented.

Giorgio Ambrosio

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

2000-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

229

Tru-ly Clean - What Does It Mean?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution and genesis of the definition of transuranic waste (known as TRU) and its application to the cleanup criteria applied to soils contaminated with transuranics, specifically plutonium, has been a matter of discussion at contaminated sites in the United States and elsewhere. Cleanup decisions and the processes that led up to those decisions have varied at several plutonium contaminated sites within the United States and without the pacific region. The sites with radionuclide soil action levels include Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands; Johnston Atoll, Hawaii; the Hanford Site in Washington State; the Nevada Test Site; the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Colorado; the Chariot Site in north Alaska; and the Maralinga Site in Australia. The soil-action level developed for Rocky Flats by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for plutonium is one of the higher soil-action levels approved by regulatory agencies that is considered protective for future use of land at a cleanup site. The Republic of the Marshall Islands has adopted a relatively conservative cleanup standard to accommodate the subsistence lifestyle of the islanders, while the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has been transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior to be used as a fish and wildlife refuge, a land use that resulted in a less conservative plutonium soil cleanup level. (authors)

Hopkins, A. [Fluor Hanford, Inc, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Measurements of spatial and frequency coherence of an equatorial hf path during spread-F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1990, the authors set up an hf path on the equatorial path between Maloelap Atoll and Bikini Atoll. This path, which had a range of 702 km, reflected in the ionosphere approximately 100 km north of the Altair radar location on Kwajalein. Transmitters at Maloelap broadcasted four cw tones within bandwidth of either 4 kHz, 9 kHz, or 70 kHz to be used to determine frequency coherence and also a phase-coded pseudo random sequence with a bandwidth of 60 kHz (channel probe) to be used to determine time delay spread. A spatial array of antennas was deployed at Bikini to measure spatial and frequency coherence using the cw broadcasts. The system was run in the post-sunset time period over two weeks during which almost every night showed significant degradation due to spread F resulting in rapid fading, decreased spatial and frequency coherence, and increased time delay spread. Doppler spreads of greater than 20 Hz were not uncommon, and the spatial correlation distances and frequency coherence bandwidths became so small (50 meters and 1 kHz respectively) that the experiment had to be readjusted. Measurements taken by the Altair incoherent scatter radar and the CUPRI 50 MHz coherent scatter radar indicate that although the bistatic hf channel is affected by the large scale plume structures, most of the [open quotes]damage[close quotes] is done by the bottomside spread F.

Fitzgerald, T.J.; Argo, P.E.; Carlos, R.C.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Chemical and isotope analysis of trace pollutants in different environmental media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide monitoring in three environmental systems is described and evaluated in the context of a biogeochemical cycle. The three systems involve monitoring :(1) globally, where fallout tracers are monitored worldwide, (2) regionally, where toxic metals in a fjord marine ecosystem are monitored in water, sediment, and biota, and (3) site specifically, where radionuclides produced by nuclear detonations in an atoll ecosystem are monitored in water, sediment, and biota. Tritium is used to study exchange processes across the tropopause and the processes of ocean mixing and transport. Lead 210 is used to gain insight into removal processes of particulate matter in the atmosphere and the mixed ocean layer. Sediment cores from Puget Sound, dated by Pb 210 - P0 210 techniques are used to study heavy metal pollution from sewage effluent, and the sedimentation rate caused by man's activities in the region. Monitoring of radionuclides in the food chain at the Bikini Atoll test site is described. The necessity of considering all of the sources and transport mechanisms is shown.

Schell, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Adsorption and desorption kinetics of cesium in an organic matter-rich soil saturated with different cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted on Bikini Atoll Island in 1954 resulted in contamination of soil with Cesium 137. To develop effective regimes for decontaminating the Bikini Atoll soil, the exchange of Cs for K, Na, and other cations on the soil must be understood. Samples of soils made homoionic with K, Na, or Ca were reacted with solutions containing Cs ions, and the quantities of Cs sorbed and the rates of exchange were measured. The samples were then reacted with solutions containing K, Na, or Ca, and the quantities of Cs desorbed and the rates of exchange were again measured. Samples made homoionic with Na had a greater ion exchange capacity than samples made homoionic with K, and, in both cases, the ion exchange capacity increased with the organic matter content of the soil. For samples pretreated with Ca, the ion exchange capacity is not related in a simple way to the organic matter content. The kinetics were assessed by plotting the rate of exchange vs. the time and vs. the quantity exchanged. A first-order equation was obeyed during most of the run in Cs desorption experiments and during a limited part of the run in Cs adsorption experiments. An increase in the rate of Cs exchange was observed at the beginning of the experiments especially for Cs adsorption. This increase is presumably due to an increase of the ionic strength of the liquid phase during the exchange process. 33 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Aharoni, C. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Pasricha, N.S. (Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludihana (India)); Sparks, D.L. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Measurements of spatial and frequency coherence of an equatorial hf path during spread-F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1990, the authors set up an hf path on the equatorial path between Maloelap Atoll and Bikini Atoll. This path, which had a range of 702 km, reflected in the ionosphere approximately 100 km north of the Altair radar location on Kwajalein. Transmitters at Maloelap broadcasted four cw tones within bandwidth of either 4 kHz, 9 kHz, or 70 kHz to be used to determine frequency coherence and also a phase-coded pseudo random sequence with a bandwidth of 60 kHz (channel probe) to be used to determine time delay spread. A spatial array of antennas was deployed at Bikini to measure spatial and frequency coherence using the cw broadcasts. The system was run in the post-sunset time period over two weeks during which almost every night showed significant degradation due to spread F resulting in rapid fading, decreased spatial and frequency coherence, and increased time delay spread. Doppler spreads of greater than 20 Hz were not uncommon, and the spatial correlation distances and frequency coherence bandwidths became so small (50 meters and 1 kHz respectively) that the experiment had to be readjusted. Measurements taken by the Altair incoherent scatter radar and the CUPRI 50 MHz coherent scatter radar indicate that although the bistatic hf channel is affected by the large scale plume structures, most of the {open_quotes}damage{close_quotes} is done by the bottomside spread F.

Fitzgerald, T.J.; Argo, P.E.; Carlos, R.C.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. Primary sources of information in preparing this bibliography were bibliographies on Oceania, citations in published papers, CIS Index and Abstracts, Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Research Abstracts, numerous bibliographies on radiation ecology, and suggestions by many individuals whom we contacted. One goal in this bibliography is to include complete documentation of the source of congressional reports and other government-related publications. In addition, page numbers for material in this bibliography are provided in parentheses when the subject matter of a book or document is not restricted to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

Robison, W.L. (ed.) (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Schultz, V. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA)); Schultz, S.C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Analysis of radiation exposure for naval personnel at Operation Ivy. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiological environments are reconstructed for eighteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak, Kwajalein, and Bikini Atolls that received fallout following Shots MIKE and KING during Operation IVY (November 1952). Secondary (late-time) fallout from Shot MIKE was the primary contributor to the low-level radiation encountered on the majority of the ships and atolls; only the M/V HORIZON received primary (early-time) fallout from this event. Fallout from Shot KING was minimal. From the reconstructed operations and radiological environments, equivalent personnel film badge doses are calculated and compared with available dosimetry data for fourteen of the ships. Calculated doses for the majority of the ships are in good agreement with the film badge data; however, for three of the participating destroyers (DDEs), calculated doses are significantly lower than the dosimetry data indicates. Calculated mean doses for typical shipboard personnel range from a high of 0.062 rem on the HORIZON to a low of 0.001 rem on the SPENCER F. BAIRD; for island-based personnel, calculated mean doses are less than 0.06 rem.

Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Stuart, J.; Klemm, J.

1983-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates from long-lived radionuclides at U. S. Pacific Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137} Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90} Sr), Plutonium-239+ 240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg {sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values range from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil. The uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants is enhanced because of the absence of mineral binding sites and the low concentration of potassium in the coral soil. {sup 137}Cs is bound to the organic fraction of the soil, whereas {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are primarily bound to soil particles. Assessment of plant uptake for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr into locally grown food crops was a major contributing factor in (1) reliably predicting the radiological dose for returning residents, and (2) developing a strategy to limit the availability and uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally g

Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L.; Stoker, A.C.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

DISTRIBU'~ICN:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

DISTRIBU'~ICN: DISTRIBU'~ICN: Document R-3. w/encl. State Health (Lit. only) JUN 2 19&---%Lq@. W/enCl. flCompliance, Reg. III, w/end. N. Ibulos, DXL, v/end. (3) Br. Reading File w/encl, Div. Reading File w/o encl. D.lillois 60604 .' m. J, J. mnovaa Emcutive Vice hmiaent ' , ,. __ . - 14 of Form IiEfc-2* plerise provide ._". . ..-^- UNITED STATES ' ATOMIC ENERGY COMPilISSION , . .' -- .'. SaUnCE l!fi~T%~IBI lriEmSE : . . Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Chupter 1, Fur& 40, "Licensing cf Source Material, " and h reliance on ' statements and representations heretofore made by the licensee, a license is hereby issued uuthorizing the licensee to receive, possess and import the source matorial de:;ignated below; to use such material for the purpose(s) and at the place(s)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sti  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

