National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lpg liquefied petroleum

  1. Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liddell, G.

    1986-08-01

    The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

  2. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  4. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

    1983-12-06

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

  5. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  6. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  7. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Interim report 15 Aug 75-31 Jan 77 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallet, D.W.; Wu, K.F.

    1980-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of several liquefied petroleum gases (with particular emphasis on propane) are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the widely used propane data by Stearns and George are too inconsistent and too inaccurate to be used for mass flow calculations of propane and propane mixtures through safety valves of rail tank cars. Accordingly, the thermodynamic properties of propane, propylene, n-butane, and a mixture of 65% (by mole) propane, 25% propylene, and 10% n-butane are recalculated using equations of states proposed by Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) and by Starling. It is shown that Starling's equation results in thermodynamic properties which are more consistent and compare better with measured values than the BWR equation. Thermodynamic data for the four liquefied petroleum gases discussed above are calculated and presented in tabular form. In addition, predictions of pure propane mass flow rates (based upon isentropic), homogeneous equilibrium flow) are given. The influence of the thermodynamic data upon the predicted mass flow rates is demonstrated.

  9. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  10. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  11. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  13. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  14. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  15. Simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas on water. Final report, December 12, 1978-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.R.; Reid, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the boiling and spreading of liquid nitrogen, liquid methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water in a one-dimensional configuration. Primary emphasis was placed on the LPG studies. Experimental work involved the design and construction of a spill/spread/boil apparatus which permitted the measurement of spreading and local boil-off rates. With the equations of continuity and momentum transfer, a mathematical model was developed to describe the boiling-spreading phenomena of cryogens spilled on water. The model accounted for a decrease in the density of the cryogenic liquid due to bubble formation. The boiling and spreading rates of LPG were found to be the same as those of pure propane. An LPG spill was characterized by the very rapid and violent boiling initially and highly irregular ice formation on the water surface. The measured local boil-off rates of LPG agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions from a moving boundary heat transfer model. The spreading velocity of an LPG spill was found to be constant and determined by the size of the distributor opening. The maximum spreading distance was found to be unaffected by the spilling rate. These observations can be explained by assuming that the ice formation on the water surface controls the spreading of LPG spills. While the mathematical model did not predict the spreading front adequately, it predicted the maximum spreading distance reasonably well.

  16. Design and construction of liquefied petroleum gas installations (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard applies principally to both refrigerated and non-refrigerated installations that are larger in size than or closely associated with operating units, or both. The more complex problems presented by such installations require wider latitude for the designer than installations that are covered by the present National Fire Protection Association standards.

  17. Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, R.

    1980-01-01

    Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

  18. Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D.; Popova, E. T.

    1999-05-24

    Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.

  19. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  20. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  1. Custody transfer measurements for LNG/LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes. A brief discussion of LNG and LPG characteristics and detailed description of these special measurement techniques are given in this presentation.

  2. Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

    1983-10-01

    The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

  3. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Lu, R.; Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.; Russell, A.G.; Bossert, J.E.; Streit, G.E.; Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F.; Porch, W.M.; McNair, L.A.; Keyantash, J.; Kao, C.J.; Turco, R.P.; Eichinger, W.E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  4. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  5. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  6. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-18

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

  7. Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-05-12

    The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

  8. Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Robert C. Motta Kenneth J. Kelly William W. Warnock Executive Summary The National Renewable Energy

  9. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  10. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  11. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  12. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J E

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  13. Blast rips Texas LPG storage site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

  14. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  15. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad Ahmed, Iqbal Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul Nadeem, Saad Ali, Shahid

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  16. Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

  17. Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fay, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date appear to have identified the major hazards. Except for the dispersive behavior of vapor clouds - a not-insignificant factor in risk evaluation - the consequences of spills are well circumscribed by current analyses. The physically significant effects accompanying nonexplosive combustion of spilled material are fairly well documented; yet, potentially substantial uncertainties remain. Catastrophic spills of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ on land or water are possible, given the current size of storage vessels. Almost all experimental spills have used less than 10 m/sup 3/ of liquid. There is thus some uncertainty regarding the accuracy and validity of extrapolation of current empirical information and physical models to spills of catastrophic size. The less-likely but still-possible explosive or fireball combustion modes are not well understood in respect to their inception. The troubling experience with such violent combustion of similar combustible vapors suggests that this possibility will need further definition. Extant LNG and LPG risk analyses illustrate the difficulties of substantiating the numerous event probabilities and the determination of all event sequences that can lead to hazardous consequences. Their disparate results show that significant improvements are needed. Most importantly, a detailed critique of past efforts and a determination of an exhaustive set of criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a risk analysis should precede any further attempts to improve on existing studies. 44 references, 1 table.

