Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" 0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ," ------------------------------------",,," ------------------------------------",,," -------------------------------",,,"Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","Factors"

2

Combination process for the conversion of heavy distillates to LPG  

SciTech Connect

Maximum conversion of heavy distillates to LPG is achieved through a combination process involving two-stage hydrocracking. 9 claims, no drawings.

Hilfman, L.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End...

4

Catalytic conversion of LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

LPG in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

Romero, O.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

LPG in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The authors review LPG in Mexico. They attempt to project numbers to the year 2000 using a supply/demand comparison.

Miles, E.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Figure HL1. U.S. Sales of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene in 2009 . ... the need for electric utilities to consume distillate fuel to meet peak summer generation loads remained ...

8

LPG in Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a brief history of the LPG industry, the overall consumption and sector usage for both the U.S. and Missouri, the movement and storage of LPG, the future supply and demand, and the identification of various state and federal regulations.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Make aromatics from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

Doolan, P.C. (BP Exploration Co. Ltd., London (GB)); Pujado, P.R. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Jet fuel from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Propane, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ford F-150 (Dual-Fuel LPG) Propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines. LPG-fueled vehicles can produce significantly lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). LPG is usually less expensive than gasoline, it can be used without degrading vehicle performance, and most LPG used in U.S. comes from domestic sources. The availability of LPG-fueled light-duty passenger vehicles is currently limited. A few light-duty vehicles-mostly larger trucks and vans-can be ordered from a dealer with a prep-ready engine package and converted to use propane. Existing conventional vehicles can also be converted for LPG use.

12

LPG | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LPG LPG Dataset Summary Description The JodiOil World Database is freely available from the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) and is updated on or around the 20th of each month. Source JODI Date Released October 01st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated March 21st, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords crude oil diesel fuel oil gasoline kerosene LPG Data application/zip icon Text file, all JODI Database data: Jan 2002 - Jan 2011 (zip, 14.5 MiB) application/pdf icon Definitions of Abbreviations and Codes (pdf, 698.3 KiB) application/pdf icon Column Headings for Dataset (pdf, 13.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Some of the data has "some review" and some of the data has "no review"; the supplemental documentation provides definitions for the assessment codes for each piece of data in the datasets (essentially, 1 = some review, 2 = use with caution, 3 = not reviewed)

13

LPG fuel shutoff system  

SciTech Connect

An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

14

Use expander cycles for LPG recovery  

SciTech Connect

Expander-type cycles are competitive with other gas recovery processes even when applied to relatively rich gas feeds for a high recovery of only propane plus. These cycles are the most economical to use when (1) ''free pressure drop'' is available between feed and residue gas pressure; (2) product requires demethanization only; (3) feed is very lean and propane plus heavier components are required; (4) a small, unattended, prefabricated unit for LPG recovery is needed; (5) an offshore LPG facility is required to be built on a platform where space and weight allowance is at a premium; (6) a facility is initially built for propane recovery, but is planned for future conversion to ethane recovery; and (7) relatively low-pressure gas feeds (which are usually quite rich) must be processed for a high recovery of ethane. A flow chart for an oil absorption plant is presented.

Valdes, A.R.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" 0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",8,15,9,21,19,18,0,27,0,41 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0

16

The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E. (Caltex Petroleum Corp., P.O. Box 619500, Dallas, TX (US))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Improved water-driven lpg slug process  

SciTech Connect

The economics of oil recovery by the LPG-slug process depends upon increasing the sweep efficiency and recovering the injected LPG. There are 2 basic forms of the LPG-slug processes--the gas-driven and the water-driven. The pressure required for miscibility between dry gas and LPG prohibits the use of the gas-driven LPG process in shallow reservoirs. The water-driven LPG slug process normally exhibits good sweep efficiency. However, displacement of the LPG by water is poor. An improvement in this process appears possible by injecting a slug of carbon dioxide between the LPG slug and the water drive. Laboratory experiments were conducted in linear core systems to determine the effect of pressure on the various displacement zones. A displacement test was conducted with LPG and carbon dioxide slugs large enough to avoid interference between the oil-LPG, LPG-carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide- water displacement zones. Under these conditions, essentially complete oil and LPG recovery was obtained. However, a substantial amount of carbon dioxide was left in the core at water breakthrough.

Thompson, J.L.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG  

SciTech Connect

The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Industrial - Low Sulfur Diesel Industrial - High Sulfur Diesel Industrial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Industrial - Residual Fuel Oil Industrial - Kerosene Farm - Distillate Fuel Oil Farm - Diesel Farm - Other Distillate Farm - Kerosene Electric Power - Distillate Fuel Oil Electric Power - Residual Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Residual Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Distillate Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Residual Fuel Oil Railroad Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Residual Fuel Oil On-Highway - No. 2 Diesel Military - Distillate Fuel Oil Military - Diesel Military - Other Distillate Military - Residual Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Construction Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Non-Construction All Other - Distillate Fuel Oil All Other - Residual Fuel Oil All Other - Kerosene Period:

22

Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan  

SciTech Connect

LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

"Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,32,1688,378,0,58,0,15.7 3274," Lime","Q",657,"W","Q",657,"W",0,0,0,33.9 3296," Mineral Wool","W","W","W",113,34,"W","W","W",0,2 33,"Primary Metal Industries","W",5117,"W",2433,494...

24

GAO report sabotages LPG industry  

SciTech Connect

A massive report by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) on the liquefied energy gases (LEG), which include LPG and LNG, covers the possible hazards and recommends that facilities either be located in rural areas or, if in urban areas, be operated according to nuclear plant standards. One section concerns the ability of storage tanks to withstand earthquakes, floods, winds, and tornadoes. Another section treats transportation recommendations to eliminate as far as possible all opportunities for injury or destruction due to tank car or tank truck accidents. A discussion of the GAO report, only a portion of which has been released, sees the far-ranging recommendations as a threat to the LPG industry; notes that a great deal of information pertinent to the industry is presented in pointing out the problems, but finds that the GAO seems to have encountered considerable difficulty in finding practical solutions to the problems, e.g., in finding suitable sites for LPG terminals so that all such terminals can be in non-urban areas by 1980.

Roberts, B.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Dehydrocyclodimerization, converting LPG to aromatics  

SciTech Connect

British Petroleum (BP) recognized the potential need for ways of exploiting feedstocks with low opportunity cost and commenced a research program at its Sunbury Research Center to discover and develop a catalyst for the conversion of LPG to a liquid product. The successful outcome of this research program is the Cyclar /SUP SM/ process, a joint development of UOP Process Division and British Petroleum. The Cyclar process offers a single-step conversion of LPG to an aromatic product which has a highvalue, is easily transported and useful both to fuel and petrochemical applications. The LPG producer can invest in a single unit, avoiding the need to identify and develop markets for multiple C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ products. This catalytic process, which employs UOP Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) technology, can also be applied to refinery light ends to produce a high-quality gasoline. Aromatic and hydrogen yields from propane and butane feeds surpass those obtained from catalytic reforming of Light Arabian naphtha. This paper describes the principles of the Cyclar process and illustrates yields and economics for several interesting applications.

Johnson, J.A.; Hilder, G.K.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been patented by Chemical Research & Licensing Co., Houston, Texas, and developed in a joint venture with Neochem Corp., Houston, Texas, and the Department of Energy. The catalytic distillation packing has been commercially demonstrated successfully with nearly three years continuous service for an acid catalyzed reaction in a carbon steel distillation tower.

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Combustion of EDS mid-distillate and refined shale-oil residual fuel in a gas turbine with large single-combustion chamber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test fuels included a coal derived mid distillate recycle liquid from the EDS coal liquefaction process, produced by Exxon, and a hydroprocessed residual Paraho shale oil fraction originating from a US Government sponsored program. A BBC (Brown Boveri Co.) type 9 fully equipped 35 MW capacity gas turbine, located at BBC's test facilities near Basel, Switzerland, was utilized. The objective of the combustion test was to establish whether these alternate fuels can be fired in large single combustor turbines without deleterious effects to the turbine or environment. Nitrogen in the shale oil was on the order of 0.4 wt% while the EDS distillate contained slightly less than 10 wt% hydrogen. The test program entailed the firing of 600 barrels of each test fuel at varying turbine loads and a comparison of the results with those from a base case petroleum diesel fuel. Fuel bound nitrogen was not found to contribute significantly to NO/sub x/ emissions in contrast to other work reported earlier in subscale gas turbine tests. Water injection at 0.6 to 0.7 water-fo-fuel mass ratios was effective in meeting EPA requirements for NO/sub x/ emissions from the diesel, shale and coal derived fuels at full turbine load. Low fuel hydrogen content did not cause any operational or emission problems. Combustor wall temperature, the major problem with low hydrogen fuels, rose only slightly within acceptable limits.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

New LPG loss-control standards  

SciTech Connect

API'S (American Petroleum Institute) Committee on Liquified Hydrocarbon Gas and the Committee and Safety and Fire Protection have modified Standard 2510 and added a supplemental Standard 2510A, in response to bad LPG incidents. Requirements have been tightened, with a major objective to prevent LPG releases. Fire protection Standards for the design and operation of LPG facilities are specifically revised. Following important changes are specifically discussed: Versel design, site selection, spacing and impounding; foundations and supports; and piping requirements.

Blomquist, D.L. (Chevron Corp., San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets  

SciTech Connect

During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

Jones, C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

Prowler, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Vacuum Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Day) Process: Vacuum Distillation Thermal Cracking Thermal Cracking: Coking Thermal Cracking: Delayed Coking Thermal Cracking: Fluid Coking Thermal Cracking: Visbreaking Thermal...

32

Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

Horner, C.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Venezuela. [LPG marketing and production  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas marketing and production from Venezuela are not very complicated or big in the business. There is moderate LPG production since the main production comes from oil. There is about 2.3 million bpd of oil production compared with less than 70,000 bpd of gas liquids. Of more than 95% of the associated gas produced with the oil, 50% is injected as a condensate recovery process. Up to now, the LPG plants have been producing only a trickle, most of it from gas before it was injected. In the future program for gas utilization, it is estimated that by 1980 about twice the liquid that is now being produced would be available for exportation to natural markets of the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast. The production of about 7 million tons until the year 2000 can be continued with good conservation and with the future potential area that has been discovered in the south part of the lake and offshore Venezuela.