,. ..V' ,. ..V' , .: ..I.. J. P. b&i; &iii: ~~s.w#JF; ' Sti : i. .:.,.P. ,H. -9, PireCtOr, Produoiioi' Divlei~; Rem I0a-k: ' : :,.I:' - . ,:,5.;;., : ' , :. . ,I.-..";:. ,.~. :.:. " ' ' : .; &,;' , ( " ' .., \ .:, _... ..,... &Zr luJap m. Mf :. i! : MAiERlAti -' ' :. .. .-...:Y' ..- ., ,. ., ~,.. ., Plye arrange to pmduoo awl ship appmxhhly 9860 puude of umnhsn-eir~~nium d.oy (ad slnyniw .by night) toi -. AQsrlcaIl nachino alxl Poundly 54th Stmot and 26 Avenue Bmoklyn, new x0* AttWtiOnl iI& ChIdi PdUcd SP oaawntebillty should be trannfemed to Station &,; l' hn alloy should bo In ttm fdti of IngOti o-f t-he folhdq dies: slonsr a. 19 plocao -6j"diuaeterbyUf2~loq b. 1S plows - l&' dirvreter by l2 t 2" l.q The 6&O daumtor lngoto olwuld hm pmforeaw Lo fabrlaiticm u

242

I I  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Environmental Review Form for Argonne National Laboratory i ; t Clig,k on the blue question marks (?) for instructions, contacts, and additional information on specific line items. I J?)Proiect/Activitv Title: Enhanced Energv Storage Facilities to Support Expanding DOE Program I [?)AS0 NEPA Tracking No. - C i c - & 7 (?)Tvm of Fundinp: DOE - EERE B&R Code J?)Identifving number: WFO proposal # CRADA proposal # Work Project # ANL accounting # (item 3a in Field Work Proposal) 4968 1 Other (explain) (?)Project Mana~er: Dennis Dees Signature: ~3 . I&-, A , f?)NEPA Owner: Roberta Riel Signature: &duc&+ &/ Date: +//?/Id 47L. \C-mu y. ANL NEPA Reviewer: S i g n a t u r e : Date: l.q ' La a I. J?)Descriution of Prowsed Action: Two laboratory facilities are to be operated under this effort in Building #205 of the Chemical Sciences

243

Microsoft Word - CX_Clark_Fork_River_Delta.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

$XJXVW   $XJXVW   REPLY TO ATTN OF: .(& SUBJECT: (QYLURQPHQWDO &OHDUDQFH 0HPRUDQGXP /HH :DWWV 3URMHFW 0DQDJHU ± .(:0 Proposed Action: 3URYLVLRQ RI IXQGV WR WKH ,GDKR 'HSDUWPHQW RI )LVK DQG *DPH IRU 3XUFKDVH RI &ODUN )RUN 5LYHU 'HOWD :KLWH ,VODQG 3URSHUW\ Fish and Wildlife Project No.:  &RQWUDFW %3$ Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.25 7UDQVIHU OHDVH GLVSRVLWLRQ RU DFTXLVLWLRQ RI LQWHUHVWV LQ XQFRQWDLPLQDWHG ODQG IRU KDELWDW SUHVHUYDWLRQ RU ZLOGOLIH PDQDJHPHQW DQG RQO\ DVVRFLDWHG EXLOGLQJV WKDW VXSSRUW WKHVH SXUSRVHV

244

; United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Don F 1328.8 Don F 1328.8 . . .449J ' Em wm ; United States Government , % - memorandum L c*m Al.)G 2 9 a34 yz;; EM-421 (If. A. Willlams, 427-1719) lq,iMAL Department of Energy m5 MA, \i& SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utllized Sites Remedial A&Ion Prograa ' a The File In 1990, with the assistance of Hr. Doug Tonkay and Ms. Htchelle L&is, I reviewed a number of sites that had fomerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald faclllty as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recoarwndations were ude to eliainate thm from further consideratton under Formerly Utilized Sites Reaedial Actlon Progrm (FUSRAP). In each case, I made or revlewed the evaluation, and, in each case, a handwritten evaluation was prepared. This is to provide a more

245

CnLrJGD  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

l&o-1760 l&o-1760 CnLrJGD 8CURCEN4%4UALLfCE!8SE Licenee Bo. c-3862 tnted: J. T. Baker Chemical Compfuq Phillipsburg, New Jersey Attention: Mr. Joseph L. MetcenQrf Osntlewn: Rvsunnt to the Attalc &orgy Act of 1954 au4 Section 40.21 of t& &&e of Federal Negulationr, Title 10 Control of &urea Matsrial, -Atomic !Znergy, Chapter 1, part40 - P me hereby llc need to nc lve poere of and title to up to one ld ogrem of urai~~ t t&SIG gradef for use slou R etndier on the pmparatlon of sodium diurenetar You are further liceneed-~~tnmef~~~~~-Qe~i~r-~~~e~:lq?l of an& title to refined source maataried to any pereon licensed. by the Atalc Baergy ~emionj within the llmlte of his license. ?hie llccnee fe eubject to all the provieione of the Atopic Energy Act of

246

The effects of varied rates and ratios of fertilizer on forage yields and tillering of Austin wheat on Lufkin fine sandy loam and Miller clay soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

163 V9 136 5S 143 1Q ~ LQ Mf f erenee required for signifioanoe betveen sean treatments on c Iuaber of plots ( 27 ) 05 legal 31 31 ~ 01 level 41 + 57 e Treatseatt pounds pez' acre of Ht P205s azd X20c Rg e Oi 81 = 30' H2 60j I3 90$ Pp a Op Pl e... 4 92 3 13 tj 92 3. 13 4 92 2, 23 3 OV 2. 23 3. 07 2. 50 3. 60 1, 89 2~ e R - 30 pounds of nitrogen per sore R s 60 pounds, E3 90 pounds. Table 3. ? Lverage XiaM of ~ Porage in Pounds Per kore from Lufldn Soil Reoeiving Different Combinations...

Coffey, Lee Clayton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

A study of load transfer capacities of four types of transverse contraction joints in concrete pavements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the day. However, it is believed that Te~exatare Sisters Pertaining to Joiate ' lq R~ 8 $ ef the Dowele4 4'ointe Lfte~on Vemyerr tuxe. Time TSay? l2 F30 l&50 2l~ gs$0 4&~ 5&% 6& 30 'P &?0 8&$0 as%4 60 P 64 62 65 65 6l 62 lie X2t~ 3... 228 e 36 / I 33 ?Q28 ?020 44/ ?Q28 ?0?2 44?0 )t 10 ?01) ?017' it% ?2 - ?022 228 + $6 T F00 . 032 ?02343?8 +036 . ?034 -48?6 . 012 o012 30 0 ?018 30?0 230 + 36 P&83 gay OP4 lg 1 038 033 46 3 . 4c2$ -?013 All3 30 0 Aihk A22 $0?0 231 + 36 P q23, 020...

McDonald, James Newton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

Interview with Colin Jerolmack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

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

Jerolmack, Colin; Craft, Rachel; Ordner, James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Compaction characteristics of clay soil using the gyratory testing machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

xagijk;:M ~t &Sr; &?+a~t~ . kel4?. , g @'w:, 4j, . t'@%%jr'. e', 0 ~~ ~?'tkx $4ie444f, ' L~ kg& , ri~ iigaf~ f4. ~'~'~"~Q' ~~~jjj gjjjjp%g4. ";, ':& ?qere0sm'ft 5%?jr''sk E'aa "~ yjig$y ?~~. Q~?'. ~'~ ~gqg$f~, ?: ', - :?'??''??'&~::?id~'4'j..., f)P, )& . 4 . I!~g)ti +. % ? I 'ill ? ~~a W?}. :?'?W ri??i ~:jJ, ??i;:. }le . ! f??}I~ ~ jgy}?? lq &!i)~'fg~5 +g?e "?PB?f}N&::+ '. w-:. ~'e. 9;g' Jf~ A -. w~Wm ?:?'i&?'. . '??) 48' &%WE~&'. &:-'+yjHi!??!}?)} , ;+i?g "ps% ~??'. m~4. g...

Al-Khafaji, Abbas Nasir

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Computer solution of SU(3) crossing matrices for the Kronecker Product 8 x 10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the crossing matrix in terms of SU(2) Clebsch Gordan , - su coefficients and isoscalars. 13 For u'-s crossing, we have ~sac'~ from SU(2) theory we know ? r"i~i ~a~; IY ?+'eM TY S I cg Urge Ji~g We can write y/ ~ cgLq, k(62 6 4&i ~jq. where... ' 7 . ;- It'TE GERS ~ FORTRA I IY 5 L. VEL 21 NA. I i DATE = 75212 I 7/2 7/ 4 9 )144 nits 0146 0147 o)4s 0149 0150 0151 0152 C C C 700 800 '\\ 0 0 1000 C C C wt'I /7 t 7 Dur rr 7 = rn/rii Is ono nn rvr N ~ P-f (row(. 4/2 I*21 15...

