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Sample records for lpg lpg bi-fuel

  1. Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-05-12

    The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

  2. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J E

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  3. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  4. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.

    1986-01-01

    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  5. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  6. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  7. The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

  8. Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

  9. Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

  10. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    U. Case History: Blowout at an LPG Storage Cavern in Sweden,and Heads at an Underground LPG Storage Cavern Site, Journalof Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns Hajime

  11. LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

  12. Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1984-08-01

    The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

  13. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  14. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  15. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  16. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  17. LPG odorization with an audit trail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astala, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article I have tried to cover a very broad subject in a very limited time while only touching on a few of the ways you could odorize LPG and have an audit trail. I would recommend that if you are interested in this type of odorizing for LPG, you contact your odorant manufacturer and two or three odorant equipment manufacturers and talk to them about what you would like and get their recommendations. By talking to more then one manufacturer you may want to incorporate the ideals of two or three manufacturers into your odorant system to have a system that meets all your needs and requirements.

  18. On Managing Temporal Information for Handling Durative Actions in LPG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerevini, Alfonso E.

    On Managing Temporal Information for Handling Durative Actions in LPG Alfonso Gerevini, Alessandro Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy fgerevini,saetti,serinag@ing.unibs.it Abstract. LPG is a recent planner good performance. This paper focuses on how LPG represents and manages temporal information to handle

  19. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  20. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  1. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  2. LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical, Inc Jump

  3. Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liddell, G.

    1986-08-01

    The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

  4. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  5. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  6. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  7. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 136 (2004) 1123 The LPG1 gene family of Leishmania major

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 136 (2004) 11­23 The LPG1 gene family of Leishmania major Kai lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is structurally related to that of the smaller glyco- sylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs Galf -transferase (Galf T) LPG1 affected Galf incorporation in LPG but not GIPLs. We hypothesized

  8. The role(s) of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) in the establishment of Leishmania major

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    The role(s) of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) in the establishment of Leishmania major infections) The abundant cell surface glycolipid lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was implicated in many steps of the Leishmania sharing LPG domains, however, has led to uncertainty about the relative contribution of LPG in vivo. Here

  9. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  10. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  11. LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-08-08

    LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

  12. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  13. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  14. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  15. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  16. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  17. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-18

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

  18. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  19. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  20. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  1. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  2. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  3. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

  5. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  6. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

    2003-03-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

  8. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  9. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  10. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  11. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  12. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  13. New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

  14. Next generation processes for NGL/LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, R.N.; Hudson, H.M.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Cuellar, K.T.

    1998-12-31

    Up to now, Ortloff`s Gas Subcooled Process (GSP) and OverHead Recycle Process (OHR) have been the state-of-the-art for efficient NGL/LPG recovery from natural gas, particularly for those gases containing significant concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Ortloff has recently developed new NGL recovery processes that advance the start-of-the-art by offering higher recovery levels, improved efficiency, and even better CO{sub 2} tolerance. The simplicity of the new process designs and the significantly lower gas compression requirements of the new processes reduce the investment and operating costs for gas processing plants. For gas streams containing significant amounts of carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} removal equipment upstream of the NGL recovery plant can be smaller or eliminated entirely, reducing both the investment cost and the operating cost for gas processing companies. In addition, the new liquids extraction processes can be designed to efficiently recover or reject ethane, allowing the gas processor to respond quickly to changing market conditions. This next generation of NGL/LPG recovery processes is now being applied to natural gas processing here in the US and abroad. Two of the new plants currently under construction provide practical examples of the benefits of the new processes.

  15. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  16. The Leishmania GDP-Mannose Transporter Is an Autonomous, Multi-specific, Hexameric Complex of LPG2 Subunits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    The Leishmania GDP-Mannose Transporter Is an Autonomous, Multi-specific, Hexameric Complex of LPG2Vised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 29, 1999 ABSTRACT: LPG2 (a gene involved in lipophosphoglycan assembly) encodes lack a GDP-Man NST, thereby providing an ideal heterologous system for probing the LPG2 structure

  17. 2100 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 2009 Simultaneous Interrogation of a Hybrid FBG/LPG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    of a Hybrid FBG/LPG Sensor Pair Using a Monolithically Integrated Echelle Diffractive Grating Honglei Guo--A simultaneous interrogation technique of a hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and long-period grating (LPG) sensor to interrogate hybrid FBG/LPG-based sensor pairs for the discrimination of refractive index (RI)/tem- perature

  18. Novel coiled tubing application controls large LPG storage well fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebhardt, F.; Eby, D.; Barnett, D.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional well control techniques for normal oil and gas wells are widely known and have been presented on numerous occasions. However, LPG storage (or cavern) wells rarely blow out and/or catch on fire. As a result, little information has been presented on the topic of well control for these types of wells. This article chronicles a case history of a high-volume liquid propane storage well fire. Because conventional wellhead removal methods could not be applied in this case, the capping/kill plan called for use of coiled tubing in a novel manner to cut the tubing downhole and install an inflatable packer to shut off propane flow. The plan was successfully executed, saving the operator millions of dollars in LPC product loss and cost of control.

  19. Golgi GDP-mannose Uptake Requires Leishmania LPG2 A MEMBER OF A EUKARYOTIC FAMILY OF PUTATIVE NUCLEOTIDE-SUGAR TRANSPORTERS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    Golgi GDP-mannose Uptake Requires Leishmania LPG2 A MEMBER OF A EUKARYOTIC FAMILY OF PUTATIVE as a donor substrate for lipophosphoglycan (LPG) synthesis. A lpg2 deletion mutant showed loss of GDP- Man but not UDP-Gal uptake, which was restored by introduction of the gene LPG2. Immunoelectron micros- copy

  20. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  1. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad Ahmed, Iqbal Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul Nadeem, Saad Ali, Shahid

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  2. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  3. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  4. Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

  5. A simple correlation to predict the hydrate quadruple point temperature for LPG mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    A simple correlation to predict the hydrate upper quadruple point temperature, T{sub Q2B} for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mixtures was developed. It was developed for use as a part of a modeling and control system for a LPG pipeline in Russia. For performance reasons, a simple hydrate prediction correlation was required that could be incorporated into the real-time and predictive pipeline simulation models. The operating company required both real time and predictive simulation tools be developed to assist in preventing hydrate blockages while minimizing the use of methanol. In this particular pipeline, LPG fluid moves through the pipeline as a single phase liquid above its bubble point pressure. Because of the very low flow rates, the trace amount of water present in the LPG drops out and creates water pools at low points in the pipeline. The pipeline pressure and seasonal temperatures are conducive for hydrate formation in these pools. Methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEG) are injected in the pipeline to help prevent hydrate formation. The newly developed correlation predicts the hydrate quadruple point temperature using only the composition and the molecular weight of the LPG mixture while retaining an accuracy comparable to the statistical thermodynamic models throughout the range of normal operating conditions.

  6. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  8. Ageing effect in spray pyrolysed B:SnO{sub 2} thin films for LPG sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skariah, Benoy E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com; Thomas, Boben E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    For LPG sensing, boron doped (0.2 to 0.8 wt. %) polycrystalline tin oxide thin films are deposited by spray pyrolysis in the temperature range 325 - 430 °C. Sensor response of 56 % is achieved for 1000 ppm of LPG, at an operating temperature of 350 °C. The effects of ageing under ambient conditions on the sensor response are investigated for a storage period of six years. Ageing increases the film resistance but the gas response is lowered. XRD, SEM, FESEM, FTIR and XPS are utilized for structural, morphological and compositional charaterisations.

  9. Planning Through Stochastic Local Search and Temporal Action Graphs in LPG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerevini, A; Serina, I; 10.1613/jair.1183

    2011-01-01

    We present some techniques for planning in domains specified with the recent standard language PDDL2.1, supporting 'durative actions' and numerical quantities. These techniques are implemented in LPG, a domain-independent planner that took part in the 3rd International Planning Competition (IPC). LPG is an incremental, any time system producing multi-criteria quality plans. The core of the system is based on a stochastic local search method and on a graph-based representation called 'Temporal Action Graphs' (TA-graphs). This paper focuses on temporal planning, introducing TA-graphs and proposing some techniques to guide the search in LPG using this representation. The experimental results of the 3rd IPC, as well as further results presented in this paper, show that our techniques can be very effective. Often LPG outperforms all other fully-automated planners of the 3rd IPC in terms of speed to derive a solution, or quality of the solutions that can be produced.

  10. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  11. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  12. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B.

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  13. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B. )

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  14. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  15. 2015 NIST EPO No. 26 LPG Liquid Measuring Systems (Rev (09/14) Page 1 of 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particular attention to the condition of the product storage tank and valves. - Check to be certain around in wet, slippery areas and in climbing on prover, storage tanks, and vehicles. - Use personal for the type of inspection activity. H-44 General Code and LPG and Anhydrous Ammonia LMD Code References - 2015

  16. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  17. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual

  18. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total

  19. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  20. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  1. Zn-doped and undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles: A comparative structural, optical and LPG sensing properties study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, R.K.; Sahay, P.P.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirm that all the materials prepared are polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure. On Zn-doping, the crystallite size has been found to decrease from 25 nm (undoped sample) to 13 nm (1 at% Zn-doped sample). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles show smaller crystallite size (11–17 nm). ? Optical band gap in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases on Zn-doping. ? 2 at% Zn-doped sample show minimum room temperature resistivity. ? LPG response of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases considerably. ? 1 at% Zn-doped sample shows maximum response (87%) at 300 °C to 1 vol% concentration. -- Abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method with SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O as the starting material and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O as the source of dopant. All the materials prepared have been found to be polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure with crystallite sizes in the range 11–25 nm. Optical analyses reveal that for the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, both undoped and Zn-doped, direct transition occurs with the bandgap energies in the range 3.05–3.41 eV. Variation in the room temperature resistivity of the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles as a function of dopant concentration has been explained on the basis of two competitive processes: (i) replacement of Sn{sup 4+} ion by an added Zn{sup 2+} ion, and (ii) ionic compensation of Zn{sup 2+} by the formation of oxygen vacancies. Among all the samples examined for LPG sensing, the 1 at% Zn-doped sample exhibits fast and maximum response (?87%) at 300 °C for 1 vol% concentration of LPG in air.

  2. Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D.; Popova, E. T.

    1999-05-24

    Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.

  3. TEXAS LPG FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Full-Text - Submission contains both citation data and full-text of the journal article. Full-text can be either a pre-print or post-print, but not the copyrighted article.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOUTHWEST RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMITTED BY SUBCONTRACTOR, RAILROAD COMMISSION OF TEXAS

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix?s LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power?s residential-scale GenSys? 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program?s primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation?s TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units. For further information please contact Mary-Jo Rowan at mary-jo.rowan@cpa.state.tx.us

  4. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  5. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    2.5.6. Saturated vapor pressure of propane Ideal Gas Heatpropane viscosity as a function of temperature, at P = 1.013x10 5 Pa Wagner Equation Saturated Vapor Pressure,pressure suitable for propane is about 0.8 MPa, slightly exceeding the saturated vapor

  6. Application of Energy Saving Concepts to LPG Recovery Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, M. J.; Barnwell, J.

    1982-01-01

    inefficient compared to current standards. This paper deals with energy savings that may be effected for one such plant. Three basic ideas are evaluated:- o Use of Multi-Component Chilling (MCC). o Addition of an Expander. o Heat Recovery from Gas Turbine...

  7. Microsoft Word - 0615DOE-LPG-wd6.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Methane HydrateUpdateBudgetingUtilityisConantDOSSCADA[301]

  8. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  9. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards "Top-Runner Approach"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2008-01-01

    water heater, Gas water heater, LPG water heater Hot WaterCooling Space Heating Coal LPG Kerosene Projection * “Mtoe”Renewable Gas Kerosene LPG Coal LPG Electricity Coal

  10. Table A58. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22Primary Consumption of

  11. Fuel Displacement & Cost Potential of CNG, LNG, and LPG Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuelMaterialsDepartment of

  12. ASE Certification for Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG Training Programs

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManual del vehículoU.S. Department of

  13. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    shares of electricity and LPG. The subsequent divergent fuelrural households have only recently started using LPG. Whileresidents did not start using LPG until the mid-1990s, urban

  14. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Diesel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Refinery Gas Other Petroleumgas/diesel oil residual fuel oil LPG ethane naphtha bitumenand fuel oil (residual), LPG, refinery gas/still gas,

  15. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). 32 Consequently, CNG heavy-Electric Taxi Gasoline LPG Motorcycle Figure 34 Passengercars while the fuel economy of LPG taxis improve at a slower

  16. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Stock 15800 Net Kerosene LPG (Cylinders) Prem I Heavy :!!?country wide kerosene and LPG consumption from Kenya Shell.with the exception of LPG, have increased considerablyz

  17. The future of electric two-wheelers and electric vehicles in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    transmission (Meszler, 2007). LPG scooters are excluded frommotorcycles (Shanghai, 32%, only LPG type), and cities whereand gasoline (and sometimes LPG) have become the dominant

  18. Field performance of a nephelometer in rural kitchens: effects of high humidity excursions and correlations to gravimetric analyses (Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Susan L; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2006-01-01

    burning liquid petroleum gas (LPG), coal gas, or natural gashigher (pLPG-burning and improved-stoveor augmenting space heating, LPG stoves, and producer gas 2

  19. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, and two healthand kerosene compared with LPG stove in Nepal. Its chaptercompared with kerosene and LPG stoves. By contrast, the

  20. Residential Sector End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1: Summary Input Assumptions and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Heating Electric Furnace Gas Furnace LPG Furnace Oil Furnaceliquid petroleum gas (LPG), and wood Availability ofHeating Electric Furnace Gas Furnace LPG Furnace Oil Furnace

  1. State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    P-value Intercept Fuel: kerosene vs. LPG Fuel: dung vs.LPG Fuel: wood vs.LPG Kitchen: SOK vs. ODK Kitchen: IWPK vs. ODK Kitchen:

  2. Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Fuels = Oil and Gas, Other = LPG and Misc. (3) Sources: 1990includes homes heated with LPG or with miscellaneous fuelssegmentation, homes with LPG heating are included in the

  3. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), namely butane, is provided tocapabilities and running on LPG. ICE - Internal Combustionload requirement and high LPG prices forces also stationary

  4. The Transition To Electric Bikes In China: History And Key Reasons For Rapid Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Cherry, Chris

    2006-01-01

    majority of motor scooters are LPG. In other regions, theyBike Bus Motor Scooter (LPG) Motorcycle (gasoline) Compacttechnology, gasoline and LPG scooters since, besides the

  5. Motorization, Vehicle Purchase and Use Behavior in China: A Shanghai Survey????????????????????????????

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Jason

    2008-01-01

    powered by electricity or LPG. The “APV” is called as “Vehicle (____electricity/_____LPG) Motorcycle Car (_______by fuel (gasoline, electricity, LPG, etc. ) instead of human

  6. On Graphs that are not PCGs Stephane Durocher1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durocher, Stephane

    the graph classes that arise from using the intervals [0, dmax] (LPG) and [dmin, ] (mLPG). They proved LPG, mLPG and PCG are similar to the leaf powers and their variants, which have been extensively

  7. Optimizing U.S. Mitigation Strategies for the Light-Duty Transportation Sector: What We Learn from a Bottom-Up Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen C.FCH Conventional HEV LPG Flex Fuel PHEV Adv GSLHydrogen F.FCH Conventional HEV LPG Flex Fuel Methanol FlexHydrogen M.FCH Conventional HEV LPG LPG Flex Fuel PHEV M.GSL

  8. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    M. , “ Development of an LPG DI Diesel Engine Using Cetanea DI Diesel Engine Operated With LPG and Ignition Improving

  9. Exploring pairwise compatibility graphs T. Calamoneria,1,, E. Montefuscoc,, R. Petreschia,2,, B. Sinaimerib,3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calamoneri, Tiziana

    from the cases where the constraints on the distance between the pairs of leaves concern only dmax (LPG) or only dmin (mLPG). In particular, we show that the union of LPG and mLPG classes does not coincide with the whole class of PCGs, their intersection is not empty, and that neither of the classes LPG and mLPG

  10. Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by use of a single-fiber Bragg grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    are the approaches for which hybrid FBG long-period grating5 LPG and a single LPG are used.6 The hybrid FBG LPG sensor consists of two FBG's and an LPG in which the mode-coupling wavelength of the LPG lies between responses of the FBG and the LPG to the two parameters. However, in this sensor scheme the temperature

  11. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-01-01

    .S. Department of Energy, as part of their "Industry of the Future Program". Total combined benefits are projected to be approximately $1 million/year with a 1.6 year simple payback including the grant funding....