Reyes, A.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

Haun, R.R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

Not Available

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Winter Distillate  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Throughout the summer, gasoline prices have drawn most of the public's attention, but EIA has been concerned over winter heating fuels as well. q Distillate inventories are likely to begin the winter heating season at low levels, which increases the chances of price volatility such as that seen last winter. q Natural gas does not look much better. q Winter Distillate http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/presentati...00/winter_distillate_and_natural_gas_outlook/sld001.htm [8/10/2000 4:35:57 PM] Slide 2 of 25 Notes: Residential heating oil prices on the East Coast (PADD 1) were 39 cents per gallon higher this June than last year (120 v 81 cents per gallon). As many of you already know, the increase is due mainly to increased crude oil prices.

39

New method developed for LPG offshore loading  

SciTech Connect

An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Custody transfer measurements for LNG/LPG  

SciTech Connect

The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes. A brief discussion of LNG and LPG characteristics and detailed description of these special measurement techniques are given in this presentation.

Williams, R.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Future of LPG as a petrochemical feedstock  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation is made of probable LPG (primarily propane) supplies and demand factors through 1985. The analysis indicates that because of diminishing domestic supplies and the transportation economics for foreign supplies the petrochemical industry will be forced to convert to the use of naphtha or heavy crude components for ethylene production. (JSR)

Skillern, M.P.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring  

SciTech Connect

Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

Horn, J.; Powers, M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Risk analysis of an LPG facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Blast rips Texas LPG storage site  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

1992-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

Monitoring system tested during LPG tanker unloading  

SciTech Connect

A specially developed computer-based hazardous-materials monitoring system has been successfully field tested. The test of the portable system occurred during the unloading of 45,000 metric tons of LPG from a 740-ft tanker at the petroleum dock of a plant along the Mississippi River. The function of this system is to detect, report, alarm, and record unacceptable concentrations of hazardous vapors during marine-transfer operations.

1990-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

47

The operation of LPG relief valves  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

Stannard, J.H. Jr

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review  

SciTech Connect

Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date appear to have identified the major hazards. Except for the dispersive behavior of vapor clouds - a not-insignificant factor in risk evaluation - the consequences of spills are well circumscribed by current analyses. The physically significant effects accompanying nonexplosive combustion of spilled material are fairly well documented; yet, potentially substantial uncertainties remain. Catastrophic spills of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ on land or water are possible, given the current size of storage vessels. Almost all experimental spills have used less than 10 m/sup 3/ of liquid. There is thus some uncertainty regarding the accuracy and validity of extrapolation of current empirical information and physical models to spills of catastrophic size. The less-likely but still-possible explosive or fireball combustion modes are not well understood in respect to their inception. The troubling experience with such violent combustion of similar combustible vapors suggests that this possibility will need further definition. Extant LNG and LPG risk analyses illustrate the difficulties of substantiating the numerous event probabilities and the determination of all event sequences that can lead to hazardous consequences. Their disparate results show that significant improvements are needed. Most importantly, a detailed critique of past efforts and a determination of an exhaustive set of criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a risk analysis should precede any further attempts to improve on existing studies. 44 references, 1 table.

Fay, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LPG Electrical, Inc LPG Electrical, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name LPG Electrical, Inc Address 13833 Wellington Trace Rd. #4 Place Wellington, Florida Zip 33414 Sector Services Product underwater power generators Year founded 2009 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 5615786611 Website [www.lpgelectrical.com www.lpgelectrical.com ] Coordinates 26.663684°, -80.267246° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.663684,"lon":-80.267246,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

50

Mounded LPG storage - Experience and developments  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored after production, and for distribution and use, in pressure vessels which vary in size from a few kilogrammes to many thousands of tons. The types of LPG under consideration are commercial butane, commercial propane, or mixtures of the two gases in varying proportions. Mounded storage systems are becoming popular as an alternative to the better-known traditional systems. The most widely used and therefore best-known of the traditional systems are the above-ground pressure-vessel designs. These more commonly comprise factory-made cylinders which are installed horizontally, being supported on saddles at each end of the vessel. When such vessels are installed in an LPG terminal, depot, or filling plant, they are required in multiple units to facilitate the storage of more than one grade of product and to enable regular maintenance and inspection to be carried out. Today's safety regulations require such installations to be divided into sub-groups of six tanks, with all the tanks located at a safe distance from one another, and from other facilities in the immediate area. These safety distances are being increased as a result of experience, which means terminals now require large areas of land.

Barber, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal  

SciTech Connect

LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

Bodenhamer, K.C. [Mid-America Pipeline Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

52

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive  

SciTech Connect

A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

Pierson, W.V.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Complementarity, distillable secret key, and distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider controllability of two conjugate observables Z and X by two parties with classical communication. The ability is specified by two alternative tasks, (i) agreement on Z and (ii) preparation of an eigenstate of X with use of an extra communication channel. We prove that their feasibility is equivalent to that of key distillation if the extra channel is quantum, and to that of entanglement distillation if it is classical. This clarifies the distinction between two entanglement measures, distillable key and distillable entanglement.

Masato Koashi

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

Current and future USA-world seaborne imports at LPG  

SciTech Connect

An outline of the current and historical situation of the international LPG trade and comparison between the US and other countries covers methods of marine transportation, including fully refrigerated vessels, semirefrigerated vessels, pressure vessels, and LNG ships fitted for LPG; the temporary abundance of LPG; a comparison of the markets in Japan, Europe, South America, and the US to indicate the potential market in the future, e.g., the need in Japan for LPG as a basic fuel, main use in Europe as a feedstock and as domestic fuel, use as a basic fuel but mainly in the winter months inSouth America, and the volatile spot market in the US; and the conclusion that the capacity to produce LPG will keep pace with demand only as long as adequate prices are paid to offset production costs.

Bassa, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation  

SciTech Connect

The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

Liddell, G.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently.

58

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distillers grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina  

SciTech Connect

In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

Andrich, V.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

63

Year/PAD District Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Cracking Thermal Catalytic Cracking Fresh Recycled Catalytic Hydro- Cracking Catalytic Reforming Desulfurization...

64

LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000  

SciTech Connect

LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

True, W.R.

1994-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

65

Letter to the editor/Shell treats LPG  

SciTech Connect

In response to an article on the MALAPROP process Shell International Petroleum Mij. B.V. notes that Shell's Adip process has gained a solid position world-wide in economically treating very large amounts of LPG for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide. Most Shell refineries are equipped with the Adip process, which cumulatively treates approx. 7000 tons/day of LPG. Middle East LPG facilities designed for the Arabian American Oil Co. treat 30,000 tons/day, and an additional 16,000 will come on stream in Jan. 1983. The removal of carbonyl sulfide to a few parts-per-million is easy.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined  

SciTech Connect

With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

Chiu, C.H. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

67

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

68

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

World lpg forecast and implications for the U. S. Merchant Marine, 1978-1990  

SciTech Connect

This study summarizes historical and current LPG trade and vessels operating worldwide. It also forecasts LPG trade required for the U.S. and other major markets through 1990. Using an economic model to assess the market for LPG ships, the study forecasts vessel requirements for U.S. LPG trade and prospects for building required vessels in the U.S.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

LNG-LPG marine transportation and terminal safety  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the vapor cloud behavior study the US Coast Guard has been carrying out since 1973 to develop design and operational controls for LNG and LPG ships and port facilities covers a brief review of the research work in the third phase of this study and the safety measures proposed by the Coast Guard and other regulatory bodies for operating LNG and LPG ships and waterfront facilities.

Bonekemper, E.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Accurate LPG analysis begins with sampling procedures, equipment  

SciTech Connect

Proper equipment and procedures are essential for obtaining representative samples from an LPG stream. This paper discusses how sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons generally involves one of two methods: flow- proportional composite sampling by a mechanical device or physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. If sampling by proper techniques and equipment supports careful chromatographic analysis, full advantage of accurate mass measurement of LPG can be realized.

Wilkins, C.M. (Koch Pipelines, Inc., Medford, OK (US))

1990-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

73

World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000  

SciTech Connect

Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

True, W.R.

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provab...

Fortescue, Ben

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

78

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Iowa laws and incentives related

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Utah laws and incentives related

80

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Texas laws and incentives related

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Maine laws and incentives related

82

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

83

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

84

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

85

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

86

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Idaho laws and incentives related

87

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Ohio laws and incentives related

88

Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the same initial data set. Distillation Line \\ Tangent to \\ p i d u e EUWB Residue Curve Figure 14. Residue experimental data, we need to know more about the characteristics of residue curves (RCs). 3.2. Nodes and azeotropic data, using simple distillation experiments in the neighborhoodsof binary azeotropes. They require

Skogestad, Sigurd

89

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

90

Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

1987-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

91

District of Columbia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 10,721: 15,894: 11,949: 13,216: 15,149: 15,321: 1984-2012: Residual ...

92

Delaware Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 68,223: 61,302: 57,382: 56,676: 57,720: 57,230: 1984-2012: Residual ...

93

Eclipse Distilled (Eclipse)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eclipse DistilledDavid CarlsonForeword by Grady BoochSeries EditorsErich Gamma Lee Nackman John WiegandA Concise Introduction to Eclipse for the Productive ProgrammerOrganized for rapid access, focused on productivity, Eclipse Distilled brings together ...

David Carlson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability  

SciTech Connect

Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. (AKZO Catalysts, 13000 Bay Park Road, Pasadena, TX (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of Energy Balances for the State of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refinery gases, petroleum coke, and distillate fuel oil) forFuel Residual Fuel Petroleum Coke LPG Others Total PetroleumFuel Residual Fuel Petroleum Coke LPG Others Total Petroleum

Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

99

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

Whalen, P.