Wells, Alan Harvey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

251

Detecting heavy quarks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Review: Avgust Pavel: Prekmurska Slovenska Slovnica. Vend Nyelvtan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#28;#24; 2FHQH#15;#3;]DSLVNL#15;#3;SRURLOD#3;#3;5HYLHZV#15;#3;1RWHV#15;#3;5HSRUWV $9*867#3;3$9(/#29; PREKMURSKA SLOVENSKA SLOVNICA. VEND NYELVTAN#17;#3;0DULERU#29;#3;)LOR]RIVND#3;ID- NXOWHWD#15;#3;0HGQDURGQD#3;]DORED#3;2GGHOND#3; ]D...#3;VORYDQVNH#3;MH]LNH#3;LQ#3;NQMLHYQRVWL#3; #11;=RUD#30;#3;#20;#19;#19;#12;#17;#3;#23;#26;#23;#3;VWU#17; .RQHF#3;OHWD#3;#21;#19;#20;#22;#3;MH#3;Y#3;PHGQDURGQL#3;NQML- QL#3; ]ELUNL#3; =RUD#3; #11;=RUD#3; #20;#19;#19;#15;#3; XUHGQLN#3; 0DUNR#3...

ek Mertü k, Polonca

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

253

Alma Karlin svojevrstna pisateljska osebnost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

86 $OPD#3;.DUOLQ#3;#3;VYRMHYUVWQD#3; SLVDWHOMVND#3;RVHEQRVW SILVIJA BOROVNIK 8QLYHU]D#3;Y#3;0DULERUX#15;#3;)LOR]RIVND#3;IDNXOWHWD#15;#3;.RURND#3;FHVWD#3;#20;#25;#19;#15;#3; SI 2000 Maribor, VLOYLMD#17;ERURYQLN#XP#17;VL ODQHN#3;VH...#3;XNYDUMD#3;V#3;VYRMHYUVWQR#3;SLVDWHOMVNR#3;RVHEQRVWMR#3;$OPR#3;0#17;#3;.DUOLQ#15;#3; URMHQR#3;Y#3;&HOMX#15;#3;NL#3; MH#3;ELOD#3;SROLJORWND#3;LQ#3;DYWRULFD#3;WHYLOQLK#3;SRWRSLVRY#3;WHU#3; GUXJLK#3;OLWHUDUQLK#3;GHO#17;#3;7D#3;GHOD#3;MH#15;#3;HSUDY#3...

Borovnik, Silvija

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

254

Review: Saskia Pronk-Tiethoff: The Germanic Loanwords in Proto-Slavic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

101 2FHQH#15;#3;]DSLVNL#15;#3;SRURLOD#3;#3;5HYLHZV#15;#3;1RWHV#15;#3;5HSRUWV 6$6.,$#3;3521.#16;7,(7+2))#17;#3;7+(#3; *(50$1,/2$1:25'6#3;,1#3; 35272#16;6/$9,& (= /HLGHQ#3;6WXGLHV#3; LQ#3;,QGR#16;(XURSHDQ#3;#21;#19;#12;#17;#3;$PVWHUGDP#3...; #3;1HZ#3;

Holzer, Georg

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

255

Conductivity as applied to water analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2 175.0 tt n tt 19 5.80 492 41 216.0 tt tt tt 22 6.28 508 51 262.0 Leavenworth (1) June 18 6.02 430 10 148.0 2."Below city tt 21 5.49 442 11 147.0 3.11 Above city July 3 4.65 384 9 148.0 4."Below city tt 19 4.85 384 10 154.0 Although...; but, as is the case when working with city supplies, when a water is brought to the laboratory from 0 0*00 o o o o o o o o o o o CV2 CO LQ i O O C V 2 H C Q O O O C Q O O C O ^ C n Q O fl H L O O xj- o oo o> H h H H...

Godfrey, Truman M.

1913-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Section 81  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mq Mq Mt '&LC(Vq)& M Mp (Tq)%P LCV% MT Mp '0 Mq Mt '&VCLq&T Mq Mp %P. Mq Mt '&VCLq&T Mq Mp %P% (qobs&q) J , Mq Mt '&VCLq&qLCV& M Mp (Tq)%P. LCV &VC(Lq) &VCLq &T Mq Mp VCLq LCV LCV &LCVq&qVCL &LCVq &VCL Session Papers 355 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Prescribing Advection in Single-Column Models D. A. Randall and D. Cripe Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Ft. Collins, Colorado Introduction Both single-column models (SCMs) and cloud ensemble models (CEMs) are often forced with observed, objectively analyzed fields (Randall et al. 1996). Consider an arbitrary scalar variable, q, satisfying a flux-form conservation equation: Here P represents the "physics" that affects q. The corresponding continuity equation is

257

A study of the air flow rates and their effects on bin drying sorghum grain with unheated air in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for etorsge. 77 V6 V4 V6 83 80 VB VV VV 80 Sr@e 88 90 89 80 SV 105 96 90 98 95 5 ~th~ 104 100 108 85 94 88 85 88 86 . 98 6 o, m, 8 pea 6+So lQ TABLE XXI (aantknue6) RLGGRD GP XTL&GSPHERXC TZhPERATGRRS banns 25, 1955 26 27... 28 29 30 July 1, 1955 2 3 4 77 V9 81 78 78 V6 76 V4 V4 77 95 96 92 89 90 92 95 98 9V 93 80 81 , . 81 91 82 73 V6 76 V8 V6 93 95 96 92 82 93 98 98 93 V8 TABLE'" XV HECOHD OF HEKATIVE HU)BLITT He...

Aldred, William H

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

Search for Scalar Top Quark Pair-Production in Scenario with Violated R-parity in ppbar Collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A search for the pair production of supersymmetric partner of the top quark in scenario with R-parity violation is presented. The quantum number called R-parity distinguishes particles in standard model from supersymmetric particles. A scalar top quark (stop) is assumed to decay only via R{sub p}-violating supersymmetric coupling into tau lepton and b-quark. To collect events with multiple taus, a new special tau trigger (the lepton plus track trigger) is installed in Run II experiment of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The goal of the lepton plus track trigger is to collect generic dilepton ({ell}{ell}, {ell}{tau}, {tau}{tau}) events with lower p{sub T} threshold (8 GeV/c) and without prescale even at high luminosity. The Z {yields} {tau}{tau} event, where one {tau}-lepton decays leptonically and the other hadronically, is a good benchmark to calibrate the lepton plus track trigger and {tau} identification. The data sample of 72 pb{sup -1}, collected using the electron plus track trigger, contains clear a {tau} signal from Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events. The data used in stop search correspond to 200 pb{sup -1}. The lower stop mass bound of 134 GeV/c{sup 2} at a 95% confidence level is obtained. This limit is also directly applicable to the case of the third generation scalar leptoquark (LQ{sub 3}) assuming a 100% branching for the LQ{sub 3} {yields} {tau}b decay mode.

Ogawa, Takashi; /Waseda U.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

NREL: Department of Defense Energy Programs - NREL Helps the Navy with  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NREL Helps the Navy with Renewable Energy Site Assessment at Indian Ocean NREL Helps the Navy with Renewable Energy Site Assessment at Indian Ocean Base December 20, 2013 Reaching Diego Garcia, a remote island in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is not easy, but recently NREL's Otto VanGeet and Owen Roberts embarked on the long journey there. As part of an integrated Navy and NREL team, their goal was to help the Navy reduce costs by integrating wind and solar power with fossil fuel generators. NREL staff, along with members of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, conducted a net-zero renewable energy site assessment in November at the atoll which stretches about 40 miles in a thin U-shape. The island's renewable energy potential-along with the possibilities for energy systems integration-really excited the team. "Because of its locale, the base is all diesel-powered," VanGeet said.

260

ARM - TWP Contacts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Contacts Contacts TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts TWP Contacts Site Oversight - Kim Nitschke, Los Alamos National Laboratory Site Manager - Paul Ortega, Los Alamos National Laboratory Site Operations Manager - Matt Gould, Australian Bureau of Meteorology Site Scientist - Chuck Long, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tropical Western Pacific Office Mailing Address: Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663, MS J577 Los Alamos, NM 87545 U.S.A. Shipping Address: SM-30 Bikini Atoll Road TA-51, Bldg. 82, DP 01U Attn: NAME, MS J577 Los Alamos, NM 87545 U.S.A. Phone: 505.667.1186

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lq palmyra atoll" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

WEA-2010-04  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

October 18, 2010 October 18, 2010 OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Dr. Michael R. Anastasio, President Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory Mailstop A100, Drop Point 03140071S Bikini Atoll Road, TA-3 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545-1663 WEA-20 1 0-04 Dear Dr. Anastasio: This letter refers to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigation into the facts and circumstances surrounding the electrical shock event that occurred in building 300 at Technical Area 16 (TA-16) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on March 20,2009. The results of the investigation were provided to Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in an Investigation Report dated March 2, 2010. An enforcement conference was held on March 23,

262

J-(_5A.-  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

014 !-PI-j I ii f , i- .:-I' I :c ( Ii' 014 !-PI-j I ii f , i- .:-I' I :c ( Ii' iUC ./<: ./ /i' J-(_5A.- - n -Il&.L-, ($1 (.' j / +P ' , Cd , - $' -- 4 . NATIONAL LEAD COMPAN\r OF OHIO P. 0. BOX 158 MT. HEALTHY STATION CINCINNATI 31. OHIO Letter Subecmtract # s-19 Dated: October Ql,l952 Under Prime Contract AT(~O-l-)-1.1.56 ~0: Mr. A. M. Kinney, President Processes Research, Inc. 2905 Vernon Place Cincinnati 19, Ohio Gentlemen: 1. This letter, subject to your written acceptance and the approval of the Atmic Energy Comnission (hereinafter called the "Commission"), sets forth the initial agreement between the National Lead Ccaupany of Ohio (hereinafter referred to as the ptContpactop") and Processes Research, Inc. (hereinafter referred to as the "Subcontractor"), in anticipation of a definitive

263

Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories: Missions:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results, including these noteworthy results, including these noteworthy successes from fiscal year 2011: AHW Launch Advanced Hypersonic Weapon test flight In the early hours of Nov. 17, 2011, Sandia conducted a highly successful first test flight of the Advanced Hypersonic Weapon (AHW) concept for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command. Designed to fly within the earth's atmosphere at hypersonic speed and long range, the first-of-its-kind glide vehicle launched from Sandia's Kauai Test Facility in Kauai, Hawaii, using a three-stage booster system developed at Sandia. The hypersonic glide vehicle, which was also designed and developed by Sandia, successfully flew at hypersonic speed to the planned impact location at the Reagan Test Site, U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll. The test flight allowed researchers to collect data on hypersonic boost-glide

