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Sample records for lpg distillate motor

  1. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  2. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  3. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  4. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ,"

  5. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected" " Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day) " ,,,,," Input for Heat,",,," Primary" " ",," Consumption for All Purposes",,,"Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," Consumption for Nonfuel Purposes ",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"

  6. Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, R.

    1980-01-01

    Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

  7. Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

    1983-10-01

    The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

  8. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  9. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.

    1986-01-01

    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  10. LPG in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review LPG in Mexico. They attempt to project numbers to the year 2000 using a supply/demand comparison.

  11. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  12. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  13. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  14. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  15. LPG fuel shutoff system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

    1988-01-26

    An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

  16. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  17. The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

  18. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  19. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  20. Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

  1. Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

  2. Process for LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S.A.; Haliburton, J.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for separating propane and heavier hydrocarbons from a gaseous feedstream containing hydrocarbon components of different boiling points wherein the feedstream is cooled and separated into a first vapor fraction and a first liquid fraction and the first liquid fraction is distilled in a deethanizer to form a second vapor fraction and a second liquid fraction. The improvement comprises expanding and transferring the first vapor fraction to the lower portion of a direct heat exchanger, cooling {ital at least a portion of} the second vapor fraction {ital by passing it through an indirect heat exchanger} to form a substantially liquefied stream, {ital partially flashing at least a portion of the liquefied stream and transferring it} to the upper portion of the direct heat exchanger whereby the liquefied stream contacts the first vapor fraction to form a third vapor fraction and a third liquid fraction, {ital transferring} the third liquid fraction to the deethanizer, and removing the third vapor fraction from the direct heat exchanger {ital and passing the third vapor fraction through the indirect heat exchanger}.

  3. Dehydrocyclodimerization, converting LPG to aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Hilder, G.K.

    1984-03-01

    British Petroleum (BP) recognized the potential need for ways of exploiting feedstocks with low opportunity cost and commenced a research program at its Sunbury Research Center to discover and develop a catalyst for the conversion of LPG to a liquid product. The successful outcome of this research program is the Cyclar /SUP SM/ process, a joint development of UOP Process Division and British Petroleum. The Cyclar process offers a single-step conversion of LPG to an aromatic product which has a highvalue, is easily transported and useful both to fuel and petrochemical applications. The LPG producer can invest in a single unit, avoiding the need to identify and develop markets for multiple C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ products. This catalytic process, which employs UOP Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) technology, can also be applied to refinery light ends to produce a high-quality gasoline. Aromatic and hydrogen yields from propane and butane feeds surpass those obtained from catalytic reforming of Light Arabian naphtha. This paper describes the principles of the Cyclar process and illustrates yields and economics for several interesting applications.

  4. New LPG loss-control standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, D.L. )

    1988-12-01

    API'S (American Petroleum Institute) Committee on Liquified Hydrocarbon Gas and the Committee and Safety and Fire Protection have modified Standard 2510 and added a supplemental Standard 2510A, in response to bad LPG incidents. Requirements have been tightened, with a major objective to prevent LPG releases. Fire protection Standards for the design and operation of LPG facilities are specifically revised. Following important changes are specifically discussed: Versel design, site selection, spacing and impounding; foundations and supports; and piping requirements.

  5. LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LPG Electrical, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: ANGWIN Electrical Address: 13833 Wellington Trace Rd. 4 Place: Wellington, Florida Zip: 33414 Sector: Services Product:...

  6. Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

  7. Vacuum Distillation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day) Process: Vacuum Distillation Thermal Cracking Thermal Cracking: Coking Thermal Cracking: Delayed Coking Thermal Cracking: Fluid Coking Thermal Cracking: Visbreaking Thermal Cracking: Other/Gas Oil Thermal Cracking: Coking (Barrels/Calendar Day) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed (Barrels/Calendar Day) Catalytic Cracking Recycled Feed Catalytic Hydrocracking Catalytic Hydrocracking: Distillate Catalytic Hydrocracking: Gas Oil Catalytic Hydrocracking: Residual Fuel

  8. LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

  9. Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1984-08-01

    The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

  10. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  11. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  12. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  13. New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

  14. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  15. Motors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    motor fails? When a motor fails, the user or owner faces three choices: to rewind to a lower efficiency; to rewind and maintain the original efficiency; or to replace it with a...

  16. Custody transfer measurements for LNG/LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes. A brief discussion of LNG and LPG characteristics and detailed description of these special measurement techniques are given in this presentation.

  17. LPG odorization with an audit trail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astala, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article I have tried to cover a very broad subject in a very limited time while only touching on a few of the ways you could odorize LPG and have an audit trail. I would recommend that if you are interested in this type of odorizing for LPG, you contact your odorant manufacturer and two or three odorant equipment manufacturers and talk to them about what you would like and get their recommendations. By talking to more then one manufacturer you may want to incorporate the ideals of two or three manufacturers into your odorant system to have a system that meets all your needs and requirements.

  18. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  19. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  20. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  1. Risk analysis of an LPG facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

  2. Blast rips Texas LPG storage site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

  3. Monitoring system tested during LPG tanker unloading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-14

    A specially developed computer-based hazardous-materials monitoring system has been successfully field tested. The test of the portable system occurred during the unloading of 45,000 metric tons of LPG from a 740-ft tanker at the petroleum dock of a plant along the Mississippi River. The function of this system is to detect, report, alarm, and record unacceptable concentrations of hazardous vapors during marine-transfer operations.

  4. The operation of LPG relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stannard, J.H. Jr

    1989-11-01

    As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

  5. Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fay, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date appear to have identified the major hazards. Except for the dispersive behavior of vapor clouds - a not-insignificant factor in risk evaluation - the consequences of spills are well circumscribed by current analyses. The physically significant effects accompanying nonexplosive combustion of spilled material are fairly well documented; yet, potentially substantial uncertainties remain. Catastrophic spills of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ on land or water are possible, given the current size of storage vessels. Almost all experimental spills have used less than 10 m/sup 3/ of liquid. There is thus some uncertainty regarding the accuracy and validity of extrapolation of current empirical information and physical models to spills of catastrophic size. The less-likely but still-possible explosive or fireball combustion modes are not well understood in respect to their inception. The troubling experience with such violent combustion of similar combustible vapors suggests that this possibility will need further definition. Extant LNG and LPG risk analyses illustrate the difficulties of substantiating the numerous event probabilities and the determination of all event sequences that can lead to hazardous consequences. Their disparate results show that significant improvements are needed. Most importantly, a detailed critique of past efforts and a determination of an exhaustive set of criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a risk analysis should precede any further attempts to improve on existing studies. 44 references, 1 table.

  6. Mounded LPG storage - Experience and developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, D.

    1988-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored after production, and for distribution and use, in pressure vessels which vary in size from a few kilogrammes to many thousands of tons. The types of LPG under consideration are commercial butane, commercial propane, or mixtures of the two gases in varying proportions. Mounded storage systems are becoming popular as an alternative to the better-known traditional systems. The most widely used and therefore best-known of the traditional systems are the above-ground pressure-vessel designs. These more commonly comprise factory-made cylinders which are installed horizontally, being supported on saddles at each end of the vessel. When such vessels are installed in an LPG terminal, depot, or filling plant, they are required in multiple units to facilitate the storage of more than one grade of product and to enable regular maintenance and inspection to be carried out. Today's safety regulations require such installations to be divided into sub-groups of six tanks, with all the tanks located at a safe distance from one another, and from other facilities in the immediate area. These safety distances are being increased as a result of experience, which means terminals now require large areas of land.

  7. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  8. LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.V.

    1982-09-07

    A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

  9. Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liddell, G.

    1986-08-01

    The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

  10. Current and future USA-world seaborne imports at LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassa, G.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of the current and historical situation of the international LPG trade and comparison between the US and other countries covers methods of marine transportation, including fully refrigerated vessels, semirefrigerated vessels, pressure vessels, and LNG ships fitted for LPG; the temporary abundance of LPG; a comparison of the markets in Japan, Europe, South America, and the US to indicate the potential market in the future, e.g., the need in Japan for LPG as a basic fuel, main use in Europe as a feedstock and as domestic fuel, use as a basic fuel but mainly in the winter months inSouth America, and the volatile spot market in the US; and the conclusion that the capacity to produce LPG will keep pace with demand only as long as adequate prices are paid to offset production costs.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  13. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  14. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  15. End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrich, V.

    1980-03-01

    In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

  16. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  17. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  18. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  19. LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-08-08

    LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

  20. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  1. Accurate LPG analysis begins with sampling procedures, equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, C.M. )

    1990-11-05

    Proper equipment and procedures are essential for obtaining representative samples from an LPG stream. This paper discusses how sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons generally involves one of two methods: flow- proportional composite sampling by a mechanical device or physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. If sampling by proper techniques and equipment supports careful chromatographic analysis, full advantage of accurate mass measurement of LPG can be realized.

  2. River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

  3. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  4. Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

  5. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  6. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  7. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  8. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 1. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced LPG and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs for a fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the discount rate, price of propane, maintenance savings, vehicle utilization, diesel vehicles, extended vehicle life, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, and operating and infrastructure costs. The best results are obtained when not converting diesel vehicles, converting only large fleets, and extending the period the vehicle is kept in service. Combining these factors yields results that are most cost-effective for TxDOT. This is volume one of two volumes.

  10. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  11. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-18

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

  12. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  13. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  14. Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-05-12

    The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

  15. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  16. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  17. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  18. Design considerations for sweetening LPG`s with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Polasek, J.; Rogers, J.

    1995-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening LPG with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. In the present paper, the design considerations and alternatives including static mixers, jet educator mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays are compared based on plant operating data.