1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

Sullivan, M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Fuel Control System and Performance Optimization of a Spark-Ignition LPG Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an approach to control air fuel ratio of a Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) automotive engine. The optimization of compression ratio is also described in this paper. HC, CO & NOx emissions of LPG engines can be reduced after the application ... Keywords: control, LPG engine, air fuel ratio, optimization

Hongwei Cui

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

DeSteese, J.G.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Distillate Stocks Expected  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So let's get to what you want to know. What do we expect this upcoming winter? When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain towards the lower end of the normal range. We are forecasting about an 11 million barrel build between the end of July 2001 and the end of November 2001, slightly more than the average over the past 5 years (10 million barrels), but less than the average of the last 10 years (15 ½ million barrels). If, however, economic incentives are high enough, distillate stocks could build more, resulting in a higher distillate stock level heading into the winter. Of course, the reverse is true as well, if for example, the distillate fuel refining spread declines substantially. Since 1994,

105

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

106

Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

U.S. LPG's Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. LPG's Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 8,966: 8,021: 9,466: 11,962 ...

109

Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

SciTech Connect

To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems  

SciTech Connect

For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process  

SciTech Connect

The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

1989-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

Barton, J.

1954-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

114

Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook. Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil. Distillate Outlook. When Will Crude Oil Prices Fall?

115

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate...

116

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers  

SciTech Connect

Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

Mittler, T.J. (Texas Eastman Co., Longview, TX (US))

1990-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

120

Topological Quantum Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West  

SciTech Connect

LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Imports Surged to Meet SupplyDemand Imbalance Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks Forecast Prices (U.S. Monthly Average)...

125

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook. Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program August 2000

126

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

V. Vedral

1999-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Table A58. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by" 8. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by" " Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics, 1991" " (Estimates in Thousand Barrels)" ,," LPG",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" ,,"-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total"," ","Not","Electricity",,,,,,,"Row" ,,"Consumed(b)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

128

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Gulf Coast Distillate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 15 4 of 15 Notes: PADD 3 is a major source of supply for the East Coast. This graph shows how during the winter of 1997-1998 when distillate stocks were very high, production fell back. In contrast, we entered the winter of 1996-1997 with very low stocks, and refineries reached record production levels as they tried to build stocks late in the season. Notice that production is normally reduced in January as distillate stocks are used to meet demand and as refineries begin maintenance and turnovers, which continue into February. This January is no different. There is room for some production increases in January and February, if refineries postpone maintenance. But postponing maintenance and turnarounds can create problems when the gasoline production season begins in March and April.

131

Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade  

SciTech Connect

Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Haun, R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

South Dakota Residual Fuel Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Oil Company ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; South Dakota Adjusted Distillate ...

134

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at various options available for the reduction of energy consumption in distillation systems. For binary systems, we look at how heat pumps can be used. With multi-component systems, process integration offers a means of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps, non-isobaric operation and divided wall columns may be incorporated into the synthesis of multi-component separation schemes. It will be seen that process integration provides an important means of reducing energy consumption in distillation processes. However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapor streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). So, finally we examine a way in which the capital cost of such systems can be reduced: the divided wall column.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

RSE Table 7.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal...

136

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Idaho Commercial Consumption Coal CLCCB Natural Gas NNCCB Petroleum Distillate Fuel DFCCB Kerosene KSCCB LPG LGCCB Motor Gasoline MGCCB Residual Fuel ...

137

"Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors"...

138

"RSE Table N11.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.1;...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " "NAICS"," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and...

139

Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment  

SciTech Connect

The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

Nautiyal, Sunil [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)], E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

1992-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Catalytic distillation : design and application of a catalytic distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation (CD) is a hybrid technology that utilizes the dynamics of si- multaneous reaction and separation in a single process unit to achieve a (more)

Nieuwoudt, Josias Jakobus (Jako)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement. PACS number(s): 03.65.Bz, 89.70.+c,89.80.+h

Vlatko Vedral

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

What's ahead for LNG/LPG  

SciTech Connect

The growth of the LNG, LPG, and pipeline bulk distribution gas markets depends on the availability of capital, including an estimated $60 billion by the end of the 1980's for LNG alone to support a network of projects moving approx. 15 billion cu ft/day throughout the world, which will require long-term (averaging over 20 yr) index-linked contracts for the gas. According to the American Gas Association, import of LNG as opposed to an equivalent amount of energy from crude oil would offer the U.S. several advantages, including significant capital investment for LNG facilities in the U.S. and a larger proportion of imports moving in U.S. owned and constructed tankers. The growth of international LNG trade will also depend on the extent to which gas processing and transportation costs can be decreased by increasing LNG tanker size, on the demand for natural gas, and on U.S. gas pricing policy. Plausible trends in LNG/LPG trade through the 1980's, and the requirement for high gas prices as an incentive for gas resource development in several countries, including the U.S., are discussed.

Remington, P.; Fraser, M.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

O`Connor, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

residual fuel oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residual fuel oil: A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter ...

149

U.S. Distillate Inventories  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

average, but 18 percent above last year. The stability of distillate stocks through the heart of this winter, when they usually decline, has virtually eliminated concerns about...

150

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices Crude Oil Price Cycles Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices.(Prices through March 3, 2000) Low...

151

Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use  

SciTech Connect

Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

Armstrong, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Rhode Island Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 77,882: 61,856: 59,789: 65,067: 65,295: 62,041: 1984-2012: Residual ...

153

A Parametric Reactive Distillation Study: Economic Feasibility and Design Heuristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The integration of reaction and distillation into a single column is called reactive distillation or catalytic distillation. Reactive distillation provides many benefits such as reduced (more)

Hoyme, Craig Alan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both new and retrofit heat pump installations are often economically justifiable for distillation columns with a temperature differential of 50 degrees F or less. However, this study reveals that the near-term demand for electric heat pumps in petroleum and chemical distillation processes appears very limited.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

EIA Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Table 36)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

(Important Note on Sources of Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Estimates) Table 3.6 World Crude Oil Distillation Capacity, January 1, 1970 - January 1, 2009

157

Theoretical and experimental investigation of membrane distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Invented in the 1960s, membrane distillation is an emerging technology for water treatment attracting more attention since 1980s. There are four configurations of membrane distillations (more)

Zhang, Jianhua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Membrane distillation : module design and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination that is traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as thermal distillation or reverse osmosis. (more)

Yang, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name American Distillation Inc. Place Leland, North Carolina Zip 28451 Product Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References...

160

Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities  

SciTech Connect

This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Notes: Well, distillate fuel demand wasn't the reason that stocks increased in January 2001 and kept prices from going higher. As you will hear shortly, natural gas prices spiked...

162

About distillability of depolarized states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduction criteria for distillability is applied to general depolarized states and an explicit condition is found in terms of a characteristic polynomial of the density matrix. 3 3 bipartite systems are analyzed in some details. 1

Andrea R. Rossi; Matteo G. A. Paris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Table 4. LPG Consumption and Expeditures in U.S. Households by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 4. LPG Consumption and Expeditures in U.S. Households by End Uses and Census Region, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Census Region RSE Row

164

Method and apparatus for transfer of liquefied gas. [hydrogen, LPG, or LNG  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for transferring a liquefied gas (hydrogen, LPG, or LNG) from a first container into a second container without removal of vapor from the second container is disclosed.

Gee, D.E.; Worboys, R.V.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market  

SciTech Connect

Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

Kincaid, J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

Bass, E.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

169

Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the columns approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the columns approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much left on the table when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the columns pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoints proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plants distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

George E. Dzyacky

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

170

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Analysis > Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) ...

171

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

172

Isotropic non-locality cannot be distilled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate non-locality distillation protocols for isotropic correlations. These correlations are the hardest instances which respect to distillability and only partial results are known about their behaviour under non-locality distillation protocols. We completely resolve this issue by proving that non-locality distillation is impossible for all non-local isotropic correlations.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

174

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts

175

Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy  

SciTech Connect

In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook 09/15/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents Winter Distillate Outlook Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil Factors Driving Prices & Forecast First Factor Impacting Distillate Prices: Crude Oil Prices High Crude Prices Go With Low Inventories Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Distillate Stocks are Low – Especially on the East Coast Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply Winter Demand Impacted by Weather Warm Winters Held Heating Oil Demand Down While Diesel Grew Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999 Dec 1999 & Jan 2000 Production Fell, But Rebounded with Price Higher Yields Can Be Achieved Unusual Net Imports May Only Be Available at a High Price

177

SRC Residual fuel oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

diesel and heating fuel prices diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Warmer weather and the arrival of new supply, mainly imports, relieved the supply/demand imbalance and brought prices back down. The spike is now behind us, but high crude prices are keeping prices above year-ago levels. The low stock situation that set the stage for the distillate price spike was not unique to the United States, Low stocks exist worldwide and are not limited to distillate. The low stock situation stems from what is happening in the crude oil markets. A crude oil supply shortage drove crude

179

Collocation Methods For Distillation Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this third paper on collocation methods for distillation design, we explore the use of the collocation models for design of simple distillation columns as well as flexible columns. Solvent recovery plants must deal with a wide range of feeds and still return pure solvents. The design problem we address is a single flexible column within the overall solvent recovery plant. We have developed the models and algorithms in the ASCEND system. We discuss the attributes and use of the ASCEND system. With ASCEND we can create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. We found the collocation model an excellent tool for distillation design, allowing us to develop new concepts in design strategies. We designed a single column as would exist in a flexible solvent recovery plant for an azeotropic system. It was designed to handle three possible feeds, each with a distinct separation task. For each possible feed to a column, we approximate the operation of ...

Flexible Column; Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Getting performance without sacrificing economy or emissions control in a heavy-duty LPG engine  

SciTech Connect

A commercial 637 CID liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engine was evaluated as a candidate powerplant for new bus purchases and/or as a replacement for obsolete LPG engines currently being used in metropolitan Chicago bus service. Limited route service experience with LPG conversion of a gasoline engine indicated both its potential and the need for its optimization in order to take advantage of the unique characteristics of LPG. The engine-dynamometer study, with emphasis on fuel system-ignition relationships, led to substantial improvement in fuel economy without depreciation of engine power. The 637 CID LPG engine fuel economy was increased from an average of 1.77 mpg for 1965 to 1971 to 2.60 mpg for the Dec. 1971 to April 1972 period in Chicago field tests. Cylinder head redesign permitted lean mixture operation that reduced exhaust emissions to levels calculated to conform to the 1973 Federal standards and the 1973-1974 California Air Resources Board requirements for heavy-duty engines. The exhaust emissions data obtained with the optimized 7.5:1 CR engine based on the California 13-mode cycle were 8.3 g/bhp/hr carbon monoxide and 9.9 g/bhp/hr hydrocarbons plus nitrogen dioxide.