264

NEL-2013-02, LANS Enforcement Letter  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2, 20 13 2, 20 13 Dr. Charles F. McMillan Laboratory Director Los Alamos National Security, LLC Mail Stop A-1 00, Drop Point 03 14007 1 S Bikini Atoll Road, T A-3 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545-1 663 NEL-2013 -02 Dear Dr. McMillan: The Office ofHealth, Safety and Security' s Office of Enforcement and Oversight conducted an evaluation of the deficiencies at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) described in the Los A lamos National Security, LLC (LANS) Noncomplia nce Tracking System (NTS) report NTS --LASO-LANS-LANL-2012-00 18, LANSCE Contamination Event, dated September I 0, 20 12. Our evaluation included a review of the Federal accident investigation report, Accident Investigation into Contamination at the Los Alamos Ne utron Science Center on or about August 21, 2012,

265

Worker Safety and Health Enforcement Letter issued to Los Alamos National Security, LLC, related to Worker Beryllium Exposure during Machining at the Los Alamos National Laboratorys Beryllium Technology Facility, May 29, 2013 (WEL-2013-01)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

29, 2013 29, 2013 Dr. Charles F. McMillan, President Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory Mailstop A 100, Drop Point 03140071S Bikini Atoll Road, TA-3 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87454 WEL-2013-01 Dear Dr. McMillan: The Office of Health, Safety and Security's Office of Enforcement and Oversight evaluated the circumstances surrounding a work evolution performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 3, Building 141, Beryllium Technology Facility (BTF), on July 11, 2012. The work evolution resulted in a worker exposure to beryllium in excess of the Department of Energy (DOE) action level of 0.2 micrograms per cubic meter for an 8-hour, time-weighted average. Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), which manages and

266

NREL: Buildings Research - NREL Helps the Navy with Renewable Energy Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NREL Helps the Navy with Renewable Energy Site Assessment at Indian Ocean NREL Helps the Navy with Renewable Energy Site Assessment at Indian Ocean Base December 20, 2013 Reaching Diego Garcia, a remote island in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is not easy, but recently NREL's Otto VanGeet and Owen Roberts embarked on the long journey there. As part of an integrated Navy and NREL team, their goal was to help the Navy reduce costs by integrating wind and solar power with fossil fuel generators. NREL staff, along with members of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, conducted a net-zero renewable energy site assessment in November at the atoll which stretches about 40 miles in a thin U-shape. The island's renewable energy potential-along with the possibilities for energy systems integration-really excited the team. "Because of its locale, the base is all diesel-powered," VanGeet said.

267

Timeline of Events: 1951 to 1970 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

51 to 1970 51 to 1970 Timeline of Events: 1951 to 1970 October 31, 1952: Mike Test The Atomic Energy Commission detonates the first thermonuclear device, code-named "Mike," at Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific. Read more December 23, 1957: Shippingport The Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the world's first full-scale nuclear power plant, becomes operational. Read more March 13, 1968: Oil discovered on Alaska's North Slope The Atlantic Richfield Company and Humble Oil and Refining Company announce the discovery of oil on the North Slope of Alaska at Prudhoe Bay. Read more Return to Timeline of Events: 1939 to 1950 Continue to Timeline of Events: 1971 to 1980 December 20, 1951 The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 located at the National Reactor Testing Station near Arco, Idaho, produces the first electric power from a

268

Compliance Order issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

12,2007 12,2007 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Dr. Michael T. Anastasio Laboratory Director Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-A1 00 SM-30, Bikini Atoll Road Los Alamos, NM 87545 Dear Dr. Anastasio: Pursuant to the authority of the Secretary of Energy under section 234B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and 10 C.F.R. 5 824.4(b) of the Department's Procedural Rules for the Assessment of Civil Penalties for Classzjied Information Security Violations, I am today issuing the enclosed Compliance Order to Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The Compliance Order directs LANS to implement specific corrective actions to remediate both the laboratory management deficiencies that contributed to the thumb drive security incident at Los Alarnos National Laboratory (LANL) discovered in

269

Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

270

Enhancement factors for resuspended aerosol radioactivity: Effects of topsoil disturbance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The enhancement factor for airborne radionuclides resuspended by wind is defined as the ratio of the activity density (Bq g{sup {minus}1}) in the aerosol to the activity density in the underlying surface of contaminated soil. Enhancement factors are useful for assessment of worst-case exposure scenarios and transport conditions, and are one of the criteria for setting environmental standards for radioactivity in soil. This paper presents results of experimental studies where resuspension of {sup 239}Pu was measured when air concentrations were equilibrated to the soil surface. Enhancement factors were observed for several types of man-made disturbances (bulldozer-blading, soil raking, vacuum-cleaning) and natural disturbances (springtime thaw, soil-drying, wildfire). For some cases, enhancement factors are compared over range of geographical locations (Bikini Atoll, California, Nevada, and South Carolina). The particle-size distributions of aerosol activity are compared to particle-size distributions of the underlying soil.

Shinn, J.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A modified hypoxia-based TCP model to investigate the clinical outcome of stereotactic hypofractionated regimes for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been applied to lung tumors at different stages and sizes with good local tumor control (LC) rates. The linear quadratic model (LQM), in its basic formulation, does not seem to be appropriate to describe the response to radiotherapy for clinical trials, based on a few fractions. Thus, the main aim of this work was to develop a model, which takes into account the hypoxic cells and their reoxygenation. Methods: A parameter named B has been introduced in a modified tumor control probability (TCP) from LQM and linear-quadratic-linear model (LQLM), and represents the fraction of hypoxic cells that survive and become oxygenated after each irradiation. Based on published trials evaluating LC at 3 yr (LC3), values of B were obtained by maximum likelihood minimization between predicted TCP and clinical LC3. Two oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) parameter sets (1 and 2) from literature have been adopted to calculate the B-factors. Initial hypoxic cell fractions ({eta}{sub h}) from 0.05 to 0.50 were assumed. Log-likelihood (L) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were determined in an independent clinical validation dataset. Results: The B-values of modified TCPs spanned the whole interval from 0 to 1, depending on the fractionation scheme (number of fractions and dose/fraction), showing a maximum (close to 1) at doses/fraction of 8-12 Gy. The B-values calculated using the OER parameter set 1 exhibited a smoother falloff than set 2. An analytical expression was derived to describe the B-value's dependence on the fractionation scheme. The R{sup 2}-adjusted values varied from 0.63 to 0.67 for LQ models and OER set 1 and from 0.75 to 0.78 for LQ model and OER set 2. Lower values of R{sup 2}-adjusted were found for LQLM and both OER sets. L and AIC, calculated using a fraction of {eta}{sub h} = 0.15 and the B-value from the authors analytical expression were higher than for other {eta}{sub h}-values, irrespective of model or OER set. Conclusions: The authors model allows to predict the clinical outcome associated with SBRT treatment, taking into account both direct killing and indirect vasculature or stromal damage.

Strigari, L.; Benassi, M.; Sarnelli, A.; Polico, R.; D'Andrea, M. [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Medical Physics Department, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, 47014 Meldola (Italy); Radiotherapy Department, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, 47014 Meldola (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

Standard Form 129  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

/,&,7$7,210$,/,1*/,67$33/,&$7,21 /,&,7$7,210$,/,1*/,67$33/,&$7,21 20%1R  ([SLUHV  127(3OHDVHFRPSOHWHDOOLWHPVRQWKLVIRUP,QVHUW1$LQLWHPVQRWDSSOLFDEOH6HHUHYHUVHIRULQVWUXFWLRQ 3XEOLFUHSRUWLQJ EXUGHQ IRU WKLV FROOHFWLRQ RI LQIRUPDWLRQ LV HVWLPDWHG WR DYHUDJH KRXUV SHU UHVSRQVH LQFOXGLQJ WKH WLPH IRU UHYLHZLQJ LQVWUXFWLRQV VHDUFKLQJ H[LVWLQJ GDWD VRXUFHV JDWKHULQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ WKH GDWD QHHGHG DQG FRPSOHWLQJ DQG UHYLHZLQJ

275

NEPA Review Routing Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Composting Facility North Composting Facility Document Number: 299 Date of Routing: 12/01/2010 (after MJT review 11/30/2010) Name Reviewed Signature Forwarded To Forwarded Date ..... Date Anne Theriault 12/01/2010 tl-i.A 1 ../\ _/ ~ Steve Ames 12/01/2010 Steve Ames 12/01/2010 t.::}wtLA Email MJT 12/01/2010 Steve Ames 12/01/2010 .LZ..L.-1 Jeff Christiansen 12/01/2010 . ~ "/ / / Jeff Christiansen 12/01/2010 ,(J,U y n--(/' Mike Taylor 12/01/2010 '~"' --r7j I{ LLtJ I? JZ../2../!b Nr_4l./)5 w&ll. K .S T£ v C AIV\ cs 12../2.../ I 0 ( .e:.,~:,/t.; AM IF s I t-fi. /,,s (J.,..,.M ·/A,_r_, 7AYtoJ- IZ....(z../lq ~ .... / --r-?JY~e t<.j .z..j / e:> I#'~ y ../"'~--< 5Tt: \J C /1 J111 C 5 t<-./z_j/0

276

RR UECX I DEUEetdJ16 T LEMON7 ILL =@I9 V  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