  12. Model curriculum outline for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle (AFV) automotive technician training in light and medium duty CNG and LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This model curriculum outline was developed using a turbo-DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process which utilizes practicing experts to undertake a comprehensive job and task analysis. The job and task analysis serves to establish current baseline data accurately and to improve both the process and the product of the job through constant and continuous improvement of training. The DACUM process is based on the following assumptions: (1) Expert workers are the best source for task analysis. (2) Any occupation can be described effectively in terms of tasks. (3) All tasks imply knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values. A DACUM panel, comprised of six experienced and knowledgeable technicians who are presently working in the field, was given an orientation to the DACUM process. The panel then identified, verified, and sequenced all the necessary job duty areas and tasks. The broad duty categories were rated according to relative importance and assigned percentage ratings in priority order. The panel then rated every task for each of the duties on a scale of 1 to 3. A rating of 3 indicates an {open_quotes}essential{close_quotes} task, a rating of 2 indicates an {open_quotes}important{close_quotes} task, and a rating of 1 indicates a {open_quotes}desirable{close_quotes} task.

  13. Development of the Ford QVM CNG bi-fuel 4.9L F-Series pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapetz, J.; McCarthy, D.; Greenfield, N. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    A bi-fuel (Compressed Natural Gas [CNG] and gasoline) pickup truck has been developed using the Ford Alternative Fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) process. The base vehicle`s 4.9L engine has been specially modified for improved durability on gaseous fuels. The base vehicle`s configuration has been designed for conversion to bi-fuel CNG operation. A complete CNG fuel system has been designed and qualified, including fuel tanks, fuel system, and electrical interface. The completed vehicle has been safety and emission certified, demonstrating CARB Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emissions in MY95. This paper details the design objectives, development process, CNG components, and integration of the two fuel systems.

  14. BuildSense Compressed natural gas (CNG) bi-fuel conversions for two Ford F-series pickup trucks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BuildSense Compressed natural gas (CNG) bi-fuel conversions for two Ford F-series pickup trucks $141,279 $35,320 $176,599 City of Charlotte Solid Waste Services Compressed natural gas ( CNG) up fits of Cary. Wake $121,779 $40,799 $162,578 Waste Industries Fifty-two CNG up fits on refuse trucks in Raleigh

  15. Lipophosphoglycan is a virulence factor distinct from related glycoconjugates in the protozoan parasite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    is the glycosylphosphatidyli- nositol (GPI)-anchored polysaccharide called lipophosphoglycan (LPG). LPG has been proposed by deactivation of macrophage signaling pathways. However, all structural domains of LPG are shared by other major tests to establish whether LPG itself is a virulence factor. To study truly lpg parasites, we generated

  16. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01

    Change x ISO LCA LCFS LCI LP LPG MED MRO MSF MTBE MWD MWDOCparticularly for diesel fuels, LPG and naphtha, but noDiesel Kerosene Gasoline LPG Other Products Mass Output (kg/

  17. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    CFL Electricity Natural gas LPG Coal Coal gas Other AirFuels. A small volume of LPG and crude oil are recorded fortransportation use. LPG is used in transport is primarily in

  18. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01

    heaters fueled by electricity, LPG and natural gas. BesidesWater Heating Use Solar LPG Natural Gas Electricity In lightelectric, natural gas and LPG water heaters. Since our China

  19. Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher; Cervero, Robert

    2007-01-01

    lique?ed petroleum gas (LPG) scooters in these two cities.s taxi ?eet con- verted to LPG, the fueling infrastructureavailable for the growth of LPG scooters. As a result,

  20. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    TWh) Heating U (TJ) Kerosene (Mt) LPG (Mt) I.I Electricity fm3) 2. Mtce Year t K Coal* LPG Natural Gas Town Gas ¥ TotalIncludes refinery gas, LPG, various petroleum and coking

  1. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    of oil use for the need of LPG and kerosene for cooking andSector PJ Fuel Oil Diesel Oil LPG Electricity Source: CEA,PJ) PJ fuel oil diesel LPG electricity Energy consumption is

  2. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of Coal Gas, LPG, and Natural Gas by ProvinceConsumption of Coal Gas, LPG, and Natural Gas by ProvinceJet fuel Kerosene (lighting) LPG [2] [1] See table 6B.14 for

  3. The Rise of Electric Two-wheelers in China: Factors for their Success and Implications for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.

    2007-01-01

    hour Li-ion – lithium ion LPG – liquefied petroleum gas m –Motorcycle speeds (labeled “LPG scooter” in figure) are evenby Honda in the 60s (verify). LPG scooters are popular in

  4. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    ratio also applies for China. LPG is a major energy source,CFL Electricity Natural gas LPG Coal Coal gas Other Airfuels, such as natural gas and LPG, for cooking instead of

  5. Regional and National Estimates of the Potential Energy Use, Energy Cost, and CO{sub 2} Emissions Associated with Radon Mitigation by Sub-slab Depressurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    average efficiency for LPG, natural gas, and fuel oilto be 0.75 for electric, LPG, natural gas, and fuel oilthe remaining are either LPG or natural gas ([20], Table

  6. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    100 Table 33. LPG allocation and intensity by buildingIRR ISP ISP Kg Kt kWh kWh/t LPG MBN MDEA MOS MOSPI MRPL Mtto run equipment and lights, LPG used for water heating and

  7. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    began in the late 1980s. LPG, refinery gas, and chemicalWax Diesel Oil Fuel Oi? LPG (Unit: Mt) Petroleum Year Cokeheating (1.7% to 7.6%), LPG (0.8% to 9.8%), and natural

  8. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Diesel CNG Gasoline Hybrid LPG Gasoline Ethanol DieselCNG Gasoline Hybrid LPG Electric Figure 23 Car Saturation byGasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPG Natural Gas CIS Diesel

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    S. : Optimizing automotive LPG blend for Mexico city, Fuel,Calculated using 6 (traffic + LPG) factors; r 2 = 0.86 withfactor and r 2 = 0.56 for LPG factor. e N = 851 for emission

  10. Tackling Optimization Challenges in Industrial Load Control and Full-Duplex Radios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gholian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    106 LP linear programming. 7 LPG liquid petroleum gas. 20Industry Gas Amine & Merox LPG Recovery PPU1 Isomerisationand/or mercaptans from gas. In the LPG Recovery Unit, liquid

  11. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) Voluntary Labeling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-01-01

    which may be heated using gas, oil, LPG or electricity. (Because oil and LPG water heaters represent only a smallwater heating homes (oil and LPG water heating homes were

  12. The Rapid Rise of Middle-Class Vehicle Ownership in Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirgaokar, Manish

    2012-01-01

    5% used Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), and 4% used Compressed27% used diesel and 3% used LPG. In the taxis and rickshawsused diesel, and 2% used LPG; in the Thane region 53% used

  13. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    3 (Table 6 and Figure 4), and LPG savings 13 million tonnes.electricity and 28 billion m 3 LPG, with a CO2 reduction ofGas WH* (billion m 3 ) LPG WH (million tonnes) Electric

  14. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    7504, 2009 petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel are thevehicles, while diesel and LPG fueled vehicles accounted forShing Mun Tunnel, Hong Kong LPG, gasoline, and diesel ethene

  15. Probabilistically Reusing Plans in Deterministic Planning DANIEL BORRAJO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    and the goals. As an example, LPG-ADAPT (Fox et al. 2006) focuses on re- planning with minimum changes to previous plans using the LPG planner. They adapted LPG plan-modification heuris- tics, trying to maximize

  16. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    users. For example, when a LPG gas bottle is sold in a shopCharcoal Stove Coal Stove Kerosene Stove LPG Stove NaturalGas Stove LPG Water Heater Natural Gas Water Heater Electric

  17. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, GregoryK

    2010-01-01

    which may be heated using gas, oil, LPG or electricity. (Because oil and LPG water heaters represent only a smallwater heating homes (oil and LPG water heating homes were

  18. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    80% of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper usescase and 11% in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 Theelectricity and natural gas/LPG shows that considering BAT

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    and diesel fuel, but not LPG, jet fuel, residual oil, orbaseline year, 2004 Fuel LPG Motor gasoline Jet fuel Dieseland diesel fuel, but not LPG, A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For

  20. Vehicular fuel composition and atmospheric emissions in South China: Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, W. Y; Chan, L. Y; Blake, D. R; Chu, K. W

    2006-01-01

    of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on Santiago air quality,cluded that roughly 5% of the LPG that was sold in Santiago,The leakage of unburned LPG was found to be a major source

  1. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhyankar, Nikit

    2011-01-01

    DG DSM DTL DVB EE FY LNG LPG MERC MU NCT NDMC NDPL NG NHPCutility level. In case of LPG and natural gas water heaters,of electric water heaters by LPG heaters would require

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and diesel fuel, but not LPG, jet fuel, residual oil, orbaseline year, 2004 Fuel LPG Motor gasoline Jet fuel Dieseland diesel fuel, but not LPG, A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For

  3. 2007 Status Report: Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) VoluntaryLabeling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan, Gregory K.

    2007-01-01

    which may be heated using gas, oil, LPG or electricity. (Because oil and LPG water heaters represent only a smallwater heating homes (oil and LPG water heating homes were

  4. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY PART ONE: THE DATA BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, L.

    2013-01-01

    aggregated as "solids". We count LPG as gas (except in theof con- sumption which is LPG, natural gas, or city gas.for oil, natural gas, LPG, and "other". We have aggregated

  5. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    natural gas (CNG) ICEV, LPG (P95/BU5) ICEV, ethanol (corn)Petroleum, Natural Gas, LPG, and Other Fuels for HighwayMethane (CNG, LNG) Propane (LPG) Hydrogen (CH2) (LH2)

  6. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    electricity kerosene LPG wood TRANSPORT electricity dieselelectricity kerosene LPG wood TRANSPORT electricity dieselthe ab ov 25 e Rs Electricity LPG see above a b 19 ov 2 5 e

  7. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Additional products line gas, LPG, F, phenolsv and ammonia.Purified gas coal 4'JI,. LPG L_J" _ _, Sulfm Fractionatorcooled and separated into LPG and pipeline gas. The residue

  8. Imaginaries of transnationalism : media and cultures of consumption in El Salvador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivas, Cecilia Maribel

    2007-01-01

    de Sykes inicia operaciones. ” LPG. 11 Dec. 2004: 66. “‘Callpandilleros en México. ” LPG. 27 December 2003: 26. “Centrosde Roble abre sus puertas. ” LPG. 10 Dec. 2004: 86-87. “

  9. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    natural gas water heater, LPG water heater, electric stove,Natural Gas WH* (billion m ) LPG WH (million metric tons)would reach 25 billion m 3 and LPG savings 13 million tons (

  10. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01

    of gasoline, diesel, and even LPG consumed by automobiles.of diesels and in two cases LPG cars as well. The IEA (1)liquid petroleum gas (LPG, mostly propane) has been

  11. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    IPP Kbbl kLBS kst kW LBNL LPG Mcf MECS MMBtu Mt MTBE MVSTAFFliquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or still gas. The secondhydrogen include natural gas, LPG, naphtha, and refinery

  12. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Fuel oil Distillate Fuel Oil LPG Other washed coal Crude oildistillate fuel oil IEA value for LPG is a typical value andFuel Distillate Fuel oil Oil LPG For this study, the

  13. Emissions from Wild Land Fires, Diesel Engines and Other Combustion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Poornima

    2014-01-01

    three way catalysts in LPG and LNG vehicles, both as afterNOx reduction. Using LPG and LNG fuels as an alternate tolean burn OC Spark ignited LNG TWC stoichiometric burn LPG

  14. On relaxing the constraints in pairwise compatibility graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calamoneri, Tiziana

    subclasses resulting from the the cases where dmin = 0 (LPG) and dmax = + (mLPG). In particular, we show that the union of LPG and mLPG does not coincide with the whole class PCG, their intersection is not empty, and that neither of the classes LPG and mLPG is contained in the other. Finally, as the graphs we deal with belong

  15. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01

    appliances that use city gas or LPG gas and do not includethat use city gas 13A or LPG gas, excluding grills, ovens

  16. Indiana Board of Licensure for Professional Geologists Update Contact Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    : ______________________________________________________ LPG #: ____________________ Mailing Address-mail it to the Licensing Coordinator at inblpg@indiana.edu. LPG # Name Employer Street Address, City, State, Zip Office

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, refinery gas and otherMt Diesel Oil Mt Fuel Oil Mt LPG Mt Refinery Gas Mt Other

  18. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, refinery gas and otherMt Diesel Oil Mt Fuel Oil Mt LPG Mt Refinery Gas Mt Other

  19. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO RG LPG R95 R100 RG LPG CN CGO RG Refinery Operation and Management - J.P. Favennec Crude Distillation

  20. Fecal counts of lungworm larvae and reproductive effort in bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    how individual differences in fecal output of lungworm larvae (LPG) by yearlings and adults were and LPG. Overall, we found that LPG varies seasonally, peaking in females prior to lambing and in males during the rut. Age had no effect on LPG for either sex. During autumn, we found no effect of age or mass

  1. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO RG LPG R95 R100 RG LPG CN CGO RG Refinery Operation and Management - J.P. Favennec Crude

  2. Supporting Information for Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    External Combustion Boilers Natural Gas - 2103006XXX Stationary Source Fuel Combustion LPG 103010XXX External Combustion Boilers Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) - 2103007XXX Stationary Source Fuel Combustion 2104006XXX Natural Gas - LPG 2104007XXX Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) - #12;Wood 2104008XXX Wood PM

  3. The role of phosphoglycans in Leishmaniasand fly interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    through phosphatidyl- inositol anchors (lipophosphoglycan, LPG) or secreted as protein- containing in either total phosphoglycans or LPG alone. Leishmania donovani promas- tigotes deficient in both LPG and protein-linked phosphoglycans because of loss of LPG2 (encoding the Golgi GDP-Man transporter) failed

  4. THEJOURNALOF BIOLOGICALCHEMISTRY Q 1989 by The American Societyfor Biochemistryand MolecularBiology, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . donouani is a unique glycoconjugatecalled lipophosphoglycan (LPG).' It has been proposed (2) that LPG may, the L. donovani LPG (M,=9,000) is apolymer * This investigation was supported by the United Nations. of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD14HN, United Kingdom. The abbreviations used are: LPG

  5. Combining Domain-Independent Planning and HTN Planning: The Duet Planner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nau, Dana S.

    techniques as in LPG [8]. In our experiments, Duet was able to solve much larger problems than LPG couldDownward [10], and LPG [8]) usually does not need expert-provided domain knowledge, since the planner itself planners: LPG, which uses domain-independent heuristics in a stochastic local search engine [8], and SHOP2

  6. On Pairwise Compatibility Graphs having Dilworth Number Two.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calamoneri, Tiziana

    of no node contains the neighborhood of another. It is known that LPG mLPG is not empty and that threshold belong to the set LPG mLPG, too. Our proof is constructive since we show how to compute all

  7. Identification of Genes Encoding Arabinosyltransferases (SCA) Mediating Developmental Modifications of Lipophosphoglycan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    (LPG). Release is mediated by arabinosyl (Ara) capping of LPG sc Gal residues upon differentiation to the infective me- tacyclic stage. We used intraspecific polymorphisms of LPG structure to develop a genetic strategy leading to the identification of two genes (SCA1/2) mediating scAra capping. These LPG side chain

  8. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Gasoline Ethanol Electric Diesel CNG Gasoline Hybrid LPGGasoline Ethanol Diesel CNG Gasoline Hybrid LPG Electric

  9. Alternative Fuel Tools and Technical Assistance Activities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    due to refuse truck MPG uncertainty Payback for F-550s 7 yrs for LPG & CNG Oil reduction for LPG 1,900 bblyr & CNG 2,900 bblyr Payback for refuse trucks ...