Mengelkamp, R.A.; Linnard, R.E.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Olefin production via reactive distillation based Olefin metathesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reactive distillation is a combination of a traditional multi-stage distillation column with a chemical reaction. The primary benefits of a reactive distillation process are reduced (more)

Morrison, Ryan Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Purification of Indium by Vacuum Distillation - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two-step vacuum distillation were carried out to study the influence of distillation temperature, distillation time on the impurities. At the first step the content of...

186

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control system should include accurate instrumentation, closed loop purity control, and a computer system to execute direct digital control with appropriate feed-forward algorithms.

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. Distillate tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall...

190

Binary distillation column design using mathematica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate design of distillation columns is a very important topic in chemical industry. In this paper, we describe a Mathematica program for the design of distillation columns for binary mixtures. For simplicity, it is assumed that the columns are ...

Akemi Glvez; Andrs Iglesias

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Distillate fuel...

192

Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather  

SciTech Connect

Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

1994-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

193

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

1983-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

194

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation column will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new means having added advantages over compression: intermediate vapor expansion heat pumping, and nested enrichment cascades. In both cases the efficiency advantage is obtained without requiring import of shaft work. With intermediate vapor expansion, the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors or expanders.

Erickson, D. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Multiple Steady States in Azeotropic and Reactive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction . Motivation Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions . The Starting Point . Consolidation . Industrial Applications . Incorporating Reactions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation . Prediction Method . MTBE Process Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Distillation Overview . Ideal binary / multicomponent distillation . Homogeneous azeotropic distillation -- Heavy entrainer (extractive distillation) -- Intermediate entrainer -- "Boundary scheme" (ligh

Thomas E. Gttinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 1 of 11 Notes: During the second half of January, diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7, but fell back to $1.93 by February 14 as new supplies are arriving. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

198

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. diesel and heating fuel U.S. diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7. Prices for both fuels began to fall back by February 14 as new supplies were arriving, and have continued to decline since. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

199

Distillate Market Model documentation report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

AMMONIA DISTILLATION FOR DEUTERIUM SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect

The relative volatility or separation factor for deuterium enrichment in ammonia distillation was measured at several pressures and deuterium concentrations. The knowledge of this ingormation is very helpful in predicting costs of heawy water production by the ammonia distillation process. It hss been stated by others, that the ammonia distillation process of heawy water production would be competitive with other developed methods only if the actusl separation factor was at least 1.062 at low deuterium concentration. Ungortunately, the measurements do not indicate that the separation factor at low deuterium composition differs greatly from the vapor pressure pre diction ( alpha = 1.042). Deutero-ammonia was synthesized by isotopic exchange between natural ammonia and heavy water. Equilibrium determinations were made using an Othmer still, modified for low temperature operation, and a concentric tube fractionating column. The arnmonia samples were analyzed for deuterium content by converting them to water by flow torough hot copper oxide, followed by a differential density determination using the falling drop method. ( auth)

Petersen, G.T.; Benedict, M.

1960-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel  

SciTech Connect

The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology ?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which is recycled for fractionation in the cat cracker fractionator and a fuel oil fraction which is recycled to the cat cracker sidestream stripper for removal of light materials to produce a low pour fuel oil meeting product specifications.

Antal, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

205

Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

Sinor, J E [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Distillation of Bell states in open systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2 2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement. 1

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total distillate demand includes both diesel and heating oil. These are similar products. Physically, diesel can be used in the heating oil market, but low sulfur ...

210

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

211

Total Organic Carbon Rejection in Osmotic Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The osmotic distillation (OD) system is a spacecraft wastewater recycling system designed to produce potable water from human urine and humidity condensate. The OD (more)

Shaw, Hali Laraelizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Conceptual Design for Pressure Swing Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The separation of homogenous azeotropic mixtures is a common task in the chemical industry. In the literature, pressure swing distillation is often mentioned as an (more)

Bozzacco, Carmen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation as a separation technique is widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. With the growth of these industries and the availability of cheap (more)

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Tritium Removal Facility High Tritium Distillation Simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A dynamic model was developed for the distillation mechanism of the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility. The model was created using the commercial software package MATLAB/Simulink. (more)

Zahedi, Polad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

216

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Gas processing/The boiling behavior of LPG and liquid ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane spilled on water  

SciTech Connect

Boiling-rate calorimeter studies showed that unlike liquid nitrogen, methane, and LNG, LPG (84.7% propane, 6.0% ethane, and 9.3% n-butane; 442/sup 0/C bp), or pure propane, when rapidly spilled on water, reacted violently, ejecting water and ice into the vapor space; but in 1-2 sec, a coherent ice layer was formed and further boiloff was quiet and well predicted by a simple one-dimensional, moving-boundary-value, heat transfer model with a growing ice shield. Increasing the content of ethane and butane in LPG to 20% and 10%, respectively, had almost no effect on the LPG boiling, indicating that boiling may be modeled by using pure propane. Ethane, ethylene, and n-butane behaved quite differently from LPG. In spills of pure liquid propane on solid ice, the boiloff rate was almost identical to that predicted by the moving-boundary model.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Alvord (3,000-ft strawn) LPG flood - design and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000' Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model predictions, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of the oil originally in place in the Unit. 12 refs.

Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

PACE, M.E.

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1996-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

LPG buses in southern California leave the competition at the curb  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that after the first year of a landmark experiment in which LPG has been competing against methanol and CNG in city buses, propane appears to be pulling out in front of the pack. According to Efren Medellin, superintendent of vehicle maintenance at the Orange County Transit Authority, two LPG buses had registered a total of 31,000 moles with relatively little, if any, downtime. The two methanol buses had run a total of 30,000 miles while the two CNG buses had traveled only 5000 miles. Furthermore the methanol and CNG buses have had their share of downtime for new parts and other problems. The propane-powered buses appear to be running consistently well without mechanical difficulties. The only problem that occurred was occasional backfiring. As a result, the electronic controls were replaced and no subsequent complaints were heard.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries  

SciTech Connect

Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists.

Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Total distillate stocks rose only marginally in November, to about 117 million barrels from about 115 million barrels at the end of October. The "normal" or average inventory level at end November is 146 million barrels. Thus, by the end of November, instead of seeing an improvement, US distillate inventories were 30 million barrels less than normal rather than the 26 million barrels less as of the end of October, indicating greater tightness in markets for heating oil and diesel fuel. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. In fact, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable

228

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is over 14 percent below their 5 year average for this time of year. Heating oil stocks were at 47.4 million barrels, or about 28 percent lower than their seasonal 5-year average. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall. Unless the second half of the winter in the Northeast is unusually

229

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: At the end of December, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is more than 14 percent below their 5-year average for this time of year, and about 7 percent less than last year's low levels. As of January 19, the most recent weekly data, distillate stocks remained at about that level, which is slightly higher than a year ago. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall.

230

N/sub 2/-driven LPG achieves miscibitity at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Shows that miscibility can be achieved at very low pressures above the critical temperature of propane. One can calculate the critical pressure and temperature for a variety of fluids of practical interest in achieving miscibility between the miscible slug and driving gas when applying enhanced oil recovery programs. A study of the critical properties of normally available reservoir fluids indicates that one method of achieving miscibility at lower pressures, even at high reservoir temperatures, might be to use LPG slugs pushed by nitrogen. Table gives the oil recovery for different LPG slug sizes when operating at a reservoir pressure of 2,000 psig and a reservoir temperature of 250F. Diagram shows the approximate critical temperature loci for ternary systems made up of 3 components from the group nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. By finding the desired reservoir temperature and then estimating the critical pressure required, one may select compositions and operating pressures required to achieve critical slug-driving gas mixtures for use in enhanced oil recovery programs. When using CO/sub 2/ for miscibility, the miscibility pressure increases with temperature. Use of LPG slugs results in a substantial reduction in the pressure required for miscibility.

Carlisle, L.; Crawford, P.B.; Montes, M. Jr.; Reeves, S.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This distillate price spike is a classic response to a local supply and demand imbalance that began as a result of low distillate stocks. Low distillate stocks in the ...

232

GeneDistillerDistilling Candidate Genes from Linkage Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain black boxes and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. Methodology: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. Conclusions: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene.

Dominik Seelow; Jana Marie Schwarz; Markus Schuelke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Predicting the products of crude oil distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Crude oil distillation systems, consisting of crude oil distillation columns and the associated heat recovery systems, are highly energy intensive. Heat-integrated design of crude oil (more)

Liu, Jing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

About 80% of the refineries operating in the United States have a vacuum distillation unit (VDU), a secondary processing unit consisting of vacuum distillation columns.

235

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny with respect to cost-effective improvements. In this paper, the authors suggest fruitful areas of research that can lead to lower cost distillation separations. The areas of research are classified under the headings of phase equilibrium, material and energy balances, mass transfer efficiencies, equipment design, and system energy consumption. For each of the categories, a summary is given of the present status of the technology as well as directions that improvement-type investigations might take.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

On two-distillable Werner states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider bipartite mixed states in a d x d quantum system with d at least 3. We say that such a state is PPT if its partial transpose is positive semidefinite, and otherwise that it is NPT. The well-known Werner states are partitioned into three types: a) the separable states (same as the PPT states), b) the 1-distillable states (necessarily NPT), and c) the NPT states which are not 1-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the type c) Werner states are not 2-distillable.

Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Distillate and Spot Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. The price for distillate fuel oil tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall in 1997 and 1998. Distillate prices have also followed crude oil prices up since the beginning of 1999. Actual data show heating oil prices on the East Coast in June at $1.20 per gallon, up 39 cents over last June. However, if heating oil prices are following diesel, they may be up another 5 cents in August. That would put heating oil prices about 40 cents over last August prices. Crude oil prices are only up about 25 cents in August over year ago levels. The extra 15 cents represents improved refiner margins due in part to the very low distillate inventory level.

238

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Notes: The Northeast distillate market is experiencing some difficulties that are being reflected in prices. Residential heating oil prices on January 24 were up 35-60 cents per...

