National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for low-pressure sodium lamps

  1. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  2. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-04-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3 and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore »in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach two orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s?1) ten-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ? 100 s?1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. This finding may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over an order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ± 25% for OH exposure and within ± 60% for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  3. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore »in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s?1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s?1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ±25 % for OH exposure and within ±60 % for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. OHexp calculated from direct integration and estimated from SO2 decay in the model with laminar and measured residence time distributions (RTDs) are generally within a factor of 2 from the plug-flow OHexp. However, in the models with RTDs, OHexp estimated from SO2 is systematically lower than directly integrated OHexp in the case of significant SO2 consumption. We thus recommended using OHexp estimated from the decay of the species under study when possible, to obtain the most appropriate information on photochemical aging in the OFR. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  4. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  5. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pressure Sodium Light Emitting Diode Lamp Lumen Depreciationit is expected that light emitting diode (LED) lamps willLED Technology Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging

  6. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

    2011-01-25

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  7. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  8. Aperture lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  9. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  10. Propagation of light in low pressure gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacques Moret-Bailly

    2012-04-13

    The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

  11. Alternative Strategies for Low-Pressure End Uses; Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lower pressures. The ones that can operate at low pressure could be supported with alternative methods. * Consider a professional compressed air system evaluation. Such an exam...

  12. Fluorescent Tube Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps. The program will issue updated energy efficiency requirements when the market distribution of this product category stabilizes and when doing so has the potential to result in significant Federal energy savings.

  13. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  14. Turning on LAMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-06-30

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  15. Turning on LAMP

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-07-16

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  16. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  17. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Matthias K. Gobbert Institute-6206 ABSTRACT An integrated simulator for chemical vapor deposition is introduced. In addition to a reactor

  18. Rapid flash lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavenonis, Thomas L. (544 Sand Hill Rd., R.D. #3, Montoursville, Lycoming County, PA 17754); Hewitt, William H. (24 G Acres Dr., Essex County, Bradford, MA 01830)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  19. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  20. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  1. The Summer Plateau Low Pressure System of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Donna F.

    1999-04-01

    Average July heights and winds over a 10-yr period are computed at 850 mb over Mexico using both surface and radiosonde data. During the day central Mexico at this level is dominated by low pressure, with some smaller areas of high pressure...

  2. Ion optical effects in a low pressure rf plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechsner, Hans; Paulus, Hubert [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)] [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Ion optical effects in low pressure gas discharges are introduced as a novel input into low pressure plasma technology. They are based on appropriate geometrical plasma confinements which enable a control of the shape of internal density and potential distributions and, hence, the ion motion in the plasma bulk. Such effects are exemplified for an electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma in Ar at 1–5 × 10{sup ?3} millibars. The geometry of the plasma chamber is modified by a conical and a cylindrical insert. Computer simulations display spherical plasma density contours to be formed around the conical confinement. This effects an increase of the ratio of the ion currents into the conical and the cylindrical inserts which depends on the fourth power of the plasma electron temperature. A quantitative understanding of this behavior is presented. As another essential result, the shape of the internal plasma contours is found to be independent of the pressure controlled plasma parameters.

  3. Microlaminate composite structures by low pressure plasma spray deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) process has been utilized in the development and fabrication of metal/metal, metal/carbide, and metal/oxide composite structures; including particulate dispersion and both continuous and discontinuous laminates. This report describes the LPPS process and the development of copper/tungsten microlaminate structures utilizing this processing method. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the Cu/W composites are compared to conventionally produced constituent material properties. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1983-08-09

    A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V[sub 1[minus]x]Cr[sub x])[sub 2] where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 C, at pressures down to 10[sup [minus]6] Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices. 3 figs.

  5. Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V.sub.1-x Cr.sub.x).sub.2 where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200.degree. C., at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  6. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  7. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  8. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.D.

    1985-10-03

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  9. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  10. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  11. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  12. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Low-pressure process steam requirements are usually met by throttling high- pressure steam, but a portion of the...

  13. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-08-12

    A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of low-pressure dosing systems.

  14. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of low-pressure dosing systems as well as estimated costs and ...

  15. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  16. A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1 the approach. The setup models low pressure chemical vapor deposition processes in the manufacturing. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition is used in the manufactur- ing of integrated circuits

  17. Selective Growth of Straight Carbon Nanotubes by Low-Pressure Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    Selective Growth of Straight Carbon Nanotubes by Low-Pressure Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition) were grown by low-pressure thermal chemical vapor deposition using pure ethylene. It was found preferentially bridged between Fe nanoparticles under a low pressure of 100 Pa. Moreover, utilizing this method

  18. Spatio-temporal characteristics of Trichel pulse at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Shoujie, E-mail: hedajingdian@126.com [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding (China); Jing, Ha [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding (China)] [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding (China)

    2014-01-15

    Trichel pulses are investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode geometry at low pressure. The evolution of current and voltage, the spatio-temporal discharge images of Trichel pulse are measured. The rising time and duration time in a pulse are about 10??s and several tens of microseconds, respectively. One period of pulse can be divided into three stages: the stage preceding cathode breakdown, cathode glow formation, and discharge decaying process. Besides a cathode glow and a dark space, an anode glow is also observed. The emission spectra mainly originate from the C{sup 3}?{sub u} ? B{sup 3}?{sub g} transition for nitrogen. In addition, the capacitances in parallel connected with the discharge cell have important influence on the pulsing frequency.

  19. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  20. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  1. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  2. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  3. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  4. Stratigraphy-related, low-pressure metamorphism in the Hardey Syncline, Hamersley Province, Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Stratigraphy-related, low-pressure metamorphism in the Hardey Syncline, Hamersley Province, Western. Furthermore, the change of metamorphic grade strongly correlates with stratigraphy, and the metamorphic

  5. Capacitive sensing with a fluorescent lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John Jacob

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a modified fluorescent lamp that can be used as a capacitive sensing system. The lamp sensor measures changes in the electric fields emitted from the fluorescent bulbs in order to deduce the presence and ...

  6. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    T5 HE ES High Efficiency Energy Saver”; and General Electricfilled with argon gas. Energy-saver lamps incorporate argon

  7. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON CHI60HF5.2 La Serena, March 16, 2011 #12;Table)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Chiron / Comparison lamps automation, CHI60HF5.2 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches chiron comparison lamps

  8. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle ECH60S5.1 La Serena, December 09, 2009 #12)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Echelle / Comparison lamps automation, ECH60S5.1 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches echelle comparison lamps

  9. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

  10. Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza, S.M. Mohsin

    2002-01-01

    at low-pressure conditions were underestimated. The same model was used to simulate high pressure subcooled boiling data. High pressure subcooled boiling experiments of Bartolomey and Sabotinov were simulated. The axial void fraction distribution results...

  11. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  12. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Characterization of Drip Emitters and Computing Distribution Uniformity in a Drip Irrigation System at Low Pressure Under Uniform Land Slopes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Deba P.

    2010-01-15

    Characteristics of emitters under low pressure are essential for designing drip irrigation systems. Low pressure data for drip emitters are not available from manufacturers. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the ...

  14. 2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    -temperature plasma research. Low- pressure (as low as 1 millitorr) inductively coupled plasmas are used for plasma

  15. A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

  16. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  17. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  18. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  19. Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John J.

    Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

  20. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  2. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  3. DGA proves out as a low pressure gas sweetener in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huval, M.; van de Venne, H.

    1981-08-17

    Aramco is successfully using diglycolamine (DGA) to treat low-pressure associated sour gases to 1/4 gr H/sub 2/S/100 SCF specifications. The DGA process meets the design criteria of (1) handling high acid-gas-content (up to 15%) feed gases, (2) sweetening at high temperatures (120/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F) and low pressures (120-180 psig), (3) removing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ in a single step and (4) providing a Claus-plant feed suitable for the production of bright-yellow (rather than black) sulfur.

  4. Nanoparticles designed from low pressure plasmas as identification tool for astrophysical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    interstellar media. The particles were polymerised in a low pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency molecule production and reprocesses UV and optical radiation. The C-H stretch vibration of aliphatic coupled the radiofrequency discharge in argon/acetylene mixtures [Kovacevic submitted]. The particles

  5. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  6. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first penetrate far beyond the compound layer. These nitrogen atoms, uptaken into the austenitic stainless-steel

  7. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  8. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  9. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturer’s performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

  10. Energy-efficient incandescent lamp: Final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.

    2010-01-01

    have doubled luminous efficacy, corresponding to 50% energyluminous than the clear lamp. The value of visible wattage 1n the energyluminous efficacy without l i f e reduction. Such efficacy Increase corresponds to an energy

  11. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  12. Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent Lamp Ballasts Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts The

  13. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  14. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  15. Simulation of the shielding of dust particles in low pressure glow Seung J. Choi and Mark J. Kushner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Simulation of the shielding of dust particles in low pressure glow discharges Seung J. Choi) The dynamics of the shielding of particulates ("dust") in low pressure glow discharges have been investigated sections represented by the geometrical obscuration of the charged dust particles and their shield- ing

  16. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  17. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  18. MELCOR calculations for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A postulated, low-pressure, short term station blackout severe accident has been analyzed using the MELCOR code for the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. Different versions have been used with three different models of the plant. This paper presents results of the effects of different plant models and versions of MELCOR on the calculated results and to present the best-estimating timing of events for this transient.