  10. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    rural, k=Kerosene m=rural, k=biogas m =urban, k=LPG m=urban,k=LPG k=wood k=kerosene k=biogas k=electricity k=electricity

  11. Does Representation Matter in the Planning Competition? Patricia J. Riddle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, Robert

    in the satisficing track of IPC2011. Metric-FF, MIPS and LPG-quality were all downloaded from the Strathclyde) is Edelkamp's model checking integrated planning system. LPG-quality (Gerevini, Saetti, and Serina 2003

  12. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 90279037, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/9027/2010/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and vehicle exhaust are suggested to be the princi- pal emission. Furthermore, decreasing trends over time were found for LPG and hot soak (-7.8% and -12.7% per year

  13. IEEE Communications Magazine April 2005100 0163-6804/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE TOPICS IN EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    such as collision avoidance warnings. We pro- pose a local peer group (LPG) architecture to organize neighboring. We study two architectural alternatives for LPG in this article, and consider areas of improvement

  14. ORGANIGRAMME DE L'UFR SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUE du 15 Janvier 2015 RESPONSABLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    LIUM (Labo. d'Informatique de l'Université du Maine) : C.DESPRES SCIENCES DE LA TERRE LPG (Labo. de. BEHUE LIUM: M. HARDY LPG et MMS: V. JASTRZEBSKI MIP et VIPS : S. DESNOS DUFOS : Marie DRONIOU #12;

  15. Cohomologie de de Rham Alberto Arabia & Zoghman Mebkhout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arabia, Alberto

    ............................................... 10 2.2.6. [II] LPG. Lemme de Poincar´e global pour l'espace affine .............................................. 13 2.3.6. [III] LPG. Lemme de Poincar´e global pour l'espace affine

  16. Indiana Board of Licensure for Professional Geologists Application to take the Association of State Boards of Geology (ASBOG) Exam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    15, 2015 the Indiana Geological Survey and LPG Program WILL NO LONGER PROCESS payments received by email, voicemail or fax. We kindly request you make payments online at http://igs.indiana.edu/LPG

  17. Improved stove programs need robust methods to estimate carbon offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    per unit fuel energy compared to LPG (63 tCO 2 e TJ ?1 ) ordefault emission factors for LPG (63,100 kg CO 2 TJ ?1 , 0.9

  18. FEDERAL HIGHWAY-USER FEES 1/ OCTOBER 2001 TABLE FE-21B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a single rate. Exceptions were LPG, which was not subject to the LUST tax, and neat alcohols, which are taxed at various rates depending on type and source of alcohol. Beginning October 1, 1997, LPG and LNG

  19. Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Moshe

    pattern.18 Moreover, such a method cannot be implemented for interrogating LPG-based sensors. To the best of our knowledge, the structure of a LPG has not been measured yet. A recon- struction technique

  20. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    from a LPG storage cavern. The algorithm captures the complex behavior of the resulting flow. We, in modeling the leakage of gas from a LPG storage cavern, the density of the gaseous phase decreases rapidly

  1. Useless Actions are Useful Martin Wehrle and Sebastian Kupferschmid and Andreas Podelski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Thomas

    heuristics and planners like FF, LPG, FAST DOWNWARD or SGPLAN have been proposed in this con- text. However and Nebel 2001), LPG (Gerevini, Saetti, and Se- rina 2003), FAST DOWNWARD (Helmert 2006) or SGPLAN (Chen

  2. Bus Research and Testing Program Heavy-duty Chassis Dynamometer and Emissions Testing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    · CO2, CO, HC, NOx, and particulates · Fuels: Diesel, gasoline, CNG, propane, LNG, LPG, ethanol state and transient · Multiple fuels capability including diesel, gasoline, CNG, propane, LNG, LPG

  3. Generalizing the Relaxed Planning Heuristic to Non-Linear Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metric-FF, LPG, VHPOP, SimPlan, SAPA, and MIPS implemented refinements and extensions to the heuristic. In 2004, the plan- ners SGPlan, Marvin, FAP, Fast Diogonally Downward, Crikey, Roadmapper, YAHSP, LPG

  4. Learning Macro-Actions Genetically from Plans M.A. Hakim Newton, John Levine, Maria Fox, Derek Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Rong

    (Fast Forward) (Hoffmann & Nebel 2001) and LPG (Local search for Planning Graphs) (Gerevini & Serina graphplan algorithm. LPG, on the other hand, is stochastic in nature and uses a heuristic inspired

  5. highly conserved, but the mechanism or mechanisms determining germ cell fate are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    factors affecting persistence are poorly understood. Leish- mania major lacking phosphoglycans (lpg2 in the mam- malian host without inducing disease. The L. major lpg2 thus provides a platform for probing

  6. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    sulfur) ICEV, natural gas (CNG) ICEV, LPG (P95/BU5) ICEV,Methanol Ethanol Methane (CNG, LNG) Propane (LPG) Hydrogen (M85 (wood) Natural gas CNG (wood) Note: percentage changes

  7. Development of a robot localization and environment mapping system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panas, Cynthia Dawn Walker

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this research is to develop a robust, efficient, self-contained localization module for use in a robotic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank inspection system. Inspecting large LPG tanks for defects is difficult, ...

  8. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    fuels (biogas or LPG) for cooking and heating, and promotionBiogas and LPG stoves 0 and 20 years 3.3.8 Main heating and11.2%), and biogas (1.9%). We created a heating fuel

  9. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, MIchael

    2011-01-01

    Induction) Mandatory 2006 Voluntary Label In progress In progress Ceiling fans Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) Agricultural pump LPG stove

  10. State Laboratory Program -Calibration Scope Summary Certificate Date Comments Mass I Mass II Mass III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100 gal to 1 gal 1044 gal to 1 gal 100 gal to 20 gal LPG Arkansas 2014 25 kg to 1 mg 1000 lb to 0 100 gal to 20 gal LPG Field Calibrations 500 gal to 5 gal 100 gal to 20 gal LPG Steel tapes Tape to 2000 lb 100 gal to 5 gal 100 gal to 25 gal LPG Bench, Tapes 300 ft to 1 ft Rigid Rules 10 in to 1 in 24

  11. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  12. Automobility in India: A Study of Car Acquisition and Ownership Trends in the City of Surat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Ipsita

    2011-01-01

    fuels, namely gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compact natural gas (CNG), and electricity, are the representative prices

  13. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    bioethanol fuels in Brazil and liquefied petroleum gas or LPG taxis in Tokyo Brazil ? Brazilian National Alcohol Programme: supports production

  14. Leishmania major: Promastigotes Induce Expression of a Subset of Chemokine Genes in Murine Macrophages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    nitric oxide synthase; LPG, lipophosphoglycan. INTRODUCTION Virulent metacyclic promastigotes of Leish, including a glyco- lipid termed lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and a surface protease, gp63 (Chang and Chaudhuri 1990; Turco and Descoteaux 1992). LPG, for example, participates in binding to the macro- phage

  15. Modeling NICs with Unicorn Pravin Shinde, Antoine Kaufmann, Kornilios Kourtis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtis, Kornilios

    functions- configuration Logical Protocol Graph LPG: - protocol state - packet processing PLOS/Nov. 3 2013 PRG: - hw functions- configuration Logical Protocol Graph LPG: - protocol state - packet processing Embedding (implements policy) Embedded graph: - part of LPG in hw PLOS/Nov. 3 2013 Systems Group

  16. Measurements and receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds in Southeastern Mexico City, 2000 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    paint (VINPA), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hot soak (HOTS), vehicle exhaust (EXHTI and EXHTN) from Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, unpublished. SOLVENT LPG HOTSOAK EXHAUST _________________ ______ _______ ____________________________________ VINPA VARNISH LPG HOTS EXHTI EXHTN EXHTG1 EXHTG2 Ethane 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.004 0.033 0.017 0.029 0

  17. Planning as Propositional CSP: from Walksat to Local Search Techniques for Action Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerevini, Alfonso E.

    techniques are implemented in a planner called LPG using various types of heuristics based on a parametrized evaluated using Lagrange multipliers. LPG's basic heuristic was inspired by Walksat, which in Kautz and Selman's Blackbox can be used to solve the SAT-encoding of a planning graph. An advantage of LPG

  18. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 1771 Interrogation of a Long Period Grating Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    period grating (LPG) fiber sensor with an arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-based demul- tiplexer through of the LPG sensor through curve fitting in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian functions. By monitoring the changes of the reconstructed LPG spectrum, including the center wavelength shift

  19. Cell, Vol. 119, 311316, October 29, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press in sand fly midguts, a strong candidate emerged. PpGalecFlypaper for Parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    lipophosphogly- that PpGalec was able to bind Leishmania mutants and can (LPG). This interaction is critical (quarantines, destruction al.). At that time, the midgut binding form of LPG is shed,of reservoirs). For arthropod borne diseases transmis- and replaced with a structurally modified LPG, unablesion poses further

  20. Sensors and Actuators B 139 (2009) 618623 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    2009-01-01

    -streptavidin were deposited onto the ISAM-coated LPG sequentially, each inducing a measurable resonant wavelength shift of the LPG. Control experiments verified the specificity of the biosensor system. Furthermore, we attracted many researchers' interest [7­12]. The resonant wavelength shift of an LPG to a thin-film coating

  1. Biochemistry 1987, 26, 6233-6238 6233 Structure of the Major Carbohydrate Fragment of the Leishmania donovani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implicated in host-parasite interactions (Handman et al., 1984;Handman & Goding, 1985). LPG' is a major. Structurally, LPG is a lipid- containing polydisperse species that is heterogeneous in its carbohydrate portion carbohydrate fragment generated by mild acid hy- drolysis of LPG was partially characterized as a phosphory

  2. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, June 2004, p. 36223627 Vol. 72, No. 6 0019-9567/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.72.6.36223627.2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    . Identification of a Compensatory Mutant (lpg2 REV) of Leishmania major Able To Survive as Amastigotes within Macrophages without LPG2-Dependent Glycoconjugates and Its Significance to Virulence and Immunization rely to different extents on abundant glycoconjugates, such as lipophosphogly- can (LPG) and related

  3. A New Local-Search Algorithm for Forward-Chaining Planning Andrew Coles, Maria Fox and Amanda Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Andrew

    established and successful planners in re- cent years, FF (Hoffmann & Nebel 2001) and LPG (Gerevini & Serina paradigms. FF performs forward-chaining state-space search, whilst LPG searches through a space of plans a solution plan, exhaustive best-first search is performed from the ini- tial state to solve the problem. LPG

  4. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 58715891, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/5871/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    % reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6 %, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current and paint utilization and LPG usage in current inventories all require significant revisions. 1 Introduction

  5. Functional Identification of Galactosyltransferases (SCGs) Required for Species-specific Modifications of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Lipophosphoglycan (LPG feature of LPG is a polymer of phosphoglycan (PG) (6Gal 1,4Man 1-PO4) repeating units. In L. major and survival. We utilized evolutionary polymorphisms in LPG structure and cross-species transfections

  6. Vaccination with Phosphoglycan-Deficient Leishmania major Protects Highly Susceptible Mice from Virulent Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    phosphoglycans, termed lpg2 , persist indefinitely in infected mice without inducing any disease, we tested, cells from lpg2 -infected mice produced minimal levels of IL-4 and IL-10, as well as very low levels of IFN- . Nevertheless, when BALB/c mice infected with lpg2 parasites were challenged with virulent L

  7. Modeling NICs with Unicorn Pravin Shinde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtis, Kornilios

    /or policy-specific C code. It is based on two kinds of dataflow graphs: A Logical Protocol Graph (LPG or flows. An LPG describes the processing that is required for each individual packet which might be sent by applying appropriate embedding policies, such as embedding as much of the PRG as possible into the LPG

  8. Q-switching an all-fiber laser using acousto-optic null coupler Yuval Berg Sharone Goldring Shaul Pearl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arie, Ady

    coupler with acoustically induced long period grating (LPG) for frequency shifting, spectral filtering an all-fiber optical switch based on acoustically induced long period grating (LPG) on the so called, if an LPG is induced in the interaction zone, light can be coupled from the original fiber mode to the mode

  9. Detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by biosensor assay consisting of nanoscale films on optical fiber long-period gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    -period grating (LPG) optical fiber by immersion alternately in poly-allylamine hydrochloride and in poly-1-[p-(3 groups on the LPG-ISAM. The terminal carboxyl groups were covalently conjugated to monoclonal antibodies exposure of the LPG-ISAM to 102 colony forming units (CFU)/ml of MR S. aureus (MRSA) for 50 min., light

  10. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL GAS USE AND CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2011-01-01

    e.x s ro\\;,q or terraced 15a LPG Cent.Gas % Gas GJ II ~It 1'II d d d Total Gas --Nat. --LPG Oil Coal PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJused for refr e. b) 1966 f e)LPG excluded from • Hot water

  11. Partnership connects North America NGL markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.

    1998-12-31

    The United States and Canadian NGL/LPG pipeline network became a larger North America system on April 2, 1997 with the opening of the Rio Grande Pipeline, delivering LPG from the United States to Mexico. This North American pipeline system now links three of the world`s largest LPG producing and consuming nations.