  19. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  20. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

  2. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  3. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

    2003-03-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

  5. New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittler, T.J. )

    1990-04-02

    Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

  6. Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

    1982-03-01

    The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

  7. Microsoft Word - 0615DOE-LPG-wd6.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EXECUTIVE COURT REPORTERS, INC. [301] 565-0064 1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER LPG PUBLIC MEETING FRIDAY, JUNE 15, 2007 U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building Main Auditorium 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, D.C. 20585 EXECUTIVE COURT REPORTERS, INC. [301] 565-0064 2 PARTICIPANTS DOE: Kathy Binder, Facilitator Warren Belmar, Panel Member Lawrence Oliver, Panel Member Industry: Steven Winn, NRG Energy, Inc. Robert Temple, C P S Energy John

  8. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  9. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  10. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  11. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  12. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  13. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  14. Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

  15. Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1994-12-31

    There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

  16. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  17. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  18. Alvord (3000-ft Strawn) LPG flood: design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000 ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model prediction, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of th oil originally in place in the Unit. An evaluation of the project performance to date is presented. In July of 1981 the injection of a 16% HPV slug of propane was completed. Natural gas is being used to drive the propane slug. A peak oil response of 222 BOPD was achieved in August of 1981 and production has since been declining. The observed performance of the flood indicates that the actual tertiary oil recovered will reach the predicted value, although the project life will be longer than expected. The results presented in this paper indicate that, without the DOE incentive program, the economics for this project would still be uncertain at this time.

  19. Next generation processes for NGL/LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, R.N.; Hudson, H.M.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Cuellar, K.T.

    1998-12-31

    Up to now, Ortloff`s Gas Subcooled Process (GSP) and OverHead Recycle Process (OHR) have been the state-of-the-art for efficient NGL/LPG recovery from natural gas, particularly for those gases containing significant concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Ortloff has recently developed new NGL recovery processes that advance the start-of-the-art by offering higher recovery levels, improved efficiency, and even better CO{sub 2} tolerance. The simplicity of the new process designs and the significantly lower gas compression requirements of the new processes reduce the investment and operating costs for gas processing plants. For gas streams containing significant amounts of carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} removal equipment upstream of the NGL recovery plant can be smaller or eliminated entirely, reducing both the investment cost and the operating cost for gas processing companies. In addition, the new liquids extraction processes can be designed to efficiently recover or reject ethane, allowing the gas processor to respond quickly to changing market conditions. This next generation of NGL/LPG recovery processes is now being applied to natural gas processing here in the US and abroad. Two of the new plants currently under construction provide practical examples of the benefits of the new processes.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-11-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), commonly called propane. Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced propane and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT locations that can be converted to propane without additional financial outlays. This is volume two of two volumes.

  1. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum

  2. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  3. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated...

  4. American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Distillation Inc. Place: Leland, North Carolina Zip: 28451 Product: Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References:...

  5. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  6. Novel coiled tubing application controls large LPG storage well fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebhardt, F.; Eby, D.; Barnett, D.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional well control techniques for normal oil and gas wells are widely known and have been presented on numerous occasions. However, LPG storage (or cavern) wells rarely blow out and/or catch on fire. As a result, little information has been presented on the topic of well control for these types of wells. This article chronicles a case history of a high-volume liquid propane storage well fire. Because conventional wellhead removal methods could not be applied in this case, the capping/kill plan called for use of coiled tubing in a novel manner to cut the tubing downhole and install an inflatable packer to shut off propane flow. The plan was successfully executed, saving the operator millions of dollars in LPC product loss and cost of control.

  7. Australian liquids-handling system cuts surges to LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, G.; Stenner, T.D. )

    1990-08-06

    This paper reports how a pipeline liquids-handling facility recently commissioned allows gas production to be quickly ramped up to meet customer demand. Its design eliminates trouble-some liquid surges which had hampered plant operations. The pipeline-loop system, located at the Wallumbilla LPG processing plant, Queensland, was built for 60 of the cost of an equivalently sized conventional slug catcher. Its control system enables automatic, unattended handling of liquid surges and pigging slugs from the 102-km Silver Springs to Wallumbilla two-phase pipeline. Because of this system's simple hydraulics, normal slug-catcher piping design problems are eliminated. Safety is improved because the potentially hazardous condensate liquid is contained in a buried pipeline.

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictorô is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictorô works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the columnís approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the columnís approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much ďleft on the tableĒ when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictorô, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency Ė which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictorô operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictorô utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the columnís pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpointís proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictorô is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plantís distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  9. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  10. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  11. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  12. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  13. Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, J.

    1980-02-01

    Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

  14. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad Ahmed, Iqbal Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul Nadeem, Saad Ali, Shahid

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  15. Table A58. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by" " Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics, 1991" " (Estimates in Thousand Barrels)" ,," LPG",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" ,,"-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total","

  16. Fuel Displacement & Cost Potential of CNG, LNG, and LPG Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Displacement & Cost Potential of CNG, LNG, and LPG Vehicles Fuel Displacement & Cost Potential of CNG, LNG, and LPG Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss078_kwon_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advancing New Mexico's Alternative Fuels North Central Texas Council of Governments’ North

  17. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  18. Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

  19. Retraying and revamp double big LPG fractionators's capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasson, R. , Friendswood, TX ); Pate, R. )

    1993-08-02

    Enterprise operates two LPG fractionation units at Mont Belvieu: the Seminole unit and the West Texas unit. In 1985, Nye Engineering Inc., Friendswood, Texas, designed improvements to expand the Seminole plant from 60,000 b/d of C[sub 2] + feed to 90,000 b/d. The primary modifications made to increase the West Texas plant's capacity and reduce fuel consumption were the following: retraying the deethanizer and depropanizer columns with new High Capacity Nye Trays. Lowering the pressure in the de-ethanizer and depropanizer to improve the separating efficiency of the columns. Replacing the debutanizer with a high-pressure column that rejects its condensing heat as reboil for the de-ethanizer. Adjusting the feed temperature to balance the load in the top and bottom of the depropanizer column to prevent premature flooding in one section of the tower. Installing convection heaters to recover existing stack gas heat into the process. In conjunction with the capacity expansion, there was a strong incentive to improve the fuel efficiency of the unit. The modifications are described.

  20. Synthesis gas conversion to LPG over molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murchison, C.B.; Murdick, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    By using a new Dow Chemical Co. carbon-supported molybdenum oxide catalyst promoted with 4.4% K/sub 2/O or Na/sub 2/O, 90%+ conversions of synthesis gas at space velocities of 500-600/hr were achieved with 60-75% selectivities for C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ paraffins, including 33 and 27% for ethane and propane, respectively, and no liquid products formed. This LPG product is an excellent ethylene cracking feedstock. The catalyst, which can be used in both oxide and sulfided forms, has demonstrated stable performance with feeds containing up to 20 ppm sulfur (H/sub 2/S + COS) and had no coking problems for up to 2000 hr on stream. Excessive sulfur exposure can be reversed by regeneration with hydrogen. Because of the catalyst's low coking rate, high temperatures, i.e., 350/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C, and near-stoichiometric H/sub 2//CO feed ratios can be used.

  1. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  2. Webb report adds support for choosing LPG as a motor fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses a study on choosing propane and butane as an alternate transportation fuel (ATF). According to this article, the results of the study indicate that propane and butane have met two of the challenges facing selection of an ATF: there is a ready supply of the product and conversion equipment is easily available. Primary goals identified by the study are presented and discussed.

  3. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified

  4. A simple correlation to predict the hydrate quadruple point temperature for LPG mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    A simple correlation to predict the hydrate upper quadruple point temperature, T{sub Q2B} for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mixtures was developed. It was developed for use as a part of a modeling and control system for a LPG pipeline in Russia. For performance reasons, a simple hydrate prediction correlation was required that could be incorporated into the real-time and predictive pipeline simulation models. The operating company required both real time and predictive simulation tools be developed to assist in preventing hydrate blockages while minimizing the use of methanol. In this particular pipeline, LPG fluid moves through the pipeline as a single phase liquid above its bubble point pressure. Because of the very low flow rates, the trace amount of water present in the LPG drops out and creates water pools at low points in the pipeline. The pipeline pressure and seasonal temperatures are conducive for hydrate formation in these pools. Methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEG) are injected in the pipeline to help prevent hydrate formation. The newly developed correlation predicts the hydrate quadruple point temperature using only the composition and the molecular weight of the LPG mixture while retaining an accuracy comparable to the statistical thermodynamic models throughout the range of normal operating conditions.

  5. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research ...

  7. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

    1983-12-06

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

  8. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  9. Ageing effect in spray pyrolysed B:SnO{sub 2} thin films for LPG sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skariah, Benoy E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com; Thomas, Boben E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    For LPG sensing, boron doped (0.2 to 0.8 wt. %) polycrystalline tin oxide thin films are deposited by spray pyrolysis in the temperature range 325 - 430 įC. Sensor response of 56 % is achieved for 1000 ppm of LPG, at an operating temperature of 350 įC. The effects of ageing under ambient conditions on the sensor response are investigated for a storage period of six years. Ageing increases the film resistance but the gas response is lowered. XRD, SEM, FESEM, FTIR and XPS are utilized for structural, morphological and compositional charaterisations.

  10. Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

    1985-03-01

    TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

  11. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for ...

  12. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the ...