  19. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Dymond, Jr., Lauren E. (North Potomac, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD); Grimm, William G. (Silver Spring, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Ola, Samuel A. (Silver Spring, MD); Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  20. Determination of the Electron Temperature in a Low Pressure Dusty Radiofrequency Methane Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre [GREMI, UMR6606, Universite d'Orleans/CNRS (France) and GREMI, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue G.Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES cedex (France); Mikikian, Maxime [GREMI, Polytech'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-11-29

    The particles are obtained by PECVD in radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) low pressure plasmas (90%CH4-10%Ar). During the particle growth, the particles trap electrons and modify the EEDF, and the electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma. The plasma is analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The excitation temperature and the electron temperature are calculated from the H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, H{sub {gamma}} Balmer hydrogen line intensities and from Ar ones. The temporal evolutions of the temperatures during the particle formation are compared and discussed.

  1. A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

    2000-12-15

    The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

  2. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce...

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  4. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  6. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  7. Ductile phase toughening of molybdenum disilicide by low pressure plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Rollett, A.D.; Stanek, P.W. ); Smith, R.W. . Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The low fracture toughness of MoSi{sub 2} at ambient temperature has prompted investigations into new processing methods in order to impart some degree of fracture toughness into this inherently brittle material. In the following investigation, low pressure plasma spraying was employed as a fabricating technique to produce spray-formed deposits of MoSi{sub 2} and ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2} composites containing approximately 10 and 20 volume percent of a discontinuous tantalum lamelli reinforcement. Fracture toughness (K{sub 1C}) measurements of MoSi{sub 2} and the MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites were done using a chevron notched 4-point bend fracture toughness test in both the as-sprayed condition and after hot isostatic pressing at 1200{degrees}C/206 MPa for 1 hour. Results from the ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites have shown fracture toughness increases on the order of 200% over the as-sprayed MoSi{sub 2}. In addition, a marked anisotropy in fracture toughness was observed in the spray-formed deposits due to the layered splat structure produced by the low pressure plasma spray process.

  8. Ductile phase toughening of molybdenum disilicide by low pressure plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Rollett, A.D.; Stanek, P.W.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The low fracture toughness of MoSi{sub 2} at ambient temperature has prompted investigations into new processing methods in order to impart some degree of fracture toughness into this inherently brittle material. In the following investigation, low pressure plasma spraying was employed as a fabricating technique to produce spray-formed deposits of MoSi{sub 2} and ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2} composites containing approximately 10 and 20 volume percent of a discontinuous tantalum lamelli reinforcement. Fracture toughness (K{sub 1C}) measurements of MoSi{sub 2} and the MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites were done using a chevron notched 4-point bend fracture toughness test in both the as-sprayed condition and after hot isostatic pressing at 1200{degrees}C/206 MPa for 1 hour. Results from the ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites have shown fracture toughness increases on the order of 200% over the as-sprayed MoSi{sub 2}. In addition, a marked anisotropy in fracture toughness was observed in the spray-formed deposits due to the layered splat structure produced by the low pressure plasma spray process.

  9. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  10. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  11. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  12. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  13. Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fran De Aquino

    2013-12-02

    It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.

  14. The effect of discharge chamber geometry on the ignition of low-pressure rf capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisovskiy, V.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Booth, J.-P.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V. [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128, France and Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports measured and calculated breakdown curves in several gases of rf capacitive discharges excited at 13.56 MHz in chambers of three different geometries: parallel plates surrounded by a dielectric cylinder ('symmetric parallel plate'), parallel plates surrounded by a grounded metallic cylinder ('asymmetric parallel plate'), and parallel plates inside a much larger grounded metallic chamber ('large chamber'). The breakdown curves for the symmetric chamber have a multivalued section at low pressure. For the asymmetric chamber the breakdown curves are shifted to lower pressures and rf voltages, but the multivalued feature is still present. At higher pressures the breakdown voltages are much lower than for the symmetric geometry. For the large chamber geometry the multivalued behavior is not observed. The breakdown curves were also calculated using a numerical model based on fluid equations, giving results that are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements.

  15. Direct current-self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhiying; Chen, Lee; Funk, Merritt

    2013-12-16

    For decades, non-ambipolar diffusion has been observed and studied in laboratory plasmas that contain a double layer. However, self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma has yet to be demonstrated. This article reports the method and results for achieving such a condition at low pressure, with a wide power range (as low as 6 W). The findings reveal that to achieve self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma, both the balance between electron and ion heating and the space-potential gradient are critical. The plasma reactor developed in this work has potential applications that include microelectronic surface processing and space propulsion, via space-charge-neutral plasma-beam thruster, when operated in the high power regime.

  16. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  17. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  18. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  19. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  20. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  1. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  2. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  3. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    overcome broader differences in lamp efficacy, however. Thus, in choosing a lamp for energy savings, lamp efficacy should be the primary consideration. Luminous intensity...

  4. Transient growth mechanisms of low Reynolds number flow over a low-pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, AS; Sherwin, SJ; Theofilis, V; 10.1007/s00162-010-0183-9

    2013-01-01

    A direct transient growth analysis for three-dimensional perturbations to flow past a periodic array of T-106/300 low-pressure turbine fan blades is presented. The methodology is based on a singular value decomposition of the flow evolution operator, linearised about a steady or periodic base flow. This analysis yields the optimal growth modes. Previous work on global mode stability analysis of this flow geometry showed the flow is asymptotically stable, indicating a non-modal explanation of transition may be more appropriate. The present work extends previous investigations into the transient growth around a steady base flow, to higher Reynolds numbers and periodic base flows. It is found that the notable transient growth of the optimal modes suggests a plausible route to transition in comparison to modal growth for this configuration. The spatial extent and localisation of the optimal modes is examined and possible physical triggering mechanisms are discussed. It is found that for longer times and longer sp...

  5. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, Kirby; Triana, Antonio; Johnson, John; Yang, Song; Premchand, Kiran

    2006-01-30

    The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D D

  6. Thermodynamics of methane adsorption on copper HKUST-1 at low pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-11

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can be engineered as natural gas storage materials by tuning the pore structures and surface properties. Here we report the direct measurement of CH? adsorption enthalpy on a paddlewheel MOF (Cu HKUST-1) using gas adsorption calorimetry at 25 °C at low pressures (below 1 bar). In this pressure region, the CH?–CH? intermolecular interactions are minimized and the energetics solely reflects the CH?–MOF interactions. Our results suggest moderately exothermic physisorption with an enthalpy of -21.1 ± 1.1 kJ/mol CH? independent of coverage. The calorimetric investigation complements previous computational and crystallographic studies by providing zero coverage enthalpies of CH?more »adsorption. The analysis of the new and literature data suggests that in initial stages of adsorption the CH?–HKUST-1 interaction tends to be more sensitive to the pore dimension than to the guest polarizability, suggesting a less specific chemical binding role for the open Cu site.« less

  7. Low-pressure hydrocracking of coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch waxes to diesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2007-06-15

    Coal-derived low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) wax was hydrocracked at pressures of 3.5-7.0 MPa using silica-alumina-supported sulfided NiW/NiMo and an unsulfided noble metal catalyst, modified with MoO{sub 3}. A low-pressure operation at 3.5 MPa produced a highly isomerized diesel, having low cloud points (from -12 to -28{sup o}C) combined with high cetane numbers (69-73). These properties together with the extremely low sulfur ({lt}5 ppm) and aromatic ({lt}0.5%) contents place coal/liquid (CTL) derived distillates as highly valuable blending components to achieve Eurograde diesel specifications. The upgrading of coal-based LTFT waxes through hydrocracking to high-quality diesel fuel blend components in combination with commercial-feasible coal-integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture and storage schemes should make CTL technology more attractive. 28 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-08-15

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  9. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  10. Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physiccal Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

  11. Transport of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma through a localized magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-15

    The generation of an ion-ion plasma where only few electrons are present in the discharge could be appropriated in the context of ion plasma source applications. We present in this paper results obtained with a one-dimensional fluid model in the context of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma. Without magnetic field, results show that the electron density is still large in the discharge. With a localized magnetic filter, where the magnetic field strength is such that the transport of the electrons is affected while the transport of ion species remains unmagnetized, we show that a region with a negative–positive ion plasma is found downstream the magnetic filter. The negative ions are produced in the filter due to the decrease of electron temperature. We also find conditions when the plasma sheath near the biased electrode collapses and the negative ion extraction from the plasma becomes possible. In addition, the influence of E?×?B electron transport on the one-dimensional model results is discussed.

  12. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group (SP3), Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B{sub z}) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is {approx}2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed.

  13. Simulation study of nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-02-15

    A self-consistent combination of plasma fluid model, nanoparticle heating model, and surface deposition model is used to investigate the coating of nanosize particles by amorphous carbon layers in a low pressure plasma reactor. The numerical results show that, owing to the net heat release in the surface reactions, the particle temperature increases and its equilibrium value remains always 50?K above the background gas temperature. The deposition rate decreases with increasing of the particle temperature and the corresponding time scale is of the order of 10?ms. The deposition rate is also strongly affected by the change in plasma parameters. When the electron temperature is increased, the deposition rate first increases due to the enhanced ion and radical generation, shows a maximum and then declines as the particle temperature rises above the gas temperature. An enhancement in the background gas pressure and/or temperature leads to a reduction in the deposition rate, which can be explained in terms of the enhanced etching by atomic hydrogen and particle heating by the background gas.