  12. Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    and experimentally demonstrated that the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings (LPG) can be shifted of the film and/or the variation of its refractive index. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of LPG devices and high-performance index/thickness-sensing LPG-based fiber sensors for detecting optical

  13. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aganagic, Mina

    2008-01-01

    g s ) ? l=?? dU 1 . . . dU |2G?2| Z top (t+lpg s ; U 1 . . .U |2G?2| ) Z top ( t ?lpg s ; U 1 , . . . U |2G?2| ), This· · · dU |2G?2| Z top (t + lpg s ; U 1 , · · · , U |2G?2| )

  14. Interrogation of a long-period grating using a mechanically scannable arrayed waveguide grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    ); published July 16, 2008 A novel technique to interrogate a long-period grating (LPG) using a mechanically of the LPG is measured. An interrogation system with a resolution of 10 pm at a speed of 10 Hz-period-grating (LPG) sensors have found exten- sive applications ranging from temperature monitor- ing, mechanical

  15. activityofCD8+ Tcellclonescorrelateswiththeir levelsofexpressionofadhesionmolecules.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    phosphoglycan (PG) that includes membrane-bound lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and proteophosphoglycan (PPG), as well such as glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs), LPG itself and proteins including the promastigote surface protease (also known to the suggestion that these glycoconjugates, particularly LPG, have one or more important functions

  16. INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL ENERGY END USE DATA: ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL AND PRESENT DAY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    PJ Elec. , TI/h City Gas,PJ LPG,PJ Oil ,PJ Coal,PJ GERMANYPJ Nat .Gas,PJ City Gas,PJ LPG, PJ Oil ,PJ Coal,PJ 3B6g I IJapan). \\\\fe have separated LPG from oil totals in some

  17. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    south); 4) the use of LPG as a heating fuel in manufacturedH20 FRN Gas « RM FRN RM - LPG ~ H20 FRN Oil — RM OTHH20 FRN RM Gas— FRN RM -LPG-- H20 FRN —Oil-- RM OTH Other

  18. Atomic Physics I 80301 Answers to Problem Set 1 Fall 2005 Open file ProblemSet1.nb in mathematica to see details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Walter R.

    ) lz2 = I D[lz, ] (evaluate L2 z) (e) lpg = E^(I ) (D[g, ] + I Cot[] D[g, ]) (evaluate L+) (f) lmp = Simplify[ E^(-I ) (-D[lpg, ] + I Cot[] D[lpg, ] ) ] (evaluate L-L+) (g) form1 = Simplify[lmp + lz2 - lz

  19. 1790 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 21, NOVEMBER 1, 2008 Interrogation of a Long-Period Grating Sensor by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    , and Jianping Yao, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An interrogation technique for a long-period grating (LPG grating (AWG), the center wavelength of the LPG sensor is successfully measured using the linear--Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), long-period grating (LPG), sensor interrogation. I. INTRODUCTION LONG

  20. H-NOX regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism and biofilm formation in Legionella pneumophilammi_7259 930..942

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vance,. Russell

    -EAL protein, lpg1057, and overexpression in L. pneumophila of this protein, or the well-studied diguanylate cyclase, vca0956, results in a hyper-biofilm phenotype; (iv) the Lpg1057 protein displays diguanylate state, but not the Fe(II) unligated state; and (v) consistent with the Hnox1 regulation of Lpg1057

  1. Ether Phospholipids and Glycosylinositolphospholipids Are Not Required for Amastigote Virulence or for Inhibition of Macrophage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    im- plicated in virulence, such as lipophosphoglycan (LPG), smaller glycosylinositolphospholipids plasmalogens, LPG, and GIPLs. Leishmania ads1 thus represents the first ether lipid-synthesizing eukaryote (detergent- resistant membranes). In virulence tests it closely re- sembled LPG-deficient L. major, including

  2. Combining Domain-Independent Planning and HTN Planning: The Duet Planner Alfonso Gerevini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nau, Dana S.

    - independent local search techniques as in LPG (Gerevini, Saetti, and Serina 2003). In our experiments, Duet was able to solve much larger problems than LPG could solve, with only minimal domain knowledge encodedDownward (Helmert 2006), and LPG (Gerevini, Saetti, and Serina 2003)) usually does not need expert-provided domain

  3. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 08/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane Contents Introduction to Propane (LPG...........................................................................................................2 Benefits of Using Propane (LPG) for Transportation of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 08/2014 Introduction to Propane (LPG) for Transportation

  4. Titania Prepared by Ball Milling: Its Characterization and Application as Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, B C; Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, T P

    2012-01-01

    Present paper reports the LPG sensing of TiO2 obtained through ball milling. The milled powder was characterized by XRD, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. Further the ball milled powder was compressed in to pellet using hydraulic press. This pellet was investigated with the exposure of LPG. Variations in resistance with exposure of LPG to the sensing pellet were recorded. The sensitivity of the sensor was ~ 11 for 5 vol.% of LPG. Response and recovery times of the sensor were ~ 100 and 250 sec. The sensor was quite sensitive to LPG and results were found reproducible within 91%.

  5. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-06-08

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand.

  6. Checking the Reliability of a Linear-Programming based Approach towards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bill

    for single edge deletion and insertion, it was proposed in [7] to introduce a one-parameter family LPG an edge. It was shown that, for all large values of s, the LP problem LPG(s) has a unique solution that: The smallest value s = s (G) among all s 1 for which the corresponding problem LPG(s ) 2 #12;has, at least

  7. “Deep Maps”: A Brief for Digital Palimpsest Mapping Projects (DPMPs, or “Deep Maps”)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fishkin, Shelley Fisher

    2011-01-01

    books? id=IMELYD5xxXAC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=fbooks? id=xku7xvAMDowC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=books? id=koQalf4HiZ4C&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=fal

  8. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01

    for fuel use as small as 10 million Btu/hr or across operations of largest multi-facility organizations. We particularly encourage fuel oil and natural gas users to set up for switching to LPG (or propane) *, and propane users to set up to also use... butane and pentane as occasional alternatives. *The terms ?liquefied petroleum gas? (LPG) and propane are used somewhat interchangeably, even though LPG refers to mixtures of propane with some...

  9. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    other cleaner burning fuels (biogas or LPG) for cooking andstove with improved stove or biogas can be suggested, if thegaseous-burning-fuel stove (biogas, liquefied petroleum gas,

  10. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 6, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring LPG Around the World, AFVs in National Parks, and Federal and State news.

  12. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  13. Supplemental Material Improved method for the quantification of lysophospholipids including enol ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    group (i.e. all LPG species constitute 1 channel, all LPI species constitute a second channel etc) 3 Parent ion 4 (m/z) Fragment ion 4 (m/z) Cone voltage 5 (V) Collision energy 5 (eV) 12:0-LPG 9.8 -427.22 -199.22 -38 26 14:0-LPG 65 9.5 80 -455.25 -227.25 -38 26 16:1-LPG 9.3 -481.26 -253.26 -38 26 16

  14. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    isomerization, reforming, and the processing of crude oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas liquids (NGL). Project Description The main goal of this research...

  15. EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF AUDITORY FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    advantages for MFB in noise; the gain in moving from LPG to MFB was greater than the gain in moving from MFB

  16. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L.

    1996-07-01

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry`s attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand.

  17. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    vehicles used liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum1,793 -100 to -84% Other Fuels Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

  18. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  19. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhyankar, Nikit

    2011-01-01

    refrigerators, water heaters (solar, natural gas, LPG) andwith natural gas or solar heaters), space cooling (replacingof electric water heaters by solar water heaters (iv)

  20. Optimizing U.S. Mitigation Strategies for the Light-Duty Transportation Sector: What We Learn from a Bottom-Up Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-01-01

    vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles. Energy PolicyCNG: dedicated natural gas vehicles; LPG: liquefiedvehicles using low- GHG fuels such as compressed natural gas,

  1. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), synthetic diesel, methanol,FCX Fuels Gasoline, Diesel, CNG, FT diesel, methanol, H2,H2, electricity Gasoline, diesel, CNG, biogas, LPG, ethanol,

  2. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Propane (LPG) Hydrogen (CH2) (LH2) Electric BPEV ICEV FCV ICEV, FCV FCV BPEV BPEV BPEV Notes: ICEV = internal-combustion-

  3. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Propane (LPG) Hydrogen (CH2) (LH2) Electric BPEV ICEV FCV ICEV, FCV FCV BPEV BPEV BPEV Notes: ICEV = internal-combustion-engine

  4. United States Fuel Resiliency Volume II U.S. Fuels Supply Infrastructu...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agency F Fujita Scale GOM Gulf of Mexico LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LOOP Louisiana Offshore Oil Port LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas MMI Modified Mercali Intensity NEHHOR Northeast...

  5. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    J Diesel Jet fuel Kerosene (lighting) LPG Price Source:Prices was sold for between $217 and $267/t depending on the grade, and jet fuel

  6. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Driver Experience Project Multi-alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) demonstration project: CNG, LPG, and Hybrid-Electric. Penske will deploy the AFV vehicles at its full-service...

  7. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    followed by gasoline, heavy oil and jet kerosene under bothElectricity Ethanol Gasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPGElectricity Ethanol Gasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPG

  8. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    followed by gasoline, heavy oil and jet kerosene under bothElectricity Ethanol Gasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPGElectricity Ethanol Gasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPG

  9. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    comparative analysis of biodiesel and FT diesel. Energy and5.9 Schematic flow diagram for biodiesel production fromGas (LPG), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether (

  10. Additive Summable Processes and their Stochastic Integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    to the predictable oe-algebra P, such that each of the measures (IX )z, for z 2 (LpG)*, being oe measure on P, but such that each of the measures (IX )z, for z 2 Z a norming space for LpG, is oe

  11. Preservation of perfectness and acyclicity: Berrick and Casacuberta's universal acyclic space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Jérôme

    * * functor LP associates in a universal way to any group G a morphism G ! LPG from G to a uni* *quely p that so is LPG? We have seen that we should look for large groups if we want to answer negat* *ively

  12. United States Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000 gal - 1 gal 100 gal - 20 gal LPG Length Steel tapes, Tape to Tape 100 ft - 1 ft Steel tapes, Bench 25 Echelon III 50 lb - 25 lb Volume Volume Transfer, II 500 gal - 5 gal 100 gal - 20 gal LPG ~ Certificate

  13. Regular unipotent elements Elements unipotents reguliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnafé, Cédric

    GF . Alors il existe un ´el´ement unipotent r´egulier v dans LF tel que RG LPG u = L v o`u G u est un ´el´ement unipotent r´egulier de GF et soit uL = resG L u. Alors RG LPG u = L uL . L

  14. Agent Based Models for Enterprise Wide Optimization and Decision SupportOptimization and Decision Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    schedulingsynthesis, planning, scheduling, supervision, maintenance, risk mgmt 10 #12;Supply Chain Raw material Chain Management · Fundamental Questions ­ What product (mix) to sell?p ( ) ­ What raw materials CLogistics LPG Chemicals Manufacturer D Arab Crude yLogistics Provider B Logistics LPG Crude Producer

  15. Atmospheric Environment 39 (2005) 28292838 Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wingenter, Oliver W.

    2005-01-01

    (LPG), showed concentrations elevating throughout the night and early morning, but began to decrease vehicular plus evaporative emissions such as benzene, which accounts for most of the monitored compounds); Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs); Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG); Temperature inversion ARTICLE

  16. Page 1 of 5 University of Texas at Austin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillow, Jonathan

    . Thus, when an engine operates on propane, it usually enjoys a longer service life and reduced are E85 and propane (LPG) for vehicles usually powered by gasoline, and B20 for diesel trucks in price than gasoline. Since LPG enters the engine as a vapor, it does not wash oil off cylinder walls

  17. Triangle Alternative Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fueling sites. Vehicles deployed include compressed natural gas (CNG), propane (LPG), hybrid electric includes biodiesel, E85, CNG, LPG, and electric charging. As part of this project, the North Carolina Solar) Vehicle Technology Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle Technology Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicle

  18. Experimental studies on the thermal stratification and its influence on BLEVEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gong, Yanwu; Gao, Ting; Gu, Anzhong; Lu, Xuesheng

    2010-10-15

    The thermal stratification of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and its effect on the occurrence of the boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) have been investigated experimentally. Stratifications in liquid and vapor occur when the LPG tank is heated. The degree of the liquid stratification {beta} increases with an increasing heat flux and decreasing filling ratio. The effect of stratification on the BLEVE has been examined with depressurization tests of LPG. The results show that the pressure recovery for the stratified LPG ({beta} = 1.4) upon sudden depressurization is much lower than that for the isothermal LPG ({beta} = 1). It can be concluded that the liquid stratification decreases the liquid energy and the occurrence of the BLEVE. (author)

  19. The growing world LP-gas supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoare, M.C.

    1988-11-01

    The possible range of future (LPG) export availabilities is huge, but actual production levels depend on factors, many of which are beyond our direct control - world demand for crude oil and gas, developments in technology, and the price of both energy in general and LPG specifically. Although these factors limit some of the potential developments, a substantial increase in LPG supply is certain, and this is likely to depress its price relative to other products. Over the last few years, a dramatic expansion has taken place in the industry. From 1980 to 1987, non-Communist world production of LPG increased by close to 35%, to a total of 115 million tonnes. If this is set against the general energy scene, LPG represented 3.7% of crude oil production by weight in 1980, rising to 5.4% in 1987. This growth reflects rise in consciousness around the world of the value of the product. LPG is no longer regarded as a byproduct, which is flared or disposed of at low value, but increasingly as a co-product, and much of the growth in production has been due to the installation of tailored recovery systems. LPG markets historically developed around sources of supply, constrained by the costs of transportation. The major exceptions, of course, were the Middle East, the large exporter, and Japan, the large importer.

  20. Simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas on water. Final report, December 12, 1978-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.R.; Reid, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the boiling and spreading of liquid nitrogen, liquid methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water in a one-dimensional configuration. Primary emphasis was placed on the LPG studies. Experimental work involved the design and construction of a spill/spread/boil apparatus which permitted the measurement of spreading and local boil-off rates. With the equations of continuity and momentum transfer, a mathematical model was developed to describe the boiling-spreading phenomena of cryogens spilled on water. The model accounted for a decrease in the density of the cryogenic liquid due to bubble formation. The boiling and spreading rates of LPG were found to be the same as those of pure propane. An LPG spill was characterized by the very rapid and violent boiling initially and highly irregular ice formation on the water surface. The measured local boil-off rates of LPG agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions from a moving boundary heat transfer model. The spreading velocity of an LPG spill was found to be constant and determined by the size of the distributor opening. The maximum spreading distance was found to be unaffected by the spilling rate. These observations can be explained by assuming that the ice formation on the water surface controls the spreading of LPG spills. While the mathematical model did not predict the spreading front adequately, it predicted the maximum spreading distance reasonably well.

  1. [MT91] W. Marek and M. Truszczynski. Autoepistemic logic. Journal of the ACM, 1991. [Rei80] R. Reiter. A logic for default reasoning. Arti cial Intelligence, 13:81{132, 1980.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek, Victor W.

    (fpg)): From Corollary 6.4, it follows that it is enough to check whether p 2 CnN(I [f:Lq;:L:Lpg): To resolve: a for Lq and b for Lp. Theory I [ f:Lq;:L:Lpg can be now replaced by I0 = fLq ! a;:Lq ! :a;Lp ! b;:Lp ! :b as I[f:Lq;:L:Lpg. Finally, using Proposition 5.3 and the de#12;nition of the operator B we establish

  2. Midweek: Beyond the Headlines Volume 1, Number 2, 13-19 September 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zulca, Mita

    sustained interrogation, the Police believe that Kanchan was GYALSHING : The next time you buy a LPG refill cylinder, make sure you check i t s weight before y o u t a k e i t h o m e . Yo u may have been cheated all along by your distributor... by paying for a half-filled cylinder. The Gyalshing Police on 10 September arrested a LPG cylinder distributor for short- changing his customers in the West and South Districts. Suren Koirala, a LPG distributor for Sikkim Trade Development Corporation (STDC...