  13. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J E

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  14. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  15. LPG buses in southern California leave the competition at the curb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that after the first year of a landmark experiment in which LPG has been competing against methanol and CNG in city buses, propane appears to be pulling out in front of the pack. According to Efren Medellin, superintendent of vehicle maintenance at the Orange County Transit Authority, two LPG buses had registered a total of 31,000 moles with relatively little, if any, downtime. The two methanol buses had run a total of 30,000 miles while the two CNG buses had traveled only 5000 miles. Furthermore the methanol and CNG buses have had their share of downtime for new parts and other problems. The propane-powered buses appear to be running consistently well without mechanical difficulties. The only problem that occurred was occasional backfiring. As a result, the electronic controls were replaced and no subsequent complaints were heard.

  16. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  17. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  18. Alvord (3,000-ft strawn) LPG flood - design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000' Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model predictions, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of the oil originally in place in the Unit. 12 refs.

  19. Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

    1985-04-01

    Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists.

  20. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity Presentation given at 2007...

  1. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes PDF icon multicomponent.pdf ...

  2. N/sub 2/-driven LPG achieves miscibitity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, L.; Crawford, P.B.; Montes, M. Jr.; Reeves, S.

    1982-11-01

    Shows that miscibility can be achieved at very low pressures above the critical temperature of propane. One can calculate the critical pressure and temperature for a variety of fluids of practical interest in achieving miscibility between the miscible slug and driving gas when applying enhanced oil recovery programs. A study of the critical properties of normally available reservoir fluids indicates that one method of achieving miscibility at lower pressures, even at high reservoir temperatures, might be to use LPG slugs pushed by nitrogen. Table gives the oil recovery for different LPG slug sizes when operating at a reservoir pressure of 2,000 psig and a reservoir temperature of 250F. Diagram shows the approximate critical temperature loci for ternary systems made up of 3 components from the group nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. By finding the desired reservoir temperature and then estimating the critical pressure required, one may select compositions and operating pressures required to achieve critical slug-driving gas mixtures for use in enhanced oil recovery programs. When using CO/sub 2/ for miscibility, the miscibility pressure increases with temperature. Use of LPG slugs results in a substantial reduction in the pressure required for miscibility.

  3. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  4. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology √ó You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  5. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  6. LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

  7. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels. Part I. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Planning and care mark repair of 14-year old leak in Kuwait Oil Co. LPG tank 95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.

    1983-01-10

    This paper points out that the leak, which had been present for such a long time, completely saturated the perlite insulation with hydrocarbons, thus rendering the entire operation of inspection, repair, and maintenance of the inner tank a hazardous operation. It emphasizes the safety aspects, which were complicated by the saturated perlite as well as by the fact that the tank is situated in the middle of the LPG storage area with LPG tanks on either side. Tank design, making preparations, inspection, and repair are discussed. The fact that the leaking flanges were originally installed damaged, indicated the future need of tighter company quality control of all contractors work.

  9. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B. )

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  10. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B.

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  11. Six years' operating experience at Ardjuna field helps prove out LPG SBS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smulders, L.H.

    1983-02-21

    The permanent yoke mooring system and the two-product flexpipe riser of the Arjuna Sakti LPG storage barge have completely lived up to their expectations. The LPG offtake system, the terminaling function of the storage unit, has also performed extremely well. Experience gained at Ardjuna provides confidence for future openocean mooring of large methanol or LNG plants. Mooring systems of these future units will likely have a different configuration, such as the single anchor leg storage (SALS) mooring. However, the basic system components have been used, both at Ardjuna and in comparable situations elsewhere in the world. Engineers who are working on floating, large scale, gas processing plants for mooring in the open ocean could profitably join their efforts in a team comprised of process specialists, naval architects, and mooring experts. Specific areas of consideration should be: length-to-beam and lengthto-depth ratios and shape of bow. This could result in a storage/process barge design with better motion characteristics and lower mooring forces than proposed at present.

  12. Electric Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors.

  13. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  14. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  15. Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, W.A.; Martin, E.P.; Pietrasz, E.

    1994-10-01

    An oxidation catalyst was installed on an industrial LPG-powered forklift truck. For high conversion efficiency in an oxidation system on a rich burning engine a secondary air supply to the catalyst is necessary. Two simple and cost-effective ways of secondary air supply were tested: an air valve and a venturi type injector. The amount of secondary air supplied by both devices was measured under a variety of conditions - different engine speed, load and exhaust system pressure. Carbon monoxide emissions and the catalyst performance were measured and evaluated in terms of the secondary air flow. Advantages and drawbacks of the air valve and venturi injector systems are discussed and compared. 1 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  17. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  18. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  19. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  20. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  1. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  2. PV based systems, with wind, diesel or LPG genset backup, supplying small TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, H.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the implementation of a program intended to introduce PV based hybrid power systems to supply electrical power to small size TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal. Reliability is a major concern to this type of application, as well as economical and social constraints, so wind or diesel/LPG genset backup are used. This paper includes a description of the systems behavior, comparison among these topologies and economical viability data from a users viewpoint.

  3. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  4. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes | Department of Energy Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes PDF icon multicomponent.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key

  5. Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

  6. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  7. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  8. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Motors and Generators for the 21st Century√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  9. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  10. ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction | Department of Energy Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction PDF icon hybrid_separation.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology Workshop

  11. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  12. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  13. Motor Repair Tech Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Repair Tech Brief u Why do motors fail? u When should you repair instead of replace? u How can reliability and efficiency be assured in a repair? This Tech Brief applies to: Random Wound Induction Motors Designs A-E Acknowledgements The following series of Repair Documents-The Service Center Evaluation Guide, Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair, Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Motors, and Motor Repair Tech Brief- were produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's

  14. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  15. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  16. Correlations estimate volume distilled using gravity, boiling point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, A.; Consuelo Perez de Alba, M. del; Manriquez, L.; Guardia Mendoz, P. de la

    1995-10-23

    Mathematical nd graphic correlations have been developed for estimating cumulative volume distilled as a function of crude API gravity and true boiling point (TBP). The correlations can be used for crudes with gravities of 21--34{degree} API and boiling points of 150--540 C. In distillation predictions for several mexican and Iraqi crude oils, the correlations have exhibited accuracy comparable to that of laboratory measurements. The paper discusses the need for such a correlation and the testing of the correlation.

  17. Distillation process using microchannel technology (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Distillation process using microchannel technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distillation process using microchannel technology √ó You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  18. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  19. Zn-doped and undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles: A comparative structural, optical and LPG sensing properties study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, R.K.; Sahay, P.P.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirm that all the materials prepared are polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure. On Zn-doping, the crystallite size has been found to decrease from 25 nm (undoped sample) to 13 nm (1 at% Zn-doped sample). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles show smaller crystallite size (11Ė17 nm). ? Optical band gap in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases on Zn-doping. ? 2 at% Zn-doped sample show minimum room temperature resistivity. ? LPG response of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases considerably. ? 1 at% Zn-doped sample shows maximum response (87%) at 300 įC to 1 vol% concentration. -- Abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method with SnCl{sub 4}∑5H{sub 2}O as the starting material and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}∑2H{sub 2}O as the source of dopant. All the materials prepared have been found to be polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure with crystallite sizes in the range 11Ė25 nm. Optical analyses reveal that for the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, both undoped and Zn-doped, direct transition occurs with the bandgap energies in the range 3.05Ė3.41 eV. Variation in the room temperature resistivity of the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles as a function of dopant concentration has been explained on the basis of two competitive processes: (i) replacement of Sn{sup 4+} ion by an added Zn{sup 2+} ion, and (ii) ionic compensation of Zn{sup 2+} by the formation of oxygen vacancies. Among all the samples examined for LPG sensing, the 1 at% Zn-doped sample exhibits fast and maximum response (?87%) at 300 įC for 1 vol% concentration of LPG in air.

  20. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  1. Motor Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance ¬Ľ Motor Systems Motor Systems Dramatic energy and cost savings can be achieved in motor systems by applying best energy management practices and purchasing energy-efficiency equipment. Use the software tools, training, and publications listed below to save energy in motors. Motors Tools Tools to assess your energy system: MotorMaster+ MotorMaster+ International Motors Case Studies Improving Efficiency of Tube Drawing Bench Motor System Upgrades Smooth the Way to Savings of

  2. General Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Motors Place: Detroit, MI Website: www.generalmotors.com References: General Motors1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  3. Aurica Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aurica Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aurica Motors Place: California Product: California-based Aurica Motors is planning to develop and manufacture an electric vehicle...

  4. Myers Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Myers Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Myers Motors Place: Tallmadge, Ohio Zip: 44278 Sector: Vehicles Product: Myers Motors produces three wheeled electric vehicles....

  5. The best news for LPG in Denmark is diesel conversion breakthrough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Throughout Scandanavia, taxes seem to drive the marketplace. Governments do not want to encourage consumption of alcoholic beverages, so they tax them heavily, thereby actually discouraging their use. Using the same means, they dictate the fate of the various fuels. Taxes have depressed propane's use to a large extent; today it is priced at three times natural gas, with the result that it accounts for only 0.5%-0.7% of total energy consumption. But, this paper reports on a potential new star that has appeared on the horizon, as participants in the People-to-People sojourn to Scandanavia last August learned. It's a program of converting diesel buses to propane, and officials of the company that is marketing it, Skibby Motor A/S, are so confident of its success that they have already begun a campaign of introducing it to the U.S.

  6. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Monday, 28 November 2011 14:52 Movement is fundamental to life. It...

  7. Motor Current Data Collection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-01

    The Motor Current Data Collection System (MCDCS) uses IBM compatible PCs to collect, process, and store Motor Current Signature information.

  8. MotorMaster+ Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet describing how industrial plants can improve their motor system performance using AMO's MotorMaster+ software tool.