  18. Mounded LPG storage - Experience and developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, D.

    1988-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored after production, and for distribution and use, in pressure vessels which vary in size from a few kilogrammes to many thousands of tons. The types of LPG under consideration are commercial butane, commercial propane, or mixtures of the two gases in varying proportions. Mounded storage systems are becoming popular as an alternative to the better-known traditional systems. The most widely used and therefore best-known of the traditional systems are the above-ground pressure-vessel designs. These more commonly comprise factory-made cylinders which are installed horizontally, being supported on saddles at each end of the vessel. When such vessels are installed in an LPG terminal, depot, or filling plant, they are required in multiple units to facilitate the storage of more than one grade of product and to enable regular maintenance and inspection to be carried out. Today's safety regulations require such installations to be divided into sub-groups of six tanks, with all the tanks located at a safe distance from one another, and from other facilities in the immediate area. These safety distances are being increased as a result of experience, which means terminals now require large areas of land.

  19. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  20. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  1. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  2. A simple correlation to predict the hydrate quadruple point temperature for LPG mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    A simple correlation to predict the hydrate upper quadruple point temperature, T{sub Q2B} for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mixtures was developed. It was developed for use as a part of a modeling and control system for a LPG pipeline in Russia. For performance reasons, a simple hydrate prediction correlation was required that could be incorporated into the real-time and predictive pipeline simulation models. The operating company required both real time and predictive simulation tools be developed to assist in preventing hydrate blockages while minimizing the use of methanol. In this particular pipeline, LPG fluid moves through the pipeline as a single phase liquid above its bubble point pressure. Because of the very low flow rates, the trace amount of water present in the LPG drops out and creates water pools at low points in the pipeline. The pipeline pressure and seasonal temperatures are conducive for hydrate formation in these pools. Methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEG) are injected in the pipeline to help prevent hydrate formation. The newly developed correlation predicts the hydrate quadruple point temperature using only the composition and the molecular weight of the LPG mixture while retaining an accuracy comparable to the statistical thermodynamic models throughout the range of normal operating conditions.

  3. New LPG loss-control standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, D.L. )

    1988-12-01

    API'S (American Petroleum Institute) Committee on Liquified Hydrocarbon Gas and the Committee and Safety and Fire Protection have modified Standard 2510 and added a supplemental Standard 2510A, in response to bad LPG incidents. Requirements have been tightened, with a major objective to prevent LPG releases. Fire protection Standards for the design and operation of LPG facilities are specifically revised. Following important changes are specifically discussed: Versel design, site selection, spacing and impounding; foundations and supports; and piping requirements.

  4. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  5. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  6. Sensing behaviour of nanosized zinc-tin composite oxide towards liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ravi Chand; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Manmeet Pal; Chandi, Paramdeep Singh; Thangaraj, R.

    2010-09-15

    A chemical route has been used to synthesize composite oxides of zinc and tin. An ammonia solution was added to equal amounts of zinc and tin chloride solutions of same molarities to obtain precipitates. Three portions of these precipitates were annealed at 400, 600 and 800 {sup o}C, respectively. Results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy clearly depicted coexistence of phases of nano-sized SnO{sub 2}, ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}. The effect of annealing on structure, morphology and sensing has been observed as well. It has been observed that annealing promoted growth of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3} at the expense of zinc. The sensing response of fabricated sensors from these materials to 250 ppm LPG and ethanol has been investigated. The sensor fabricated from powder annealed at 400 {sup o}C responded better to LPG than ethanol.

  7. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  8. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  9. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  10. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  11. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  12. Dehydrocyclodimerization, converting LPG to aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Hilder, G.K.

    1984-03-01

    British Petroleum (BP) recognized the potential need for ways of exploiting feedstocks with low opportunity cost and commenced a research program at its Sunbury Research Center to discover and develop a catalyst for the conversion of LPG to a liquid product. The successful outcome of this research program is the Cyclar /SUP SM/ process, a joint development of UOP Process Division and British Petroleum. The Cyclar process offers a single-step conversion of LPG to an aromatic product which has a highvalue, is easily transported and useful both to fuel and petrochemical applications. The LPG producer can invest in a single unit, avoiding the need to identify and develop markets for multiple C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ products. This catalytic process, which employs UOP Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) technology, can also be applied to refinery light ends to produce a high-quality gasoline. Aromatic and hydrogen yields from propane and butane feeds surpass those obtained from catalytic reforming of Light Arabian naphtha. This paper describes the principles of the Cyclar process and illustrates yields and economics for several interesting applications.

  13. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  14. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  15. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  16. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.