  3. Math 148 Assignment 1 Solutions 1. (a) Since f is monotone decreasing, Mi " t1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Ken

    's condition, we can choose a partition P so that Upf, Pq ´ Lpf, Pq 2 and Upg, Pq ´ Lpg, Pq 2 . Now Miphq ` nÿ i"1 pMipgq ´ mipgqqti " ` Upf, Pq ´ Lpf, Pq ` ` Upg, Pq ´ Lpg, Pq 2 ` 2 " . Thus Riemann such that Upf, Pq ´ Lpf, Pq " nÿ i"1 pMipfq ´ mipfqqti d2 . Thus Upg, Pq ´ Lpg, Pq " nÿ i"1 pMipgq ´ mipgqqti

  4. Cracking in liquid petroleum gas Horton spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, D.K. Gupta, S.C.

    1997-07-01

    A gas processing plant on the western coast of India produces sweet gas after processing sour natural gas. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is recovered from the sweet gas. The LPG, containing a H{sub 2}S concentration of 10 ppm to 20 ppm, is stored in Horton spheres, each 17 m in diameter with a capacity of {minus}27 C to 55 C. Horton spheres for containing liquid petroleum gas (LPG) were fabricated on-site using prestressed plates of high-strength carbon steel (CS) SA 537 Class-1 with post-weld heat treatment. High-residual tensile stresses and hydrogen absorption from H{sub 2}S present in LPG could be the cause of cracking at weld and heat-affected zone interfaces at high hardness locations. Recommendations are given for inspection and use of lower-strength CS and improved welding procedures.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phani, A.R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(and liquefied gas. There are over 125,000 natural gas

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(and liquefied gas. There are over 125,000 natural gas

  9. Safe Operating Procedure (Revised 7/09)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    ://ehs.unl.edu/) LPG includes propane, butane, and butylenes used for heating, cooking, and fuel. The purpose Food Service No more than two 10 ounce non-refillable butane cylinders in use per appliance

  10. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    LPG, gasoline, and diesel ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propene benzene ethyne 1,2,4-order, ethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane.

  11. New butane isomerization unit is unvieled by Andrews Petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a butane isomerization unit which will help reduce butane surplus by fractionating it into other LPG products. Other features of this California project increase on-site storage.

  12. Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas Erika von Schneidemesser a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources, such as industry and LPG-related sources in non- Annex I countries. Yearly benzene to ethyne of air quality. Certain VOCs are very reactive in the atmosphere (e.g., xylenes and benzene compounds

  13. The Rapid Rise of Middle-Class Vehicle Ownership in Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirgaokar, Manish

    2012-01-01

    used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG); in the Thane region, 69%in Greater Mumbai 89% used CNG, 5% used petrol, 3% used35% used diesel, 12% used CNG and 1% used LPG. In the bus

  14. Total U.S......................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    LPG... 5.6 1.1 0.7 0.4 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 0.7 0.5 Q Do...

  15. Total U.S......................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    LPG... 5.6 1.1 0.7 0.4 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 1.1 Q 0.9 Do...

  16. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01

    for electricity. Energy and Emissions Impact of Solar WaterElectricity Production by Solarthermal Power Plants in Spain. ” Journal of Solar EnergySolar Water Heaters, 2010-2030 Share of Displaced Energy for Water Heating LPG Natural Gas Electricity

  17. C:MydocsMYDOCSHATTIERECS97recsForms97Mail.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in the neighborhood 02 Bottled Gas (LPG or Propane) 03 Fuel Oil 04 Kerosene or Coal Oil 05 Electricity 06 Coal or Coke 07 Wood 08 Solar Collectors 21 Other Fuel...

  18. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    gasoline, jet kerosene and heavy oil (bunker fuel). LPG, fordemand, bunker fuel (heavy oil) demand will continue to riseFigure 57Figure 58). Demand for heavy oil for ship bunkers

  19. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    as naphtha, jet kerosene and heavy oil (bunker fuel). At thegasoline, jet kerosene and heavy oil (bunker fuel). LPG, forfollowed by gasoline, heavy oil and jet kerosene under both

  20. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    NAIROBI FUEL OIL DIESEL OIL (HEAVY) If GAS OIL (LIGHT MOTORRailway Corp, from heavy fuel oil to lighter diesel oil,Oil Crude & Prod. , Stock 15800 Net Kerosene LPG (Cylinders) Prem I Heavy :!!?

  1. Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    800 1995 2000 2005 Year #Vehicles LPG CNG/LNG M85/M100 E85/E95 Electricity Hydrogen Total #12;CURRENT FACING FUTURE ENERGY SYSTEM · Growth of demand, esp. in developing countries · Diversity

  2. Full Report.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil...

  3. Residential Sector End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1: Summary Input Assumptions and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-01

    LPG Furnace Oil Furnace Electric Heat Pump Gas BoilerOil Boiler Electric Room Heater Gas Room Heater Wood Stove (Electric Heat Pump Gas Boiler Oil Boiler Electric Room Gas

  4. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Railway Corp, from heavy fuel oil to lighter diesel oil,NAIROBI FUEL OIL DIESEL OIL (HEAVY) If GAS OIL (LIGHT MOTOROil Crude & Prod. , Stock 15800 Net Kerosene LPG (Cylinders) Prem I Heavy :!!?

  5. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    demand, bunker fuel (heavy oil) demand will continue to riseFigure 57Figure 58). Demand for heavy oil for ship bunkersElectricity Ethanol Gasoline Heavy Oil Jet Kerosene LPG

  6. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    Totals Supply/Demand Balance Distributed Cases Supply/Demand Balance Centralized Cases Primary Energy SupplyPrimary Energy Supply to California (10 Petroleum Natural Gas Hydroe1ectric Geothermalb Nuclear LPG Coal Total

  7. DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Operational Energy Facility Energy 49% 32% 8% 7% 3% 1% 0% Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil Coal Steam LPG Other Test Bed Focus 4 Smart Secure Installation Energy Management *...

  8. Code of practice for the storage of liquefied petroleum gas at fixed installations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1971-01-01

    This Code provides a general guide to safe practice in storing and handling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at fixed storage installations where tanks are filled on site. It has been prepared primarily as a guide for any ...

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  11. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Mt/yr. DME is used primarily as a substitute fuel for LPG inDME), coal-glycol and coal- olefin. Coal-to-methanol For methanol production from alternative fuels,

  12. A. E. Schuyler Pubs, December 2008 Dr. Alfred E. (Ernie) Schuyler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Donald

    &pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=The+versatile+Bartr ams+and+their+enduring+botanical+legacy.&source=bl&ots=Em_G9Iks2P://books.google.com/books?id=SRU8v_1glgsC&pg=RA1-PA539&lpg=RA1- PA539&dq=Scirpus+the+Jepson+desrt+Manual&source=bl&ots=574w9Abxtu

  13. Assessment of particulate concentrations from domestic biomass combustion in rural Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, M.; Bartlett, K.; Regalado-Pineda, J.; Perez-Padilla, R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that woodsmoke exposure in developed countries is associated with acute and chronic health impacts. Particulate concentrations were measured in rural Mexican kitchens using biomass combustion for cooking. To investigate differences in indoor particle concentrations between kitchens using different fuels and stove types, measurements were made in eight kitchens using only biomass, six using only liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), six using a combination of biomass and LPG, and three using biomass in ventilated stoves. Outdoor samples were collected at the same time as the indoor samples. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} measurements were made with inertial impactors, and particle light scattering was measured continuously with an integrating nephelometer. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations (mean concentrations of 768 and 555 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively) in the kitchens burning only biomass were greater than in all other types (biomass > biomass + LPG > ventilated > LPG > outdoor). A similar trend was evident for the indoor/outdoor concentration ratio. Based on the short-term measurements estimated from the nephelometer data, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} cooking period average and 5-min peak concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in kitchens using only biomass than in those using LPG, a combination of LPG and biomass, or a ventilated biomass stove. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  15. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  16. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  17. Gas sensing properties of magnesium doped SnO{sub 2} thin films in relation to AC conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deepa, S.; Skariah, Benoy Thomas, Boben; Joseph, Anisha

    2014-01-28

    Conducting magnesium doped (0 to 1.5 wt %) tin oxide thin films prepared by Spray Pyrolysis technique achieved detection of 1000 ppm of LPG. The films deposited at 304 °C exhibit an enhanced response at an operating temperature of 350 °C. The microstructural properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction. AC conductivity measurements are carried out using precision LCR meter to analyze the parameters that affect the variation in sensing. The results are correlated with compositional parameters and the subsequent modification in the charge transport mechanism facilitating an enhanced LPG sensing action.

  18. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  19. Newsfront 29 October - 4 November 2007, Issue 39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghimire, Yubaraj

    , diesel price has been increased by Rs.300, and cooking gas (LPG) by Rs. 200 per cylinder. With the latest decision, the price of diesel per litre stands at Rs.56, Kerosene at Rs.51 and LPG cylinder Rs.1100. NOC says the increase in the price is a natural... off. Nevertheless, the southerly wind from the deal has filled the sails and coffers of many politicians that dominate the political landscape today. The ongoing constituent assembly (CA) mess is a remix of both these earlier scams. On the one hand...

  20. Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Rauzi, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.

  1. Life Cycle Inventory of CO2 in a EOR System Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    /MJ) Combustion (g CO2e/MJ) Coal [1] 4.99 88 LPG-NGL [2, 3] 17.5 58.4 Pet-Coke [2, 3] 17.5 95.9 Other Pet Natural Gas (m3/bbl) 7.08 Coal (metric ton/bbl) 6.3-06 Electricity (kWh/bbl) 7.6 LPG (bbl/bbl) 4.8E-04-04 Petroleum Coke (bbl/bbl) 1.6E-02 Results Figure S1 shows the sources of these emissions

  2. Seventy-seventh annual convention Gas Processors Association: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The 42 papers in these proceedings discuss the following topics: gas hydrates; gas transport; emission abatement; acid gas disposal; control of processing plants; NGL and LPG recovery; marketing; underground storage; NGL fractionation; and plant optimization. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. (Created 1/03; Revised 7/06, 5/08, 1/09) UNL Environmental Health and Safety (402) 472-4925 http://ehs.unl.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    in their designated location, and ensure annual inspection. · When using a space heater, allow a minimum of three (3 in Laboratories and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Portable Cylinders for more information. · Segregate chemicals) feet between the heater and combustible materials. · Turn off the electrical and heat

  4. Ablative Laser Propulsion: An Update, Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Lin Jun; Thompson, M. Shane

    2004-03-30

    This paper presents an updated review of studies on Ablative Laser Propulsion conducted by the Laser Propulsion Group (LPG) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. In particular, we describe the experimental technique developed for determination of specific impulses from plasma plume imaging with an intensified CCD camera.

  5. A local experience is often a global experience, forum attendees hear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that in the first session on supply/demand Roman Samsonov of NPO Soyuzgastechnologiya gave delegates an insight into developing the Soviet gas industry, providing a look at the structure of the industry and consumption patterns. Residential and petrochemical customers are the basic consumers. As of last Jan. 1, 34.6 million apartments used LPG, with at least 150 million people using the fuel for cooling alone. Consumption has greatly increased since the 1970s. In 1970, 4.9 million tonnes of LPG were consumed and by 1980, 8.81 million tonnes. However, the production of LPG in 1990 had reached only 10.5 million tonnes, about 70% of its domestic needs. Samsonov noted that complete satisfaction of the domestic market can be reached only at the expense of solving the problem of transportation and investing in repairing and keeping facilities going at the Gorky oil refining plant and the Gnedintsovo and Minnibayev oil refining plants. These actions would allow LPG production to increase by more than 10% from the present day production.

  6. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  7. Ablative Laser Propulsion: An Update, Part I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Cohen, Timothy; Lin Jun; Thompson, M. Shane; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-03-30

    This paper presents an updated review of studies on Ablative Laser Propulsion conducted by the Laser Propulsion Group (LPG) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. In particular, we describe the newest results of our experimental study of specific impulses and coupling coefficients achieved by double-pulsed ablation of graphite, aluminum, copper and lead targets.

  8. SOLAR ICE CREAM: ACHIEVING NET-ZERO THROUGH AN INTEGRATED RETROFIT Sara Tepfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will recognize consumptive hotspots and identify the potential for onsite renewable energy production. 1.28 0.32 Natural Gas Fuel Oil Electricity LPG 0 1 2 3 4 QuadrillionBtu 54 Fig.1: US energy spending from proposed to minimize the environmental and economic costs associated with building energy inefficiencies (1

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 32813288, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/3281/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss of propane, i-butane, and n- butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the Correspondence to: L. Y. Chan (celychan@polyu.edu.hk) 40% increase in LPG fueled vehicles. Propane to butanes ra- tios

  10. National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Sok Bun Heng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and electricity. However, whilst a higher consumption of LPG has been used to complement wood fuels. Such energy. The per capita energy consumption is lower compared to developed countries, but high consumption for income generation. II)- Energy Consumption There is no proper study or database about energy consumption

  11. The role of hydrogen in powering road transport Alison Pridmore and Abigail Bristow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    3.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Vehicles ...9 3.2 Greenhouse Gas.2 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) ......15 5.3 ACEA agreement.1 Options for Energy Supply and Use in the Vehicle.......................................3 2.2 Costs

  12. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LPG... 5.6 1.3 2.1 1.0 0.7 0.5 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 0.8 1.8 0.9 0.6 0.7...

  14. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S...........................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    PropaneLPG... 5.6 4.9 3.8 N N Q 1.1 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 4.0 3.4 Q Q Q Q Do Not...

  15. "Table HC10.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,9.8,10,9,10.2 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.3,1.1,2.1,1.1 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,1.8,0.7,1.2,1.1 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  16. "Table HC15.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,4.2,0.4,3,7.2 "PropaneLPG",5.6,0.7,"Q",0.4,"Q" "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.6,"Q","Q",0.6 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  17. "Table HC14.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,10.2,2.4,7.8 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.1,0.7,0.4 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,1.1,"Q",0.9 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  18. "Table HC13.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,9,3.7,0.8,4.5 "PropaneLPG",5.6,2.1,0.7,0.5,0.9 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,1.2,0.9,"Q","Q" "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  19. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,10.2,10.9,6.6,6,5.3 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.3,2.1,1,0.7,0.5 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.8,1.8,0.9,0.6,0.7 "Do Not Use a...

  20. Table HC9.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    LPG... 5.6 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.3 1.0 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 0.4 0.8 2.0 1.1 0.6...

  1. Total U.S......................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    LPG... 5.6 1.3 1.7 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.8 2.0 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.6 0.5 1.5...

  2. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S...........................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PropaneLPG... 5.6 0.6 0.4 Q Q Q Q Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 0.9 Q Q Q 0.5 Q Do Not...

  3. TableHC2.9.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PropaneLPG... 5.6 4.2 Q Q Q 1.3 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 3.5 0.3 Q 0.6 Q Do...