  9. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  10. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  11. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes Improved Energy Efficiency through the Determination of Optimal Distillation Configuration The ability to apply low-energy distillation confgurations can allow chemical manufacturers to reduce energy consumption of both existing and grassroots plants. However, the determina- tion of an appropriate confguration is limited by an incomplete knowledge of the 'search space' for a proper distillation network. Currently, no

  12. Motorized support jack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  13. Motorized support jack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  14. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  15. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  16. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  17. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  18. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Monday, 28 November 2011 14:52 Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin

  19. Stepping motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  20. Stepping motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  1. Improve Motor System Performance with MotorMaster+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describes how industrial plants can improve their motor system performance using DOE-AMO's MotorMaster+ software tool.

  2. Motor Systems Assessment Training, Including Use of the Motor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    See http:www.nema.orgpremiummotors To Compare all the motor efficiency standards, see http:www.energy.wsu.eduftp- eppubsengineeringmotorsEfficiencyStandards.pdf 9 Motor ...

  3. BSA Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BSA Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: BSA Motors Place: India Product: India-based maker of 2-wheel electric scooters. References: BSA Motors1 This article is a stub. You...

  4. AQWON Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: AQWON-Motors Place: Speinshart, Germany Zip: 92676 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: AQWON-Motors has developed the first hydrogen powered 2 stroke-engine...

  5. Brandl Motor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brandl Motor Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brandl Motor Address: Calvinstr 24 Place: Berlin Zip: 10557 Region: Germany Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone Number: +49 30 39...

  6. Motor VFDs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VFDs Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Motor VFDs Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMotorVFDs&oldid521368" Feedback...

  7. Aptera Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aptera Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aptera Motors Address: 2778 Loker Avenue West Place: Carlsbad, California Zip: 92008 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Vehicles...

  8. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash vaporization of a lithium jet, using high power electron beam heating. The quantity of lithium to be processed is taken to be 2 metric tonnes (the inventory postulated for the conceptual reactor design outlined in Lithium walls for fusion, also by this author), every 2 days, in order to limit the in-vessel

  9. Landi-Hartog U. S. A. adjusts to the U. S. market. [Marketing of LPG carburetor systems for using propane as an automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Landi-Hartog U.S.A. has adjusted to the U.S. market in providing LPG carburetor systems for passenger cars. Landi-Hartog (LH) had to completely redesign the components on the system to be compatible with U.S. 300-525 cu in. engines. The company has California Air Resources Board approval for 300 cu in. engines and above in dual-fuel service. However, the U.S. market will remain severely restricted unless basic distribution (and the political) changes are made. The U.S. is st

  10. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  11. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable Distillate Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  12. Fractional distillation of C/sub 2//C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons at optimum pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1984-08-07

    A method of recovering by distillation the separate components of a hydrocarbon gas mixture comprising ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane which comprises separating the ethylene and ethane as an overhead from a propylene and propane bottom in a first distillation tower at from about 400 to about 600 psia, separating ethylene and ethane as an ethylene overhead and an ethane bottom in a second distillation tower at from about 600 to about 700 psia, and separating propylene as an overhead from a propane bottom in a third distillation tower at from about 280 to about 300 psia is disclosed.

  13. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  14. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  15. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  16. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  17. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  18. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  19. Process for LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Sh. A.; Haliburton, J.

    1985-03-26

    An improved process is described for the separation and recovery of substantially all the propane and heavier hydrocarbon components in a hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. In this process, the vapor stream from a deethanizer is cooled to liquefaction and contacted with a vapor phase from the hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. The contact takes place within a direct heat exchanger, and the resulting vapor fraction, which is essentially ethane and methane, is the gaseous product of the process.

  20. LPG in Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calcagno, O.

    1986-01-01

    The GNP for Argentina in 1985 was of about 70 billion dollars ( a little over 2200 dollars/capita), the same as 1970 in real terms; foreign debt being over 40 billion. After several years of negative GNP growth, it will probably show a moderate increase in 1986. Industry represents 21 percent of the GNP, agriculture 16 percent. Total exports 12-14 percent. Imports are 8-9 percent. Historical investment of the energy sector was about 3.4 percent. The State, the Public Sector, plays an important role in every aspect, concentrating about 50 percent of the economy. For example, the Central Government sets official prices for most of the forms of energy. Normally, these prices do not relate to international price levels. The country has to catch up with the developed world and it is striving to increase productivity. There is a need to get its products to the external market as well as to attract foreign investment. The government has apparently become fully aware of that, being now a matter of how those goals are accomplished. It may take some time and reeducation of people at all levels to do so.

  1. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  2. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  3. MotorMaster+ | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MotorMaster+ April 10, 2014 - 3:17pm Addthis MotorMaster+ MotorMaster+ is a free online National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Premium¬ģ efficiency motor selection and management tool that supports motor and motor systems planning by identifying the most efficient action for a given repair or motor purchase decision. The tool includes a catalog of more than 20,000 low-voltage induction motors, and features motor inventory management tools, maintenance log tracking, efficiency

  4. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  5. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  6. Magnet Motor Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnet Motor Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Magnet Motor Corp. Place: Starnberg, Germany Zip: 82319 Sector: Vehicles Product: Magnet motor Corp has been developing and...

  7. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  8. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported...

  9. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  10. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  11. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  12. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  13. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  14. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported by motor proteins. These tiny machines convert the energy gained from hydrolysing ATP into a series of small conformational changes that allow them to literally "walk" along microscopic tracks. Motor proteins (in the kinesin and myosin families) have been extensively studied by x-ray crystallography, but

  15. Research Laboratories General Motors Corporation General Motors Technical Center

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MI. 1-q Research Laboratories General Motors Corporation General Motors Technical Center Warren, Michigan 48090 January 21, 1977 Occupational Health Standards Branch Office of Standards Development U. S. Nuclear Requlatory Commission Washington, D.C. 20555 Attention: Mr. Robert E. Alexander, Chief Dear Mr. Alexander: In 1974, General Motors Corporation acquired a manufacturing plant in Adrian, Michigan. On October 21, 1976, General Motors announced that work would begin immediately to prepare

  16. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  17. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  18. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  19. AGNI Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Zip: 370 230 Sector: Vehicles Product: UK-based manufacturer of DC Motors and Battery Management Systems for Electric Vehicles References: AGNI Motors1 This article is a...

  20. Motor gasolines, summer 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    Samples for this report were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. Analytical data for the 1571 motor gasoline and 206 motor gasoline/alcohol blend samples were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, for reporting. This work is jointly funded by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office (DOE cooperative agreement No. FC22-83FE60149). The data are representative of the products of 62 marketers, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. They are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map shows the marketing areas, districts, and sampling locations. The report includes trend charts of selected properties of motor fuels over the last twenty-five years. Twelve octane distribution graphs for leaded and unleaded grades of gasoline are presented for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline sold in the United States during June, July, and August 1985 was 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.8 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. Analyses of motor gasoline containing various alcohols are reported in separate tables beginning with this report. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline containing alcohols was 88.6 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 90.2 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niven, William A. (Livermore, CA); Shikany, S. David (Danville, CA); Shira, Michael L. (Fremont, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  2. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  3. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  4. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  5. Kinetic and reactor models for HDT of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotta, R.M.; Filho, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of middle distillates over a commercial Ni-Mo/y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied under wide operating conditions just as 340 to 380{degrees}C and 38 to 98 atm. A Power Law model was presented to each one of those reactions. The parameters of kinetic equations were estimated solving the ordinary differential equations by the 4 order Runge-Kutta-Gill algorithm and Marquardt method for searching of set of kinetic parameters (kinetic constants as well as the orders of reactions). An adiabatic diesel hydrotreating trickle-bed reactor packed with the same catalyst was simulated numerically in order to check up the behavior of this specific reaction system. One dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model was used in this work. For each feed, the mass and energy balance equations were integrated along the length of the catalytic bed using the 4th Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The performance of two industrial reactors was checked. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  7. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  8. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  9. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy

  10. When to Purchase Premium Efficiency Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Purchase Premium Efficiency Motors Consider premium effciency motors for new motor procurements when specifying motor-driven equipment, repairing or rewinding failed standard effciency motors, or as replacements for older, operable lower effciency motors. This is particularly important when the existing motor has been rewound or is oversized and underloaded. In August 2001, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) introduced a premium energy-effciency motor standard. Under

  11. Motor technology for mining applications advances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

  12. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  13. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main goal is to develop methods and software tools for the identification and analysis of optimal multi-component distillation configurations for reduced energy consumption in industrial processes.

  14. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  15. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  16. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  18. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Motor gasolines, Summer 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

  20. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  1. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity Presentation given at 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_gallant.pdf More Documents & Publications Cetane

  2. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  3. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Data Series: Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline (less Adj.) Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blenede w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, > Ed55 Other Conventional Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet, Military

  4. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  5. Mission Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    External resources Los Angeles Times Auto Blog Autobloggreen Treehugger.com Autopia (Wired) References "Mission Motors: Contact" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  6. How to Build a Motor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motor Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand...

  7. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Though it conducts electricity less efficiently than copper, aluminum is the industry’s preferred fabrication material in electric induction motor rotors. Traditional tool steel casting molds...

  8. Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This guidebook provides a step-by-step approach to developing a motor system ... The publication is designed to complement DOE's MotorMaster+ motor selection and motor ...

  9. Experimental investigation on hydrogen cryogenic distillation equipped with package made by ICIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.