  14. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  15. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA); Rubenstein, Francis M. (Berkeley, CA); Whitman, Richard E. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  16. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  17. Characterizing the Separation and Reattachment of Suction Surface Boundary Layer in Low Pressure Turbine Using Massively Parallel Large Eddy Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannathan, Shriram

    2012-02-14

    The separation and reattachment of the suction surface boundary layer in a low pressure turbine is characterized using large-eddy simulation at Re=68,000 based on freestream velocity and suction surface length. A high pass filtered Smagorinsky model...

  18. iLamp: A Sensor-Enhanced Lamp with Surface-Tracking Capability Based on Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    , a ZigBee module, a light sensor, and a user-friendly interface. The ZigBee module will periodically interface. This lamp is composed of a ZigBee module, a microprocessor, and a robot arm holding four sets. The microprocessor can communicate with the bookmark via its ZigBee module, track the bookmark's current location

  19. Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

  20. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (820 Skywood Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549); Orr, Thomas Robert (2285 Vestal, Castro Valley, CA 94546); Greene, Charles Maurice (6450 Regent St., Oakland, CA 94618); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (33 Longridge Rd., Orinda, CA 94563); Berman, Samuel Maurice (2832 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123)

    1998-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  1. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1998-10-20

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  2. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A...

  3. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  4. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  5. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  6. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  7. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  8. Measurements of atomic state distribution functions of the Philips QL-lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkers, J.; Bakker, M.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 Philips Lighting introduced the QL-lamp, an inductively coupled low pressure RF discharge containing a mixture of argon and mercury. Its main advantage is the absence of electrodes, which benefits the life-time. In order to improve the knowledge of this kind of plasmas a model has been developed and measurements have been performed. In every plasma the free electrons are an important species: they control the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to the heavy particles. Therefore, it is important to know the spatial distribution of the electron temperature and of the electron density. These parameters can be obtained from the Atomic State Distribution Function (ASDF), since the levels close the ionization limit are in partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). The densities of the excited states are obtained from absolute line intensity measurements. However, it appears that the highly excited, measurable, states are not in pLSE, indicating that the QL plasma is far from Saha equilibrium. In order to obtain the electron densities and temperatures the ASDF has to be combined with either measurements of continuum radiation or a Collisional Radiative Model (CRM). The results of both methods will be presented and compared with a third technique to obtain the electron density and temperature: Thomson scattering.

  9. Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal -low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    grown by rapid thermal, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD), using pure oxygen (0,) and 2Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal - low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP A. Katz, A. Feingold, U. K. Chakrabarti, and S. J. Peat-ton AT&T Bell

  10. The influence of ammonia on rapid-ther al low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposited TIN, films from tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    The influence of ammonia on rapid-ther al low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposited TIN, and stress of rapid- thermal low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposited (RT-LPMOCVD) TiN, films on In) liquid precursors, were studied. Enhanced deposition rates of l-3 nm s- ' at total chamber pressures

  11. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens, or the approximate equivalent of a 50 W halogen MR16 lamp. Many factors beyond photometric performance should be considered during specification. For example, performance over time, transformer and dimmer compatibility, and total system performance are all critical to a successful installation. Subsequent CALiPER reports will investigate more complex issues.

  12. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  13. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  14. Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K [Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad-380015 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

  15. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  16. 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    1 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes Louisiana aLLiance for Minority ParticiPation IMPACT REPORT 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 1 1 ouis stokes ouisiana alliance for MiNoritY PArtiCiPAtioN Awarded 1995 L Orleans Xavier University of Louisiana #12;2 LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT | 1995-2011 Louis stokes ALLi

  17. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  18. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  19. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  20. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling for the Measurement of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds in Automotive Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses a novel combination of multi-component scanning direct absorption spectroscopy, resonant cavity and low-pressure sampling to systematically improve the performance of a specific gas analyzer.

  1. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  2. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

  3. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz

    2012-11-27

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  4. Low pressure CO? hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a CeOx/TiO? interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Kattel, Shyam; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Nie, Xiaowa; Graciani, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-07-28

    Capture and recycling of CO? into valuable chemicals such as alcohols could help mitigate its emissions into the atmosphere. Due to its inert nature, the activation of CO? is a critical step in improving the overall reaction kinetics during its chemical conversion. Although pure gold is an inert noble metal and cannot catalyze hydrogenation reactions, it can be activated when deposited as nanoparticles on the appropriate oxide support. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, it is shown that an electronic polarization at the metal–oxide interface of Au nanoparticles anchored and stabilized on a CeOx/TiO? substrate generates active centers formore »CO? adsorption and its low pressure hydrogenation, leading to a higher selectivity toward methanol. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of localized electronic properties and structure in catalysis for achieving higher alcohol selectivity from CO? hydrogenation.« less

  5. Modelling for post-dryout heat transfer and droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, H.Y.; No, H.C. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-10-01

    A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j*{sub g} = 0.5 {approximately} 4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 15%, respectively.

  6. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Publications Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Booth Presentations from LIGHTFAIR International 2015...

  7. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

  8. Study of high frequency & low frequency electronic ballasts for HID lamps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Hua

    1997-01-01

    known to avoid acoustic resonances. This thesis focuses on real-time detection of acoustic resonance occurrence by measuring lamp electrical parameters. Theoretical analysis and experiment results pronounce that the variation of the lamp impedance ([]R...

  9. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  10. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Rosenfeld, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC.

  11. Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition Monm Doshi (I-0425 regan.zane@colorado.edu Absfruci-This paper presents a low frequency architecture for driving parallel lamp ignition, and individual lamp current reguration in such designs. In this paper, we present a low

  12. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.

    1992-11-10

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

  13. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface.

  14. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  15. The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe Institute for Pervasive +41 71 228 24 68 martin.strassner@unisg.ch ABSTRACT Moveable asset management is still data directly with the physical assets. Assets become able to manage themselves, which eliminates many

  16. NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But the low energy of the laser photons raises, which should be stronger the lower the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron? Further studies is equivalent to a `pole singularity' in the Green's function. Phil Anderson argues that in the strange metal

  17. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  18. Low pressure hydrocyclone separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, D.A.; Stolhand, J.E.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of separating a dispersed phase liquid from a bulk phase liquid of a liquid-liquid mixture, the dispersed phase and bulk phase liquids having different densities. The method comprises the steps of: providing a supply of the liquid-liquid mixture at a first pressure; providing a pump means including means for minimizing degradation of the volumetric means size of droplets of the dispersed phase further including a pump size for maintaining the pump means at substantially near maximum flow rate capacity; pumping the liquid-liquid mixture with at least one pump means to a second pressure such that a differential between the first and second pressures is not substantially greater than a differential pressure at which the pump means begins to substantially degrade the volumetric mean size of droplets of the dispersed phase liquid passing therethrough, the pumping without substantial droplet degradation being achieved by operating the pump means at relatively near its maximum flow rate capacity to substantially reduce on a percentage basis the effect of fluid slippage within the pump means; directing the liquid-liquid mixture from the pump means to a hydrocyclone; and separating a substantial portion of the dispersed phase liquid from the liquid-liquid mixture in the hydrocyclone.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slamovich, Elliot (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Fleetwood, James (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-07-01

    Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Collisional kinetics of non-uniform electric field, low-pressure, direct-current discharges in H$_{2}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps, A V

    2010-01-01

    A model of the collisional kinetics of energetic hydrogen atoms, molecules, and ions in pure H$_2$ discharges is used to predict H$_\\alpha$ emission profiles and spatial distributions of emission from the cathode regions of low-pressure, weakly-ionized discharges for comparison with a wide variety of experiments. Positive and negative ion energy distributions are also predicted. The model developed for spatially uniform electric fields and current densities less than $10^{-3}$ A/m$^2$ is extended to non-uniform electric fields, current densities of $10^{3}$ A/m$^2$, and electric field to gas density ratios $E/N = 1.3$ MTd at 0.002 to 5 Torr pressure. (1 Td = $10^{-21}$ V m$^2$ and 1 Torr = 133 Pa) The observed far-wing Doppler broadening and spatial distribution of the H$_\\alpha$ emission is consistent with reactions among H$^+$, H$_2^+$, H$_3^+$, and H$^-H$ ions, fast H atoms, and fast H$_2$ molecules, and with reflection, excitation, and attachment to fast H atoms at surfaces. The H$_\\alpha$ excitation and ...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  2. Numerical study of effect of secondary electron emission on discharge characteristics in low pressure capacitive RF argon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Yue, E-mail: liuyue@dlut.edu.cn; Samir, Tagra; Ma, Zhaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Based on the drift and diffusion approximation theory, a 1D fluid model on capacitively coupled RF argon glow discharge at low pressure is established to study the effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the discharge characteristics. The model is numerically solved by using a finite difference method and the numerical results are obtained. The numerical results indicate that when the SEE coefficient is larger, the plasma density is higher and the time of reaching steady state is longer. It is also found that the cycle-averaged electric field, electric potential, and electron temperature change a little as the SEE coefficient is increased. Moreover, the discharge characteristics in some nonequilibrium discharge processes with different SEE coefficients have been compared. The analysis shows that when the SEE coefficient is varied from 0.01 to 0.3, the cycle-averaged electron net power absorption, electron heating rate, thermal convective term, electron energy dissipation, and ionization all have different degrees of growth. While the electron energy dissipation and ionization are quite special, there appear two peaks near each sheath region in the discharge with a relatively larger SEE coefficient. In this case, the discharge is certainly operated in a hybrid ?-?-mode.