4 , 4 , RR UECX I DEUEetdJ16 T LEMON7 ILL =@I9 V : w ~?g+QZ FM USAEC NYK @5 TO USAEC LEMUMT Ill.. AEC WWC ; I _. _' FOR A TAMwsflO h@G NR tt0 PD Tti18~18~~10 APPROVE pf TWJNTY GRAM8 ENRICHED 1 '. , URANlUM TO 8YLyANI~q FOR W8E. IWTREPARIWG~F~VE U&AN,!UU SLUGS 7/.8 lF4j34 ' .' : ' . ~ , . LQ~JG m S/8 1%~ ~IAhiiilER pa THE-DIE WI& CW!. APOROX 300 DOLLARS Am " , SIX ~uN-~Y# WILL BE REQI!!REl! FW WJG FA~ICf' TlW PD ?eJJRCt+A= @ fmR woull] BE m OUT to 8YLVANIA AND WNT TO, V L PAf?SEGIAN Cy ,NYOO CP tN .I. . THE AMOUNT OF ?j50 DOLLARS fOR COIUIPLE~~W~RK,, PI) THE- ENR ICHED MATER I AL ,_ ..o ._ 8tiotlLD BE SHIPPEB TO W 4% DQNO@@ CMU SYLVANA ELECTR lc PiMDUCTS~ INC * * . .i. ,. ., .,, I&@40 WlLLhT8 PTJUUkEVARD MY84~d#EW~Y~K CMIU AM) ACCOUWfdBlLtTY

277

To: J. Chipman Frm: John P. Howe In Her Visit to Graseelli Laboratories, Cleveland, Ohio, August 30, 1943  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ij& 3-l ij& 3-l v-y m Consisting of % pages containing 0 figures copy No.&of 12 copies. Series A' . September 9, 1943 To: J. Chipman Frm: John P. Howe In Her Visit to Graseelli Laboratories, Cleveland, Ohio, August 30, 1943 This meeting was the usual biweekly review of the coating work dono at the Grascrelli Laboratories. LOT DIP - reported by 3. R. bl&er 1 ' 2 / r; 4 I-I 3 -4 cn 14 CD 4 E L> -4 v) 4 -+ CT :2 z -J L3 t 4 F=o Q) A Cl ri z + 2 k fi ii lr= e.2 v i $ & k 0 2 5 c w s .G 0 b :LQ $ q id -r Id 2 2 1% ,a 0) s I - 63 4 g :$j I ?I! Jacketing Dou'ble Tests on apecimena hot dipped in 85-15 ?&-Al gnd canned immediately afterwards nt the Aluminum Company were reported. The following is a summary of the tests at the end of 25 daysz-

278

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Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Au*ority Of .as__w__ *-----a-m*-m-m-ma Au*ority Of .as__w__ *-----a-m*-m-m-ma L.Q /..' ) , ;s ' -.L - This ihzt,rnr~ consis:s 0) T. 0. lhd!?, m mm- - -_._ /[ ..Pairrs No.. ._._ d...ot --._. /o~.cool+s. Ccrto -- '.. ," :I.:' .., i. '. ._ ,' : i I r '. L. ,I . ' I ', .,.i j./ gm@bQ -: ..Y : 1 i " -.. -- --PN1-__..- #l nwuff 1 @ ~Qlw3fng+r4oomlu By A&mfity of m....... . . . . . . . ..-.....-- (?S 1 5 ;' , i, L f ' I. y ' i : *.,*v _ ;a +;,,, _' . . ;< . ' I rnuu~) r-uy w4-b : idyll- 11 mid ;i 2 f %i;"Jt' f ; j p,?;l*%J &T:' =l& * t *?A;:, *' d .,i' ~ L c."r" ' . ' ty' -*-F . ,.Jc ."~~= L< , ' _I ' Y' 1 .t h : ,I r -_:+< %

279

Milk fat composition of a lactating dairy cow as influenced by abomasal infusion of various long chain fatty acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CL cn 0 tn 4 IQ O X ID 03 D3 C LI3 'IO Q3 LA M N X 0 J3 JD O N N N O O N 33 ID 4 ID 0 LI3 O Y3 X & N ID Ql 33 N L0 I0 I0 \\0 O C CO N X X 0 IQ IQ Y3 I0 Cl Ct I33 Y3 Y3 C Y3 0. 4 0 ID 0 0. 4 0 ID 4 ID 0. C tD 4... Ql C Ql Ql 4 4 "0 Ql C ~ 4 C 0 O C Ql E ID Q3 4 l- 0 ID C3 4 ID 3 0 0 C 4 4 4 0 LQ O LI3 4 tll 3 ID 0 0 C C 4 4 Q- Ql 0 IQ LI3 O CD 0 0 II C CI I/l 3 C E ~ 0 O 0 CI ID V E CL IQ ~ QI W C IQ C 0 ID . H C C...

Switzer, Leonard Anderson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Preliminary consideration of selected chemical and oceanographic factors influential in the formation of the alumino-silicate fraction of some recent sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOmSM y-Lu LW hLqAhCh LIM hAIAhCh yBIySIWOLWABIm Bb nSnWAJAIY LYSIWm LIM AI MAmWA--SM wLWSO1 cSWW-AIY ?LB-AIAWAy y-Lu wLm bBCIM WB SqjArAW WjS YOSLWSO LMmBOnWABI WSIMSIyASm bBO YL-LyWBmS LIM mCyOBmS rCW MAM IBW OSWLAI WjSmS yLOrBjuMOLWSm wjSI -SLyjSM w...SWW-AIY y-Lum wSOS MSWSOhAISM ru WjS :AmyjS yB-BOAhSWOAy hSWjBM CmAIY L 9Sy?hLI pBMS- :x mnSyWOBnjBWBhSWSO1 cWLIMLOM OBCWAIS hSyjLIAyL- LIL-umSm Bb hLOAIS mSMAhSIWm wSOS bBCIM WB rS Bb -AWW-S mAYIAbAyLIyS rS-Bw LI SAYjW hAyOBI #SdCA&L-SIW MALhSWSOPK, c...

Whitehouse, Ulysses Grant

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Optimal control for variable-speed wind generation systems using General Regression Neural Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An induction generator (IG) speed drive with the application of an optimal controller and a proposed General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) controller is introduced in this paper. Grid connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) present interesting control demands, due to the intrinsic nonlinear characteristic of wind mills and electric generators. The GRNN with adaptive ant colony optimization (AACO) torque compensation is feed-forward to increase the robustness of the wind driven induction generator system. An optimal control loop for the wind power system is designed. The optimality of the whole system is defined in relation with the trade-off between the wind energy conversion maximization and the minimization of the induction generator torque variation that is responsible for the frequency fluctuations. This is achieved by using a combined optimization criterion, resulting in a LQ tracking problem with an infinite horizon and a measurable exogenous variable (wind speed). The proposed controller is designed to drive the turbine speed to extract maximum power from the wind and adjust to the power regulation.

Chih-Ming Hong; Fu-Sheng Cheng; Chiung-Hsing Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Lineal energy and radiation quality in radiation therapy: model calculations and comparison with experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microdosimetry is a recommended method for characterizing radiation quality in situations when the biological effectiveness under test is not well known. In such situations, the radiation beams are described by their lineal energy probability distributions. Results from radiobiological investigations in the beams are then used to establish response functions that relate the lineal energy to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In this paper we present the influence of the size of the simulated volume on the relation to the clinical RBE values (or weighting factors). A single event probability distribution of the lineal energy is approximated by its dose average lineal energy () which can be measured or calculated for volumes from a few micrometres down to a few nanometres. The clinical RBE values were approximated as the ratio of the ?-values derived from the LQ-relation. Model calculations are presented and discussed for the SOBP of a 12C ion (290 MeV u?1) and the reference 60Co ? therapy beam. Results were compared with those for a conventional x-ray therapy beam, a 290 MeV proton beam and a neutron therapy beam. It is concluded that for a simulated volume of about 10nm, the ?-ratio increases approximately linearly with the -ratio for all the investigated beams. The correlation between y and ? provides the evidence to characterize a radiation therapy beam by the lineal energy when, for instance, weighting factors are to be estimated.

L Lindborg; M Hultqvist; Carlsson Tedgren; H Nikjoo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Mixed sneutrinos, dark matter, and the CERN LHC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which gauge-singlet scalars mix with the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) sneutrinos through weak-scale A terms. After reviewing the constraints on mixed-sneutrino dark matter from measurements of ?CDM and from direct-detection experiments, we explore mixed-sneutrino signatures relevant to the LHC. For a mixed-sneutrino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) and a right-handed slepton next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), decays of the lightest neturalino can produce opposite-sign, same-flavor (OSSF) dileptons with an invariant-mass distribution shifted away from the kinematic end point. This signature is possible for parameters that lead to a cosmologically viable mixed-sneutrino LSP. We also consider signatures that require larger mixing angles than preferred for mixed-sneutrino dark matter, but which are possible regardless of whether a mixed-sneutrino is the LSP. In some parameter regions, the charginos and neutralinos produced in cascades all decay dominantly to the lighter sneutrinos, leading to a kinematic edge in the jet-lepton invariant-mass distribution from the decay chain q??-q??*lq, without an OSSF dilepton signature. We explore the possibility of using mass-estimation methods to distinguish this mixed-sneutrino jet-lepton signature from an MSSM one. Finally, we consider signatures associated with Higgs-lepton or Z-lepton production in cascades involving the heavier sneutrinos.