    2015-03-15

    ICIT (Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies) has used its experience in cryogenic water distillation process to propose a similar process for hydrogen distillation that can be used in detritiation technologies. This process relies on the same packages but a stainless filling is tested instead of the phosphorous bronze filling used for water distillation. This paper presents two types of packages developed for hydrogen distillation, both have a stainless filling but it differs in terms of density, exchange surface and specific volume. Performance data have been obtained on laboratory scale. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions. Samples extracted at the top and bottom of cryogenic distillation column allowed mathematical processing to determine the separation performance. The experiments show a better efficiency for the package whose exchange surface was higher and there were no relevant differences between both packages as the operating pressure of the cryogenic column was increasing. For a complete characterization of the packages, future experiments will be considered to determine performance at various velocities in the column and their correlation with the pressure in the column. We plan further experiments to separate tritium from the mixture of isotopes DT, having in view that our goal is to apply this results to a detritiation plant.

  10. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  11. Alternative Motor Fuel Use Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-11-16

    AMFU is a tool for the analysis and prediction of motor fuel use by highway vehicles. The model advances the art of vehicle stock modeling by including a representation of the choice of motor fuel for flexible and dual fuel vehicles.

  12. EcoMotors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: EcoMotors Place: California Zip: 94952 Product: EcoMotors is a family-controlled developer of green cars, Diesels and Hybrids. References: EcoMotors1 This...

  13. MotorMaster+ Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tool Suite. PDF icon MotorMaster+ Tool Presentation (March 19, 2009) More Documents & Publications AMO Software Tools MotorMaster+ User Manual MotorMaster+ Software Tool Brochure...

  14. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  15. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  16. Global optimization of multicomponent distillation configurations: 2. Enumeration based global minimization algorithm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nallasivam, Ulaganathan; Shah, Vishesh H.; Shenvi, Anirudh A.; Huff, Joshua; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2016-02-10

    We present a general Global Minimization Algorithm (GMA) to identify basic or thermally coupled distillation configurations that require the least vapor duty under minimum reflux conditions for separating any ideal or near-ideal multicomponent mixture into a desired number of product streams. In this algorithm, global optimality is guaranteed by modeling the system using Underwood equations and reformulating the resulting constraints to bilinear inequalities. The speed of convergence to the globally optimal solution is increased by using appropriate feasibility and optimality based variable-range reduction techniques and by developing valid inequalities. As a result, the GMA can be coupled with already developedmore¬†¬Ľ techniques that enumerate basic and thermally coupled distillation configurations, to provide for the first time, a global optimization based rank-list of distillation configurations.¬ę¬†less

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Motor Thermal Management A photo of a piece of laboratory testing equipment. NREL research in electric motors is helping to improve the performance and reliability of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Kevin Bennion, NREL NREL's electric motor thermal management research generates experimental data and simulation processes for the modeling, analysis, design, and construction of new electric motors. Electric motor thermal management involves a multifaceted interaction of motor operating

  18. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology November 8, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis An EERE-supported effort to ...

  19. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  20. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  1. Renault Samsung Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renault Samsung Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renault Samsung Motors Place: Korea (Republic) Sector: Solar Product: Korea-based automobile manufacturer. The firm is also...

  2. MotorMaster+ International | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Electrical and Electronic Engineers(IEEE) standard, and 50 Hz motors manufactured ... IEC metric motors with efficiency values taken in accordance with the IEEE test protocol. ...

  3. Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In such cases, motor life can be extended by purchasing special motors, such as those conforming to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 841 specifcations, ...

  4. Trexa Motor Corporation TMC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trexa Motor Corporation TMC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trexa Motor Corporation (TMC) Place: Los Angeles, California Sector: Vehicles Product: Los Angeles - based subsidiary...

  5. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turn Motors Off When Not in Use Motors do not use energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard effciency motor with a premium effciency motor. In fact, given that more than 97% 1 of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor in a typical installation is energy related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase several new motors. However, a belief persists that stopping

  6. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  7. ,"New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel

  8. Evaluation of Exxon donor solvent full-range distillate as a utility boiler

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Evaluation of Exxon donor solvent full-range distillate as a utility boiler fuel. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Exxon donor solvent full-range distillate as a utility boiler fuel. Final report The use of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) as a utility boiler fuel was evaluated at Southern California Edison Company's Highgrove Unit 4, a Combustion Engineering 44.5 net Mw wall-fired boiler.

  9. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel File

  10. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  11. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  12. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  13. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  14. OIT Forest Products Motor Challenge Industry Profile: Motor System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    spends 3.6 billion or about 2.6% of its overall operating costs to operate electric motor systems-higher than any other 2- digit manufacturing SIC. Opportunities to effectively...

  15. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  16. MotorMaster+ International Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Fact Sheet MotorMaster+ International Fact Sheet This fact sheet describes how industrial plants can improve their motor system performance for a broader range of motors with AMO's MotorMaster+ International software tool. PDF icon MotorMaster+ International Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications MotorMaster+ Software Tool Brochure MotorMaster+ Fact Sheet MotorMaster+ Tool

  17. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premiumģ efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  18. Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldridge, R. Bruce; Seibert, A. Frank; Robinson, Sharon; Rogers, Jo

    2005-04-01

    This report focuses on improving the existing separations systems for the two largest energy-consuming sectors: the chemicals and petroleum refining industries. It identifies the technical challenges and research needs for improving the efficiency of distillation systems. Areas of growth are also highlighted.

  19. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  20. Tesla Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to hold an initial public offering soon.2 References Tesla Motors http:www.reuters.comarticleGCA-GreenBusinessidUSTRE5AJ41M20091120?rpc64&sptrue Retrieved from...

  1. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  2. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  3. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  4. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  5. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  6. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  7. Motor Repair Tech Brief | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Repair Tech Brief Motor Repair Tech Brief This Tech Brief answers: Why do motors fail? When should you repair instead of replace? And how can reliability and efficiency be assured in a repair? PDF icon Motor Repair Tech Brief (March 2000) More Documents & Publications Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor Service Center Evaluation Guide Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for Industry

  8. Training: Motor Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Systems Training: Motor Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:33pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who have met rigorous standards. View additional motor system resources. Motor Systems Management - 1-day workshop Availability: Onsite instructor-led This one-day workshop helps facility personnel-maintenance staff, plant managers, and plant engineers gain an understanding of electric motor systems management and skills

  9. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  10. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  11. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  12. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  13. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuckovich, Michael (Elizabeth, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Burkett, John P. (South Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  14. MotorMaster+ User Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MotorMaster+ User Manual MotorMaster+ User Manual This user manual is designed to help users understand the MotorMaster+ software tool. PDF icon MotorMaster+ User Manual More Documents & Publications MotorMaster+ International Fact Sheet Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor MotorMaster+ Fact Sheet

  15. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  16. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  17. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Energy Efficient Multicomponent Distillation Column Trains

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rakesh Agrawal, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Ôāó Multicomponent Distillation is Ubiquitous in all Chemical/Petrochemical/Biochemical plants * Separations contributes 40-70% of capital/operating cost of a typical processing plant. * 90-95% of all separations in a plant are done by

  18. U.S. Total No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users, Average - - - - - - 1983-2015 Residential - - - - - - 1983-2015 Commercial/Institutional - - - - - - 1983-2015 Industrial - - - - - - 1983-2015 Through Retail Outlets - - - - - - 1983-2015 Other End Users - - - - - - 1983-2015 Sales for Resale - - - - - - 1983-2015 No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users, Average - - - - - - 1994-2015 Commercial/Institutional - - - - - - 1994-2015 Industrial - - - - - -

  19. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  20. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  1. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  2. Honda Motor Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Honda Motor Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 107-8556 Sector: Vehicles Product: Leading global car manufacturer which began...

  3. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  4. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy-efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to describe the actual load served by the motor as compared to the rated full-load capability of the motor. Motor part-loads may be estimated through using input power, amperage, or speed measurements. This fact sheet briefly discusses several load estimation techniques.

  5. Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair Acknowledgements The following series of Repair Documents-The Service Center Evaluation Guide, Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair, Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Motors, and Motor Repair Tech Brief- were produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) with input from trade associations, consulting companies, manufacturers, non-profit corporations, and others. OIT would like to thank the

  6. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  7. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or oversized-for the load they are intended to serve, or have been re- wound multiple times. To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy- efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to

  8. Energy Management for Motor-Driven Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document assists in establishing an energy management plan, identifying energy savings opportunities, and designing a motor improvement plan.

  9. S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table C3. Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2013 (Trillion Btu) State Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels (as commingled) Coal Natural Gas excluding Supplemental Gaseous Fuels a Petroleum Total Natural Gas including Supplemental Gaseous Fuels a Motor Gasoline including Fuel Ethanol a Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline excluding Fuel Ethanol a Residual Fuel Oil Other d Total Alabama ........... 565.1 628.5 145.4 13.2 11.3 289.1 6.9 42.1 508.0 1,701.6 628.5 311.0 Alaska

  10. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"...

  12. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG...

  13. "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " "," ",,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG...

  14. Released: February 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,,,"Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)","LPG...

  15. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape030_bennion_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape030_bennion_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

  18. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Rollin G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kortegaard, Bert L. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  20. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  1. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  2. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  3. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); McConnell, Benjamin W. (Knoxville, TN); Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  4. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2014-02-04

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that generally may include a first cylindrical stator centered about a longitudinal axis; a second cylindrical stator centered about the axis, a first cylindrical rotor centered about the axis and located between the first cylindrical stator and the second cylindrical stator. The first cylindrical stator, the second cylindrical stator and the first cylindrical rotor may be concentrically aligned. A magnetic field having field lines about parallel with the longitudinal axis is provided.

  5. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Phillips, B.A.

    1996-07-02

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit. 6 figs.