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  4. ISSUANCE 2014-12-29: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

  5. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  6. Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu etching, the pressure is usually low enough so that the mean free path of the vapor particles is much of a reemission model for chemical vapor deposition. We find that, for pure first-order reemission, the interface

  7. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

  8. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  9. Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency {omega} on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (={omega}/2{pi}) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f {<=} 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent ''hot tail'' is observed at f{>=} 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the ''hot tail'' is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of {omega}, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower {omega} may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency {nu}{sub en}; the transition being dictated by {omega} {approx} 2{pi}{nu}{sub en}.

  10. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  11. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  12. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  13. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  14. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  15. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 13 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 SEPTEMBER 2001 Morphology Transition during Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Transition during Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Y.-P. Zhao, Jason T. Drotar, G.-C. Wang, and T have studied, in detail, the effect of sticking coefficient on the morphology evolution in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition processes. We have shown that the surface morphology changes from a self

  16. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-23

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  17. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  18. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-17

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  19. EA-1881: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including fluorescent lamp ballasts.

  20. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  1. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  2. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

  3. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  5. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  6. The Sodium-Restricted Diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    the body of excess sodium and water. When certain diuretics are used, the doctor may suggest including foods in the diet which are high in potassium but low in sodium. This is to counteract the diuretic's side-effect of washing out the body's potassium...-sodium dietetic ./ Group C Cheese, Eggs, Nuts Cheese, cottage, unsalted Cheese, processed low-sodium dietetic Egg (limit 1 per day only) Peanut butter, low-sodium dietetic AVOID Cheese, except low-sodium dietetic Fish fillets, frozen Fish, canned...

  7. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  8. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  9. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  10. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  11. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  12. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  13. HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage resonance arrangement that acts as a current source. During warm up the filaments are driven by a secondary the filament and shorts out the voltage across the lamp. Simulation and experimental results suggest

  14. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  15. Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

  16. Comparison of MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 results for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study compares results obtained with two U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored codes, MELCOR version 1.8.3 (1.8PQ) and SCDAP/RELAP5 Mod3.1 release C, for the same transient - a low-pressure, short-term station blackout accident at the Browns Ferry nuclear plant. This work is part of MELCOR assessment activities to compare core damage progression calculations of MELCOR against SCDAP/RELAP5 since the two codes model core damage progression very differently.

  17. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  18. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  19. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  20. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  1. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher (Schenectady, NY); Cocoma, John Paul (Clifton Park, NY); Roberts, Victor David (Burnt Hills, NY)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  2. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

  3. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  5. Identification of combustion intermediates in a low-pressure premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran/oxygen/argon flame with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xuesong; Huang, Zuohua; Wei, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Kuiwen [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Low-pressure (4.0 kPa) premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)/oxygen/argon flame with an equivalence ratio of 2.0 was studied with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry. Photoionization mass spectra of DMF/O{sub 2}/Ar flame were recorded and the photoionization efficiency curves of the combustion intermediates were measured. Flame species, including isomeric intermediates, are identified by comparing the measured ionization energies with those reported in literatures or those calculated with Gaussian-3 procedure. More than 70 species have been detected, including furan and its derivatives, aromatics, and free radicals. Possible reaction pathways of DMF, 2-methylfuran, and furan are proposed based on the intermediates identified. DMF can be consumed by H-abstraction and pyrolysis reactions. 2-Methylfuran and furan can be consumed by H-abstraction, H-addition and pyrolysis reactions. (author)

  6. Containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4 with Mark-I containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Greene, S.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence in a boiling water reactor (BWR-4) with a Mark-I containment. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Other results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR and CONTAIN codes are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. The plant analyzed is the Peach Bottom atomic station, a BWR-4 with a Mark-I containment. The automatic depressurization system was used to depressurize the vessel in accordance with the Emergency Procedure Guidelines. Two different variations of the station blackout were studied: one with a dry cavity and the other with a flooded cavity. For the flooded cavity, it is assumed that a control rod drive (CRD) pump becomes operational after vessel failure, and it is used to pump water into the cavity.

  7. Study of metallic powder behavior in very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) — Application to the manufacturing of titanium–aluminum coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Montavon, G.; Lapostolle, F.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, metallic materials made of aluminum and titanium were manufactured implementing very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS). Aluminum was selected at first as a demonstrative material due to its rather low vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 381.9 kJ·mol?¹). Developments were then carried out with titanium which exhibits a higher vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 563.6 kJ·mol?¹). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to analyze the behavior of each solid precursor (metallic powders) when it is injected into the plasma jet under very low pressure (i.e., in the 150 Pa range). Besides, aluminum, titanium and titanium–aluminum coatings were deposited in the same conditions implementing a stick-cathode plasma torch operated at 50 kW, maximum power. Coating phase compositions were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Coating elementary compositions were quantified by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The coating structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coating void content was determined by Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The coatings exhibit a two-scale structure corresponding to condensed vapors (smaller scale) and solidified areas (larger scale). Titanium–aluminum sprayed coatings, with various Ti/Al atomic ratios, are constituted of three phases: metastable ?-Ti, Al and metastable ??-Ti?Al. This latter is formed at elevated temperature in the plasma flow, before being condensed. Its rather small fraction, impeded by the rather small amount of vaporized Ti, does not allow modifying however the coating hardness.

  8. Processing of Sodium-Potassium Niobate Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Jr., Bob R.

    1971-01-01

    SODIUM-POTASSIUM NIOBATE CERAMICS Bob R. Powell, Jr. (M.S.OF SODIUM-POTASSIUM NIOBATE CERAMICS Index Page ABSTRACT ofOF SODIUM-POTASSIUM NIOBATE CERAMICS Bob R. Powell, Jr.

  9. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  10. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  11. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  12. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangels, J.A. (Ceradyne Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  13. Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

    2010-01-01

    LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

  14. Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grones, Kelly Leann

    2000-01-01

    In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10°C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

  15. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  16. Electric lamp, base for use therewith and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Harold L. (Beverly, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

    1989-02-14

    An electric lamp including a reflector, at least one conductive ferrule located within a surface of the reflector and a lead-in conductor electrically connected to the ferrule and extending within the reflector. The lamp includes a base having an insulative (e.g., ceramic) cap located substantially about the ferrule, barrier means (e.g., ceramic fiber) located within the cap to define an open chamber substantially about the ferrule, an electrical conductor (e.g., wire) extending within the cap and electrically connected (e.g., silver soldered) to the ferrule, and sealing means (e.g., high temperature cement) located within the cap to provide a seal therefore. The barrier means serves to separate the sealing means from the open chamber about the ferrule such that the heat generated by the ferrule can be vented through spaced apertures located within the cap's side wall. A method of assembling a base on an electric lamp is also provided.

  17. Magical Mystery Devices or Not: How do LED Lamps and Luminaires Really Measure-Up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, Maria L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Steward, Heidi E.

    2008-08-15

    Solid-state lighting products for general lighting applications are now gaining a market presence, and more and more people are asking, “Which of these are ‘good’ products? Do they perform as claimed? How do they compare? Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) differ from other light sources enough to require new procedures for measuring their performance and comparing to other lighting options, so both manufacturers and buyers are facing a learning curve. The energy-efficiency community has traditionally compared light sources based on system efficacy: rated lamp lumens divided by power into the system. This doesn’t work for LEDs because there are no standard LED “lamp” packages and no lamp ratings, and because LED performance depends heavily on thermal, electrical, and optical design of complete lighting unit or ‘luminaire’. Luminaire efficacy is the preferred metric for LEDs because it measures the net light output from the luminaire divided by power into the system.

  18. Backcoupling of acoustic streaming on the temperature field inside high-intensity discharge lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Operating high-intensity discharge lamps in the high frequency range (20-300 kHz) provides energy-saving and cost reduction potentials. However, commercially available lamp drivers do not make use of this operating strategy because light intensity fluctuations and even lamp destruction are possible. The reason for the fluctuating discharge arc are acoustic resonances in this frequency range that are excited in the arc tube. The acoustic resonances in turn generate a fluid flow that is caused by the acoustic streaming effect. Here, we present a 3D multiphysics model to determine the influence of acoustic streaming on the temperature field in the vicinity of an acoustic eigenfrequency. In that case a transition from stable to instable behavior occurs. The model is able to predict when light flicker can be expected. The results are in very good accordance with accompanying experiments.

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-06-17: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  2. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Druzik, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, CA.

  3. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  4. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  5. The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro-vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro- vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to 2.5 microns.This Tungsten-Halogen Lamp Standard bears the ANSI designation of FEL might be discernible at the crossover point of the two referenced NIST Scales. 5000 FEL 1000Watt Lamp

  6. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  7. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  8. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

  9. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (Lafayette, CA); Orr, Thomas Robert (Castro Valley, CA); Greene, Charles Maurice (Oakland, CA); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (Orinda, CA); Berman, Samuel Maurice (San Francisco, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  10. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-06-08

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

  11. THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS Vladimír: cirkva@icpf.cas.cz, http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva Keywords: Microwave assisted photocatalysis. Introduction Photocatalysis is an efficient, attractive and clean technology for pollution abatement in water

  12. Turning Down the LAMP: Software Specialisation for the Cloud Anil Madhavapeddy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAuley, Derek

    within the cloud is not well supported by tra- ditional software stacks, e.g., LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP). These are very "thick," containing ex- tensive support for legacy systems and code built up over securely. Some of these concerns are being tackled via prepack- aged binary images, bolt-on "accelerators

  13. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  14. Design of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for zero voltage switching (ZVS) with fixed frequency and power control [8,9]. II. STEADYSTATE ANALYSISDesign of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast with Phase, Spain azcondof@unican.es,branasc@unican.es Absrracr - The paper presents the design guidelinesof phase

  15. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant.