  4. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,20.1,7.3,8.7,2.9 "PropaneLPG",5.6,0.2,0.4,0.5,4.5 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,1.8,1.2,1,0.8 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  5. "Table HC12.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,10,7.7,2.3 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.1,0.7,0.4 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.7,0.5,"Q" "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  6. "Table HC11.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,9.8,8.2,1.6 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.3,1,0.3 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,1.8,1.6,0.2 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  7. "Table HC3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ",39,26.5,21.3,1.7,1.1,0.8,1.5 "PropaneLPG",5.6,4.9,3.8,"N","N","Q",1.1 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,4,3.4,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Do Not Use a...

  8. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas",39,24.4,3.1,3.9,5.7,1.8 "PropaneLPG",5.6,4.2,"Q","Q","Q",1.3 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,3.5,0.3,"Q",0.6,"Q" "Do Not Use a...

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Natural Gas",39,2.7,11,10.1,9.7,5.5 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.2,1.1,0.9,1.3,1 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.4,0.8,2,1.1,0.6 "Do Not Use a Built-in...

  10. Table HC2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Type of Housing...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PropaneLPG... 5.6 4.2 Q Q Q 1.3 Built-inStove-top Grills Use a Built-inStove-top Grill... 4.9 3.5 0.3 Q 0.6 Q Do...

  11. "Table HC4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    s",39,12.5,3.1,1.4,2.8,4.9,0.3 "PropaneLPG",5.6,0.6,0.4,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.9,"Q","Q","Q",0.5,"Q" "Do Not Use a...

  12. Htfiffi m'* Effects of Alternative Fuels on Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : gasoline, gasoline-ethanol l'rlends, diesel, biodiesel blends, LPG lquefied petroleurn gas) ancl CNG operating on gasoline arrd a similar non-FF\\-. llir:s rs a in-al ethanol composition blend requires vehicle in the atmosphere. For many r.ears, the primary vehicie fuels used have been gasoline and diesel fuels. These iuels

  13. Property and Facilities Division VEHICLE PURCHASING & DISPOSAL REQUISITION PF330

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blows, Mark

    Type: 2WD, 4WD No. of Doors: Transmission: Auto, Manual Fuel Type: Unleaded, Diesel, LPG No Driver's Airbag Dual Airbag Headlight Protectors Cargo Blind (Wagon) Leather Trim Metallic Paint Mud Account Project ID Free Form Tag Place operational account i.e. fuel , servicing, registration costs below

  14. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 74917504, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/7491/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , and D. Park6 1Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Center for Environmental most abundant VOCs observed in the tunnel were, in decreasing order, ethene, toluene, n-butane, propane. The high propane and n-butane emissions were found to be associated with liq- uefied petroleum gas (LPG

  15. FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO TANK ENERGY INPUTS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transportation fuels, considering criteria and greenhouse gas pollutants, as well as air toxic contaminants to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel, synthetic diesel, and electricity Shapiro, Deputy Director FUELS AND TRANSPORTATION DIVISION B.B Blevins Executive Director DISCLAIMER

  16. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    naphtha Swing cut model Refinery Production LPG 18 20 Light Naphtha 6 6 Premium Gasoline 20 20 Offers lower net cost & different feed quantities Reg. Gasoline 80 92 Gas Oil 163 170 Fuel Oil 148 160 Net Cost of the refinery Crude distillation unit (CDU) 5 #12;CDU & C d d C lCDU & Cascaded Columns Cascaded Columns

  17. Beechenhurst visitor centre A new environmentally-friendly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiently. The rest of the building has under floor heating which runs on LPG. Solar Four solar thermal lodge. It provides a new 60-seat restaurant, with a part mezzanine first floor area, and an extended is European oak flooring. The new restaurant has a bright, spacious feel, with large velux windows allowing

  18. THE 2001 NET ENERGY BALANCE OF CORN-ETHANOL (PRELIMINARY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    used on farms, such as gasoline, diesel, LP gas (LPG), natural gas, and electricity, for the production plants. The major objectives of this report are to improve the quality of data and methodology used on the latest data on corn production and corn yield, (2) improving the quality of estimates for energy used

  19. 6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi'an, China, 11-15 July 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    from a variety of sources including fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, methane in the process. Use of natural gas or naphtha as a raw material is an industrial process. Typical reactions6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi

  20. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    n.e. RFG n.e. dist. n.e. ULSD n.e. fuel oil n.e. LPG n.e.dist. = distillate fuel; ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur distillateultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5 ppm S, then weights

  1. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9.3 9.6 Electricity ... 29.6 1.1 4.3 6.8 6.5 10.9 10.5 Fuel Oil ... 9.5 1.9 3.0 4.2 0.2 Q 16.9 LPG...

  2. Prospects, technology outlook and expectations AMOS Kick-off Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    Distillate Fuels LPG GTL CNG Biogas Hydrogen Battery Nuclear Available + established distribution network to offer the same sailing distance Politicians say that biogas might become available in the future Shipping industry doubts that biogas will penetrate any significant share of shipping. Identical systems

  3. Bifunctional pathways mediated by Pt clusters and Al2O3 in the catalytic combustion of dimethyl ether{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    generation with small turbines or fuel cells.5­7 We have recently examined the catalytic combustion of DME Mixtures of Pt clusters dispersed on c-Al2O3 and additional c-Al2O3 led to much higher DME combustion. The physical properties of dimethyl ether (DME) resemble those of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), making

  4. Predicting the performance of system for the co-production of Fischer-Tropsch synthetic liquid and power from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, S.; Guo, Z.

    2008-01-15

    A co-production system based on Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor and gas turbine was simulated and analyzed. Syngas from entrained bed coal gasification was used as feedstock of the low-temperature slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor. Raw synthetic liquid produced was fractioned and upgraded to diesel, gasoline, and liquid petrol gas (LPG). Tail gas composed of unconverted syngas and FT light components was fed to the gas turbine. Supplemental fuel (NG, or refinery mine gas) might be necessary, which was dependent on gas turbine capacity expander through flow capacity, etc. FT yield information was important to the simulation of this co-production system. A correlation model based on Mobil's two step pilot plant was applied. User models that can predict product yields and cooperate with other units were embedded into Aspen plus simulation. Performance prediction of syngas fired gas turbine was the other key of this system. The increase in mass flow through the turbine affects the match between compressor and turbine operating conditions. The calculation was carried out by GS software developed by Politecnico Di Milano and Princeton University. Various cases were investigated to match the FT synthesis island, power island, and gasification island in co-production systems. Effects of CO{sub 2} removal/LPG recovery, co-firing, and CH{sub 4} content variation were studied. Simulation results indicated that more than 50% of input energy was converted to electricity and FT products. Total yield of gasoline, diesel, and LPG was 136-155 g/N m{sup 3} (CO+H{sub 2}). At coal feed of 21.9 kg/s, net electricity exported to the grid was higher than 100 MW. Total production of diesel and gasoline (and LPG) was 118,000 t (134,000 t)/year. Under the economic analysis conditions assumed in this paper the co-production system was economically feasible.

  5. Gas response properties of citrate gel synthesized nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Effect of sintering temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, J.Y.; Mulla, I.S.; Suryavanshi, S.S.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by economical citrate gel combustion method. ? Structural, morphological, and gas response properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? Enhancement in selectivity of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} towards LPG with sintering temperature. ? Use of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to detect different gases at different operating temperatures. -- Abstract: Spinel type MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material was synthesized by citrate gel combustion method. The effect of sintering temperature on structural, morphological, and gas response properties was studied. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscope study confirms nanocrystalline spinel structure of the synthesized powder. The material was tested for response properties to various reducing gases like liquid petroleum gas (LPG), acetone, ethanol, and ammonia. The results demonstrated n-type semiconducting behavior of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material. It was revealed that MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 973 K was most sensitive to LPG at 648 K and to acetone at 498 K. However MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 1173 K exhibited higher response and selectivity to LPG with marginal increase in the operating temperature. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited a fast response and a good recovery. It was observed that the particles size, porosity, and surface activity of the sensor material is affected by the sintering temperature.

  6. EMPLOYEE SAFETY MIDDLE TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Precautions 3-4 Practices and Controls 3-5 Operational Practices 3-5 Maintenance and Emergency Storage Areas 3-13 Hazards 3-13 Precautions 3-14 Hazardous Gases 3-14 General Precautions 3-14 Cylinder Storage 3-15 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 3-15 Anhydrous Ammonia 3-15 Acetylene 3-15 Oxygen 3-16 Peroxidizable Compounds

  7. Purpose Destination Date Parts Labor Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Report Previous Month Odometer Lub./ Fluid or Fuel Qty. Cost YearType Trip/Daily Ending Odometer Vehicle as necessary. $ $ $ Fuel/Fluid Type CNG=COMP.NAT.GAS DSL=DIESEL ELE=ELECTRICITY ETH=ETHANOL GAS=UNLEADEDGAS LPG=PROPANE MTH=METHANOL BDL=BIODIESEL Total Costs $ $ $ Fuel data entry must be per transaction A D D A D D #12;

  8. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,5.5,4.7,5.2,5,4.6,2.6 "PropaneLPG",5.6,0.9,0.4,0.4,0.5,0.9,0.7,1.1,0.6 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.6,0.5,0.8,0.3,0.7,0.9,0.8,0.3 "Do Not...

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,9.7,9.6,7.7,4.4,7.5,6.6,14.6 "PropaneLPG",5.6,1.3,1.7,0.9,0.7,1,0.8,2 "Built-inStove-top Grills" "Use a Built-inStove-top Grill",4.9,0.8,0.9,0.9,0.7,1.6,0.5,1.5 "Do Not Use a...

  10. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy comprised of 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serianni, Anthony S.

    n-octane (2.25), and thus when equal amounts of both are combusted, CH4 produces more heat per;Thermodynamics of Fossil Fuel Combustion For methane !Go = -801 kJ/mol !Ho = -802 kJ/mol !So = -5 J/K/mol 802 kJ/mol/carbon For propane (LPG) !Go = -2074 kJ/mol !Ho = -2044 kJ/mol !So = +101 J/K/mol 681 kJ/mol/carbon For octane

  11. Oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection into consolidated and unconsolidated sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Fwu-Jin Frank

    1975-01-01

    a displacement effic1ency approaching 100 percent. (3) Carbon Dioxide neither achieves direct miscible displacement at practical reservoir pressures, like LPG, nor depend upon the presence of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir oil. A f1eld... strong function of pore size dis- tribution, probably contributed a great effect on the oil displacement effic1enc1es between the consolidated sandstone core and the unconsolidated sand pack. 4. No significant over-riding effect of carbon dioxide...

  12. Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

  13. Cummins Engine Company B5.9 Propane Engine Development, Certification, and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The ADEPT Group, Inc.

    1998-12-18

    The objective of this project was to successfuly develop and certify an LPG-dedicated medium-duty original equipment manufacturer (OEM) engine that could be put into production. The engine was launched into production in 1994, and more than 800 B5.9G engines are now in service in the United States and abroad. This engine is now offered by more than 30 bus and truck OEMs.

  14. LUCA Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical, Inc

  15. La Crescenta-Montrose, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical,

  16. La Crosse, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG

  17. "Table A46. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate

  18. "YEAR","MONTH","STATE","UTILITY CODE","UTILITY NAME","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMR METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMR METERS","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMI METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMI METERS","RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","COMMERCIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TOTAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG,

  19. Treat LPGs with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, R.B.; Rogers, J.; Bullin, J.A.; Duewall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. This article reviews the fundamental aspects of LPG amine treaters and includes guidelines, design considerations and alternatives for static mixers, jet eductor mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays. All of these current design methods are compared based on plant operating data. Guidelines are given for sweetening LPGs with amines including amine type, concentration, filtration, temperature, loading, circulation rate and water-wash systems. Also covered is the contacting method used in the absorber. Any of the commonly available amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and MDEA-based solvents usually perform satisfactorily. Design criteria for distributors and LPG disperser plates, amine filtration and LPG settlers and coalescers are important. The contacting method is also important and includes jet eductor mixers, static mixers, and columns with sieve trays, random packing and structured packing.

  20. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  1. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonawane, Yogesh S.; Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. Aiyer, R.C.

    2008-10-02

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

  2. Environmental impact of alternative fuel on Tehran air pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebtekar, T. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Seventy percent of the air pollution in the city of Tehran stems from mobile sources, and in comparison with other major cities of the world, Iran`s capital experiences one of the most polluted metropolitan areas. There exists a surplus of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the Persian Gulf and Iranian market, in addition, Iran possesses the second largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. These alternative energy resources create a favorable potential fuel for city of Tehran. Experiments carried out in Tehran indicate that in converting the taxis from gasoline to a dual fuel (LPG/gasoline) car or to a dual fuel natural gas vehicle (NGV) reduce all major pollutants (CO, HC, NOX, Pb) substantially. Following the author`s recommendation, the number of LPG dispensing units in gas stations are increasing and the number of dual fuel taxis amount to several thousands in the metropolitan area. The conversion of diesel buses in the Tehran Public Transportation Corporation to natural gas (NGV) has been recommended by the author and vast experimental works are underway at the present time.

  3. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  4. Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastore, Andrea

    2010-11-16

    Figure 1.1: U.S. Primary Energy Flow by Source and Sector [1]. els have been investigated, such as biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, boron, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Fischer-Tropsch fuel and solar fuels. One of these is hydrogen, the most... be noted that higher energy efficiency itself leads to a reduction in emissions. The absence of mechanical steps also leads to other advantages such as the minimum require- ment of rotating accessories pumps and motors demonstrating a low level of noise...

  5. Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chuji

    2008-01-29

    A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

  6. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo; Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  7. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  8. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  9. An Olefin Unit's Energy Audit and Implementation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehler, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    ~M'i:;m::;;:p:---' ,T". '.1",,;,,/,+,++-1, .. 4:~n'I':.It..tl+i?f;g:j:+J::jitH::i:-~j?'HfC 'Jr:.;cI;'(,,,r:T::';::~~--:?:.:,,: 'i.~," L,: . ci--'1--1-. .~. .' . L~T+C ' jtlOO' +1 ~L .I +--4 ' lif. :. '. +l:!4 +++f -+ :;p liWi;:?l' ~~ '.~ .::'i-::'': ".+--t... the energy conservation program is covered. Several techniques being used to insure op~rator and maintenance commitment to energy conservation are reviewed. The Texas City No. 3 Olefins Unit is an LPG based ethylene plant rated in excess of one billion pou...

  10. Energy and Demand Savings from Implementation Costs in Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razinha, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    .g., natural gas) in each code [6]. Table 1. Energy Streams STREAM CODE Electrical Consumption EC Electrical Demand ED Other Electrical Fees EF Electricity E1 Natural Gas E2 L.P.G. E3 #1 Fuel Oil E4 #2 Fuel Oil E5 #4 Fuel Oil E6 #6 Fuel... Oil E7 Coal E8 Wood E9 Paper E10 Other Gas E11 Other Energy E12 3 The current database contains records of nearly 9000 assessment visits and almost 64,000 ARs. It is publicly accessible via the Internet [4], and is easily sorted...