    1986-01-01

    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  17. LPG in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review LPG in Mexico. They attempt to project numbers to the year 2000 using a supply/demand comparison.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 1. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced LPG and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs for a fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the discount rate, price of propane, maintenance savings, vehicle utilization, diesel vehicles, extended vehicle life, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, and operating and infrastructure costs. The best results are obtained when not converting diesel vehicles, converting only large fleets, and extending the period the vehicle is kept in service. Combining these factors yields results that are most cost-effective for TxDOT. This is volume one of two volumes.

  19. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B. )

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  20. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B.

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  1. Monitoring system tested during LPG tanker unloading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-14

    A specially developed computer-based hazardous-materials monitoring system has been successfully field tested. The test of the portable system occurred during the unloading of 45,000 metric tons of LPG from a 740-ft tanker at the petroleum dock of a plant along the Mississippi River. The function of this system is to detect, report, alarm, and record unacceptable concentrations of hazardous vapors during marine-transfer operations.

  2. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  3. Table E2.1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... by petroleum" "refineries (e.g., crude oil ... ,"Total United States" "RSE Column ... Examples of Liquefied Petroleum Gases '(LPG)' are ...

  4. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  5. Fact #674: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Note: Trade balance exports minus imports. Includes crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied propane and butane, and other mineral fuels. Supporting Information Petroleum ...

  6. LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.V.

    1982-09-07

    A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

  7. LPG fuel shutoff system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

    1988-01-26

    An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Information on the supply and distribution of petroleum and petroleum products in the US as of March 1983 is presented. Data include statistics on crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases, imports, exports, stocks, and transport. This issue also features 2 articles entitled: Summer Gasoline Overview and Principal Factors Influencing Motor Gasoline Demand. (DMC)

  9. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.PDF Table 38. Movements of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Tanker and Barge Between PAD Districts, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity From 1 to From 2 to 2 3 5 1 3 5 Crude Oil ................................................................. 106 498 - 223 2,810 - Petroleum Products ............................................... 107 40 0 1,206 2,416 0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. - 0 - 0 0 - Unfinished Oils

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 June 2016 Table 59. Movements of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Tanker and Barge Between PAD Districts, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity From 1 to From 2 to 2 3 5 1 3 5 Crude Oil ................................................................. 0 0 - 357 848 - Petroleum Products ............................................... 125 0 0 723 2,384 0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. - 0 - 0 0 - Unfinished Oils

  11. Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-11-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), commonly called propane. Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced propane and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT locations that can be converted to propane without additional financial outlays. This is volume two of two volumes.

  13. Process for LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S.A.; Haliburton, J.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for separating propane and heavier hydrocarbons from a gaseous feedstream containing hydrocarbon components of different boiling points wherein the feedstream is cooled and separated into a first vapor fraction and a first liquid fraction and the first liquid fraction is distilled in a deethanizer to form a second vapor fraction and a second liquid fraction. The improvement comprises expanding and transferring the first vapor fraction to the lower portion of a direct heat exchanger, cooling {ital at least a portion of} the second vapor fraction {ital by passing it through an indirect heat exchanger} to form a substantially liquefied stream, {ital partially flashing at least a portion of the liquefied stream and transferring it} to the upper portion of the direct heat exchanger whereby the liquefied stream contacts the first vapor fraction to form a third vapor fraction and a third liquid fraction, {ital transferring} the third liquid fraction to the deethanizer, and removing the third vapor fraction from the direct heat exchanger {ital and passing the third vapor fraction through the indirect heat exchanger}.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    (B20 and above) CNG Compressed Natural Gas E85 Ethanol (E85) ELEC Electric HY Hydrogen LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane) stationname Type:...

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  16. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  18. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.PDF Table 28. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 1,552 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.PDF Table 30. PAD District 4 and 5 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - -

  20. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.PDF Table 32. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 - 3 - 349 349 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 575 0 - 0 0 - - - Bahamas ............................ - 0 4 - - 179 179

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 42. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 801 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 44. PAD District 4 and 5 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - -

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 51. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 312 64 - - - - - - Australia .............................. - - 426 - - 0 0 - 0 0 Bahamas ............................ - 0 31 0 - 37 37

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas Safety Research

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page 1 Liquefied Natural Gas Safety ... Energy | May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page i Message from the ...

  5. The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

  6. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  7. Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

  8. Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

  9. "RSE Table E2.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table E2.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by petroleum" "refineries (e.g., crude oil ... ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and ... Examples of Liquefied Petroleum Gases '(LPG)' are ...

  10. Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

  11. LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LPG Electrical, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: ANGWIN Electrical Address: 13833 Wellington Trace Rd. 4 Place: Wellington, Florida Zip: 33414 Sector: Services Product:...