  16. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of the Philips L Prize entry.

  17. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  18. Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Lamps in Texas Description Value Reference Total Housing Units in Texas in 2013: 10,204,056 Real Estate Center, Texas A&M University3, U.S. Census Bureau4 5 Average Lighting Electricity Usage per House: 1,946 kWh/yr NREL Building America Program6... % of Lamps That can be Retrofitted with a CFL: 70% NREL Building America Program6 and ESL Assumption % of Savings From Replacing Incandescent to CFL Lamps: 75% ESL Assumption CFL Lighting Electricity Savings per House: 1,022 kWh/yr Total Annual CFL...

  19. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  20. The Sodium Content of Your Food. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01

    ............................ ............................. Pear nectar Pineapple juice .......................... Prune juice .............................. ................ Mineral Water. imported Tea ............................. Hot brewed .............................. Hot instant... .................................... Condiments, fats and oils 2t ........ Sodium Content of Selected Non-prescription Drugs 2t The Sodium Content of Your Food Extension food and nutrition specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Introduction Sodium is a mineral element necessary...

  1. Study of the electrodeless discharge lamps for photochemical applications and temperature dependence of photostationary state in cis-trans photoisomerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    (EDL) placed into the reactor vessel of a commercial microwave oven. The UV light in the lamp-897. [2] Home page: http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva [3] P. Klán, M. Hájek, V. Církva, J. Photochem

  2. CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report 20.1 which focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality in LED PAR38 lamps.

  3. CENTRIFUGAL LABTUBE FOR FULLY AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION & LAMP AMPLIFICATION BASED ON AN INTEGRATED, LOW-COST HEATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    In this paper, we introduce a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA-extraction platform (LabTube). We demonstrate fully automated, ...

  4. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  5. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  6. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Test Procedure for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  8. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  9. Sodium Battery | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley | Department ofAboutMitchSodium

  10. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES FROM SODIUM-WATER REACTION IN CELL CONTAINING THE SECONDARY SODIUM TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH RM

    2008-06-25

    The analysis will show the consequences should the solid sodium in the Secondary Sodium Tank react with a presumed layer of water in the cell. The Peer Review Checklist is attached.

  12. A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

  13. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  14. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  15. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the results of an...

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the results of an...

  18. Sodium-layer laser guide stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-08-03

    The requirements and design of a laser system to generate a sodium- layer beacon is presented. Early results of photometry and wavefront sensing are given.

  19. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTech Connect Mathematical andFluorescent Lamps

  20. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  1. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  2. Lamp Divisions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I 1 '\ LI g.3LTSI9

  3. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  4. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC-97, 39-45, St. Louis, 1997. A MHz Electronic Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps Michael Gulko and Sam Ben-Yaakov* Power Electronics Laboratory lamps designated for automotive headlight applications was investigated theoretically, by simulation and experimentally. The study reveals that a based ballast (CS-PPRI) complies with the automotive requirement of very

  5. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor...

  6. TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND SODIUM IN NEUTRAL BEAM RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, L.

    2010-01-01

    TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND Lawrence Ruby LawrenceBerkeley, California 94720 Cesium and sodium in vapor formthe extent to which the cesium and sodium migrate in the

  7. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  8. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium.

  9. Visible Light Digital Camera --Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    · Visible Light Digital Camera -- Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images regardless of lighting conditions · Fusion Picture in Picture (PIP) -- Displays thermal image super case FLIR i40 Additional Features · 0.6MP Visible Light Camera resolution · Picture in Picture (PIP

  10. 190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal Halide Lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal lamp has been investigated using a two-dimensional, plasma transport model. Im- ages are presented are found to be important during gap closure. Index Terms--Arc discharges, avalanche breakdown, glow dis

  11. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL, previous studies have investigated various environmental impacts from incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must

  12. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  13. Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

  14. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Paul D; Retherford, Kurt D; Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm; Kaufmann, David E; Davis, Michael W; Versteeg, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that likely reflect variations in the solar wind alpha flux. The 5-day passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail results in a factor of two decrease in surface density, which is well explained by model simulations.

  15. THERMAL ANNEALING OF ZNO FILMS USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ARC LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Xu, Jun; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Harper, David C

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are rarely synthesized with appropriate phase and/or morphology. In this study, critical additional of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing and/or activation of dopants, are addressed using infrared plasma arc lamps (PAL) over areas as large as 1,000 cm2. The broad spectral range of the PAL and the spectral variation of light absorption in nanostructured materials make the selection of processing parameters extremely difficult, posing a major technological barrier. In this study, the measurement of the surface temperature using various techniques for ZnO films on crystalline silicon wafers is discussed. An energy transport model for the simulation of rapid thermal processing using PAL is presented. The experimental and computational results show that the surface temperature cannot be measured directly and that computer simulation results are an effective tool for obtaining accurate data on processing temperatures.

  16. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  17. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  18. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  19. Nanodiamonds in dusty low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenbulcke, L.; Gries, T.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2009-01-26

    Dusty plasmas composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen have been evidenced by optical emission spectroscopy and microwave interferometry, due to the increase in electron energy and the decrease in electron density. These plasmas allow homogeneous synthesis of nanodiamond grains composed of either pure diamond nanocrystals only (2-10 nm in size) or of diamond nanocrystals and some sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon entities. The control of their size and their microstructure could open ways for a wide range of fields. Their formation from a plasma-activated gaseous phase is also attractive because the formation of nanodiamonds in the universe is still a matter of controversy.

  20. Low pressure mild hydrocracking: Room for improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johns, W.F.; Hall, L.L. [Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States); Lamourelle, A.P. [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Mission Viejo, CA (United States); Moyse, B.M.; Rasmussen, H.W. [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In Europe and some other areas of the world, mild hydrocracking (MHC) is quite popular. Here in the US, this option has not been utilized by many refiners. This is inherently due to the different process schemes which are prevalent on each continent. In Europe, there is a predominance of the hydroskimming refinery type, which means that MHC can fulfill a need even with a limited amount of conversion to lighter boiling components. In the US, the situation is reversed in that conversion to lighter products is common, as evidenced by the number of FCC units, cokers, and dedicated hydrocrackers. There are, however, some refineries in the US, where a MHC operation can make sense both financially and logistically. Here, the authors focus on one such unit.

  1. Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project uses CFD simulation and laboratory tests to design single- and multi-layer mesh as an EGR emergency filter to prevent combustion particles from passing back to the engine.

  2. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings of CALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to...

  3. Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the Earth System Grid (ESG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Scienceincluded in the new Earth System Models (ESMs) participatingof the C-LAMP model output via the Earth System Grid (ESG).

  4. Centrifugal LabTube platform for fully automated DNA purification and LAMP amplification based on an integrated, low-cost heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie M.

    This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully ...

  5. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.; Sowers, F.; Harper, C.; Love, W.

    1998-11-24

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet. 7 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD); Sowers, Frank (Frederick, MD); Harper, Curt (Wheaton, MD); Love, Wayne (Olney, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet.

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Pupat, N.B.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2006-03-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of the atomic and ionic Dy and the atomic Hg. From these ASDFs several quantities are determined as functions of radial position, such as the (excitation) temperature, the ion ratio Hg{sup +}/Dy{sup +}, the electron density, the ground state, and the total density of Dy atoms and ions. Moreover, these ASDFs give us insight about the departure from equilibrium. The measurements show a hollow density profile for the atoms and the ionization of atoms in the center. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate.

  8. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z., E-mail: zharrache@yahoo.com; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, USTO-MB, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Matériaux Conducteurs et leurs Application (LPPMCA) (Algeria)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NCN in low-pressure CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames and its role in prompt NO formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Bradley A.; Fleming, James W. [Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, Chemistry Division, Combustion Dynamics Section, Code 6185, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    NCN profiles were measured for five rich and lean premixed, low-pressure methane flames using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). A semiquantitative determination of the NCN mole fractions as a function of spatial height above the burner is made by calibrating the NCN LIF signals using highly accurate OH LIF measurements in an adjacent spectral region. The resulting calibration yields an uncertainty estimate of a factor of 3 for the absolute values, but only {+-}25% for the relative NCN profiles. For all flame conditions, the NCN profiles occur immediately downstream of previously measured CH profiles. In addition, high correlations are found between the peak CH and peak NCN concentrations and the peak NCN and postflame NO concentrations over all equivalence ratios. These observations are consistent with NCN being the primary product channel from the CH + N{sub 2} reaction and the initial intermediate in the prompt NO formation. This is the first mechanistic study in hydrocarbon flames that provides such experimental evidence. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical calculations using modified versions of two well-established hydrocarbon kinetic mechanisms. Reasonable agreement between the calculations and experiment is found for NCN profile shape, location of peak NCN concentrations, and absolute mole fractions. However, the dependence on stoichiometry of the peak NCN concentration is overestimated. Further work is required on NCN kinetics for modeling prompt NO in laminar premixed flames. (author)

  10. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H2–O2–Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmore »in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.« less

  11. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  12. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  13. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  14. Measurements of Droplet Pinch-Off In Liquid Sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    than Mercury ­ 10X BETTER RESOLUTION · Study Effect of Magnetic Fields #12;Experimental Design SHIELDING · Reduces Electrical Noise · Coaxial Ground · Distributes Heat · Containment/ Structural Support #12;Running the Experiment · Sodium Melting? · Sodium Purity · Contact Wetting · Sampling Rate Gah

  15. Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Duane

    1996-01-01

    Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

  16. In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

  17. The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

    1964-01-01

    sodium has not yet found a place among the elements generally considered essential for plant growth. Although the lithosphere is relatively more abundant in this element than in potassium (17), plants generally contain much less sodium than potassium... of all traces of sodium in these classical experiments may be doubted they showed that this ele- ment was not required by plants in amounts comparable to the requirements of potassium or calcium. The sodium content of plants varies appreciably. Plants...