  6. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  7. U.S. Total No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users, Average 1.964 2.449 - - - - 1983-2014 Residential 2.386 2.798 - - - - 1978-2014 Commercial/Institutional 1.878 2.358 - - - - 1983-2014 Industrial 1.914 2.409 - - - - 1983-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1.953 2.467 - - - - 1983-2014 Other End Users 1.911 2.382 - - - - 1983-2014 Sales for Resale 1.727 2.216 - - - - 1983-2014 No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users, Average 1.918 2.415 - - - - 1994-2014

  8. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016"

  9. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  10. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  11. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes vs. Water Distillation for Water Detritiation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC COMPARISON OF WATER-HYDROGEN CATALYTIC EXCHANGE PROCESSES VERSUS WATER DISTILLATION FOR WATER DETRITIATION A. Busigin, Ph.D., P.Eng. April 22, 2014 NITEK USA, Inc. 8439 Leeward Air Ranch CIR Ocala, FL 34472-9261 U.S.A. Tel: (352) 537-0864 Email: abusigin@nitek.com Presentation Objectives Presented at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC 2 * Principles of operation - Elementary separation factors * Historical

  12. System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yan, Ting; Luebke, Charles John; Sharma, Santosh Kumar

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.

  13. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turn Motors Off When Not in Use Turn Motors Off When Not in Use Motors do not use energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a premium efficiency motor. This tip sheet discusses pros and cons of repeated motor starts and stops and provides suggested actions. Motor Systems Tip Sheet #10 PDF icon Turn Motors Off When Not in Use (November 2012) More Documents & Publications Improving Motor and Drive

  14. Method for assessing in-service motor efficiency and in-service motor/load efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assessing the efficiency of an in-service motor. The operating characteristics of the in-service motor are remotely measured. The operating characteristics are then applied to an equivalent circuit for electrical motors. Finally the equivalent circuit is evaluated to determine the performance characteristics of said in-service motor. Based upon the evaluation an individual is able to determine the rotor speed, power output, efficiency, and toque of the in-service motor. Additionally, an individual is able to confirm the calculations by comparing measured values with values obtained as a result of the motor equivalent circuit evaluation.

  15. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  16. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  17. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  18. When to Purchase Premium Efficiency Motors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Consider premium efficiency motors for new motor procurements when specifying motor-driven equipment, repairing or rewinding failed standard efficiency motors, or as replacements for older, operable lower efficiency motors. This is particularly important when the existing motor has been rewound or is oversized and underloaded. This tip sheet provides example calculation of potential savings and offers suggested actions. Motor Systems Tip Sheet #1 PDF icon When to Purchase Premium Efficiency

  19. Optimizing Your Motor-Driven System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPTIMIZING YOUR MOTOR-DRIVEN SYSTEM Electric motor-driven systems are estimated to consume over half of all electricity in the United States and over 70% of all electricity in many industrial plants. This fact sheet presents an overview of electric drive systems and highlights common ways you can improve system efficiency and reli- ability. By optimizing the efficiency of your motor-driven systems, you can increase productivity while saving significant amounts of energy and money. Introduction A

  20. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fxed speed systems are modifed to allow for variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump. 1 Loads that vary by 30% of full load over time offer good opportunities for cost-effective adjustable speed drive (ASD) retrofts. Market assessment studies indicate that

  1. The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment The objective of optimized shaft alignment is to increase the operating life span of rotating machinery. To achieve this goal, components that are the most likely to fail must be made to operate within their acceptable design limits. While misalignment has no measurable effect on motor effciency, correct shaft alignment ensures the smooth, effcient transmission of power from the motor to the driven equipment. Incorrect alignment occurs when the centerlines

  2. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  3. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  4. When Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified? - Motor Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) used to be marketed as ďusable with any standard motor.Ē However, premature failures of motor insulation systems began to occur with the introduction of fast-switching pulse-width modulated (PWM) drives.

  5. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  6. Catalytically Induced Electrokinetics for Motors and Micropumps...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrokinetics for Motors and Micropumps. Abstract not provided. Authors: Paxton, Walter F Publication Date: 2011-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118642 Report Number(s):...

  7. List of Motors Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DuctAir sealing Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Motors Refrigerators Water Heaters Windows Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes Burbank Water & Power -...

  8. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

  9. MotorMaster+ Software Tool Brochure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brochure provides information on AMO's MotorMaster+ software tool, including how it works, next steps, and how to access it.

  10. Mission Motors Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94103 Product: San Francisco-based electric Motorcycle manufacturer. References: Mission Motors Company1 This article is a stub. You can...

  11. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w Fuel Ethanol ...

  12. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  13. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  14. Sterling Motor Technologie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologie Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sterling Motor Technologie Place: Karlsruhe, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: 76131 Product: Development of sterling engines....

  15. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  16. Motor Wave Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wave Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Motor Wave Group Place: Hong Kong Region: China Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.motorwavegroup.com This company is listed...

  17. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

  18. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  19. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike todayís large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldorís motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  20. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  1. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  2. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In most cases, upgrading to premium efficiency motors has no noticeable impact on the electrical system. However, in rare cases nuisance trips can occur during start-up. Addressing this topic requires an understanding of starting current.This tip sheet discusses how to avoid nuisance tripping with premium efficiency motors and provides suggested actions.

  3. Buying an Energy-Efficient Electric Motor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying an Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Buying an Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Efficiency is an important factor to consider when buying or rewinding an electric motor. This...

  4. Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Place: Starnberg, Germany Zip: D-82319 Product: Proton Motor Fuel Cell has been developing and...

  5. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  6. A Five-Leg Inverter for Driving a Traction Motor and a Compressor Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Hsu, John S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated inverter for speed control of a traction motor and a compressor motor to reduce the compressor drive cost in EV/HEV applications. The inverter comprises five phase-legs; three of which are for control of a three-phase traction motor and the remaining two for a two-phase compressor motor with three terminals. The common terminal of the two-phase motor is tied to the neutral point of the three-phase traction motor to eliminate the requirement of a third phase leg. Further cost savings are made possible by sharing the switching devices, dc bus filter capacitors, gate drive power supplies, and control circuit. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify that speed control of the two motors is independent from each other.

  7. Honda motor company's CVCC engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, W.J.; Ronan, L.

    1980-07-01

    Honda Motor Company of Japan in a four-year period from 1968 to 1872 designed, tested, and mass-produced a stratified charge engine, the CVCC, which in comparison to conventional engines of similar output at the time was lower in CO, HC and NO/sub x/ emissions and higher in fuel economy. Honda developed the CVCC engine without government assistance or outside help. Honda's success came at a time when steadily increasing fuel costs and the various provisions of the Clean Air Act had forced US automakers to consider possible alternatives to the conventional gasoline engine. While most major engine manufacturers had investigated some form of stratified charge engine, Honda's CVCC was the only one to find successful market application. This case study examines the circumstances surrounding the development of the CVCC engine and its introduction into the Japanese and American markets.

  8. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2012-09-11

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that include a stator fixedly connected to a first central support centered about a central axis. The stator elements are attached to the first central support. Similarly, a second stator is connected to a central support centered about the central axis, and the second stator has stator elements attached to the second central support. A rotor is located between the first stator and the second stator and includes an outer support, where the rotor is rotatably centered about the central axis, the rotor having elements in contact with the outer support, each rotor element having an extending rotor portion that extends radially from the outer support toward the axis of rotation.

  9. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop line-start and line-run constant-speed electric motors and simple-to-control electric motors with the goal of obtaining at least a 30% reduction in motor losses as compared to conventional energy-efficient induction motors and a 15% reduction in motor losses as compared to NEMA Premiumģ efficient induction motors.

  10. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Power-Dense Electric Motors Advanced Electric Motors Offer Large Energy Savings in Industrial Applications Pumps, fans, and compressors use more than 60% of industrial electric motor energy in the United States. The most widely used motors in these applications are constant-speed motors that are started and run across the line. In some applications, variable- speed motors, powered from an open-loop variable-speed drive, are utilized without any rotor position feedback device to achieve more

  11. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Industry | Department of Energy Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for Industry Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for Industry This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards,

  12. Improve Motor System Efficiency with MotorMaster+, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program MotorMaster+ software tool aids industrial plants with finding energy-efficient motor replacement options and managing motor systems.

  13. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This is one in a series of sourcebooks to assist industrial personnel in understanding and optimizing motors and motor-driven systems

  14. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This is one in a series of sourcebooks to assist industrial personnel in understanding and optimizing motors and motor-driven systems.

  15. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and ...

  16. United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to ...

  17. Improved Organics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Improved Organics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors Thermally Conductive Organic Dielectrics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors John ...

  18. Improved Organics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermally Conductive Organic Dielectrics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors Improved Organics for Power Electronics and Electric Motors ORNL: ...

  19. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  20. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  1. When Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  2. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-05-21

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices are disclosed. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device. 16 figs.

  3. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor...

  4. Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing (3M) conducted an in-house...

  5. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment The objectives of the Market Assessment were...

  6. TEE-0003 - In the Matter of Emerson Motor Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    03 - In the Matter of Emerson Motor Technologies TEE-0003 - In the Matter of Emerson Motor Technologies This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by...

  7. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device.

  8. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for Industry Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide - A Handbook for Industry This handbook...

  9. United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary In addition to serving...

  10. Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor This fact sheet will assist in decisions regarding replacement of...

  11. Vision Industries dba Vision Motor Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries dba Vision Motor Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vision Industries (dba Vision Motor Corp) Place: Santa Monica, California Zip: 90405 Product: Santa Monica-based...

  12. Ford Motor Co Sustainable Technologies and Hybrid Programme ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Co Sustainable Technologies and Hybrid Programme Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Motor Co - Sustainable Technologies and Hybrid Programme Place: Allen Park, Michigan...

  13. Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles Name: Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles Address: 555 Wright Way Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89711 Phone Number: 702-486-4368 Website:...