  12. Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

  13. Cracking in liquid petroleum gas Horton spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, D.K. Gupta, S.C.

    1997-07-01

    A gas processing plant on the western coast of India produces sweet gas after processing sour natural gas. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is recovered from the sweet gas. The LPG, containing a H{sub 2}S concentration of 10 ppm to 20 ppm, is stored in Horton spheres, each 17 m in diameter with a capacity of {minus}27 C to 55 C. Horton spheres for containing liquid petroleum gas (LPG) were fabricated on-site using prestressed plates of high-strength carbon steel (CS) SA 537 Class-1 with post-weld heat treatment. High-residual tensile stresses and hydrogen absorption from H{sub 2}S present in LPG could be the cause of cracking at weld and heat-affected zone interfaces at high hardness locations. Recommendations are given for inspection and use of lower-strength CS and improved welding procedures.

  14. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources

  15. LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

  16. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.PDF Table 26. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 99,127 - - 2,384 - - - - 1,652 1,652 Algeria ................................ - - - 2,119 - - - - -

  17. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.PDF Table 27. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 5,672 - - - - - - - 1,652 1,652 Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  18. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.PDF Table 29. PAD District 3 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 69,917 - - 2,005 - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - 1,740 - - - - - - Angola

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 33. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,198 0 -27 60 - -36 -36 0 52 52 Algeria ................................ - - - 68 - - - - - - Angola

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 39. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 90,723 - - 4,059 - - - - 1,218 1,218 Algeria ................................ 1,253 - - 4,059 -

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 40. Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 563,597 - - 25,955 - 2 2 - 8,201 8,201 Algeria

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 41. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 13,026 - - 402 - - - - 522 522 Algeria ................................ - - - 402 - - - - - - Angola

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 43. PAD District 3 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 55,521 - - 3,240 - - - - 696 696 Algeria ................................ 1,253 - - 3,240 - - - - - -

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 45. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 68,781 - - 468 - 2 2 - 6,901 6,901 Algeria ................................ - - -

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 46. PAD District 2 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 8,024 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - -

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 47. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 350,597 - - 24,172 - - - - 1,300 1,300 Algeria ................................

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 48. PAD District 4 and 5 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 52. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 462 362 - 373 373 - 0 0 Australia .............................. - 3 1,547 3 - 5 5 - 0 0 Bahamas

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 53. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,024 - -30 135 - -36 -36 0 41 41 Algeria ................................ 42 - - 135 - - - - - -

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 54. Year-to-Date Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,097 0 -24 113 - -44 -44 0 35 35 Algeria ................................ 19

  11. Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1984-08-01

    The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

  12. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.PDF Table 20. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 358 2 360 69 38 259 366 Pentanes Plus

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 32. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD District, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 21 - 21 - 10 85 95 Pentanes Plus

  14. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  15. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and

  16. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  17. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  18. Shell India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services, Solar Product: Delhi-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell having interests in natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), lubricants and bitumen. The firm also...

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.PDF Table 17. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 772 -22 750 1,555 -217 39 1,377 Ethane/Ethylene

  20. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.PDF Table 19. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 772 -22 750 1,555 -217 39 1,377 Ethane/Ethylene

  1. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.PDF Table 31. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 1,496 1,685 4,468 43 6 7,698 248 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,533 4,128 12,242 137 456 18,495 597 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,190

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 29. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 1,589 55 1,644 4,843 625 783 6,251 Ethane/Ethylene

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 31. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 1,589 55 1,644 4,843 625 783 6,251 Ethane/Ethylene

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 49. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 3,576 2,977 4,489 42 406 11,489 383 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,704 8,682 21,444 90 1,391 34,311 1,144 Pentanes Plus ..................................................

  5. LPG odorization with an audit trail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astala, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article I have tried to cover a very broad subject in a very limited time while only touching on a few of the ways you could odorize LPG and have an audit trail. I would recommend that if you are interested in this type of odorizing for LPG, you contact your odorant manufacturer and two or three odorant equipment manufacturers and talk to them about what you would like and get their recommendations. By talking to more then one manufacturer you may want to incorporate the ideals of two or three manufacturers into your odorant system to have a system that meets all your needs and requirements.

  6. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  7. U.S. Petroleum Flow, 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Flow, 2015 million barrels per day 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (1.113), net imports (0.654) and adjustments (0.373) minus stock change (0.017) and product supplied (-0.010). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (3.273) and renewable fuels and

  8. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  9. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  10. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  11. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  12. Risk analysis of an LPG facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

  13. The operation of LPG relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stannard, J.H. Jr

    1989-11-01

    As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

  14. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  15. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  16. Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

    1985-04-01

    Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists.