  18. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

  19. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

  20. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  1. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and will be analyzed during year 2 of the contract.

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  5. The Spectrum of the Th-Ar Hollow-Cathode Lamp Used with the 2dcoude Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2001-11-08

    We have produced an atlas of the Th-Ar hollow-cathode lamp used with the 2dcoude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The atlas covers from 3611.9 to 10596.4 A at a resolving power of 52,000. We have determined the wavelenghts of 1483 emission lines in the spectrum with a median precision of 0.00023 A. A web-based interface is offered for interactive visualization of segments of the atlas or spectral orders.

  6. 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

  8. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased by about 2.8. Results from very similartests with similar chemistry suggest that the impact should be about 10. Based on the limited reaction pathwayfor the creation of hydroxyl radicals with iron, ozone, and no UV, the discrepancy suggests that initially, at 'time zero' the UV light failed to perform up to expectations. It is therefore concluded that regardless of the fouling rate, either the increased solids concentration is impacting the initial penetrability (i.e. to many solids), or the light is not adequately sized/configured to have the appropriate flux.

  9. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTT, TEXAS I..... ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed law requires the statement of the ingredients of many mixed feeds. Common salt or sodium...

  10. Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – An innovative idea for cleaning up sodium in a decommissioned nuclear reactor at EM’s Idaho site grew from a carpool discussion.

  11. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for...

  12. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1999-06-29

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

  13. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoOsubscript 3Fsubscript 3Hsubscript 2O Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  15. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  16. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  17. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  18. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  19. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  20. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  1. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  2. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenkamp, R.D.; Brunings, J.E. ); Guenther, E. ); Hren, R. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., and the concept development was extended under DOE's Program for Improvement in Advanced Modular LMR Design. The SAFR plant concept employs a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal cooled reactor as its basic module. The reactor assembly module is a standardized shop-fabricated unit that can be shipped to the plant site by barge for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and reduces the plant construction schedule. Reactor modules can be used individually or in multiples at a given site to supply the needed generating capacity.

  3. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  4. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  5. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  6. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

  7. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  8. GLASS FORMULATION FOR INEEL SODIUM BEARING WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Peeler, David K.

    2002-10-31

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW), which is a high soda, acidic, high-activity waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high, then a molten, alkali-sulfate-containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product-quality constraints determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This paper summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW.

  9. Cotton response to over-the-top trifloxysulfuron sodium applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Steven Matthew,1978-

    2003-01-01

    Envoke® (common name: trifloxysulfuron sodium), is a new sulfonylurea herbicide developed by Syngenta for over-the-top application to cotton. A two-year study was conducted with concurrent field and greenhouse experiments ...

  10. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  11. Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

  12. Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

    2011-01-01

    Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

  13. Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denman, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

  14. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  15. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  16. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  17. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  18. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  19. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  20. Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

  1. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  2. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore »with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  3. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  4. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  5. Towards optimization of pulsed sodium laser guide stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rampy, Rachel; Rochester, Simon M; Holzlohner, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed sodium laser guide stars (LGS) are useful because they allow for Rayleigh blanking and fratricide avoidance in multiple-LGS systems. Bloch-equation simulations of sodium-light interactions show that these may be able to achieve photon returns nearly equal to, and in some cases greater than, what is seen from continuous-wave (CW) excitation. In this work, we study the time-dependent characteristics of sodium fluorescence, and investigate the optimal format for the new fiber laser LGS that will be part of the upgraded adaptive optics (AO) system on the Shane telescope at Mt. Hamilton. Results of this analysis are examined in the context of their general applicability to other LGS systems and the potential benefits of uplink correction are considered. Comparisons of simulation predictions with measurements from existing LGS are also presented and discussed.

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions,more »relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  7. An empirical modeling approach to high sodium glass durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E.P.; Sadler, A.L.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Empirical mixture models have been developed for chemical durability of high sodium borosilicate glass. The response of boron to a seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) was chosen as the measure of durability. The objective of the model development was to support the proposed vitrification of Hanford low-level waste (LLW), the bulk of which is primarily sodium oxide. A full first-order model and a second order model were developed from a database of high-sodium borosilicate glasses. First-order models proved to be satisfactory in a qualitative sense, but root mean squared errors were fairly large for quantitative predictive purposes. The results imply that mechanistic models relating durability to composition should include higher order compositional interactions; a second-order model yielded much improved statistics. The modeling results also suggest that calcium, which is considered a network modifier yet is also regarded as a glass {open_quotes}stiffener{close_quotes}, may improve durability.

  8. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  9. Simulation of ultrasonic inspection for sodium cooled reactors using CIVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reverdy, F. [CEA, LIST, Departement Imagerie et Simulation Pour Le Controle, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baque, F. [CEA, DEN DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Lu, B.; Jezzine, K.; Dorval, V. [CEA, LIST, Departement Imagerie et Simulation Pour Le Controle, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-07-01

    In-service inspection of sodium fast reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh conditions of the environment (opaque and hot) and the complexity of the examination (large and littered reactor block). Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of SFRs and two approaches are being followed: inside inspection where transducers are directly immersed in sodium coolant and inspection from outside with transducers positioned along the wall of the main vessel. Probe design and inspection performances can be predicted by using comprehensive models that can take into account the various variables of the problem. These models are explained in this paper. (authors)

  10. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2002-03-30

    This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

  12. Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in the U.S.A. Agrin Regulation of ? 3 Sodium-Potassiumis modulated by agrin regulation of ? 3 Na,K-ATPasegated sodium channels, capa- regulation of cardiac myocyte

  13. 4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

  14. Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for Controllable Sodium Incorporation in CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.; Young, M.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS solar cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.

  15. Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions P. C. Griffiths* and J. A dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles bound to gelatin have been studied by fluorescence using 8-anilino-1-naphththalene sulfonic acid (ANS) as probe. Like gelatin, ANS binds in the region of the micelle occupied

  16. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  17. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  18. Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  19. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be shown of thermal fatigue and high-heat flux testing of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in the HFIR reactor to neutron dose consistent to ITER lifetime.

  1. Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

  2. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  3. Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb A Christensen Submitted of Philosophy Abstract The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23

  4. Fluctuations and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluctuations and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium by Edward Su and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium by Edward Su Submitted- periments with sodium and lithium in optical lattices. We describe progress towards the implementation

  5. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  6. Phosphors for LED lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  7. A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1966-01-01

    "A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

  8. Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

  9. Low-pressure debris dispersal from scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.T.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    During a severe nuclear reactor accident, degradation of the core may result in debris accumulating in the lower head. Upon failure of the head, the melt may be ejected under pressure through the cavity and into the containment building. Under low system pressure conditions, understanding the mechanisms of debris dispersal is instrumental in assessing the response of the containment to pressurized melt ejection. Current analytical approaches rely on empirical correlations for debris entrainment criteria and very simple gas flow patterns in the cavity. The work reported here is directed toward performing scaled experiments that will develop a data base for refined scaling analyses. Subsequently, extrapolations from the analyses to reactor scale may be performed to provide insight for accident predictions. Mechanistic models for gas flow through the cavity and entrainment of the debris are also being developed from the results presented here. The objective of the test matrix is to vary key parameters to assess the effect on the physical processes of dispersal of the melt from the reactor cavity at low system pressures.

  10. Giant barocaloric effect at low pressure in ferrielectric ammonium sulphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloveras, P.; Stern-Taulats, E.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Crossley, S.; Li, W.; Pomjakushin, V.; Planes, A.; Mañosa, Ll.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-08-11

    ,3,* 1 Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona, 08028 Catalonia, Spain. 2 Facultat de Física, Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona... cooling, but existing refrigeration and air-conditioning units rely primarily on the compression and expansion of environmentally harmful fluids. Resurgent interest in solid materials that display magnetically, electrically and mechanically driven phase...

  11. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car...

  12. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  13. Low pressure EGR system having full range capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr. William Lanier (West Peoria, IL); Milam, David Michael (Dunlap, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Bond, Michael Steven (Chillicothe, IL); Kapic, Amir (Dunlap, IL)

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust treatment system for an engine is disclosed and may have an air induction circuit, an exhaust circuit, and an exhaust recirculation circuit. The air induction circuit may be configured to direct air into the engine. The exhaust circuit may be configured to direct exhaust from the engine and include a turbine driven by the exhaust, a particulate filter disposed in series with and downstream of the turbine, and a catalytic device disposed in series with and downstream of the particulate filter. The exhaust recirculation circuit may be configured to selectively redirect at least some of the exhaust from between the particulate filter and the catalytic device to the air induction circuit. The catalytic device is selected to create backpressure within the exhaust circuit sufficient to ensure that, under normal engine operating conditions above low idle, exhaust can flow into the air induction circuit without throttling of the air.