Zachary Thomas; David Tucker-Smith; Neal Weiner

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

284

Identification of interstitial deletions in human neoplasia by FISH-technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Undoubtedly, the discovery of the minute chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), termed the Philadelphia chromosome, has revolutionized cancer cytogenetics. Rowely`s seminal findings of a balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 opened new avenues where a simple deletion was clearly refuted. Even today, thousands of cases are being identified as simple terminal deletions by routine banding techniques in various human neoplasias. If these deletions are terminal, then how is the instability of the chromosome retained? Apparently, the precise characterization of telomeric ends has gone undetected in the past by conventional methods. It is evident that telomeres of chromosomes consist of short tandemly repeated DNA sequences (TTAGGG){sub n} which are conserved on both ends. The recent availability of chromosome-specific telomeric probes has become a cytogenetic icon for many perplexing questions. For example, we were referred a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia evolving from agnogenic myloid metaplasia. Routine cytogenetic techniques revealed a terminal deletion of one of the chromosomes 7 [del(7)(q21)]. When we hybridized the metaphases with chromosome 7q-specific telomeric probe [Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD], signal was detected at the distal q arms of the deleted chromosomes, apparently suggesting an interstial deletion. The cytogenetic diagnosis was changed to 46,SY,del(7)(q21.lq36.2). All deletions must be identified by FISH.

Gogineni, S.K.; Sanchez, M.A.; Elizalde, S.A. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]|[New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U U r r b b a a n n A A t t m m o o s s p p h h e e r r i i c c O O b b s s e e r r v v a a t t o o r r y y ( ( U U A A O O ) ) F F i i r r s s t t P P l l a a n n n n i i n n g g W W o o r r k k s s h h o o p p - - A A t t t t e e n n d d e e e e s s 2 2 7 7 - - 2 2 8 8 J J a a n n u u a a r r y y , , 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 ****************************************************************** Sean Ahearn Hunter College North Bldg., 10 th Floor New York City, NY sca@everest.hunter.cuny.edu (W) 212-772-5327 Robert Bornstein San Jose State University Dept. of Meteorology San Jose, CA 951920-0104 pblmodel@hotmail.com (W) 408-924-5205 (F) 408-924-5191 David Brown Argonne National Lab 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 dbrown@anl.gov (W) 608-442-1249 Michael Brown LANL, Drop Point 19S, SM-30 Bikini Atoll Road Group D4-MS F604 Los Alamos, NM 87545 mbrown@lanl.gov (W) 505- 667-1788

286

Total PCBs, TCDD-EQs in eggs: Reproductive hazards to north Pacific albatrosses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Freshly laid eggs of Laysan and black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes) were collected at Midway Atoll 1992 through 1994 and subsequently analyzed for chlorinated contaminants including OC pesticides, PCBs, dioxins and furans. TCDD-EQs in eggs were calculated from congener-specific data. Total PCBs ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 mglkg ww. Calculated TCDD-EQs ranged from 52--124 pg/g. A substantial portion (30--35%) of the TCDD-EQs in eggs were owing to dioxins and furans, and the balance to PCBs. PCBs in albatross eggs were much less potent than PCBs from waterbirds` eggs of the Great Lakes and other continental inland waters. Hazard indices based on calculated TCDD-EQs suggested that Laysan eggs were at the LOAEL for embryonic effects, but black-footed eggs were well above avian LOAELS. Egg death during natural incubation was 2--3% greater in black-footed than Laysan nests, and 5% fewer black-footed albatross chicks were fledged in 1994. A low incidence of deformities in hatchlings was noted in 1994 and 1995. Crossed-bill hatchlings were not reported in these populations until the late 1970s in spite of intensive studies 1957--1972, but occurred at rates of 1 in 14,000 hatchlings, and 1 in 300 dead eggs 1993--1995. Reproductive effects owing to contaminant exposures in these most pelagic seabirds are confirmed.

Ludwig, J.P.; Auman, H.J.; Summer, C.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Sanderson, J.T.; DeDoes, J.M.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Jones, P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Phelps, T.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

High Resolution Spectroscopy of 4U 1728-34 from a Simultaneous Chandra-RXTE Observation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a simultaneous Chandra and RossiXTE observation of the LMXB atoll bursting source 4U 1728-34 performed on 2002 March 3-5. We fitted the 1.2-35 keV continuum spectrum with a blackbody plus a Comptonized component. An overabundance of Si by a factor of ~2 with respect to Solar abundance is required for a satisfactory fit. Large residuals at 6-10 keV can be fitted by a broad (FWHM ~ 1.6 keV) Gaussian emission line, or, alternatively, by absorption edges associated with Fe I and Fe XXV at ~7.1 keV and ~9 keV, respectively. In this interpretation, we find no evidence of a broad, or narrow Fe Kalpha line, between 6 and 7 keV. We tested our alternative modeling of the iron Kalpha region by reanalyzing a previous BeppoSAX observation of 4U 1728-34, finding a general agreement with our new spectral model.

A. D'Ai'; T. Di Salvo; R. Iaria; G. Lavagetto; N. R. Robba; L. Burderi; M. Mendez; M. van der Klis

2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity), of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Modeling hydroacoustic waveform envelopes for comprehensive test?ban treaty monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robust and accurate localization of explosion events in the oceans requires modeling signal arrival times for a number of receivers. Additional information contained in the waveform envelope may also be used to recover other source properties and reduce the probability of false alarms in nuclear explosion monitoring. The feasibility of efficient envelope modeling was investigated by comparing adiabatic normal?mode model predictions with explosion data. The K R A K E N computer code com?bined with appropriate dispersion curve interpolation was used to compute modal shapes and wave numbers in each range segment. To facilitate CTBT knowledge base development the model has been used to illustrate the various factors that contribute to the shape of the received hydroacoustic waveform envelope and provide design feedback for sensor placement and data analysis algorithms. The model was compared with data for two sourcereceiver paths: (a) the Chase21 ship scuttling explosion on 25 June 1970 off the New Jersey coast and recorded at the Ascension Island hydroacoustic array; and (b) nuclear explosions on Mururoa Atoll and received at the hydrophone at Point Sur California. Adiabatic normal?mode approach was found inadequate for source and receiver located far from the SOFAR axis. [Work supported by U.S. DOE Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

Yevgeniy Y. Dorfman; Jay J. Pulli

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Concentrations of /sup 207/Bi and /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Bi-/sup 210/Po disequilibrium in fish  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive /sup 207/Bi, produced during nuclear testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, concentrates in the muscle tissue and organs of goatfish and certain pelagic lagoon fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. It is reasonable to expect that fish capable of accumulating /sup 207/Bi could also be efficient accumulators of other bismuth isotopes - namely /sup 210/Bi, the daughter of naturally occurring /sup 210/Pb. Therefore, /sup 210/Bi and consequently /sup 210/Po, the decay product of /sup 210/Bi, would be expected in notable excess over the precursor /sup 210/Pb in specific tissues. To test this assumption, we compared concentrations of /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Bi, and /sup 210/Po in muscle, liver, and bone separated from some reef species from the Marshall Islands. Concentrations of /sup 210/Bi in muscle and liver were found to exceed those of its precursor by factors of 2 to 15. The excess /sup 210/Bi in some species, however, is not from the environmental sources (either food or water) from which /sup 207/Bi is derived. The data suggest that the excess /sup 210/Bi may be translocated to muscle and liver tissue following the decay of /sup 210/Pb in bone.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Estimates of the radiological dose to people living on Bikini Island for two weeks while diving in and around the sunken ships in Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island and Bikini Lagoon were contaminated by fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the atoll by the United States from 1946 to 1958. The second test, Baker, of the Crossroads series was an underwater detonation in 1946 that sank several ships in the lagoon, including the USS Saratoga and the Japanese battleship Nagato. The ships received high-intensity gamma-ray and neutron bombardment from the Baker test, which induced radioactivity in the metal structures. Some of the tests conducted after the Baker shot (there were 21 tests in all) injected contaminated carbonate particles into the air, some of which were deposited across the lagoon surface. Most of this contaminated soil then settled onto the ships' decks and other structures and on the lagoon bottom. These sunken ships provide an interesting location for divers. Recreational diving and swimming in and around the ships raises the question of the potential radiological dose from the radionuclides present in or on the ships and in the lagoon sediments. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an analysis of the potential radiological dose to persons who would dive near the sunken ships and live on Bikini Island for a short period of time.

Robison, W.L.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Equatorial hydrology studies by satellite telemetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are using a geostationary satellite functioning as a transponder to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely measure net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water-flux model predicted wet season plant-transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6- to 7-mm/d evaporation-pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. From the microclimate data we estimated a 1:3 and 1:20 /sup 137/Cs dry-matter concentration ratio, which was later confirmed by radioisotopic analysis. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robison, W.; Holladay, G.

1980-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

{sup 237}Np in Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku for fishing gear used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru: 40 year after {open_quotes}Bravo{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alpha radioactive components in the Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 237}Np by alpha-ray spectrometry after chemical separation. Bontenchiku is a kind of fishing gear for long-line fishing used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru (Lucky Dragon). This gear was exposed to fallout from the second thermonuclear test explosion (Bravo) at Bikini Atoll in March 1954. The {sup 237}Np content in the Bontenchiku sample was determined to be 11.5 {plus_minus}0.8 mBq g{sup {minus}1} with an activity ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239,240}Pu and an atom ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu estimated to be (2.2 {plus_minus}0.2) x 10{sup {minus}3} and 0.42 {plus_minus}0.04, respectively. The data showed the existence of a chain reaction of {sup 238}U and its ratio to be {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu, as well as the presence of {sup 237}U at the time of fallout from Bravo event in March 1954. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Bomb tests attack the food chain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

Robison, W. L., LLNL

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Preliminary design of a landfill and revetment on Bikini Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topsoil on Bikini Island, located 2,500 miles southwest of Hawaii at 113 deg 35 min N, 165 deg 25 min E, was contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The uptake of this radioactive fallout, primarily cesium-137 in plants, has prevented resettlement of the island by the native population. One alternative solution proposed by the congressionally appointed Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee involves removal of the contaminated topsoil and placement of the excavated material as a landfill on the 2,500-ft-wide reef flat adjacent to the eastern (windward) shore of the island. This paper explores that alternative by first developing an extremal wave climatology offshore of Bikini Island from 21 years (1959-1979) of typhoon data published by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam. Deepwater wave conditions just offshore of the reef are estimated and transformed to the point of breaking at the edge of the reef. Storm surge is estimated based on these same parameters. Wave setup on the reef flat is estimated based on the simulated breaking conditions. Given an estimate of the elevated water level across the reef caused by storm surge and wave setup, depth limitations and fractional decay are estimated to define wave conditions at the toe of the proposed revetment. A rubble-mound revetment design stable in these conditions, armored by coral limestone quarried from the reef flat, is then formulated and corresponding material quantities estimated.