  17. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  18. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 23. Percent Yield of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 2014 Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 2.7 -0.8 2.4 2.4 -1.5 0.2 1.3 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 ......................................... 46.8 40.4 46.2 54.0 51.6 49.3 52.5

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.PDF Table 25. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1,2 ................................................................................. 16,975 63,997 113,277 7,841 33,179 235,269 7,589 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ...... 2,374 3,314 358 431 234 6,711 216 Pentanes Plus

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 35. Percent Yield of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, June 2016 Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 4.7 1.9 4.5 6.8 4.1 3.1 5.6 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 ......................................... 46.7 36.4 45.9 51.3 51.4 49.9 51.0

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 37. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1,2 ................................................................................. 27,006 56,339 99,092 8,151 37,732 228,320 7,611 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ...... 839 2,061 43 201 331 3,475 116 Pentanes Plus

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 June 2016 Table 38. Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1,2 ............................................................................. 153,535 398,183 603,557 45,937 219,143 1,420,355 7,804 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases .. 8,648 14,318 1,358 2,024 1,851 28,199 155 Pentanes Plus

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 June 2016 Table 50. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 27,101 11,565 45,321 2,305 1,319 87,611 481 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 11,668 53,121 146,224 1,006 7,255 219,273 1,205 Pentanes Plus

  4. Current and future USA-world seaborne imports at LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassa, G.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of the current and historical situation of the international LPG trade and comparison between the US and other countries covers methods of marine transportation, including fully refrigerated vessels, semirefrigerated vessels, pressure vessels, and LNG ships fitted for LPG; the temporary abundance of LPG; a comparison of the markets in Japan, Europe, South America, and the US to indicate the potential market in the future, e.g., the need in Japan for LPG as a basic fuel, main use in Europe as a feedstock and as domestic fuel, use as a basic fuel but mainly in the winter months inSouth America, and the volatile spot market in the US; and the conclusion that the capacity to produce LPG will keep pace with demand only as long as adequate prices are paid to offset production costs.

  5. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  6. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  7. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  8. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  9. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  10. End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrich, V.

    1980-03-01

    In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

  11. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  12. LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-08-08

    LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

  13. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  14. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  15. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  16. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable

  17. Accurate LPG analysis begins with sampling procedures, equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, C.M. )

    1990-11-05

    Proper equipment and procedures are essential for obtaining representative samples from an LPG stream. This paper discusses how sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons generally involves one of two methods: flow- proportional composite sampling by a mechanical device or physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. If sampling by proper techniques and equipment supports careful chromatographic analysis, full advantage of accurate mass measurement of LPG can be realized.

  18. River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

  19. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  20. Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

  1. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  2. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  3. Periodic review enhances LPG metering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Orsdol, F.G.

    1988-01-25

    Because of the loss of experienced personnel throughout the industry, the author says one must start over teaching the basics of liquid measurement. Warren Petroleum Co., a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc., has developed a checklist review method for its metering systems, complete with enough explanation to allow the reviewer to understand why each item is important. Simultaneously, it continues with more in-depth and theoretical training in training course. This article describes the review process.

  4. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  5. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  6. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  7. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils

  8. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","3... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)" ...

  9. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)" ...

  10. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","3... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)" ...

  11. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","3... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)" ...

  12. Sabine Pass, LA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Barbados (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: 05312016 Next Release Date: 06302016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Exports by Point of Exit Miami, FL Liquefied Natural Gas Exports To Barbados

  13. Port Nikiski, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Japan (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Port Nikiski, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Port Nikiski, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)...

  14. Energy Department Authorizes Freeport LNG to Export Liquefied...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Freeport LNG to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Freeport LNG to Export Liquefied Natural Gas November 14, 2014 - 2:00pm Addthis News Media Contact ...

  15. San Diego, CA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Mexico (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Diego, CA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) San Diego, CA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) ...

  16. Price of Portal, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Portal, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Portal, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)...

  17. Price of Crosby, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crosby, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Crosby, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)...

  18. Design considerations for sweetening LPG`s with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Polasek, J.; Rogers, J.

    1995-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening LPG with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. In the present paper, the design considerations and alternatives including static mixers, jet educator mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays are compared based on plant operating data.

  19. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  20. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phani, A.R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  3. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor

  4. M38 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects1 M38 is a company based in Ghana. "M38 sells liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in Accra, Ghana. A woman-owned business that began as an informal door-to-door supply...

  5. Propane Fuel Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas, is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles.