  14. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that it can be reused. Vapor recompression relies upon a mechanical compressor or steam jet ejector to increase the temperature of the latent heat in steam to render it usable for...

  15. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  16. Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With LivermoreSustainable Land Lab TourSwitchSynopticHydrogen

  17. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y AEfficiency Rebate ProgramsAlpena<fuelalternative

  18. Effects of the mycotoxin penicillic acid on electrogenic sodium transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilczynski, Teresa Anne

    1983-01-01

    OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF THE MYCOTOXIN PENICILLIC ACID ON ELECTRUUENIC SOUIUM TRANSPORT A Thesis by TERESA ANNE WILCZYNSKI Approved as to style and content by: T. D. Phi ll ps (Chairman of Committee...) E. E. ms (Hem~) N. D. Hei del baug (Member ) C. W. Uill (Member ) N. D. Heidelbaugh (Head of Department) May 1983 ABSTRACT Effects of the Mycotoxin Penici1 lie Acid on Electrogeni c Sodium Transport (May 1983) Teresa Anne Wilczynski, B...

  19. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit.

  20. Sodium meta-autunite colloids: Synthesis, characterization,stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    zzuoping@lbl.gov

    2004-04-10

    Waste forms of U such as those in the United States Department of Energy's Hanford Site often contain high concentrations of Na and P. Low solubility sodium uranyl phosphates such as sodium meta-autunite have the potential to form mobile colloids that can facilitate transport of this radionuclide. In order to understand the geochemical behavior of uranyl phosphate colloids, we synthesized sodiummeta-autunite colloids, and characterized their morphology, chemical composition, structure, dehydration, and surface charge. The stability of these synthetic plate-shaped colloids was tested with respect to time and pH. The highest aggregation rate was observed at pH 3, and the rate decreases as pH increases, indicating that higher stability of colloid dispersion under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. The synthetic colloids are all negatively charged and no isoelectric points were found over a pH range of 3 to 9. The zeta-potentials of the colloids in the phosphate solution show a strong pH-dependence in the more acidic range over time, but are relatively constant in the neutral and alkaline pH range. The geochemical behavior of the synthetic colloids can be interpreted using DLVO theory. The results suggest that formation of mobile sodium meta-autunite colloids can enhance the transport of U in some contaminated sediments.

  1. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  2. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  3. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  4. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  5. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  6. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Moysan, J., E-mail: joseph.moysan@univ-amu.fr; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Jeannot, J. P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-05-28

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  7. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  8. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  9. DRESDYN - A new facility for MHD experiments with liquid sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefani, F; Gerbeth, G; Giesecke, A; Gundrum, Th; Steglich, C; Weier, T; Wustmann, B

    2012-01-01

    The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is intended as a platform both for large scale experiments related to geo- and astrophysics as well as for experiments related to thermohydraulic and safety aspects of liquid metal batteries and liquid metal fast reactors. The most ambitious projects in the framework of DRESDYN are a homogeneous hydromagnetic dynamo driven solely by precession and a large Taylor-Couette type experiment for the combined investigation of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. In this paper we give a short summary about the ongoing preparations and delineate the next steps for the realization of DRESDYN.

  10. Nanofriction on Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Brushes in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takuya Fujima; Eitaro Futakuchi; Fumihiro Kino

    2014-02-19

    We investigated the frictional properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) brushes in water by frictional force microscopy (FFM). Polyelectrolyte brushes were prepared on silicon wafers by the grafting-to method. The brushes considerably reduce the frictional force and coefficient of kinetic friction compared to hydrodynamic lubrication on a smooth Si wafer. Frictional force is independent of sliding speed, but is lower for lower degrees of NaPSS polymerization. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the polymer chains in a brush are stretched strongly away from the substrate. These results suggest that polymer chains point support the FFM probe tip in water and reduced contact area and friction.

  11. Startup of the FFTF sodium cooled reactor. [Acceptance Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redekopp, R.D.; Umek, A.M.

    1981-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is a 3 Loop 400 MW(t) sodium cooled fast reactor with a primary mission to test fuels and materials for development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Bringing FFTF to a condition to accomplish this mission is the goal of the Acceptance Test Program (ATP). This program was the mechanism for achieving startup of the FFTF. Highlights of the ATP involving the system inerting, liquid metal and inerted cell testing and initial ascent to full power are discussed.

  12. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared a EIS that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of treatment and management of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS Lutgardium-be ta alumina type solid electrolytes i s limit ed by

  14. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  15. Non destructive examination of immersed structures within liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baque, F.; Paumel, K.; Corneloup, G.; Ploix, M. A.; Augem, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The In Service Inspection of internal structures of future liquid sodium cooled fast reactors implies, among different options, the use of ultrasounds from the outside of sodium circuit. In these conditions, ultrasounds have to propagate through the metallic envelope of main vessel, then other immersed plates. Thus the study aims at mastering ultrasonic propagation in these multilayered structures in order to determine the best conditions allowing NDT of a plate behind some screens. The necessity of propagating a maximum of energy through bounded media orientated the study towards Lamb waves. Those are often employed for singles plates or solid layers but they are less usual for liquid/solid alternations. Theoretical results are obtained using transfer matrix method. They are compared to in water experimental measurements. Cases with one, two and three parallel plates without then with an artificial defect are presented for identical and different thicknesses of plates. Results show that an artificial crack defect is obviously detected in a plate located behind one and two screens. Measured attenuation is compatible with industrial NDT conditions. Thus a promising potential is shown for this inspection technique. (authors)

  16. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

  17. Better than crystalline: amorphous vanadium oxide for sodium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Better than crystalline: amorphous vanadium oxide for sodium-ion batteries E. Uchaker, Y. Z. Zheng and investigated as cathodes for sodium- ion batteries. Amorphous V2O5 demonstrated superior electro- chemical development.1,2 Among commercially available energy storage media, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries constitute

  18. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR-Award 0654118 Ion Cyclotron Resonance User Program Solid deposits and emulsions from crude oil can-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

  19. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating that such a film exists and is caused by the deposition of iron and sodium atoms on the ice grain from iron

  20. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  2. Diffusion motions in hydrated sodium alginate by QENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripadus, V.; Statescu, M.; Aranghel, D.; Gugiu, M.; Petre, M.; Precup, I. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineerig, Bucuresti (Romania); Zanotti, J. M.; Mitra, S. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay (France)

    2010-01-21

    QENS experiments are very suitable for the study of water-polysaccharides systems both for slow polymer chains dynamics as well as for faster solvent molecules dynamics. By a suitable choice of experimental conditions as well as a properly data processing we can get information about the motion modes of various molecular groups of polymer chains in aqueous solutions presumes. Virtually we can distinguish the polymer protons motions at nanosecond time scale by choosing a narrow energy resolution window. The present work presents the QENS measurements performed at LLB, MIBEMOL neutron spectrometer on sodium alginate hydrated samples. The experimental spectra were fitted using one lorentzian fit. At high polymer concentration the quasielastic part of the line is given by the translational-rotational diffusion performed by heavy water molecules in confined spaces created by the polymer coils. The experimental data are well described by Chudley Elliot and Hall-Ross models.

  3. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  4. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  5. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  6. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  7. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  8. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  9. Applications of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Wei; Sun, Fengqiang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lihe; Min, Zhilin; Li, Weishan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. • They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount could affect the degradation efficiency. • Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. • Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO{sub 4} solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions.

  10. Sodium-Beta Batteries for Grid-Scale Storage: Planar Sodium-Beta Batteries for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: EaglePicher is developing a sodium-beta alumina (Na-Beta) battery for grid-scale energy storage. High-temperature Na-Beta batteries are a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but existing approaches are expensive and unreliable. EaglePicher has modified the shape of the traditional, tubular-shaped Na-Beta battery. It is using an inexpensive stacked design to improve performance at lower temperatures, leading to a less expensive overall storage technology. The new design greatly simplifies the manufacturing process for beta alumina membranes (a key enabling technology), providing a subsequent pathway to the production of scalable, modular batteries at half the cost of the existing tubular designs.

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  12. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  13. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  14. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  15. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  16. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  17. Degradation of Trichloroethylene Using Advanced Reduction Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzaneh, Hajar

    2014-10-27

    and produce reducing radicals that can effectively degrade oxidized contaminants. Screening experiments were conducted to evaluate three different reducing reagents (sulfite, sulfide, and dithionite) and three UV light sources (low-pressure mercury UV lamp (UV...

  18. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives toCurrent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 2 (2012):J. , Rojo, T. Na-ion Batteries, Recent Advances and Present

  19. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRAVENOUS NICARDIPINE VERSUS SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE FOR POSTOPERATIVE HYPERTENSION AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Brian Joseph

    2010-11-23

    Postoperative hypertension after cardiac surgery is common and associated with substantial morbidity. Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nicardipine (NIC) are effective in its management. SNP is inexpensive, but associated with labile blood...