Smith, O.P.; Chu, Y.H.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Estimates of the radiological dose to people living on Bikini Island for two weeks while diving in and around the sunken ships in Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island and Bikini Lagoon were contaminated by fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the atoll by the United States from 1946 to 1958. The second test, Baker, of the Crossroads series was an underwater detonation in 1946 that sank several ships in the lagoon, including the USS Saratoga and the Japanese battleship Nagato. The ships received high-intensity gamma-ray and neutron bombardment from the Baker test, which induced radioactivity in the metal structures. Some of the tests conducted after the Baker shot (there were 21 tests in all) injected contaminated carbonate particles into the air, some of which were deposited across the lagoon surface. Most of this contaminated soil then settled onto the ships` decks and other structures and on the lagoon bottom. These sunken ships provide an interesting location for divers. Recreational diving and swimming in and around the ships raises the question of the potential radiological dose from the radionuclides present in or on the ships and in the lagoon sediments. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an analysis of the potential radiological dose to persons who would dive near the sunken ships and live on Bikini Island for a short period of time.

Robison, W.L.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.

Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M. [eds.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Design of a compact, permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton and H{sub 2}{sup +} beam production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for proton beam production of over 60 mA [B.-Q. Cui, Y.-W. Bao, L.-Q. Li, W.-S. Jiang, and R.-W. Wang, Proceedings of the High Current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source for Proton Accelerator, APAC-2001, 2001 (unpublished)]. For various proton beam applications, another 2.45 GHz microwave ion source with a compact structure is designed and will be built at CIAE as well for high current proton beam production. It is also considered to be used for the test of H{sub 2}{sup +} beam, which could be injected into the central region model cyclotron at CIAE, and accelerated to 5 MeV before extraction by stripping. The required ECR magnetic field is supplied by all the permanent magnets rather than electrical solenoids and six poles. The magnetic field distribution provided by this permanent magnets configuration is a large and uniformly volume of ECR zone, with central magnetic field of a magnitude of {approx}875 Gs[T. Taylor and J. S. C. Wills, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 37 (1991)]. The field adjustment at the extraction end can be implemented by moving the position of the magnet blocks. The results of plasma, coupling with 2.45 GHz microwave in the ECR zone inside the ion source are simulated by particle-in-cell code to optimize the density by adjusting the magnetic field distribution. The design configuration of the ion source will be summarized in the paper.

Jia Xianlu; Zhang Tianjue; Wang Chuan; Zheng Xia; Yin Zhiguo; Zhong Junqing; Wu Longcheng; Qin Jiuchang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(3), Beijing 102413 (China); Luo Shan [The 6th Department, Communication Command Academy, Wuhan 430010 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Impact of variable RBE on proton fractionation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To explore the impact of variable proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on dose fractionation for clinically relevant situations. A generic RBE = 1.1 is generally used for isoeffect calculations, while experimental studies showed that proton RBE varies with tissue type, dose, and linear energy transfer (LET). Methods: An analytical expression for the LET and {alpha}/{beta} dependence of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used for proton simulations in parallel with the assumption of a generic RBE = 1.1. Calculations have been performed for ranges of LET values and fractionation sensitivities to describe clinically relevant cases, such as the treatment of head and neck and prostate tumors. Isoeffect calculations were compared with predictions from a generic RBE value and reported clinical results. Results: The generic RBE = 1.1 appears to be a reasonable estimate for the proton RBE of rapidly growing tissues irradiated with low LET radiation. However, the use of a variable RBE predicts larger differences for tissues with low {alpha}/{beta} (both tumor and normal) and at low doses per fraction. In some situations these differences may appear in contrast to the findings from photon studies highlighting the importance of accurate accounting for the radiobiological effectiveness of protons. Furthermore, the use of variable RBE leads to closer predictions to clinical results. Conclusions: The LET dependence of the RBE has a strong impact on the predicted effectiveness of fractionated proton radiotherapy. The magnitude of the effect is modulated by the fractionation sensitivity and the fractional dose indicating the need for accurate analyses both in the target and around it. Care should therefore be employed for changing clinical fractionation patterns or when analyzing results from clinical studies for this type of radiation.

Dasu, Alexandru; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana [Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Jellyfish and Their Kin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jellyfish and Their Kin Jellyfish and Their Kin Nature Bulletin No. 278-A October 14, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation JELLYFISH AND THEIR KIN The creatures that live in the sea are entirely different from those in fresh water. An inlander, a "landlubber", is fascinated by them. It is a thrilling experience to find one's first starfish, or a flower-like sea anemone. Among the strangest of marine animals are the jellyfish, which are not fish at all but relatives of the sea anemones and of the many kinds of coral that form rock-like skeletons and slowly build such enormous structures as coral reefs and coral atolls. There are many, many kinds of jellyfish. Some are tiny; others are as large as half a grapefruit; a few rare ones are as large as a bushel basket and have been known to be seven feet in diameter. Some are transparent; others are brown, pink, blue or white; and some are phosphorescent. The common kinds are shaped like a bell or like an umbrella, with a fringe around the edge, and some of them have numerous long streamers that trail behind. The mouth and stomach are where the handle of an umbrella would be. The animal slowly swims by contracting the bell or half closing the umbrella, thus forcing it forward, and then leisurely expanding it. Ocean bathers avoid the big ones because their tentacles, used to paralyze smaller marine animals, cause a painful sting.

307

MASS-ANGULAR-MOMENTUM RELATIONS IMPLIED BY MODELS OF TWIN PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twin peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in the X-ray power-density spectra of several accreting low-mass neutron star (NS) binaries. Observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1 display unusually low QPO frequencies. Using these observations, we have previously considered the relativistic precession (RP) twin peak QPO model to estimate the mass of the central NS in Circinus X-1. We have shown that such an estimate results in a specific mass-angular-momentum (M - j) relation rather than a single preferred combination of M and j. Here we confront our previous results with another binary, the atoll source 4U 1636-53 that displays the twin peak QPOs at very high frequencies, and extend the consideration to various twin peak QPO models. In analogy to the RP model, we find that these imply their own specific M - j relations. We explore these relations for both sources and note differences in the {chi}{sup 2} behavior that represent a dichotomy between high- and low-frequency sources. Based on the RP model, we demonstrate that this dichotomy is related to a strong variability of the model predictive power across the frequency plane. This variability naturally comes from the radial dependence of characteristic frequencies of orbital motion. As a consequence, the restrictions on the models resulting from observations of low-frequency sources are weaker than those in the case of high-frequency sources. Finally we also discuss the need for a correction to the RP model and consider the removing of M - j degeneracies, based on the twin peak QPO-independent angular momentum estimates.

Toeroek, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Sramkova, Eva; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin; Goluchova, Katerina, E-mail: pavel.bakala@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: martin.urbanec@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: terek@volny.cz, E-mail: sram_eva@centrum.cz [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries and Constraints on the Equation of State of Neutron Star Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently discovered quasi periodic oscillations in the X-ray brightness of low mass X-ray binaries are used to derive constraints on the mass of the neutron star component and the equation of state of neutron star matter. The observations are compared with models of rapidly rotating neutron stars which are calculated by means of an exact numerical method in full relativity. For the equations of state we select a broad collection of models representing different assumptions about the many-body structure and the complexity of the composition of super dense matter. The mass constraints differ from their values in the approximate treatment by \\sim 10%. Under the assumption that the maximum frequency of the quasi periodic oscillations originates from the innermost stable orbit the mass of the neutron star is in the range: $M\\sim 1.92-2.25 M_\\odot$. Especially the quasi periodic oscillation in the Atoll-source 4U 1820-30 is only consistent with equations of state which are rather stiff at high densities which is explainable, so far, only with pure nucleonic/leptonic composition. This interpretation contradicts the hypothesis that the protoneutron star formed in SN 1987A collapsed to a black hole, since this would demand a maximum neutron star mass below $1.6 M_\\odot$. The recently suggested identification of quasi periodic oscillations with frequencies around 10 Hz with the Lense-Thirring precession of the accretion disk is found to be inconsistent with the models studied in this work, unless it is assumed that the first overtone of the precession is observed.