239

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks...

240

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

When EIAs demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past several years, distillers dried grains with solubles (known as DDGS) has become a major feed ingredient in North America, and its use is increasing globally. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the research conducted to determine

243

Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

EIA is not projecting a large recovery over the summer, but because refineries are forecast to run at high utilization rates, they may produce more distillate than expected and...

244

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

These low inventories will put upward pressure on distillate fuel prices and set the stage for price sun-ups should there be an extended period of cold weather or a ...

245

Entanglement of Distillation and Conditional Mutual Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In previous papers, we expressed the Entanglement of Formation in terms of Conditional Mutual Information (CMI). In this brief paper, we express the Entanglement of Distillation in terms of CMI.

Robert R. Tucci

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Buildings and Energy in the 1980's  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 (Estimates in Trillion Btu) End-Use Categories Net Demand for Electricity a Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel b Natural Gas c LPG Coal (excluding Coal Coke...

248

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 10 FIG_CO2IDX1 FIG_CO2IDX2 FIG_CO2SEC GRAF Petroleum LPG Distillate Fuel Kerosene Coal Natural Gas Total Motor Gasoline Residual Fuel Lubricants Asphalt & Road Oil

249

Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and...

250

"Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"...

251

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"," ",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal",...

252

Buildings and Energy in the 1980's  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 (Estimates in Trillion Btu) SIC Code a Industry Groups and Industry Total Electricity b Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil c Natural Gas d LPG Coal Coke and Breeze Other e RSE...

253

Buildings and Energy in the 1980's  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 (Estimates in Trillion Btu) SIC Code a Industry Groups and Industry Total Net Electricity b Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil c Natural Gas d LPG Coal Coke and Breeze Other e...

254

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity f Total g Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil c Jet Fuel LPG d Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Residual Fuel Oil Total 1973 Total...

255

Buildings and Energy in the 1980's  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Industry Total Net Electricity b Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil c Natural Gas d LPG Coal Coke and Breeze Other e RSE Row Factors Total United States RSE Column...

256

Buildings and Energy in the 1980's  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Code a Industry Groups and Industry Total Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil b Natural Gas c LPG Coal Coke and Breeze Other d RSE Row Factors Total United States RSE Column...

257

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed.

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

260

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOSSARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for LBL by EIA staff. V. GLOSSARY "Middle distillate" means

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

262

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

263

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

264

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

265

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

266

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

267

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

268

Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200, 250, and 300C at slightly superheated conditions. A propane:steam mass ratio of 5:100 was used for the steam-propane distillation runs. For the 34.2API crude oil, weight yields are very similar for steam and steam-propane distillation, about 54% weight of original oil. However for the 25.1API crude oil, weight yield for steam-propane distillation, 63%, is significantly higher than for steam distillation, 42% weight of original oil. The results indicate that propane has a stronger distillation effect on the intermediate oil than on the light oil. This is possibly due to the following reasons: (1) lesser amount of light fractions in the intermediate oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient, (2) the solvent effect of the propane on paraffinic fractions, these being more abundant in the intermediate than in the light oil, and (3) the propane is inducing a cracking of the oil at the higher temperatures and pressure. The positive effect of propane on distillation of the intermediate oil is also evident from the fact that the residual oil is highly viscous (due most likely to asphaltene precipitation), while lighter fractions have been distilled off.

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Planning and care mark repair of 14-year old leak in Kuwait Oil Co. LPG tank 95  

SciTech Connect

This paper points out that the leak, which had been present for such a long time, completely saturated the perlite insulation with hydrocarbons, thus rendering the entire operation of inspection, repair, and maintenance of the inner tank a hazardous operation. It emphasizes the safety aspects, which were complicated by the saturated perlite as well as by the fact that the tank is situated in the middle of the LPG storage area with LPG tanks on either side. Tank design, making preparations, inspection, and repair are discussed. The fact that the leaking flanges were originally installed damaged, indicated the future need of tighter company quality control of all contractors work.

Shtayieh, S.

1983-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

New concept: deepwater NGL/LPG plant. [Natural gas liquids and liquefied petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Floating platforms for processing natural gas liquids and liquefied petroleum gas (NGL/LPG) need to be stable for the processing and transfer of the products. Floating platforms are economically more attractive for producing marginal fields in deeper waters. Most of the proposed designs for crude oil and natural gas production have been tension-leg platforms, but 3 Norwegian companies are offering a converted ship as an alternative. The 3 companies will used a ship fitted with pontoons that can be raised and lowered to increase the vessel's stability. The NGL/LPG system was designed for a North Sea oil field. The feasibility study which the 3 companies completed was for a liquefaction and storage ship with a capacity of 75,000 cu m. The joint venture feels a ship has several advantages: large payload capacity; large storage capacity; ample deck space for equipment; easy to maintain; can be drydocked if necessary; and has a lower building cost. The 2 key elements to the system are the stabilization system and the turret platform.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Six years' operating experience at Ardjuna field helps prove out LPG SBS system  

SciTech Connect

The permanent yoke mooring system and the two-product flexpipe riser of the Arjuna Sakti LPG storage barge have completely lived up to their expectations. The LPG offtake system, the terminaling function of the storage unit, has also performed extremely well. Experience gained at Ardjuna provides confidence for future openocean mooring of large methanol or LNG plants. Mooring systems of these future units will likely have a different configuration, such as the single anchor leg storage (SALS) mooring. However, the basic system components have been used, both at Ardjuna and in comparable situations elsewhere in the world. Engineers who are working on floating, large scale, gas processing plants for mooring in the open ocean could profitably join their efforts in a team comprised of process specialists, naval architects, and mooring experts. Specific areas of consideration should be: length-to-beam and lengthto-depth ratios and shape of bow. This could result in a storage/process barge design with better motion characteristics and lower mooring forces than proposed at present.

Smulders, L.H.

1983-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

279

Distillation of local purity from quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states, by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

I. Devetak

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase electric load in capacity increase revamps, probably the best economic targets in the U.S., since capital savings are best here. The approach can typically reduce energy use requirements, cooling (water) requirements, and environmental emissions per pound of distillate by 50%, while substantially reducing capital requirements for capacity increase revamps and new construction. If just 20% of all U.S. distillation were revamped by this approach as apposed to conventional, about 5x10^14 BTUs per year in energy use could be avoided, while increasing production by about 20%. Both the proposed petroleum refining (not awarded) and chemical industry programs and participants are described. As of this writing (1/31/01), chemical industry award selections have not yet been made.

Woinsky, S. G.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation program was developed, consisting of simulation, cost estimation, and economics analysis. The simulations were done using the PROCESS simulation package, while the cost and economics analysis routines were developed by Radian. This paper summarizes the results of the evaluations of retrofits to four generic distillation processes. In addition, the bases of the evaluation programs and the results of several peripheral tasks are described briefly.

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Heat integrated distillation in a plate-packing HIDiC.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation is an energy intensive separation method. To improve the exergetic efficiency of a distillation column, it can be designed as a heat integrated distillation (more)

Krikken, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen on the basis of good economics, applicability to retrofit situations, and/or the use of novel technology.

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Chemically reactive coatings for passive fire protection in LNG and LPG storage and transporation  

SciTech Connect

According to Van Dyke Associates and TSI Inc., supporting and containing steels used to store and transport LNG and LPG are best protected in case of fire by thermally reactive subliming compounds. When exposed to fire, such compounds undergo an endothermic reaction; thus the substrate material beneath the coating will not heat up beyond the temperature at which this reaction occurs. Gases released by the sublimation reaction pass outward through the pores of the char, breaking down further as they absorb more energy. Numerous tests confirm that in comparison with other types of coatings, subliming compounds require the smallest thickness of coating for any specified level of protection. Routine spraying application techniques further reduce the cost of this passive fire-protection method.

Van Dyke, B.H.; Kawaller, S.T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 300,889: 274,739: 263,252: 232,429: 230,287: 254,322: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 275,489: ...

288

California Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 309,249: 232,151: 190,082: 225,123: 257,297: 241,967: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 101,932: ...

289

Rocky Mountain (PADD4) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 262,644: 222,054: 212,571: 228,200: 245,446: 214,160: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 27: 26: 19: ...

290

Kentucky Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 170,042: 94,124: 48,002: 42,101: 67,347: 61,840: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 91,516: 104,387: ...

291

Pennsylvania Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 118,670: 113,851: 90,800: 124,258: 146,291: 140,663: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 25,735: ...

292

Georgia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 78,927: 69,710: 62,072: 63,770: 71,374: 63,902: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 14,016: 10,831: ...

293

Illinois Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 40,116: 51,287: 55,322: 72,188: 58,526: 63,808: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,805: 101,851: ...

294

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 333,069: 316,926: 206,134: 179,048: 203,135: 175,258: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,122: ...

295

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 ... Exports of Distillate Fuel Oil ; U.S. Imports ...

296

U.S. Distillate Stocks - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Slide 5 of 27. Distillate Stocks. This slide shows the average U.S. distillate stock pattern -- building in the summer and fall, then being drawn down through the ...

297

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

298

Distillate in Depth The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Distillate in Depth The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture John Hackworth Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration ... In Response to Price, ...

299

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2001.

300

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, December 2000

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

Bryan Eastin

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

302

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

303

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

304

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Frank Verstraete

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

306

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

307

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

308

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

310

Control of binary distillation column using fuzzy PI controllers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the automatic control of a binary distillation column is described. This control is done with fuzzy logic controllers. After a short explanation of the function and dynamic of a binary distillation column, it's operating and control strategies ... Keywords: binary distillation column, fuzzy inference system, simulation

Shahram Javadi; Jabber Hosseini

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Application for testing control configurations of binary distillation columns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of testing various control configurations for binary distillation columns. Analyzing from plantwide control point of view the place of distillation column within the plant, the result will be the best control configuration. ... Keywords: composition control, distillation columns, dynamic simulations, plantwide control

Sanda Mihalache; Marian Popescu

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks are beginning at very low levels. The September 1 distillate fuel stock level (112 million barrels) is nearly 20% less than last year, and about 15% below the 10 year average for end of August levels. - But stocks on the East Coast, at 39.8 million barrels, are 39% behind year-ago levels, and about a similar percentage below end-of-August 10-year average levels. Over the last 10 years, the average stock build from the end of August through the end of November has been about 10 million barrels. We are forecasting about a 12 million barrel build, which does not reach the normal band. Forecast stocks peak at the end of November at 127 million

313

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

315

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

317

Iterative entanglement distillation for finite resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a specific entanglement distillation scheme under the constraint of finite samples of entangled qubit pairs. It is shown that an iterative process can be explicitly formulated. The average fidelity of this process can be enhanced by introducing conditional storing of entangled qubit pairs in each step of the iteration. We investigate the corresponding limitations on the size and the initial fidelity of the sample.