  14. New rocket propellant and motor design offer high-performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New rocket propellant and motor design offer high-performance and safety New rocket propellant and motor design offer high-performance and safety Scientists recently flight tested...

  15. Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  16. Building Green in Greensburg: Dwane Shank Motors GM Dealership...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green in Greensburg: Dwane Shank Motors GM Dealership Building Green in Greensburg: Dwane Shank Motors GM Dealership This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and ...

  17. GENERAL MOTORS (GM) DIESEL TREND ANALYSIS RESULTS 1991-1993 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: GENERAL MOTORS (GM) DIESEL TREND ANALYSIS RESULTS 1991-1993 (U) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GENERAL MOTORS (GM) DIESEL TREND ANALYSIS RESULTS ...

  18. Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Some utility companies and public agencies offer rebates to encourage customers to upgrade their ...

  19. The Paris Motor Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Paris Motor Show The Paris Motor Show October 4, 2010 - 9:39am Addthis David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow David Sandalow Former Under Secretary of Energy (Acting) and Assistant Secretary for Policy & International Affairs At the Paris Motor Show today, electric cars are everywhere. Chevrolet is showing off the Volt, its plug-in hybrid due in U.S. showrooms this December. (Motown music blared as a Chevy rep

  20. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2005-05-10

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  1. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2006-08-22

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  2. U N I T E D S T A T E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices and Expenditures 25 Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2013, United States Year Primary Energy Electric Power Sector h,j Retail Electricity Total Energy g,h,i Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i,j Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Exports Imports Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f,g Prices in Dollars per Million Btu

  3. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal b Natural Gas c Petroleum Total h,i Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil d Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG e Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline f Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other g Total 1973 Total .................... 1,207 1,178 6 480 155 32 92 13 911 54 508 100 2,350 4,735 1975 Total .................... 1,181 1,046 5 443 146 24 82 11 911 51 443 97 2,212 4,439 1980 Total

  4. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    78 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review February 2016 Table 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Electricity f Total g Distillate Fuel Oil c Kerosene LPG d Motor Gasoline e Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total 1973 Total ........................ 15 141 47 5 9 6 NA 52 120 334 609 1975 Total ........................ 14 136 43 4 8 6 NA 39 100 333 583 1980

  5. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Table 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity g Total h Distillate Fuel Oil c Kero- sene LPG d Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other f Total 1973 Total .................... 371 -1 536 106 11 44 7 18 52 144 100 483 515 1,904 1975 Total .................... 336 2 440 97 9 39 6 16 51 117 97 431 490 1,697 1980 Total

  6. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review February 2016 Table 12.5 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity f Total g Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil c Jet Fuel LPG d Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Residual Fuel Oil Total 1973 Total ........................ (s) 39 6 163 152 3 6 886 57 1,273 2 1,315 1975 Total ........................ (s) 32 5 155

  7. Word Pro - S3

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    59 Table 3.4 Petroleum Stocks (Million Barrels) Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil f Jet Fuel g LPG b Motor Gasoline i Residual Fuel Oil Other j Total SPR c Non-SPR d,e Total e Propane h Total 1950 Year ..................... - - 248 248 72 g ( ) NA 2 116 41 104 583 1955 Year ..................... - - 266 266 111 3 NA 7 165 39 123 715 1960 Year ..................... - - 240 240 138 7 NA 23 195 45 137 785 1965 Year ..................... - - 220 220 155 19 NA 30 175 56 181 836 1970 Year

  8. Word Pro - S3

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Trillion Btu) Asphalt and Road Oil Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil b Jet Fuel c Kero- sene LPG a Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Petro- leum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other f Total Propane d Total 1950 Total ...................... 435 199 2,300 c ( ) 668 NA 343 236 5,015 90 3,482 546 13,315 1955 Total ...................... 615 354 3,385 301 662 NA 592 258 6,640 147 3,502 798 17,255 1960 Total ...................... 734 298 3,992

  9. Word Pro - S3

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review February 2016 55 Table 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports and Exports by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Imports Exports Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel d LPG b Motor Gasoline f Residual Fuel Oil Other g Total Crude Oil a Petroleum Products Total SPR c Total Propane e Total 1950 Average ................ - - 487 7 d ( ) - - (s) 329 27 850 95 210 305 1955 Average ................ - - 782 12 d ( ) - - 13 417 24 1,248 32 336 368 1960

  10. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66

  12. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110

  13. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7

  14. Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA

  15. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  16. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  17. Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-02-11

    In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

  18. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  19. Tesla Motors Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vehicles Product: California-based producer of luxury electric vehicles, such as sports cars. References: Tesla Motors Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  20. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  1. Method and apparatus for large motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Chris R. (Santa Fe, NM); Nelson, Ronald O. (White Rock, NM)

    2003-08-12

    Apparatus and method for providing digital signal processing method for controlling the speed and phase of a motor involves inputting a reference signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of a time based signal; modifying the reference signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the reference signal; inputting a feedback signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of the operation of said motor; modifying the feedback signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the feedback signal; analyzing the modified reference signal and the modified feedback signal to determine the frequency of the modified reference signal and of the modified feedback signal and said relative phase between said modified reference signal and said modified feedback signal; and outputting control signals to the motor for adjusting said speed and phase of the motor based on the frequency determination and determination of the relative phase.

  2. Trapped field internal dipole superconducting motor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    2001-01-01

    A motor generator including a high temperature superconductor rotor and an internally disposed coil assembly. The motor generator superconductor rotor is constructed of a plurality of superconductor elements magnetized to produce a dipole field. The coil assembly can be either a conventional conductor or a high temperature superconductor. The superconductor rotor elements include a magnetization direction and c-axis for the crystals of the elements and which is oriented along the magnetization direction.

  3. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  4. Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September 2003), high crude oil costs and other factors are expected to yield average retail motor gasoline prices higher than those of last year. Current crude oil prices reflect a substantial uncertainty premium due to concerns about the current conflict in the Persian Gulf, lingering questions about whether Venezuelan oil production will recover to near pre-strike

  5. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1995-01-01

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  6. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors In most cases, upgrading to premium effciency motors has no noticeable impact on the electrical system. However, in rare cases nuisance trips can occur during start-up. Addressing this topic requires an understanding of starting current. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) recognizes and describes two components of starting current: instantaneous peak inrush and locked rotor current (LRC). Nuisance tripping primarily has

  7. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  8. General Motors Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Motors Perspective General Motors Perspective Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. PDF icon compressed_hydrogen2011_2_oelerich.pdf More Documents & Publications Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen Storage Systems - Workshop Summary Report Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

  9. Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems A GUIDEBOOK FOR INDUSTRY Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems DISCLAIMER This publication was prepared by the Washington State University Energy Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Neither the United States, DOE, the Copper Development Association, the Washington State University Energy Program, National Electrical

  10. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motors A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon apep_02_burress.pdf More Documents & Publications A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets

  11. Convective Cooling and Passive Stack Improvements in Motors (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL in convective cooling and passive stack improvements in motors.

  12. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Motors are designed to operate within ¬Ī 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded. This tip sheet describes what happens to motor performance when voltage varies and provides suggested actions.

  13. A Guide to AC Motor Repair and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    This booklet provides helpful information for making informed repair or replace decisions for electric motors.

  14. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  15. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Post, R.F.

    1998-01-06

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An ``inside-out`` design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then ``switched`` or ``commutated`` to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives. 17 figs.

  16. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An "inside-out" design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then "switched" or "commutated" to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives.

  17. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump. This tip sheet describes the advantages of magnetically coupled ASDs and provides suggested actions. Motor Systems Tip Sheet #13 PDF icon Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives (November

  18. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within ¬Ī 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor effciency and other performance parameters are degraded. There are certain standard utilization voltages for motors. These correspond to (but are about 4% lower than) standard service voltages. The voltage difference is established to allow for a reasonable line voltage drop between the transformer

  19. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the

  20. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key

  1. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors These Model Repair Specifications are intended to cover routine repair and rewind of low-voltage random-wound three-phase AC squirrel cage induction motors. PDF icon Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors (November 1999) More Documents & Publications DOE Navigant Master Presentation Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A

  2. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  3. Commercial Building Motor Protection Response Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Daniel P.; Kueck, John

    2015-06-17

    When voltages recover, motors may immediately reenergize and reaccelerate, or delay for a few minutes, or stay stalled. The estimated motor response is given for both the voltage sag magnitude and voltage sag duration. These response estimates are based on experience and available test data. Good data is available for voltage sag response for many components such as relays and contactors, but little data is available for both voltage sag and recovery response. The tables in Appendix A include data from recent voltage sag and recovery tests performed by SCE and BPA on air conditioners and energy management systems. The response of the motor can vary greatly depending on the type of protection and control. The time duration for the voltage sag consists of those times that are of interest for bulk power system modelers.

  4. The Role of Reluctance in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-06-16

    The international research community has lately focused efforts on interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors to produce a traction motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). One of the beneficial features of this technology is the additional torque produced by reluctance. The objective of this report is to analytically describe the role that reluctance plays in permanent magnet (PM) motors, to explore ways to increase reluctance torque without sacrificing the torque produced by the PMs, and to compare three IPM configurations with respect to torque, power, amount of magnet material required (cost), and percentage of reluctance torque. Results of this study will be used to determine future research directions in utilizing reluctance to obtain maximum torque and power while using a minimum amount of magnet material.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Program: A National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Program: A National Strategy for Energy Efficient Industrial Motor-Driven Systems U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Program: A...

  6. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  7. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level.