  11. Energy and Demand Savings from Implementation Costs in Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razinha, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Fees EF Electricity E1 Natural Gas E2 L.P.G. E3 #1 Fuel Oil E4 #2 Fuel Oil E5 #4 Fuel Oil E6 #6 Fuel Oil E7 Coal E8 Wood E9 Paper E10 Other Gas E11 Other Energy E12 ESL-IE-00-04-17 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National..., electrical consumption, demand and fees were tracked separately. The remaining data include only one energy stream (e.g., natural gas) in each code [6]. Table 1. Energy Streams STREAM CODE Electrical Consumption EC Electrical Demand ED Other...

  12. Hollidaysburg-Huntingdon folio, Pennsylvania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butts, Charles, 1863-1946.

    1945-01-01

    available to refin ers have required more energy to refine and refiners have adjusted their processes to obtain better energy efficiency. In addition the shift to 1ead free gasoline has led to refining adjustments that reduce the energy effects... REGULAR GASOLINE 44.5 PREMIUM GASOLINE 23.4 JET FUEL 9.4 DIESEL AND #2 OIL 13.6 LPG 2.2 PET. COKE 7.0 739 PRODUCTS ALLOCATED PROCESS ENERGY AS \\ OF HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF PRODUCT 13.6 17.1 6.4 6.8 18.3 9.3 rgy to ne te ESL-IE-83...

  13. Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glatt, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    OF THE FUTURE: Creating A Sustainable Technology Edge Sandra L. Glatt Office of Industrial Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy 55 ESL-IE-00-04-10 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National Industrial Energy....S, Department of Energy Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge . cUn' OFwlOd CCooI .. LPG .Eleclric~ CNI!hnIG. AgriclAtll'e Mining A1uminu",J Totll1* kldutb't.1 Conllomption: :W, 111 TrtIlion 8tus Forest E"~ ?'913 1976...

  14. Fuel Switching Strategies for the 1990s 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    1990-01-01

    STRATEGIES FOR THE 1990s RON CASCONE Senior Consultant Chem Systems Inc. Tarrytown, New York ABSTRACT Prices of petroleum fuels and natural gas are predi cted to ri se in the 1990' s, due to a number of global factor including supplies, demands... and strategies to consider for industries to achieve a self-protective flexibility in fuels. One of our main messages wi 11 be that there is something going on out there with the price and avail abil ity of LPG (propane and butane) which you should learn...

  15. Midweek: Beyond the Headlines Volume 1, Number 3, 20-26 September 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zulca, Mita

    distributes the benef i t s to genuine beneficiaries and not on the basis of political allegiance. The par ty has a l so threatened to take legal action against the Indian Oil Corporation which is supposed to provide a huge quant i ty of new LPG... to “car arrest” by the Police for his alleged alliance with the protesters and deemed a “trouble maker.” He was locked inside a Police car till the end of the meeting. The GM of the Himagiri Hydro-Energy Pvt. Ltd, talked about the Project components...

  16. Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.32 LPG kWh x 0.214 therms x 6.27 litres x 1.49 Coking Coal tonnes x 2736 kWh x 0.331 Aviation.63 Petrol tonnes x 3135 kWh x 0.24 litres x 2.30 Fuel Oil tonnes x 3223 kWh x 0.27 Coal2 tonnes x 2548 kWh xWh x 0.25 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 kWh x 0.34 Refinery Miscellaneous kWh x 0.24 therms x 7

  17. LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical, Inc JumpLQ

  18. LXE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical, IncLXE

  19. La Cienega, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical, IncLXELa

  20. La Crosse County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometrainingLPG Electrical,Crosse

  1. "Table A11. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual1.

  2. "Table A15. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and

  3. "Table A16. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Industry"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6. Components

  4. "Table A17. Components of Onsite Electricity Generation by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.

  5. "Table A22. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total2.

  6. "Table A24. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total2.4.

  7. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total2.4.

  8. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total2.4..

  9. "Table A25. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Division, Industry"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6..

  10. "Table A27. Components of Onsite Electricity Generation by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6..Components

  11. "Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,

  12. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,1" "

  13. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,1"

  14. "Table A3. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel Purposes by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,1"Nonfuel

  15. "Table A3. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel

  16. "Table A32. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of Purchased

  17. "Table A33. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of

  18. "Table A36. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6. Total

  19. "Table A37. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6. Total7.

  20. "Table A38. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6. Total7.8.

  1. "Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6. Total7.8.

  2. "Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6.

  3. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity of6.1"

  4. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity

  5. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity1" "

  6. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity1"

  7. "Table A45. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate FuelQuantity1"5.

  8. "Table A46. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures for

  9. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures for7.

  10. "Table A47. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures

  11. "Table A48. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures8.

  12. "Table A48. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures8.8.

  13. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total Expenditures8.8.9.

  14. "Table A50. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total

  15. "Table A51. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. Selected Energy

  16. "Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. Selected Energy2.

  17. "Table A7. Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. Selected

  18. "Table A7. Shell Storage Capacity of Selected Petroleum Products by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. SelectedShell

  19. "Table A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. SelectedShellA8.

  20. "Table B11. Employment Size Category, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.

  1. "Table B16. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6. Employment Size

  2. "Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6. Employment

  3. "Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6. Employment2.

  4. "Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6. Employment2.3.

  5. "Table B25. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.

  6. "Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6. Water-Heating

  7. "Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.

  8. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9. Primary

  9. "Table B32. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9. Primary2.

  10. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9. Primary2.1.

  11. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9.

  12. "US Commercial Crude Oil Stocks and Storage Capacity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9.US

  13. "Utility Characteristics",,,,,,"Number AMR- Automated Meter Reading",,,,,"Number AMI- Advanced Metering Infrastructure",,,,,"Energy Served - AMI (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6.9.USEnergy

  14. "Utility Characteristics",,,,,,"Number AMR- Automated Meter Reading",,,,,"Number AMI- Advanced Metering Infrastructure",,,,,"Non AMR/AMI Meters",,,,,"Total Numbers of Meters",,,,,"Energy Served - AMI (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6.

  15. "Utility Characteristics",,,,,,"Number AMR- Automated Meter Reading",,,,,"Number AMI- Advanced Metering Infrastructure",,,,,"Non AMR/AMI Meters",,,,,"Total Numbers of Meters",,,,,"Energy Served - AMI (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6.5,1,213,"Alaska

  16. "YEAR","MONTH","STATE","UTILITY CODE","UTILITY NAME","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMR METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMR METERS","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMI METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMI METERS","RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","COMMERCIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TOTAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG,2,1,"AK",213,"Alaska

  17. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  18. 1982 worldwide pipeline construction will top 21,900 miles, $9. 5 billion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D.

    1982-07-01

    Reports that pipeline construction slowed slightly in 1982 because of lowered economic activity worldwide, with an upturn forecast for 1983. Explains that need for new pipelines to transport increasing amounts of oil and gas energy now being discovered, plus use of pipelines to transport other commodities in increasing amounts, has created a backlog of demand for facilities. Indicates that commodities suited for pipeline transport and getting consideration include crude oil; refined products; natural gas liquids; LPG; coal slurries; carbon dioxide (used for enhanced oil recovery); chemicals such as ammonia, ethane, ethylene, and similar petrochemical feedstocks; industrial gases such as oxygen, nitrogen; and solids slurries such as ores, wood chips, and other non-soluble minerals, even items such as wood chips and wood pulp for paper-making. Reveals that there are 10,396 miles of coal slurry pipeline planned for the US and 500 miles in Canada. Major US projects underway in the gas pipeline field include the 797-mile, 36-in. Trailblazer system in Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. Products/ LPG/NGL pipelines underway include 105 miles of dual 4 and 6-in. line in Kansas. Crude pipeline activity includes 100 miles of 12-in. in California and 80 miles of 4 thru 40-in. in Alaska on the North Slope. Updates plans in Canada, Scotland, Denmark, Ireland, France, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Mexico, South America and the USSR.

  19. INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO CONTROL PRIMARY PM 2.5 FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    The fabrication drawings for the Advanced ElectroCore module and the water-cooled precharger were completed during this reporting period. The drawings were sent to four fabrication shops as part of a bid package. Of the three companies that chose to participate, the contract to fabricate the two components was awarded to Advanced Fabrication Services of Lemoyne, PA on 3 November 2000. Fabrication began the following week. The components are scheduled to be completed in mid to late January 2001. The design of the dry scrubber was delayed while the problem of low dew point spread in the exhaust stream was resolved. The temperature of the exhaust gas from the outlet of the existing ESP is only 260 F. Some of the sorbents to be tested are liquid and therefore, the amount of sorbent that can be added before the exhaust gas reaches the due point is limited. The solution was to use a combustor to burn LPG and mix the two exhaust streams to get the desired temperature. Calculations indicated that burning LPG at the rate of 500,000 Btu/hr would be sufficient to raise the gas temperature to 400 F.

  20. Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

  1. Sensing behaviour of nanosized zinc-tin composite oxide towards liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ravi Chand; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Manmeet Pal; Chandi, Paramdeep Singh; Thangaraj, R.

    2010-09-15

    A chemical route has been used to synthesize composite oxides of zinc and tin. An ammonia solution was added to equal amounts of zinc and tin chloride solutions of same molarities to obtain precipitates. Three portions of these precipitates were annealed at 400, 600 and 800 {sup o}C, respectively. Results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy clearly depicted coexistence of phases of nano-sized SnO{sub 2}, ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}. The effect of annealing on structure, morphology and sensing has been observed as well. It has been observed that annealing promoted growth of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3} at the expense of zinc. The sensing response of fabricated sensors from these materials to 250 ppm LPG and ethanol has been investigated. The sensor fabricated from powder annealed at 400 {sup o}C responded better to LPG than ethanol.

  2. Effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical characteristics of pyrolytic carbon for anodes of lithium-ion secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.S.; Yu, J.S.; Park, G.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1999-11-01

    The electrochemical properties of new disordered carbon materials obtained by a gas-phase reaction of LPG (liquid propane gas) have been studied. Pyrolysis of LPG was performed in the temperature range 900 to 1,200 C. The lithium storage mechanism in these disordered carbons has been investigated by the charge-discharge tester, cyclic voltammeter, X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). As the synthesis temperature decreases, the reversible capacity of the disordered carbons increases and exceeds that of graphite (372 mAh/g) in the case of those synthesized below 1,100 C. A large hysteresis in the charge-discharge potential profiles is observed, but it disappears with an increase of the synthesis temperature. Cyclic voltammetric curves show that the charging current peak near 0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and the discharging current peak at ca. 1.1 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} increase gradually with a decrease of the synthesis temperature, these peaks correspond to the plateaus observed in the charge-discharge potential profiles. Micropores are observed in the disordered carbon synthesized below 1,000 C by HRTEM. The size of the micropores increases from 0.5 to 1 nm as the synthesis temperature decreases. XRD patterns and NMR spectra suggest that the high capacity and large hysteresis of these disordered carbons are due to the storage of lithium in the micropores.

  3. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  4. Alternative fueled vehicle fleet safety experience. Summary report. Report for September 1994-March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    The study was initiated to gather information on the safety performance of alternative fueled vehicles from fleet operators experienced in the day to day operation of these vehicles. Eight fleets and one compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle converter were visited during the course of the study. The types of fleets visited consisted of these with vehicles fueled with CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and electric vehicles (EVs). Three CNG fleets, two LNG fleets, one EV fleet, and two LPG fleets were visitied in addition to one CNG converter. Items discussed with the fleet operators included fuel system performance in the crash environment as well as safety related problems encountered during the refueling operation and when maintaining the vehicles. The fleets visited have experienced no accidents where the fuel system has been jeopardized and no injury to personnel that can be attributed to the alternative fuel system. However, the accident experience of the fleets visited is very limited. Many of the problems with alternative fueled vehicles experienced in the past have been corrected by advances in the state of the art and improvements in system components. Improvements continue to be made.

  5. Alternative fueled vehicle fleet safety experience. Final report, September 1994-March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    The study was initiated to gather information on the safety performance of alternative fueled vehicles from fleet operators experienced in the day to day operation of these vehicles. Eight fleets and one compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle converter were visitied during the course of the study. The types of fleets visited consisted of these with vehicles fueled with CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and electric vehicles (EVs). Three CNG fleets, two LNG fleets, one EV fleet, and two LPG fleets were visitied in addition to one CNG converter. Items discussed with the fleet operators included fuel system performance in the crash environment as well as safety related problems encountered during the refueling operation and when maintaining the vehicles. The fleets visited have experienced no accidents where the fuel system has been jeopardized and no injury to personnel that can be attributed to the alternative fuel system. However, the accident experience of the fleets visited is very limited. Many of the problems with alternative fueled vehicles experienced in the past have been corrected by advances in the state of the art and improvements in system components. Improvements continue to be made.

  6. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  7. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  8. Slurry phase synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas -- A reactor model simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuguchi, Masatsugu; Ogawa, Takashi; Ono, Masami,; Tomura, Keiji; Shikada, Tsutomu; Ohno, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Kaoru

    1998-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) would be an attractive alternative fuel for diesel, domestic use, and power generation, if it is economically synthesized directly from syngas (derived from coal gasification or natural gas reforming). DME, which is a colorless gas with a boiling point of {minus}25 C, is chemically stable and easily liquefied under pressure. Since the properties of DME are similar to LPG, it can be handled and stored with the same manner as LPG. The authors have performed the slurry phase DME synthesis by using the 50 kg/day bench-scale unit. DME was synthesized at high yield from syngas (H{sub 2}+CO) with the newly developed catalyst system. To establish the scale-up methodology, the reactor simulation technique is essential. The authors developed a mathematical model of the slurry phase bubble column reactor for DME synthesis, which is based on their experimental results. The performance of a commercial-scale DME reactor was simulated by this model, and the results were discussed.

  9. Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation underestimates gasoline energy use, relative to the process-level based gasoline efficiency. For diesel fuel, the well-to-pump energy use for the process-level allocations with the mass- and energy-content-based weighting factors is smaller than that predicted with the refinery-level allocations. However, the process-level allocation with the market-value-based weighting factors has results very close to those obtained by using the refinery-level allocations. For LPG, the refinery-level allocation significantly overestimates LPG energy use. For naphtha, the refinery-level allocation overestimates naphtha energy use. The GHG emission patterns for each of the fuels are similar to those of energy use.We presented a refining-process-level-based method that can be used to allocate energy use of individual refining processes to refinery products. The process-level-based method captures process-dependent characteristics of fuel production within a petroleum refinery. The method starts with the mass and energy flow chart of a refinery, tracks energy use by individual refining processes, and distributes energy use of a given refining process to products from the process. In allocating energy use to refinery products, the allocation method could rely on product mass, product energy contents, or product market values as weighting factors. While the mass- and energy-content-based allocation methods provide an engineering perspective of energy allocation within a refinery, the market-value-ased allocation method provides an economic perspective. The results from this study show that energy allocations at the aggregate refinery level and at the refining process level could make a difference in evaluating the energy use and emissions associated with individual petroleum products. Furthermore, for the refining-process-level allocation method, use of mass -- energy content- or market value share-based weighting factors could lead to different results for diesel fuels, LPG, and naphtha. We suggest that, when possible, energy use allocations should be made at the lowest subprocess level

  10. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

  11. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anindita; Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 ; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ? Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was investigated. ? Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ? Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ? Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  12. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  13. Ethylene plant commissioned at Corpus Christi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene Plant Commissioned at Corpus Christi. Corpus Christi Petrochemical Co. has commissioned its $600 million ethylene plant at Corpus Christi, Tex. Plant capacities include 1.2 billion lb/yr of ethylene, 560 million lb/yr of propylene, 400 million lb/yr of crude butadiene mixture, 60 million gal of benzene, 45 million gal of gasoline blending components, and 50 million gal of fuel oils. The ethylene and propylene will be transported by pipeline to Houston for further processing. At the Corpus Christi facilities, process pressures range from full vacuum to 1800 psig, and process temperatures range from -260/sup 0/ to +1600/sup 0/F. The plant uses gas oil and naphtha as feedstock, but also has some flexibility to use ethane or LPG as feedstock. Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. engineered and Brown and Root Inc. built the plant.