Christoph Schaab; Manfred K. Weigel

1999-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Transuranic resuspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of aged resuspension sources are more uncertain than those of new resuspension sources, which can be investigated using inert-particle controlled-tracer sources. Even though airborne concentrations are low, one aged uniform-area source which can be used for resuspension studies is the accumulated radionuclide fallout in the soil from stratospheric and tropospheric fallout debris. Airborne radionuclide concentrations from this source were investigated at convenient locations on the Hanford site. The objective is to summarize plutonium and americium resuspension research conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1977 to 1983. Airborne plutonium was determined at five sites in the Hanford area, and both plutonium and americium were determined at two Hanford sites. Airborne plutonium and americium were examined as a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed increments, and wind direction increments. The following results are discussed: airborne radionuclide concentrations, ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 3/ of sampled air; radionuclide activity densities, ..mu..Ci/g of airborne solids; airborne plutonium fluxes, ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day); /sup 241/Am//sup 239 +240/Pu) activity ratios, (..mu..Ci /sup 241/Am)/(..mu..Ci/sup 239 +240/Pu); and airborne solid concentrations, ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ of sampled air. In addition, a relationship based on field data for aged plutonium sources at Bikini Atoll, the Hanford site, and Rocky Flats was developed to estimate the maximum expected plutonium activity density on airborne solids compared to activity densities for bulk surface-soil samples. As a result, it is possible to more accurately predict resuspension factor ranges as a function of the resuspension source activity densities. 31 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods.

Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

University of Washington`s radioecological studies in the Marshall Islands, 1946-1977  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1946, personnel from the School of Fisheries, University of Washington, have studied the effects of nuclear detonations and the ensuing radioactivity on the marine and terrestrial environments throughout the Central Pacific. A collection of reports and publications about these activities plus a collection of several thousand samples from these periods are kept at the School of Fisheries. General findings from the surveys show that (1) fission products were prevalent in organisms of the terrestrial environment whereas activation products were prevalent in marine organisms; (2) the best biological indicators of fallout radionuclides by environments were (a) terrestrial-coconuts, land crabs; (b) reef-algae, invertebrates; and (c) marine-plankton, fish. Studies of plutonium and americium in Bikini Atoll showed that during 1971-1977 the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am, 2.85 Bq g-{close_quote} (77 pCi g{sup -1}) and {sup 239,240}Pu, 4.44 Bq g{sup -1} (120 pCi g{sup -1}), in surface sediments were found in the northwest part of the lagoon. The concentrations in the bomb craters were substantially lower than these values. Concentrations of soluble and particulate plutonium and americium in surface and deep water samples showed distributions similar to the sediment samples. That is, the highest concentration of these radionuclides in the water column were at locations with highest sediment concentration. Continuous circulation of water in the lagoon and exchange of water with open ocean resulted in removal of 111 G Bq y{sup -1} (3 Ci y{sup -1}) {sup 241}Am and 222 G Bq y{sup -1} (6 Ci y{sup -1}) {sup 239,240}Pu into the North Equatorial Current. A summary of the surveys, findings, and the historical role of the Laboratory in radioecological studies of the Marshall Islands are presented. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Donaldson, L.R.; Seymour, A.H.; Nevissi, A.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991). Revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods.

Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

{sup 137}Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average {sup 137}Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to {sup 137}Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y{sup -1}. Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs.

Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991). Revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs.

Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]).

Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

137Cs(90Sr) and Pu isotopes in the Pacific Ocean sources & trends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main source of artificial radioactivity in the world`s oceans can be attributed to worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of selected artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean were first conducted in the 1960`s where it was observed that fallout radioactivity had penetrated the deep ocean. Extensive studies carried out during the 1973-74 GEOSECS provided the first comprehensive data on the lateral and vertical distributions of {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes in the Pacific on a basin wide scale. Estimates of radionuclide inventories in excess of amounts predicted to be delivered by global fallout alone were attributed to close-in fallout and tropospheric inputs from early U.S. tests conducted on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Equatorial Pacific. In general, levels of fallout radionuclides (including {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes) in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean have decreased considerably over the past 4 decades and are now much more homogeneously distributed. Resuspension and the subsequent deposition of fallout radionuclides from previously deposited debris on land has become an important source term for the surface ocean. This can be clearly seen in measurements of fallout radionuclides in mineral aerosols over the Korean Peninsula (Yellow dust events). Radionuclides may also be transported from land to sea in river runoff-these transport mechanisms are more important in the Pacific Ocean where large quantities of river water and suspended sands/fluvial sediments reach the coastal zone. Another unique source of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is derived from the slow resolubilization and transport of radionuclides deposited in contaminated lagoon and slope sediments near U.S. and French test sites. Although there is a small but significant flux of artificial radionuclides depositing on the sea floor, > 80% of the total 239, {sup 240}Pu inventory and > 95% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory remains in the water column. Studies conducted through the 1980`s appear to be consistent with earlier findings and indicate that radionuclide inventories in mid-northern latitudes are at least a factor of two above those expected from global fallout alone. The long term persistence of close-in and/or stratospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands still appears to be the only plausible explanation for this anomaly.

Hamilton, T.F., Millies-Lacrox, J.C. [Service Mixte de Securite Radologique, Mondhery (France); Hong, G.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan (Korea)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic but K remobilization is linear in K-treated trees where K concentration is high. As a result of K treatment the {sup 137}Cs concentration in K-treated fronds is extremely low and constant with frond age. Fronds of K treated trees contain a greater amount of K than control tree fronds. As they fall to the ground and decay they provide a small continuing pool of K that is about 3% of the natural K in soil under the tree canopy. Results of K and {sup 137}Cs concentration and distribution in control and K-treated coconut trees suggest that the application of K reduces {sup 137}Cs uptake both in the short term immediately following K fertilization and in the long term, after soil K levels have returned to normal but while plant K stores remain high. These results suggests that high internal K concentration and not high soil K is primarily responsible for long-term reduction of {sup 137}Cs in edible fruits, and plays a significant role in limiting further uptake of {sup 137}Cs by roots, and affects allocation of {sup 137}Cs to edible fruits for years. Coconut trees are capable of luxury K accumulation when provided with excess K and in this example the additional K can effectively provide the K requirements of the plant for in excess of 10 years. The reduction of {sup 137}Cs uptake lasts for at least 10 y after K is last applied and greatly reduces the estimated radiation dose to people consuming local tree foods. Effectiveness and duration of K treatment provides important assurances that reduction in {sup 137}Cs is long term and the radiation dose from consuming local plant foods will remain low.

Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has independently verified the accuracy and precision of the AMS detection system for low-level bioassay measurements of plutonium isotopes through participation in an intercomparison exercise whereby performance evaluation samples were prepared in a synthetic urine matrix and submitted to participating laboratories for blind analysis. The results of the analyses were then sent to the NIST to independently evaluate the performance of laboratory participants. At LLNL, the AMS measurements of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu met ANSI 13.30 criteria for both precision and accuracy at all sample test levels. Livermore scientists continue to test the performance of the Marshall Islands Plutonium Urinalysis Program by routine blind analysis of externally prepared quality control test samples, and through the rigorous implementation of standardized methods and procedures. Although not addressed directly in the report, AMS measurements show that the urinary excretion of plutonium by selected Marshallese populations fall into a low and reproducible range. Moreover, there appears to be no evidence of small incremental intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement activities - past or present. The improved quality, reliability and detection sensitivity of AMS for low-level plutonium isotope measurements will enable DOE to develop high-quality, baseline urinary excretion data for Marshallese populations, and accurately assess and track potential uptakes of plutonium. associated with resettlement activities and/or from long-term changes in plutonium exposure conditions in the Marshall Islands.

Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

320

Quarterly Program Progress Report April 1, 2002-June 30, 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Quarterly Program Progress Report The DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program continues to provide, on a year round basis, a broad spectrum of medical care to the DOE patient population. During the fourth quarter of Year 4, the following medical services were provided: (1) Annual medical examinations for the DOE patient population (see Exhibit 1 for details). (2) Medications for the DOE patient population. (3) Preventive and primary medical care to the DOE patient population in the RMI as time and resources permit. (4) Additional manpower for the outpatient clinics at Ebeye and Majuro Hospitals (see Exhibit 2 for details). (5) Ancillary services such as labs, radiology and pharmacy in coordination with Kwajalein Hospital, Majuro Hospital and the 177 Health Care Program (177 HCP). (6) Referrals to Ebeye Hospital, Majuro Hospital and Kwajalein Hospital as necessary. (7) Referrals to Straub Clinic and Hospital in Honolulu as necessary (for details see Exhibit 1). (8) Monitored and adjusted monthly annual examination schedules based on equipment failure at Kwajalein. In addition to the above, the program was also involved in the following activities during this quarter: (1) Organized and conducted continuing medical education (CME) talks for the program's RMI staff and other RMI healthcare workers. (2) Held meetings with RMI government officials and Local Atoll government officials. (3) Input past medical records into the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. (4) Made adjustments to and created more templates for the EMR system. (5) Coordinated with the Public Health Departments on Majuro and Ebeye. (6) Met with PEACESAT to discuss possible collaboration on high speed Internet access. (7) Looked for opportunities to expand the program's telehealth capabilities. (8) Participated in the DOE-RMI Meeting in Honolulu. (9) Finalized the agreement with the RMI Ministry of Health and Environment (MOHE) and Majuro Hospital to hire Dr. Marie Lanwi on a part-time basis. (10) Held a Community Advisory Group (CAG) Meeting and Community Meeting on Majuro. (11) Negotiated with Kwajalein with regards to the increase in laboratory and procedure costs and continuing Mammography services for the DOE patient population. (12) Met with DOE in Honolulu to discuss the next year's program and budget. (13) Trained new residents in the use of the electronic medical record system. (14) Conducted electronic medical record audits. (15) Participated in a training session for the appointment scheduler module by Physician Micro System, Inc. on the EMR system. (16) Worked on the Year 5 Continuation Application and Budget. (17) Finalized the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with 177. (18) Worked with DOE and Bechtel Nevada (BN) to reduce PHRI program costs to meet an increase in referral costs paid by Bechtel. This report details the additions and changes to the program for the April 1, 2002-June 30, 2002 period.

Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z