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liquefied Natural Gas Market Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

    2003-03-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Connecticut Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Delicious

  9. New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittler, T.J. )

    1990-04-02

    Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

  10. Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

    1982-03-01

    The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

  11. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  12. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    374 33 4,092 2,128 3,351 69 54 4,048 479 5,465 Crude Oil 45 - - - - 900 191 70 -38 1,126 119 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 329 -1 55 28 -81 - - 11 14 90 215 Pentanes Plus 34 -1 - - - 0 - - 0 - 4 29 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 295 - - 55 28 -82 - - 11 14 86 186 Ethane/Ethylene 135 - - 0 - -119 - - 2 - 17 -3 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 24 38 - - 3 - 62 144 Normal Butane/Butylene 34 - - 17 2 0 - - 6 1 6 40 Isobutane/Isobutylene 16 - - 0 2 0 - - -1 13 0 5 Other Liquids - -

  13. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,508 978 4,808 2,166 -154 -17 -79 4,592 505 5,271 Crude Oil 1,673 - - - - 2,058 -115 -51 -217 3,683 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 835 -20 208 69 -126 - - 309 78 289 290 Pentanes Plus 99 -20 - - 0 155 - - 6 24 198 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 737 - - 208 69 -281 - - 303 54 91 285 Ethane/Ethylene 279 - - - - -133 - - 4 - 63 79 Propane/Propylene 303 - - 120 55 -120 - - 174 - 10 174 Normal Butane/Butylene 97 - - 92 6 -27 - - 125 4 17 22 Isobutane/Isobutylene 57 - - -3 7

  14. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,030 14 695 326 -681 9 -14 668 11 729 Crude Oil 643 - - - - 315 -330 2 -18 647 1 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 387 0 21 7 -364 - - 11 17 3 19 Pentanes Plus 59 0 - - - -48 - - 0 6 2 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 327 - - 21 7 -316 - - 11 11 1 16 Ethane/Ethylene 117 - - - - -115 - - 2 - - 0 Propane/Propylene 134 - - 9 6 -127 - - 1 - 0 21 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 11 0 -47 - - 9 4 1 3 Isobutane/Isobutylene 24 - - 1 1 -27 - - 0 7 - -9 Other Liquids - - 14 - - 3 18 -18 6

  15. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,040 27 3,154 1,585 508 51 -156 2,960 452 3,108 Crude Oil 983 - - - - 1,258 127 8 -36 2,399 14 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 58 0 94 11 - - - 28 61 46 26 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 0 21 1 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 31 - - 94 11 - - - 28 40 46 22 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 11 - - 47 11 - - - 4 - 29 36 Normal Butane/Butylene 7 - - 44 0 - - - 25 19 17 -10 Isobutane/Isobutylene 13 - - 3 - - - - -1 21 - -4 Other Liquids - - 27 - - 137

  16. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,086 15 662 340 -715 -38 10 637 18 686 Crude Oil 762 - - - - 326 -425 -44 9 602 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 323 0 13 10 -297 - - 1 20 7 21 Pentanes Plus 55 0 - - - -45 - - 0 6 5 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 268 - - 13 10 -252 - - 1 14 2 22 Ethane/Ethylene 77 - - - - -76 - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 122 - - 9 9 -110 - - 0 - 0 29 Normal Butane/Butylene 50 - - 3 0 -40 - - 1 7 2 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 19 - - 0 1 -25 - - 0 7 0 -13 Other Liquids - - 15 - - 1 8 -5 1 15

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One of several supply options involves increasing imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ... Transportation of LNG by ship is one method to bring this stranded gas to the consumer. ...

  18. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  19. Liquefied propane carburetor modification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, D.R.; Batchelor, W.H.

    1983-01-25

    A system which can be retrofit into an existing conventional gasoline powered vehicle for enabling the vehicle to operate on either gasoline or liquefied propane fuel. The system includes a mixer in the form of an adapter to fit on the top of an existing carburetor. The mixer has a unique spring balanced metering device which controls flow of gaseous propane to the carburetor in proportion to airflow through the carburetor. The mixer is connected to a regulator assembly which receives liquid propane in a first chamber, heats the liquid propane to form a vapor, and feeds the vapor through an idle valve to control idling of the engine. The vapor is also passed to a second chamber of the regulator assembly in response to demand from the metering device which is sensed by a diaphragm actuated gas flow valve. From the second chamber, the gaseous propane is fed to a high speed inlet of the mixer. Engine manifold vacuum is also used to provide additional control for the gas flow valve to increase efficiency of the system. Other features include a special purpose fuel tank and an optional exhaust system oxygen sensor for further regulating gas flow to the engine.

  20. Petroleum Marketing Annual Archives

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petrolem Reports Petroleum Marketing Annual Archives The Petroleum Marketing Annual was discontinued in 2010. Choose the year from the archive Petroleum Marketing Annual you wish...

  1. Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1994-12-31

    There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

  2. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103EG2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)" 38533,72540 38898,119528 39263,114580 ...

  3. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103MY2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  4. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Oman (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Oman (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103MU2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  5. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Algeria (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:33 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Algeria (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103AG2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  6. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:37 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103NG2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  7. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Brunei (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:34 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Brunei (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103BX2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  8. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Qatar (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:37 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Qatar (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103QR2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  9. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Canada (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Canada (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0NUS-NCAIMLMMCF" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Canada (MMcf)" 41090,0 41455,555 ...