Stefan Probst-Schendzielorz; Thorsten Bschorr; Matthias Freyberger

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

318

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Pter Lvay; Szilrd Szalay

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence, conserve) up to 50% of the required distillation energy. In contrast to compressor driven heat pumps, this savings is accomplished without need for a separate substantial input of mechanical power. A different AHP configuration is used depending on whether the excess availability is in the source heat or reject heat. In the excessive source temperature case, the higher temperature source heat is applied to the AHP, which then supplies the total reboiler requirement and recycles half the reject heat, with the remainder being rejected conventionally. In the excessive reject temperature case, all the reject heat is supplied to a reverse absorption heat pump (HAHP) which recycles half to reboiler temperature while reducing the remainder to ambient temperature.

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

Patinkin, L.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

328

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

329

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state ?ABE. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate, i.e., the number of key bits that can be extracted per copy of ?ABE. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eves side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eves memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD. 1

Matthias Christ; Renato Renner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimized if the temperature driving force is maximized. The design should therefore seek to minimize the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept as hot as possible. Streams that are being vaporized are kept as cool as possible. With one noted exception, this also leads to maximization of the thermodynamic efficiency and maximizes the scope for use of these streams in integrated systems.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of distillate fuels left markets in a vulnerable position. As we went into our two biggest distillate demand months, January and February, U.S. distillate stocks were very low -- particularly on the East and Gulf Coasts. The East Coast is the primary heating oil region, and it depends heavily on production from the Gulf Coast as well. Distillate stocks in the U.S. and Europe were in surplus supply as recently as October, but distillate stocks did not build as they usually do during the late fall, and declined more sharply than usual in December. December stocks closed well below the normal range. The unusual drawdown, in contrast to the more normal building pattern, resulted in distillate inventory levels about 3 million barrels lower than the very low

333

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromr Fiurek; Roman Schnabel

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

336

Characterization of distillability of entanglement in terms of positive maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A necessary and sufficient condition for 1-distillability is formulated in terms of decomposable positive maps. As an application we provide insight into why all states violating the reduction criterion map are distillable and demonstrate how to construct such maps in a systematic way. We establish a connection between a number of existing results, which leads to an elementary proof for the characterisation of distillability in terms of 2-positive maps.

Lieven Clarisse

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

337

Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

339

Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.

M. Navascues; J. Bae; J. I. Cirac; M. Lewenstein; A. Sanpera; A. Acin

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

340

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

342

New Jersey No 1 Distillate Wholesale/Resale Volume by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: New Jersey No. 1 Distillate Refiner Sales Volumes; New Jersey Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

343

Distillate in Depth - The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The presentation provides background on distillate supply and demand, and then focuses on how hurricanes Katrina and Rita impact on refining capacity might affect winter fuels.

Information Center

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

344

DiSTiL: a Transformation Library for Data Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for container data structures. DiSTiL is a representative of a new approach to domain-specific language implementation. Instead of being the usual one-of-a-kind standalone compiler, DiSTiL is an extension library for the Intentional Programming (IP) transformation system (currently under development by Microsoft Research). DiSTiL relies on several reusable, general-purpose infrastructure tools offered by IP that substantially simplify DSL implementation.

Yannis Smaragdakis; Don Batory

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA Survey Forms Facebook Twitter ... To increase the production of high-value petroleum products, these bottoms are run through a vacuum distillation column to ...

346

Distillation of GHZ states by selective information manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods for distilling maximally entangled tripartite (GHZ) states from arbitrary entangled tripartite pure states are described. These techniques work for virtually any input state. Each technique has two stages which we call primary and secondary distillation. Primary distillation produces a GHZ state with some probability, so that when applied to an ensemble of systems, a certain percentage is discarded. Secondary distillation produces further GHZs from the discarded systems. These protocols are developed with the help of an approach to quantum information theory based on absolutely selective information, which has other potential applications.

Oliver Cohen; Todd A. Brun

2000-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Table 40. Refiners Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 1997 Refiner Barrels per Calendar Day Refiner Barrels per

351

Development of an energy efficient direct contact membrane distillation system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated for its performance abilities and capability to concentrate aqueous solutions with high solid contents at low temperatures. The (more)

Bui, Anh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Midwest Gasoline and Distillate Fuel Near-Term Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Additionally, the August shutdown of the crude oil distillation unit at the Citgo refinery in Lemont, Illinois due to fire has reduced local production capacity, ...

353

Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal Reduction of Their Oxides with Concentrated Solar Energy. Author(s), Peter G.

354

Model predictive control of a Kaibel distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Model predictive control (MPC) of a Kaibel distillation column is the main focus of this thesis. A model description together with a model extension (more)

Kvernland, Martin Krister

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Barometric distillation and the problem of non-condensable gases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Barometric distillation is an alternative method of producing fresh water by desalination. This proposed process evaporates saline water at low pressure and consequently low temperature; (more)

Martinson, Eiki.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

358

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Process control interface system for a distillation plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because ... Keywords: Communication protocol, Distillation column, Interface system, Process control

A. Tllez-Anguiano; F. Rivas-Cruz; C. -M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-Garca; D. Jurez-Romero

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Web Information Organization Using Keyword Distillation Based Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a system that conducts search result clustering for several thousands of Web pages, and elaborates cluster labels through keyword distillation. Keyword distillation is a method that properly handles spelling variations, transliterations, ... Keywords: clustering, open search engine, keyword unification

Tomohide Shibata; Yasuo Bamba; Keiji Shinzato; Sadao Kurohashi

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

363

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture could produce much better results than a series of improvements done piecemeal. The study did meet its objective by identifying the maximum heat recovery that is technically and economically feasible. It showed a potential for dramatic improvement - a 39 percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil heating, steam generation, and air preheat to best advantage; and a computer program to design the required heat exchanger trains.

John, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Reichardt, B W

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Ben W. Reichardt

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

366

Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state ? shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of ? into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with the maximally entangled state |? + ? = (|00 ? + |11?) / ? 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state ? that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of ? every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable (i.e., unentangled) state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question. 1

John Watrous

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

John Watrous

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

Cody Jones

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to January 17, 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and the beginning of a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, distillate spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled higher as the New York Harbor market began to draw on product from other areas. They closed at 83 cents per gallon, an increase of 11 cents from the prior Friday. Crude oil had risen about 4 cents from

372

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C4-hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower. Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed. The capacity of the flooded reflux drum condenser for the tower was limiting production during summer months. The tower pressure control loop was put on manual. The pressure was allowed to drop to its lowest attainable value for the existing conditions of boilup and condenser cooling capability. This manner of operation is known as floating pressure control. By taking advantage of the higher relative volatility at the lower tower pressure, energy usage was reduced and there was an increase in production capacity. The tower operation at a lower temperature reduced tower and reboiler fouling. Substantial savings have resulted from these improvements. The annual energy consumption has been reduced by 25% and maximum productive capacity is higher by 15%. The rate of tower and reboiler fouling has not been fully quantified but is greatly reduced. A more stable tower operation has also contributed to higher productivity and reduced energy usage. Venting of non-condensables does not affect tower stability and the operators have adapted well to the new control strategy.

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: The price spike that initiated the flood of distillate imports last winter can be easily seen in this chart. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. The January/February 2000 price spike was shorter than the one last winter, largely due to the timing. Since last winter's price spike occurred early in the season, it took some time before prices receded substantially. Currently, the distillate fuel refining spread (the difference between the spot heating oil price and the WTI price) is more "typical". But as was

374

Connecticut Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,674: 301,591: 272,255: 271,852: 274,578: 274,507: 1984-2012: ...

375

South Carolina Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 751,994: 695,077: 654,296: 726,647: 725,148: 655,638: 1984-2012: ...

376

Maryland Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 606,247: 548,583: 540,590: 579,203: 540,843: 531,683: 1984-2012: ...

377

Nebraska Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 446,825: 433,745: 461,938: 639,618: 603,268: 584,362: 1984-2012: ...

378

Massachusetts Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 487,861: 463,886: 443,620: 445,626: 460,154: 444,532: 1984-2012: ...

379

Michigan Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 970,806: 891,487: 819,086: 864,049: 854,644: 877,692: 1984-2012: ...

380

Minnesota Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 804,699: 761,187: 633,806: 665,652: 704,971: 746,974: 1984-2012: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Minnesota Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 817,786: 767,218: 640,572: 678,530: 713,572: 763,303: 1984-2012: ...

382

New Jersey Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 1,088,505: 978,515: 760,035: 831,955: 952,930: 837,191: 1984-2012: ...

383

Wisconsin Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 788,665: 798,348: 703,583: 738,953: 719,417: 780,145: 1984-2012: ...

384

Connecticut Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,309: 300,255: 272,598: 271,767: 274,640: 273,827: 1984-2012: ...

385

Kansas Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 581,898: 610,088: 588,362: 554,334: 548,183: 573,992: 1984-2012: ...

386

Michigan Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 964,966: 888,432: 814,460: 855,592: 850,681: 871,756: 1984-2012: ...

387

Nebraska Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 448,098: 435,444: 472,303: 689,579: 627,110: 613,232: 1984-2012: ...

388

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 525,714: 470,714: 420,706: 426,584: 508,266: 486,456: 1984-2012: ...

389

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

390

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 7,172 ...

391

Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter distillation process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model.

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stocker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshits; J. P. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 14,361: 14,293: 14,268: 14,605 ...

393

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's ...

394

Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

395

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faradays laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

397

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 15,659: 15,559: 15,582 ...