  8. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  9. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  10. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  11. Modeling Reluctance-Assisted PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2006-01-13

    This report contains a derivation of the fundamental equations used to calculate the base speed, torque delivery, and power output of a reluctance-assisted PM motor which has a saliency ratio greater than 1 as a function of its terminal voltage, current, voltage-phase angle, and current-phase angle. The equations are applied to model Motor X using symbolically-oriented methods with the computer tool Mathematica to determine: (1) the values of current-phase angle and voltage-phase angle that are uniquely determined once a base speed has been selected; (2) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and current-phase angle; (3) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and voltage-phase angle; (4) the maximum-power output in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of speed; (5) the optimal voltage-phase angle in the voltage-limited region above base speed required to obtain maximum-power output; (6) the maximum-power speed curve which was linear from rest to base speed in the current limited region below base speed; (7) the current angle as a function of saliency ratio in the current-limited region below base speed; and (8) the torque as a function of saliency ratio which is almost linear in the current-limited region below base speed. The equations were applied to model Motor X using numerically-oriented methods with the computer tool LabVIEW. The equations were solved iteratively to find optimal current and voltage angles that yield maximum power and maximum efficiency from rest through the current-limited region to base speed and then through the voltage-limited region to high-rotational speeds. Currents, voltages, and reluctance factors were all calculated and external loops were employed to perform additional optimization with respect to PM pitch angle (magnet fraction) and with respect to magnet strength. The conclusion was that the optimal-magnet fraction for Motor X is 0.72 which corresponds to a PM pitch angle of 130{sup o}, a value close to the maximum-saliency ratio in a plot of saliency ratio versus PM pitch angle. Further, the strength of Motor X magnets may be lowered to 80% of full strength without significantly impacting motor performance for PM pitch angles between the peak saliency (130{sup o}) and peak-characteristic current (160{sup o}). It is recommended that future research involve maximizing a driving-cycle-weighted efficiency based on the Federal Urban Driving Cycle and the Federal Highway Driving Cycle as criteria for selecting the final optimal-PM fraction and magnet strength for this inset PM motor. Results of this study indicate that the reduction in PM torque due to reduced-magnet fraction will be more than compensated by the reluctance torque resulting from the higher saliency ratio. It seems likely that the best overall performance will require saliency; consequently, we think the best motor will be a reluctance-assisted PM motor. This should be explored for use with other types of PM motors, such as fractional-slot motors with concentrated windings.

  12. Collective alignment of polar filaments by molecular motors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Vershinin, M.; Gross, S. P.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Irvine

    2009-04-01

    We study the alignment of polar biofilaments, such as microtubules and actin, subject to the action of multiple molecular motors attached simultaneously to more than one filament. Focusing on a paradigm model of only two filaments interacting with multiple motors, we were able to investigate in detail the alignment dynamics. While almost no alignment occurs in the case of a single motor, the filaments become rapidly aligned due to the collective action of the motors. Our analysis shows that the alignment time is governed by the number of bound motors and the magnitude of the motors stepping fluctuations. We predict that the time scale of alignment is in the order of seconds, much faster than that reported for passive crosslink-induced bundling. In vitro experiments on the alignment of microtubules by multiple-motor covered beads are in qualitative agreement. We also discuss another mode of fast alignment of filaments, namely the cooperation between motors and passive crosslinks.

  13. 38017,"AMERADA HESS CORP ",1,130,"MOTOR...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    INC ",1,130,"MOTOR GAS, CONVENTIONAL, OTHER",4912,"GUAYANILLA, PR","PUERTO RICO",6,830,"SPAIN",15,0,0,,,,, 38017,"TRAMMO PETRO INC ",2,130,"MOTOR GAS, CONVENTIONAL,...

  14. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ... More Documents & Publications Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) R&D ...

  15. TRI State Motor Transit to Resume Shipping Waste to WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tri-State Motor Transit to Resume Shipping Transuranic Waste to WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., January 19, 2001 - Tri-State Motor Transit will resume shipping waste to the Waste Isolation...

  16. Secrets of the Motor That Drives Archaea Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secrets of the Motor That Drives Archaea Revealed Secrets of the Motor That Drives Archaea Revealed Print Thursday, 14 February 2013 00:00 An international team led by John Tainer...

  17. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, Kevin R. (Albuquerque, NM); Forsythe, James C. (Sandia Park, NM); Lippitt, Carl E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  18. Motor Thermal Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control Motor Thermal Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape030_bennion_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Management of PHEV / EV Charging Systems Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration

  19. Optimizing Your Motor-Driven System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet presents an overview of electric drive systems and highlights common ways you can improve system efficiency and reliability. By optimizing the efficiency of your motor-driven systems, you can increase productivity while saving significant amounts of energy and money.

  20. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions - Motor Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an extremely efficient and valuable asset to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to continuously operate at full output.

  1. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  2. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  3. Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair The following series of repair documents related to electric motors were produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office (formerly the Office of Industrial Technologies) with input from trade associations, consulting companies, manufacturers, non-profit operations, and others. PDF icon Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair (November 1999) More Documents &

  4. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use This 2-page fact sheet describes The Paper and Allied Products Industry spending to operate electric motor systems and opportunities to reduce these costs. PDF icon Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use (January 1999) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing United States

  5. Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material Characteristics Alnico and Ferrite Hybrid Excitation Electric Machines Wireless ...

  6. Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair The following series of repair documents related to electric motors were produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office (formerly the Office of Industrial Technologies) with input from trade associations, consulting companies, manufacturers, non-profit operations, and others. PDF icon Selected Bibliography on Electric Motor Repair (November 1999) More Documents &

  7. Electric Motors and Critical Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motors and Critical Materials Electric Motors and Critical Materials Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge ¬Ö Electric Drive (Power Electronics and Electric Machines) Workshop on July 24, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL. PDF icon 7b_electric_motors-and_critical_materials_ed.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Electric Motors and Critical Materials

  8. When Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified? Electronic adjustable speed drives, known as variable frequency drives (VFD), used to be marketed as "usable with any standard motor." However, premature failures of motor insulation systems began to occur as fast-switching, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) VFDs were introduced. The switching rates of modern power semiconductors can lead to voltage overshoots. These voltage spikes can rapidly damage a motor's insulation system, resulting in

  9. Motor Energy Savings Potential Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Energy Savings Potential Report Motor Energy Savings Potential Report This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption

  10. Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Industry | Department of Energy Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for Industry Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for Industry This guidebook provides a step-by-step approach to developing a motor system energy-improvement action plan. An action plan includes which motors should be repaired or replaced with higher efficiency models, recommendations on maintaining a spares inventory, and discussion of improvements in

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Electric Motors Research and Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office: Electric Motors Research and Development Vehicle Technologies Office: Electric Motors Research and Development To reach the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge goal, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting research and development (R&D) to improve motors in hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, with a particular focus on reducing the use of rare earth materials currently used for permanent magnet-based motors. In an electric drive

  12. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  13. EERE-2010-BT-STD-0027 Ex Parte Letter NEMA Motor Training re...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0-BT-STD-0027 Ex Parte Letter NEMA Motor Training re DOE Motors Rule 15 July 2013. EERE-2010-BT-STD-0027 Ex Parte Letter NEMA Motor Training re DOE Motors Rule 15 July 2013. This...

  14. Demodulation circuit for AC motor current spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrix, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-12-18

    A motor current analysis method for the remote, noninvasive inspection of electric motor-operated systems. Synchronous amplitude demodulation and phase demodulation circuits are used singly and in combination along with a frequency analyzer to produce improved spectral analysis of load-induced frequencies present in the electric current flowing in a motor-driven system.

  15. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  16. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluate the fouling characteristics in field testing, and remove the uncertainty factors included in the estimated payback period for the H2O2 distillation system.

  17. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objectives of the Market Assessment were to: Develop a detailed profile of the stock of motor-driven equipment in U.S. industrial facilities; Characterize and estimate the magnitude of opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of industrial motor systems; Develop a profile of motor system purchase and maintenance practices; Develop and implement a procedure to update the detailed motor profile on a regular basis using readily available market information; and, Develop methods to estimate the energy savings and market effects attributable to the Motor Challenge Program.

  18. LPG in Latin America: An overall view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaronga, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Latin America is about 2.2 times the size of the United States and, in population, it exceeds the U.S. by 165 million people. A relatively high population growth rate, together with its vast underdeveloped natural resources, gives Latin America a tremendous potential for progress. The desire of governments to advance economically, together with the proper stimuli to education and to the managerial resources, should translate this potential in reality. This is evident in a number of regions.

  19. Process boasts 95% selectivity for LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkmeyer, F.M.; Drehman, L.E.; Olbrich, M.E.; Rohr, D.F.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes a new Phillips catalytic process for the dehydrogenation and/or the dehydrocyclization of paraffinic feedstocks, steam active reforming (STAR), which produces no structural isomerization. Light paraffins such as propane, isobutane, and normal butane can be dehydrogenated to their respective mono-olefins with selectivities as high as 95%. The process offers such advantages as: it will accept a wide range of feedstocks; selectivity to desired products is high; there is a minimum of structural isomerization which permits the production of specific products from particular feedstocks with high purity; it works well with paraffinic and olefinic materials which make poor feeds in conventional reforming processes; and the catalyst has moderate tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  20. Cryogenic recovery of LPG from natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.L.; McClintock, W.A.

    1984-02-07

    In accordance with the present invention a natural gas stream predominating in methane and containing significant amounts of C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is cooled in a plurality of cooling stages to a temperature sufficient to produce at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. Then at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is separated from the main gas stream during the course of the cooling. The thus separated liquid phase portion or portions predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is further separated into a vapor phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, at least one second separation step, at least one portion of the at least one vapor phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/, hydrocarbons is recovered as at least one product of the process and at least one portion of the remaining portion of the at least one phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons is recycled to and recombined with the main gas stream as a liquid phase.