  10. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Norway (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Norway (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Norway (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0...

  11. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Qatar (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Qatar (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Qatar (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103QR2" ...

  12. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Egypt (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103EG2" ...

  13. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0N...

  14. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Oman (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Oman (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Oman (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103MU2" ...

  15. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0...

  16. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Brunei (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Brunei (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","32016" ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Brunei (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103BX2...

  17. Freeport, TX Exports to India Liquefied Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to India Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Freeport, TX Exports to India Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct ...

  18. Sabine Pass, LA Exports to Spain Liquefied Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Spain Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Sabine Pass, LA Exports to Spain Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ...

  19. Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Taiwan (Dollars per...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Taiwan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Taiwan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr...

  20. Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

  1. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  2. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0NUS-NPEIMLMMCF" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Peru (MMcf)" 39263,0 39629,0 39994,0 ...

  3. Portal, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Portal, ND Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 2 2016 2 ...

  4. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103AU2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Australia (MMcf)" 26845,0 27210,0 27575,0 27941,0 ...

  5. Proposed Procedures for Liquefied Natural Gas Export Decisions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Proposed Procedures for Liquefied Natural Gas Export Decisions Proposed Procedures for Liquefied Natural Gas Export Decisions On August 15, 2014, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy announced its Procedures for Liquefied Natural Gas Export Decisions (Procedures). Pursuant to these Procedures, DOE will act on applications to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the lower-48 states to non-FTA countries only after the review required by the National

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Collection in Sacramento Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on

  7. Energy Department Authorizes Jordan Cove to Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Terminal in Coos Bay, Oregon Authorized to Export Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries

  8. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Please go to the redesigned Weekly Petroleum Status Report.

  9. Alvord (3000-ft Strawn) LPG flood: design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000 ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model prediction, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of th oil originally in place in the Unit. An evaluation of the project performance to date is presented. In July of 1981 the injection of a 16% HPV slug of propane was completed. Natural gas is being used to drive the propane slug. A peak oil response of 222 BOPD was achieved in August of 1981 and production has since been declining. The observed performance of the flood indicates that the actual tertiary oil recovered will reach the predicted value, although the project life will be longer than expected. The results presented in this paper indicate that, without the DOE incentive program, the economics for this project would still be uncertain at this time.

  10. New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

  11. Next generation processes for NGL/LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, R.N.; Hudson, H.M.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Cuellar, K.T.

    1998-12-31

    Up to now, Ortloff`s Gas Subcooled Process (GSP) and OverHead Recycle Process (OHR) have been the state-of-the-art for efficient NGL/LPG recovery from natural gas, particularly for those gases containing significant concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Ortloff has recently developed new NGL recovery processes that advance the start-of-the-art by offering higher recovery levels, improved efficiency, and even better CO{sub 2} tolerance. The simplicity of the new process designs and the significantly lower gas compression requirements of the new processes reduce the investment and operating costs for gas processing plants. For gas streams containing significant amounts of carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} removal equipment upstream of the NGL recovery plant can be smaller or eliminated entirely, reducing both the investment cost and the operating cost for gas processing companies. In addition, the new liquids extraction processes can be designed to efficiently recover or reject ethane, allowing the gas processor to respond quickly to changing market conditions. This next generation of NGL/LPG recovery processes is now being applied to natural gas processing here in the US and abroad. Two of the new plants currently under construction provide practical examples of the benefits of the new processes.

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts (3.38 MB) More Documents & Publications ORDER NO. 3357: Freeport LNG Order 3669: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC ORDER NO. 3391: CAMERON LNG

  13. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  14. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than

  15. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  17. Medium-speed diesel propulsion plant for new shallow-draft LPG tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Propulsion equipment from engine builder Krupp MaK and power transmission specialist Lohmann Stolterfoht has been specified for a series of liquefied petroleum gas tankers being built for various customers by Pattje Shipyards, of Waterhuizen, Holland. Pattje reports that the tankers are built using an innovative system of modular construction that has led to the very short building time of only nine months per ship. The tankers have a capacity of 4200 m[sup 3] of gas and a draft of only 5.2 m when fully loaded, to enable the use of shallow water ports. Further particulars of the vessels include an overall length of 100 m, beam dimension of 15.9 m and maximum speed of 14 knots. The tankers' propulsion system is based on a single, in-line, nine-cylinder type 9M453C medium-speed diesel from the [open quotes]C[close quotes] engine series of Krupp MaK, Kiel, Germany. The 33.8 L/cyl engine (bore 320 x stroke 420 mm) develops 3000 kW at 600 r/min. 2 figs.