398

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger savings, as much as 80%, may be obtained by using a direct vapor recompression (VRC) heat pump instead of the conventional column operation with a steam heated reboiler. A main criterion of the suitability of a distillation for VRC is a low temperature difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top and bottom products, the reboiler-condenser driving force temperature and the column pressure drop. Structured packing has a low pressure drop; thus increasing the savings obtained with VRC - for retrofits or new columns - and increasing the range of applications where VRC is suitable for distillations. For low pressure distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is separation of styrene and ethyl benzene. "

Hill, J.H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

" Energy Sources by Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Capability to Switch from Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative" 5. Capability to Switch from Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative" " Energy Sources by Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected" " Characteristics, 1991" " (Estimates in Thousand Barrels)" ,," Distillate Fuel Oil ",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" ,,"-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"Coal Coke",,"Row" ,,"Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

404

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

75.1 71.9 64.4 60.6 W W 43.5 41.6 1998 ... 55.7 55.2 51.2 44.2 W W 32.9 30.5 1999 ... 54.9 54.6 60.8 49.5 W...

405

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

Cunningham, B.B.

1957-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

406

Non-Locality Distillation is Impossible for Isotropic Quantum Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-locality is a powerful resource for various communication and information theoretic tasks, e.g., to establish a secret key between two parties, or to reduce the communication complexity of distributed computing. Typically, the more non-local a system is, the more useful it is as a resource for such tasks. We address the issue of non-locality distillation, i.e., whether it is possible to create a strongly non-local system by local operations on several weakly non-local ones. More specifically, we consider a setting where non-local systems can be realized via measurements on underlying shared quantum states. The hardest instances for non-locality distillation are the isotropic quantum systems: if a certain isotropic system can be distilled, then all systems of the same non-locality can be distilled as well. The main result of this paper is that non-locality cannot be distilled from such isotropic quantum systems. Our results are based on the theory of cross norms defined over the tensor product of certain Banach spaces. In particular, we introduce a single-parameter family of cross norms, which is used to construct a hierarchy of convex sets that are closed under local operations. This hierarchy interpolates between the set of local systems and an approximation to the set of quantum systems.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

407

ICME for Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... Application of ICME to Weld Process Innovations and Residual Stress ... Incorporation of Residual Stresses into Design of Ni-Base Superalloy...

408

Distillate Imports Surged to Meet Supply/Demand Imbalance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

receded when weather moderated and new supply began to receded when weather moderated and new supply began to arrive. Imports were the largest source of new supply that arrived to relieve the imbalance that was behind the price spike. This graph shows the dramatic increase on a calendar monthly average basis. During the three weeks ending February 25, distillate fuel oil imports averaged 566 thousand barrels per day. During the prior four weeks, imports only averaged 162 thousand barrels per day. Refinery production on the East Coast also increased. For the three weeks ending February 25, East Coast distillate production averaged 478 thousand barrels per day, which was an increase of about 91 thousand barrels per day or 24% over the prior four weeks. (During the same time period, national distillate production only rose 7 percent.)

409

Extraction of tocopherols from deodorizer distillates: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tocopherols are valuable components of deodorizer distillate. Due to the limitations in the existing extraction methods, it is imperative that new processing parameters for extraction and concentration of tocopherols from deodorizer distillate be developed. For this purpose, an analytical method for the determination of both tocopherols and tocopherol succinates simultaneously was developed. Crystallization, flat-sheet membrane separation, and a combined process were evaluated. Individual steps of the combined process were defined. They were: 1). Crystallization of deodorizer distillate; 2). Succination; 3). Membrane separation; and 4). Second stage membrane separation. The succination process converted over 90% of the tocopherols to tocopherol succinates. Crystallization and flat-sheet membrane separations increased tocopherols concentration about 2% and 6%, respectively. The final tocopherols concentration in the combined process was twice that of the original tocopherol sample.

Zhang, Xiaoyan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non-linear process and normal economic evaluations add more non-linearities to the economic objective functions. In addition, the normal product quality variability observed leads to requirements for statistical evaluation. Hence, calculation of the correct target can be complicated. In this paper, these non-linear economic effects are reviewed and techniques to calculate the correct usage targets presented.

White, D. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hydrogen isotope distillation for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system of four, interlinked, cryogenic fractional distillation columns has been designed as a prototype for fuel processing for fusion power reactors. The distillation system will continuously separate a feedstream of 360 g moles/day of roughly 50-50 deuterium-tritium containing approximately 1% H into four product streams: (1) a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal; (2) a stream of high-purity D/sub 2/ for simulated neutral beam injection; (3) a stream of DT for simulated reactor refueling; and (4) a stream of high purity T/sub 2/ for refueling and studies on properties of tritium and effects of tritium on materials.

Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Human versus machine in the topic distillation task  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on and discusses a set of user experiments using the TREC 2003 Web interactive track protocol. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task. We also investigated the effect of the search results layout in supporting the users effort. We have demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system tailored to the task there is significant performance improvement and finally, given a presentation that supports the task, there is strong user satisfaction.

Mingfang Wu; Gheorghe Muresan; Alistair Mclean; Muh-chyun (morris Tang; Ross Wilkinson; Yuelin Li; Hyuk-jin Lee; Nichloas J. Belkin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

Bulava, J; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M J; Wong, C H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

J. Bulava; K. J. Juge; C. J. Morningstar; M. J. Peardon; C. H. Wong

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

415

Alcohol production with solar distillation. Final report, March 31, 1982-June 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine it an absorber in a solar distillation unit that would provide a more efficient and effective way to produce fuel grade ethanol. Four tests of distilling ethanol were made. Numerous other tests were conducted distiling water, drying an assortment at materials, cooking food, and heating various liquids. The absorber in the solar distillation unit creates much heat on the glazing. The mixture in the solar distillation unit, does not have to reach temperatures that boil water to produce distillate.

Wuestenberg, D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

" Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" 3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"

417

" Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" 3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

418

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " 2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

419

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " 2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)"

420

Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel: Next-generation palm biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promise of alternative low-cost non-food feedstocks such as jatropha has yet to materialize, and there seems to be, at the current moment, no light at the end of the tunnel in the search for low-cost feedstock alternatives. Palm fatty acid distillate b

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to convert carboxylate salts (e.g. calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) into carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, and butyric acids). The carboxylate salts can be produced from wastes, such as paper fines, municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from cattle rumen or anaerobic waste treatment facilities. The paper fines and municipal solid waste provide energy, whereas the industrial biosludge and sewage sludge provide nutrients for the microorganisms. The calcium carboxylate salts are concentrated and reacted with a low-molecular-weight tertiary amine and carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate. In a distillation column, the low-molecular-weight amine carboxylate reacts with a high-molecular-weight tertiary amine allowing the low-molecular-weight amine to be recovered from the top of the column. The resulting high-molecular-weight amine carboxylate is converted to amine and carboxylic acid in a reactive distillation column. This project focuses on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize the precipitation step in the recovery process.

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the flask. Heaters are controlled by a model predictive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllerComplex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott of petroleomics, as asserted by Marshall and Rodgers, include quantitation of species, modeling, and informatics

423

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment. The methodology is described using a separations example. Column Thermal Analysis has been discussed in the literature extensively. The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps.

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Subsite Retrieval: A Novel Concept for Topic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Topic distillation is one of the main information needs when users search the Web. In previous approaches to topic distillation, the single page was treated as the basic searching unit. This strategy is inherited from general information retrieval, which has not fully utilized the structure information of the Web. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for topic distillation, named subsite retrieval, in which the basic searching unit is the subsite instead of the single page. As indicated by the name, the subsite is a subset of website, consisting of a structural collection of pages. The key of subsite retrieval is to extract effective features to represent a subsite by utilizing both the content in each page and the structural information in the subsite. Specifically, we propose a so-called PI algorithm for this purpose, which is based on the modeling of website growth. Testing on the topic distillation task of TREC 2003 and TREC 2004, subsite retrieval gets significant improvement of retrieval performance over the previous single page based methods. 1

Tao Qin; Tie-yan Liu; Xu-dong Zhang; Guang Feng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three qubit $W$ states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding and quantum information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric $W$ states from a single copy of any three qubit $W$ class pure state.

Ali Yildiz

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

427

Unlike Particle Correlations and the Strange Quark Matter Distillation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model. on leave from University of Nantes, U.M.R. Subatech

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stcker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshitz; J. -p. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 699,882: 631,796: 542,036: 573,037: 694,053: 729,109: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 613,864: ...

429

New York Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 63,226: 44,510: 35,307: 33,709: 42,254: 35,237: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,339: 10,814: ...

430

Florida Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,962: 55,219: 35,537: 41,430: 47,283: 61,059: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 140,493: 153,438: ...

431

West Virginia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 15,766: 15,416: 10,143: 11,650: 12,711: 10,456: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 45,429: 28,568: 99: ...

432

Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: While crude oil prices will be a major factor impacting distillate prices this winter, another important factor is the U.S. distillate supply/demand balance, as measured by distillate stocks. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. While high stocks in the distillate market are good news for consumers, an excess is bad news for refiners. Distillate spreads during the winter of 1998-99 and throughout most of 1999 were well below average. Distillate stocks were very high during this period, partially as a result of warm weather keeping demand down.

433

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed ProcessingChapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed Processing Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils from t

434

Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital (more)

Edreder, Elmahboub A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Adapting to Network and Client Variability via On-Demand Dynamic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distillation curve (ADC), is a significant improvement, featuring (1) a composition-explicit data channel to the comparison of the distillation curve data grid of two aviation turbine fuels, JP-8 and S-8.10,18-20 JP-8 classifications to the data grid, the distillation curve becomes more information rich. In Figure 3, we present

Brewer, Eric A.