  14. Dispersion of Hydrogen Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Swain; Eric S. Grilliot; Matthew N. Swain

    2000-06-30

    The following is the presentation of a simplification of the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Method previously developed at the University of Miami. It has been found that for simple enclosures, hydrogen leaks can be simulated with helium leaks to predict the concentrations of hydrogen gas produced. The highest concentrations of hydrogen occur near the ceiling after the initial transients disappear. For the geometries tested, hydrogen concentrations equal helium concentrations for the conditions of greatest concern (near the ceiling after transients disappear). The data supporting this conclusion is presented along with a comparison of hydrogen, LPG, and gasoline leakage from a vehicle parked in a single car garage. A short video was made from the vehicle fuel leakage data.

  15. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  17. Asia/Pacific ethylene capacity to more than double by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-08

    The tremendous growth of Asia`s petrochemical industry is expected to continue into the next century. This rapid expansion has redirected many Asian nations` energy resources to the petrochemical industry, according to an advisory report by Ronald E. Hagen of the East-West Center, Honolulu. Petrochemical producers throughout the region are planning to build a number of new, world-scale ethylene plants, and expand and upgrade existing facilities. Feedstocks used to produce ethylene include: ethane, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and ethanol. Traditionally, usage of ethanol and kerosene in the region has been small, and gas oil usage is centered mainly in China. Information is listed and discussed for ethylene capacity through 2000 on a country-by-country basis, along with the feedstocks used by each plant.

  18. PEMEX selects the H-Oil{reg_sign} process for their hydrodesulfurization residue complex at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisdom, L.I.; Colyar, J.J. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has selected the H-Oil Process for the conversion and upgrading of a blend of Maya and Isthmus vacuum residua at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery. The 8,450 metric ton/day (50,000 bpsd) H-Oil Plant will produce a low sulfur (0.8 wt%) fuel oil, diesel, naphtha, and LPG. The H-Oil Plant will be a key component of the Hydrodesulfurization Residue (HDR) Complex which will be located at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Tula, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. The project is part of PEMEX`s Ecology Projects currently underway in Mexico. This paper describes the HDR Complex and the design basis of the H-Oil Plant and provides the current status of this project.

  19. Performance and emissions of propane, natural gas, and methanol fuelled bus engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, W.A.; Petherick, D.; Topaloglu, T.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of six transit bus engines (three diesel, one propane (LPG), one natural gas for vehicles (NGV), and one methanol) has been performed. The purpose of the program was to assess the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of current state-of-the-art large alternative fuel engines. Engine dynamometer test work was performed at the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF) which allowed a detailed comparison of several alternative-fuelled engines versus their diesel counterparts. Test data includes steady-state brake-specific fuel consumption maps, torque and horsepower curves. Transient performance, fuel consumption and emissions information came from computer-controlled engine dynamometer runs of the Advanced Design Bus (ADB) test cycle.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  1. Future prospects for compression ignition fuel in California : fuel-related implications of possible pathways to mitigation of public health threats.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-04-08

    This paper documents methods and results of an investigation of the options for and year 2010 consequences of possible new limitations on the use of diesel fuel in California, USA. California's Air Resources Board will undertake a risk management process to determine steps necessary to protect the health and safety of the public from carcinogenic species resident on diesel combustion exhaust particles. Environmental activist groups continue to call for the elimination of diesel fuel in California and other populous states. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Thus, two ''mid-course'' strategies now appear feasible: (1) Increased penetration of natural gas, LPG, and possibly lower alcohols into the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some Cl applications would revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on more detailed investigation of exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents.

  2. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  3. Design and performance of a high-pressure Fischer-Tropsch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, A.W.; Quarderer, G.J.; Cochran, G.A.; Conway, M.M. )

    1988-01-01

    A 900 kg/day, CO/H/sub 2/, high-pressure, fluidized bed, pilot reactor was designed from first principles to achieve high reactant conversions and heat removal rates for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG's). Suppressed bubble growth at high pressure allowed high reactant conversions which nearly matched those obtained at identical conditions in a lab scale fixed bed reactor. For GHSV approximately 1400 hr/sup -1/ and T = 658 {Kappa} at P approximately 7000 {kappa}Pa, reactant conversion exceeded 75%. The reactor heat removal capability exceeded twice design performance with the fluidized bed easily operating under thermally stable conditions. The fluidized catalyst was a potassium promoted, molybdenum on carbon (Mo/{Kappa}/C) catalyst which did not produce any detrimental waxy products. Long catalyst lifetimes of 1000 hrs on steam between regenerations allowed the fluidized bed to be operated in a batch mode.

  4. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

  5. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage caverns, and gas market area storage needs of these regions.

  6. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  7. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ? Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ? Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ? Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ? Cooking with biomass increases cancer risk in the airways via Akt activation.

  8. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  9. OXY (Occidental Petroleum Corp. ) units plan U. K. work worth $1. 5 billion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-15

    Occidental Refineries Ltd., an Occidental Petroleum Corp. subsidiary, plans to spend about $500,000 to build a 60,000 bbl/day hydrocracker on Canvey Island near London to produce aviation fuel, naphtha, and gasoline. Occidental hopes to deflect criticism by environmentalists, concerned about the concentration of petroleum facilities in the area, by installing a minimum amount of LPG storage and not using hydrogen sulfide on the site. During the 1970's, Occidental had prepared the site for the construction of a 125,000 bbl/day refinery, plans for which were scrapped after the demand for product compounds decreased. Occidental Chemical Co., another Occidental Petroleum subsidiary, plans to spend about $500,000 to build a 300,000 ton/yr ethylene plant at Peterhead, Scotl. The cracker would take part of the output from the de-ethanizer at the St. Fergus terminal for the proposed U.K. gas-gathering pipeline. Both projects would require about 3-4 yr to complete. Esso Chemical Ltd. will build a 550,000 ton/yr ethylene plant near the Mossmoran gas liquids plant in Fife, Scotl.

  10. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  11. Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2014-02-24

    In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700°C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.84399×10{sup ?10} and 8.59888×10{sup ?10} cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1}, respectively.

  12. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  13. Perspectives for pilot scale study of RDF in Istanbul, Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara, Mustafa; Guenay, Esin; Tabak, Yasemin; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-12-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and industrialization. The use of alternative fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants is very important for reducing cost, saving fossil fuels and also eliminating waste materials, accumulated during production or after using these materials. Cement industries has an important potential for supplying preferable solutions to the waste management. Energy recovery from waste is also important for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper presents an investigation of the development of refuse derived fuel (RDF) materials from non-recycling wastes and the determination of its potential use as an alternative fuel in cement production in Istanbul, Turkey. RDF produced from MSW was analyzed and its effects on cement production process were examined. For this purpose, the produced RDF was mixed with the main fuel (LPG) in ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Then chemical and mineralogical analyses of the produced clinker were carried out. It is believed that successful results of this study will be a good example for municipalities and cement industries in order to achieve both economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  15. Summary of results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s vehicle evaluation data collection efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; Motta, R.; Broderick, J.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers) spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles converted to natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administration`s fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light- duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. Driver-reported complaints and unscheduled vehicle repairs were used to assess the performance and reliability of the AFVs compared to the comparable gasoline vehicles. Two sources of fuel economy were available, one from testing of vehicles on a chassis dynamometer, and the other from records of in-service fuel use. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles.

  16. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Krawetz, Barton (Idaho Falls, ID); Barklund, C. Rodger (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  17. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office`s program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  18. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  19. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  20. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  1. Validating the role of AFVs in voluntary mobile source emission reduction programs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Saricks, C. L.

    1999-03-17

    Late in 1997, EPA announced new allowances for voluntary emission control programs. As a result, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities and other metro areas that have made an ongoing commitment to increasing participation by alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in local fleets have the opportunity to estimate the magnitude and obtain emission reduction credit for following through on that commitment. Unexpectedly large reductions in key ozone precursor emissions in key locations and times of the day can be achieved per vehicle-mile by selecting specific light duty AFV offerings from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in lieu of their gasoline-fueled counterparts. Additional benefit accrues from the fact that evaporative emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (generated in the case of CNG, LNG, and LPG by closed fuel-system AFV technology) can be essentially negligible. Upstream emissions from fuel storage and distribution with the airshed of interest are also reduced. This paper provides a justification and outlines a method for including AFVs in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality, and for quantifying emission reduction credits. At the time of submission of this paper, the method was still under review by the US EPA Office of Mobile Sources, pending mutually satisfactory resolution of several of its key points. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  2. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  3. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  4. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas in slurry phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.Z.; Fujimoto, K.; Shikata, T.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is one of the important chemicals derived from synthesis gas. It can be widely used in syngas conversion, production of olefins, or MTG gasoline. Recently, is has been noticed as a substitute of LPG used as home fuel. In the present study, dimethyl ether was effectively synthesized from CO rich syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=1/1) over hybrid catalyst containing a Cu-Zn-Al(O) based methanol synthesis catalyst and {gamma}-alumina in an agitated slurry reactor under relatively mild reaction conditions: temperature 230--300 C, pressure 2.0--5.0 MPa, contact time 2.0--10 gram-cat.-h/mol. The catalysts used as the methanol active components were commercially available Cu-Zn-Al(O) based catalysts, BASF S385 and ICI 51-2. Two kinds of {gamma}-alumina ALO4 (standard catalyst of the Catalysis Society of Japan) and N612N (NIKKI Co., Japan) were used as the methanol dehydration components. The slurry was prepared by mixing the fine powder (<100 mesh) of catalyst components with purified n-hexadecane. The catalysts were reduced by a mixing gas containing 20% syngas and 80% nitrogen with a three-hour programmed temperature raising from room temperature to the final temperature. All products were analyzed by gas chromatographs. Results are given and discussed.

  5. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  6. DME: The next market breakthrough or a methanol-related fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Basu, A.; Fleisch, T.H.; Masin, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco has been involved for several years in the development of technology for the synthesis of liquid fuels from remote natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), itself an important alternative transportation fuel. However, unlike most other fuels, the raw exhaust of diesel engines fueled with DME satisfies California 1998 ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, now. DME`s greenhouse gas emissions, measured from cradle-to-grave, are lowest among all transportation fuel alternatives. Today, DME is manufactured from methanol and is used primarily as an aerosol propellant because of its attractive physical properties and its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe S/A developed a process for the direct production of DME from natural gas. The process can be used for the large scale manufacture of DME using predominantly single-train process units. When manufactured at large scale, DME can be produced and marketed at a cost comparable to conventional transportation fuels. The market driven demand for DME as a transportation fuel is envisioned to grow in three stages. Initially, DME is envisioned to be produced via methanol dehydration, followed by retrofits, and lastly by large scale dedicated plants. DME fuel demonstration fleet tests are scheduled to commence during 1996. Today`s methanol producer likely also will be tomorrow`s DME producer.

  7. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  8. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  10. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  11. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  12. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  13. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B.; Sidhu, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  14. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2005-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation capability was demonstrated for estimating enthalpy in a power plant.

  15. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  16. Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S M; Dibble, R; Kristic, M; Bining, A

    2005-07-12

    This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be operated by preheating the intake air with a heat exchanger that recovers energy from the exhaust gases. This heat exchanger plays a dual role, since it is also used for starting the engine. For start-up, the heat exchanger is preheated with a natural gas burner. The engine is therefore started in HCCI mode, avoiding the need to handle the potentially difficult transition from SI or diesel mode to HCCI. The fueling system was modified by replacing the natural gas carburetor with a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carburetor. This modification sets an upper limit for the equivalence ratio at {phi} {approx} 0.4, which is ideal for HCCI operation and guarantees that the engine will not fail due to knock. Equivalence ratio can be reduced below 0.4 for low load operation with an electronic control valve. Intake boosting has been a challenge, as commercially available turbochargers are not a good match for the engine, due to the low HCCI exhaust temperature. Commercial introduction of HCCI engines for stationary power will therefore require the development of turbochargers designed specifically for this mode of operation. Considering that no appropriate off-the-shelf turbocharger for HCCI engines exists at this time, we are investigating mechanical supercharging options, which will deliver the required boost pressure (3 bar absolute intake) at the expense of some reduction in the output power and efficiency. An appropriate turbocharger can later be installed for improved performance when it becomes available or when a custom turbocharger is developed. The engine is now running in HCCI mode and producing power in an essentially naturally aspirated mode. Current work focuses on developing an automatic controller for obtaining consistent combustion in the 6 cylinders. The engine will then be tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate durability. This paper presents intermediate progress towards development of an HCCI engine for stationary power generation and next steps towards achieving the project goals.

  17. Appearance, temperature, and NO{sub x} emission of two inverse diffusion flames with different port design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, L.K.; Cheung, C.S.; Leung, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the appearance, temperature distribution, and NO{sub x} emission index of two inverse diffusion flames, one with circumferentially arranged ports (CAPs) and the other with co-axial (CoA) jets, both burning LPG with 70% butane and 30% propane. Flame appearances were investigated first with a fixed fueling rate at different airflow rates equivalent to air jet Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1000 to 4500; and then at a fixed airflow rate with different fueling rates equivalent to overall equivalence ratios (F) of 1.0 to 2.0. The CAP flame is found to consist of two zones: a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. The CoA flame in most cases is similar to a diffusion flame. The two-zone structure can be observed only at Re larger than 2500. The temperature distributions of the flames are similar at overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 and 1.2 for Re=2500, except that the corresponding CoA flame is longer. The flame temperature is higher in the CAP flame than the CoA flame at higher overall equivalence ratios. A measurement of centerline oxygen concentrations shows that the oxygen concentration reaches a minimum value at a flame height of 50 mm in the CAP flame but decreases more gradually in the CoA flame. It can be concluded that there is more intense air-fuel mixing in a CAP flame than the CoA flame. Investigation of the emission index of NO{sub x} (EINO{sub x}) for both flames at Re=2500 and overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 to 6.0 reveals that the EINO{sub x} curve of each flame is bell-shaped, with a maximum value of 3.2 g/kg at F=1.2 for the CAP flame and 3 g/kg at F=2.2 for the CoA flame.

  18. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  19. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and emissions relative to the reference scenario. The table clearly shows the trade-off between costs and benefits. For example, while H{sub 2} FCVs have the greatest incremental capital needs, they offer the largest energy and emissions benefits. On the basis of the cost and benefit changes shown, methanol and gasoline FCVs appear to have particularly promising benefits-to-costs ratios.

  20. Denver SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Evaluation; Evaluacion de la flotilla de GNC de la empresa SuperShuttle de Denver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-10-01

    A description of a joint effort between Denver SuperShuttle, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and DOE that evaluated two types of bi-fuel and compressed natural gas.