  18. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  19. Novel coiled tubing application controls large LPG storage well fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebhardt, F.; Eby, D.; Barnett, D.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional well control techniques for normal oil and gas wells are widely known and have been presented on numerous occasions. However, LPG storage (or cavern) wells rarely blow out and/or catch on fire. As a result, little information has been presented on the topic of well control for these types of wells. This article chronicles a case history of a high-volume liquid propane storage well fire. Because conventional wellhead removal methods could not be applied in this case, the capping/kill plan called for use of coiled tubing in a novel manner to cut the tubing downhole and install an inflatable packer to shut off propane flow. The plan was successfully executed, saving the operator millions of dollars in LPC product loss and cost of control.

  20. Australian liquids-handling system cuts surges to LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, G.; Stenner, T.D. )

    1990-08-06

    This paper reports how a pipeline liquids-handling facility recently commissioned allows gas production to be quickly ramped up to meet customer demand. Its design eliminates trouble-some liquid surges which had hampered plant operations. The pipeline-loop system, located at the Wallumbilla LPG processing plant, Queensland, was built for 60 of the cost of an equivalently sized conventional slug catcher. Its control system enables automatic, unattended handling of liquid surges and pigging slugs from the 102-km Silver Springs to Wallumbilla two-phase pipeline. Because of this system's simple hydraulics, normal slug-catcher piping design problems are eliminated. Safety is improved because the potentially hazardous condensate liquid is contained in a buried pipeline.

  1. Accuracy of Petroleum Supply Data

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy of published data in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, the Petroleum Supply Monthly, and the Petroleum Supply Annual.

  2. Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, J.

    1980-02-01

    Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

  3. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  4. Method and apparatus for pressurizing a liquefied gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.

    2005-07-26

    Apparatus providing at least one thermoelectric device for pressurizing a liquefied gas container and methods employing same are disclosed. A thermoelectric device including a heating surface and a cooling surface is used for pressurizing a container by vaporizing liquefied gas within the container by transferring heat energy from a portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the cooling surface to another portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the heating surface of the thermoelectric device to convert some of the liquefied gas to a vapor state. Liquefied gas vapor and/or liquid phase may be supplied by disclosed apparatus and methods. The apparatus may also be used as a vapor pump or a liquid pump, or fluid pump. Methods of operation are also disclosed.

  5. The Department of Energy's Role in Liquefied Natural Gas Export

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy The Department of Energy's Role in Liquefied Natural Gas Export Applications The Department of Energy's Role in Liquefied Natural Gas Export Applications November 8, 2011 - 11:34am Addthis Statement of Christopher Smith, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Fossil Energy before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources on DOE's Role in Liquefied Natural Gas Export Applications. Thank you Chairman Bingaman, Ranking Member

  6. Energy Department Authorizes Alaska LNG Project, LLC to Export Liquefied

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas | Department of Energy Alaska LNG Project, LLC to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Alaska LNG Project, LLC to Export Liquefied Natural Gas May 28, 2015 - 1:55pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The Energy Department announced today that it has issued a conditional authorization for the Alaska LNG Project, LLC (Alaska LNG) to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) to countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement

  7. Energy Department Approves Gulf Coast Exports of Liquefied Natural Gas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approves Gulf Coast Exports of Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Approves Gulf Coast Exports of Liquefied Natural Gas May 20, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a conditional authorization approving an application to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the Sabine Pass LNG Terminal in Louisiana, paving the way for thousands of new construction and domestic natural gas production jobs in Louisiana, Texas, and

  8. Clean Cities Moving Fleets Forward with Liquefied Natural Gas | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Moving Fleets Forward with Liquefied Natural Gas Clean Cities Moving Fleets Forward with Liquefied Natural Gas May 30, 2013 - 2:52pm Addthis Waste hauler Enviro Express converted its fleet of heavy-duty trucks to run on liquefied natural gas (LNG) and built the first LNG station east of the Mississippi River with help from the Energy Department's Clean Cities initiative. | Photo courtesy of New Haven Clean Cities Coalition. Waste hauler Enviro Express converted its fleet of

  9. DOE Initiates Series of Liquefied Natural Gas Public Education Forums |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Series of Liquefied Natural Gas Public Education Forums DOE Initiates Series of Liquefied Natural Gas Public Education Forums February 15, 2006 - 11:52am Addthis First Forum Set in Boston, Massachusetts WASHINGTON, D.C. - The first in a series of Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored public education forums on liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been scheduled for Friday, March 10, 2006, at the John B. Hynes Veterans Memorial Convention Center in Boston, Massachusetts. This

  10. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    PDF 1.2MB . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . Highlights . Petroleum Marketing Annual Highlights PDF . . Summary Statistics ...