437

Etude du comportement de mousse cramique comme contacteur Gaz/Liquide contre courant : application la distillation et la distillation ractive.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ces travaux de thse abordent la problmatique du dveloppement d'internes destins la distillation ractive. La mthodologie suivre est applique dans le cas des (more)

Lvque, Julien

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1995-1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization by Tancred Lidderdale, Nancy Masterson, and Nicholas Dazzo* U.S. crude oil refinery utilization rates have steadily increased since oil price and allocation decontrol in 1981. The annual average atmospheric distillation utilization rate has increased from 68.6 percent of operable capacity in 1981 to 92.6 percent in 1994. The distillation utilization rate reached a peak of 96.4 percent in August 1994, the highest one-month average rate in over 20 years. This dramatic increase in refining capacity utilization has stimulated a growing interest in the ability of U.S. refineries to supply domestic requirements for finished petroleum products. This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in

439

Both Distillate Supply and Demand Reached Extraordinary Levels This Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: This chart shows some critical differences in distillate supply and demand during this winter heating season, in comparison to the past two winters. Typically, distillate demand peaks during the winter months, but "new supply" (refinery production and net imports) cannot increase as much, so the remaining supply needed is drawn from inventories. This pattern is evident in each of the past two winter heating seasons. This winter, however, the pattern was very different, for several reasons: With inventories entering the season at extremely low levels, a "typical" winter stockdraw would have been nearly impossible, particularly in the Northeast, the region most dependent on heating oil. Demand reached near-record levels in December, as colder-than-normal

440

Distillate Stocks are Low - Especially on the East Coast  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Distillate stocks are normally built during the summer for use during the winter as shown by the normal band. Currently, stocks are very low for this time of year. This graph shows East Coast inventories, which at the end of August, were well below the normal band (over 9 million barrels or 19% below the low end of the band). The East Coast is about 31% lower than its 10-year average level for this time of year. We focus on the East Coast (PADD 1 ) because this a region in which heating oil is a major winter fuel. Furthermore, the East Coast consumes almost 2/3 of the nation's heating oil (high sulfur distillate). December 1999 was the turning point. Stocks were well within the normal range through November 1999, but in December, they dropped below the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that he bipartite quantum states, with rank strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of its two reduced states, are distillable by local operations and classical communication. Our first main result is that this is also true for NPT states with rank equal to this maximum. (A state is PPT if the partial transpose of its density matrix is positive semidefinite, and otherwise it is NPT.) This was conjectured first in 1999 in the special case when the two local ranks are equal. Our second main result provides a complete solution of the separability problem for bipartite states of rank 4. Namely, we show that such a state is separable if and only if it is PPT and its range contains at least one product state. We also prove that the so called checkerboard states are distillable if and only if they are NPT.

Lin Chen; Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne mea...

Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Collocation Methods for Distillation Design I: Model Description and Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast and accurate distillation design requires a model that significantly reduces the problem size while accurately approximating a full order distillation column model. Variable number of trays and variable feed tray location make optimization possible. This collocation model builds on the concepts of past collocation models for design of complex real-world separation systems. Two variable transformations make this method unique. Polynomials cannot accurately fit trajectories which flatten out. In columns, flat sections occur in the middle of large column sections, or where concentrations go to zero or one. With an exponential transformation of the tray number which maps zero to an infinite number of trays onto the range zero to one, two collocation trays can accurately simulate a large column section. With a hyperbolic tangent transformation of the mole fractions, the model can simulate columns which reach high purities. Furthermore, this model uses multiple collocation elements for ...

Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of symmetric states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of states supported on symmetric subspace. Not only giving general formula, we apply them to the output states of optimal cloning machines. Surprisingly, under some settings, the optimal n to m clone and true m copies are the same in entanglement measures. However, they differ in the error exponent of entanglement dilution. We also presented a general theory of entanglement dilution which is applicable to any non-i.i.d sequence of states.

Keiji Matsumoto

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

447

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

448

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing 2/4/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Selected State Residential Heating Oil Prices Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices (Prices thru Jan 31, 2000) Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility PADD 1 (East Coast) Heating Oil Stocks Low New England & Mid-Atlantic Weekly Total Distillate Stocks Low World Crude Production Not Keeping Pace with Demand OECD Stocks Reflect S/D Imbalance Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Problem Likely to be Resolved Soon, But Recurrence Possible East Coast Distillate Production

449

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Ruifang Dong; Mikael Lassen; Joel Heersink; Christoph Marquardt; Radim Filip; Gerd Leuchs; Ulrik L. Andersen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optimization of reactive distillation processes with simulated annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simulated annealing-based algorithm (MSIMPSA) suitable for the optimization of mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems was applied to the synthesis of a non-equilibrium reactive distillation column. A simulation model based on an extension of conventional distillation is proposed for the simulation step of the optimization problem. In the case of ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, the simulation results are similar to those obtained by Ciric and Gu (1994, AIChE Journal, 40(9), 1479) using the GAMS environment and to those obtained with the AspenPlus modular simulator. The optimization results are also similar to those previously reported and similar to those using an adaptive random search algorithm (MSGA). The optimizations were also performed with non-ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, considering either distributed feed and reaction trays or single feed and reaction tray. The results show that the optimized objective function values are very similar, and mostly independent of the number of trays and of the reaction distribution. It is shown that the proposed simulation/optimization equation-oriented environments are capable of providing optimized solutions which are close to the global optimum, and reveal its adequacy for the optimization of reactive distillation

M. F. Cardoso; R. L. Salcedo; S. Feyo De Azevedo; D. Barbosa

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Released: November 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.3;" 4.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," " "Economic",,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts"

454

Table 3.3 Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 3 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","Row" "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

455

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)","Row"

456

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" 2. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "SIC"," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources","Row"

457

Table A1. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 " 1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," "," " " "," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)"," ","Coal","Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(e)","Row"

458

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

459

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 2 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," " "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)"

460

Table 1.1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" 1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," ","Shipments"," " " "," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and","Coal","Breeze"," ","of Energy Sources","RSE"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)","Row"

462

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," " "Economic",,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"

463

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Major Group and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

464

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 2 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural","LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

465

Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

466

Table A1. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Energy for All Pu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "SIC"," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",," ",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","LPG","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)","Produced Onsite(g)","Factors"

467

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 1 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)","Row"

468

Table E1.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" .1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources","Row"

469

" Electricity Generation by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

470

Table A3. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Combustible Energ  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonfuel Purposes by" Nonfuel Purposes by" " Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994: Part 1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Coke"," "," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000 ","Other(d)","Row"

471

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" 2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," ",," "," "," ",," ",," "," "," " " "," "," ",,,," "," ",,," ",," ",," ",,"Shipments" "NAICS"," ",,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke and"," ",,"of Energy Sources"

472

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",,,," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)",,"LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion",,"NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)"

473

"Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

474

Table 1.3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" 3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources","Row"

475

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 3 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," " "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"

476

Table A3. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Combustible Energ  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonfuel" Nonfuel" " Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994: Part 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu) " " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate "," "," "," ","Coke "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

477

Supply management by major exporters key to market in year`s second half  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper gives a review of the international oil market; prices for crude, petroleum products, and natural gas; US demand for energy including natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, distillates, residual fuel oils, LPG, and other products; the US petroleum supply (refiner output, imports, and inventories).

Beck, R.J.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

478

Table A1. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Energy for All Pu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 " 1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," ","Shipments"," " " "," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(e)"," ","Coal","Breeze"," ","of Energy Sources","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(f)","Produced Onsite(g)","Row"

479

Released: November 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.3 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 3.3 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and" "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"

480

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lpg distillate residual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," "," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," ","RSE"

482

Released: November 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" 1.3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources"

483

Table A1. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate "," "," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry"," Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

484

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" 1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," ","Shipments"," " " "," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(e)","LPG and","Coal","Breeze"," ","of Energy Sources","RSE"

485

Table 1.2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" 2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "NAICS"," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources","Row"

486

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;" 6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","(million","Other(e)"

487

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)","Row"

488

Table N1.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" 1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," ","Shipments"," " " "," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(e)","LPG and","Coal","Breeze"," ","of Energy Sources","RSE"

489

Landi-Hartog U. S. A. adjusts to the U. S. market. [Marketing of LPG carburetor systems for using propane as an automotive fuel  

SciTech Connect

Landi-Hartog U.S.A. has adjusted to the U.S. market in providing LPG carburetor systems for passenger cars. Landi-Hartog (LH) had to completely redesign the components on the system to be compatible with U.S. 300-525 cu in. engines. The company has California Air Resources Board approval for 300 cu in. engines and above in dual-fuel service. However, the U.S. market will remain severely restricted unless basic distribution (and the political) changes are made. The U.S. is st

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Distilling single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon entanglement may be the simplest type of entanglement but it is of vice importance in quantum communication. Here we present a practical protocol for distilling the single-photon entanglement from both photon loss and decoherence. With the help of some local single photons, the probability of single photon loss can be decreased and the less-entangled state can also be recovered to maximally entangled state simultaneously. It only requires some linear optical elements which makes it feasible in current experiment condition. This protocol might find applications in current quantum communications based on the quantum repeaters.

Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

492

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered in the integration of refinery off-gas streams with other olefins process.

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, EECS Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Distillation Protocols for Mixed States of Multilevel Qubits and the Quantum Renormalization Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study several properties of distillation protocols to purify multilevel qubit states (qudits) when applied to a certain family of initial mixed bipartite states. We find that it is possible to use qudits states to increase the stability region obtained with the flow equations to distill qubits. In particular, for qutrits we get the phase diagram of the distillation process with a rich structure of fixed points. We investigate the large-$D$ limit of qudits protocols and find an analytical solution in the continuum limit. The general solution of the distillation recursion relations is presented in an appendix. We stress the notion of weight amplification for distillation protocols as opposed to the quantum amplitude amplification that appears in the Grover algorithm. Likewise, we investigate the relations between quantum distillation and quantum renormalization processes.

M. A. Martin-Delgado; M. Navascues

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

495

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

496

Volume Transfer, LPG Prover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the prover is drained for a 30 ( 5) second period after cessation of the main flow. ... 87, i, Include a Pressure Correction Table 1 and Chart with your ...

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

497

" Sources by Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Capability to Switch from Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy" 6. Capability to Switch from Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy" " Sources by Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics," 1991 " (Estimates in Thousand Barrels)" ,," Residual Fuel Oil",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" ," ","-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total",,"Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate",,,"Coal Coke",,"Row" ,,"Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

498

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The lower demand combined with higher distillate production led to significantly reduced levels of imports, which through April 2012 were down 41% year-over-year.

499

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

500

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In response to global demand growth, wholesale prices for distillate fuels have generally been high in recent years compared to prices for other fuels.