  20. Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared........................................................................................... 6 Methane (or Natural Gas) as Reducing Agent remained the same since it became commercial in the 1950s and is based on synthetic pathways developed

  1. No sodium in the vapour plumes of Enceladus Nicholas M. Schneider1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions4 . Sodium chloride (that is, salt) is expected, together with the small fraction of salt-bearing particles6 , argues against a situation in which a near

  2. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  3. Development of a novel method to measure sodium azide using the vitamin B?? precursor cobinamide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    sodium azide using the vitamin B 12 precursor cobinamide Asodium azide using the vitamin B 12 precursor cobinamide byazide binds to cobinamide, a vitamin B 12 analogue. The K a

  4. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  5. Application of the technology neutral framework to sodium cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C. (Brian Carl)

    2010-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG- 1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  6. An Evaluation of the Annular Fuel and Bottle-Shaped Fuel Concepts for Sodium Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew

    Two innovative fuel concepts, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel and the bottle-shaped fuel, were investigated with the goal of increasing the power density and reduce the pressure drop in the sodium-cooled ...

  7. Application of the Technology Neutral Framework to Sodium-­Cooled Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C.

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG-1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  8. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Alan Edward

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

  9. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Dispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above 40 M, the suspensions were colloidally stableDispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions Andrew

  11. Supplementary Information: Desalination and Hydrogen, Chlorine, and Sodium Hydroxide Production via Electrophoretic Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    the Solvay process SI 13: Method scale-up with multiple channels in parallel SI 14: Scale-up concept using continuous free flow process SI 1. Composion of the sodium carbonate zone (trailing zone of anion exchange

  12. Ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms : interactions in sodium and lithium gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Caleb A

    2011-01-01

    The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23 atomic gases were studied near a Feshbach resonance at high magnetic fields. The enhanced interactions between atoms in the presence ...

  13. Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

    2012-06-12

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

  14. Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

    2009-01-01

    The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

  15. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

  16. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: direct observation of crystallization in a porous material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher; Pel, Leo

    2008-10-15

    It is well known that sodium sulfate causes salt crystallization damage in building materials and rocks. However since the early 1900s the existence of the metastable heptahydrate has been largely forgotten and almost ...

  17. Design of pulse stretching cell for a sodium guide star optical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.; Horton, J.A.; Kuklo, T.J.; Wong, N.J.

    1992-11-10

    A pulse stretcher has been designed for the LLNL sodium guide star experiment to lower the laser flux and avoid saturation effects. The optical design, mechanical layout and wavefront error analysis are presented.

  18. Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wikoff, Penny M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Beller, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Carpenter, Charles J. (Lynn Haven, FL)

    1991-01-01

    433 of 9384 ) United States Patent 5,000,859 Suciu ,   et al. March 19, 1991 Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

  19. Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitta, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

  20. The use of sodium and/or potassium lactate to extend shelf-life and reduce sodium levels in precooked beef systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagach, Denise Ann

    1992-01-01

    that potassium exchange for pmtons, possibly thmugh an antiport in the cell's membrane could be a component of pH homeostasis, If a higher amount of potassium was available to be exchanged with protons, the pH would increase because of the decrease...THE USE OF SODIUM AND/OR POTASSIUM LACI'ATE TO EXTEND SHELF-LIFE AND REDUCE SODIUM LEVELS IN PRECOOKED BEEF SYSTEMS A Thesis by DENISE ANN PAGACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. Experimental investigations of rheological properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fort, Ben Franklin

    1966-01-01

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND POLYVINYL ALCOHOL A Thesis By BEN F. FORT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AfkM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1966 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND POLYVINYL ALCOHOL A Thesis By BEN F. FORT, JR. Approved...

  2. The substitution of sodium for calcium in the mineral nutrition of cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitenberg, David Calvin

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A & M O' LLEOE OF TEXA5 THE SUBSTITUTION OF SODIUM FOR CALCIUM IN THE MINERAL NUTRITION OF COTTON A Thesis By DAVID CALVIN WHITENBERG Submit. ted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 19 59 Major Subject: Plant Physiology THE SUBSTITUTION OF SODIUM FOR CALCIUM IN THE MINERAL NUTRITION OF COTTON A Thesis By DAVID CALVIN WHITENBERG Approved as to style...

  3. The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Manhar C

    1969-01-01

    THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

  4. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L.; Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F.; Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N.

    2012-07-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  5. The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, Gary Edward

    1976-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  6. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  7. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  8. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  9. An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Dynamic processes and polarizability of sodium atom in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Yue-Ying Ning, Li-Na

    2014-03-15

    Dynamic processes including excitation and ionization, and spectrum parameters including the oscillator strengths, dipole polarizabilities from the orbital 3s,3p of sodium atom embedded in weakly coupled plasma are investigated in the entire energy range of a non-relativistic regime. The interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core is simulated by a model potential, and the plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles is described by the Debye-Hückel model. The screening of Coulomb interactions reduces the number of bound states, decreases their binding energies, broadens their radial distribution of electron wave functions, and significantly changes the continuum wave functions including the amplitudes and phase-shift. These changes strongly affect the dipole matrix elements between the bound-bound and bound-continuum states, and even the oscillator strengths, the photo-ionization cross sections and the dipole polarizabilities. The plasma screening effect changes the interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core into a short-range potential. The energy behaviors of photo-ionization cross sections are unfolded, for instance, its low-energy behavior (obeying Wigner threshold law), and the appearance of multiple shape and virtual-state resonances when the upper bound states emerge into the continuum. The Combet-Farnoux and Cooper minima in the photo-ionization cross sections are also investigated, and here, the Cooper minima appear not only for the l?l+1 channel but also for l?l?1 one, different from that of hydrogen-like ions in a Debye plasma, which appear only in the l?l+1 channel. The total static electric dipole polarizabilities monotonously and dramatically increase with the plasma screening effect increasing, which are similar to those of hydrogen-like ions and lithium atom. Comparison of calculated results for the oscillator strength, the photo-ionization cross section and polarizability with the results of other authors, when available, is made.

  11. Sodium channel activation mechanisms. Insights from deuterium oxide substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicata, D.A.; Rayner, M.D.; Starkus, J.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Schauf and Bullock, using Myxicola giant axons, demonstrated that solvent substitution with deuterium oxide (D2O) significantly affects both sodium channel activation and inactivation kinetics without corresponding changes in gating current or tail current rates. They concluded that (a) no significant component of gating current derives from the final channel opening step, and (b) channels must deactivate (during tail currents) by a different pathway from that used in channel opening. By contrast, Oxford found in squid axons that when a depolarizing pulse is interrupted by a brief (approximately 100 microseconds) return to holding potential, subsequent reactivation (secondary activation) is very rapid and shows almost monoexponential kinetics. Increasing the interpulse interval resulted in secondary activation rate returning towards control, sigmoid (primary activation) kinetics. He concluded that channels open and close (deactivate) via the same pathway. We have repeated both sets of observations in crayfish axons, confirming the results obtained in both previous studies, despite the apparently contradictory conclusions reached by these authors. On the other hand, we find that secondary activation after a brief interpulse interval (50 microseconds) is insensitive to D2O, although reactivation after longer interpulse intervals (approximately 400 microseconds) returns towards a D2O sensitivity similar to that of primary activation. We conclude that D2O-sensitive primary activation and D2O-insensitive tail current deactivation involve separate pathways. However, D2O-insensitive secondary activation involves reversal of the D2O-insensitive deactivation step. These conclusions are consistent with parallel gate models, provided that one gating particle has a substantially reduced effective valence.

  12. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2004-06-30

    In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

  14. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  15. The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-10-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures (? 300ºC) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 ?m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (?200°C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175°C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175°C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280°C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200°C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

  16. Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

  17. International Conference on Microwave and RF Heating MICROWAVE PHOTOCHEMISTRY: PREPARATION OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    in scientific devices for atomic spectrometry [6]. Since they are used above all as the low pressure lamps oil vacuum pump (1) (single-stage, limiting total pressure 10 Pa, type model VR 1,5-12; Lavat, Czech lamps (EDLs) consists of a glass tube (quartz or Pyrex) filled under a reduced pressure with argon

  18. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

  19. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-18

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  20. Survey of sodium removal methods: LMFBR conceptual design study, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    At the project design review of the nuclear island maintenance on May 5, 1981, DOE requested a survey of current sodium cleaning methods and facilities. Stone & Webster provided a plan and schedule for providing this survey. This plan was approved by Boeing Engineering and Construction Company. The purpose of this survey is to document the sodium removal technology and experience as it relates to the CDS Large Developmental Plant, summarize the information, and provide a prospective for the CDS project. The recommendations generated are intended to provide input for a design and layout review of the Nuclear Island Maintenance Building (NIMB).

  1. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  2. L-sodium lactate in cooked beef top rounds: differing levels of incorporation and cookery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Lori Leigh

    1992-01-01

    L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Animal Science L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Approved as to style and content by: R. K. Miller (Chair...

  3. Effect of glycine on chromosomal aberrations of Allium cepa L. root tips caused by sodium fluoride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abid, Adeeba Al-Shahwani

    1967-01-01

    EFFECT OF GLYCINE ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS OF ALLIUM CEPA L ~ ROOT TIPS CAUSED BY SODIUM FLUORIDE A Thesis By Adeeba Al-Shahvani Abid Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Genetics EFFECT OF GLYCINE ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS OF ALLIUM CEPA L, ROOT TIPS CAUSED BY SODIUM FLUORIDE A Thesis By Adeeba Al-Shahwani Abid Approved as to style and content by: ( airman...

  4. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  5. Health and Safety Considerations Associated with Sodium-Cooled Experimental Nuclear Fuel Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvo, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1980s Sandia National Laboratory constructed eleven experimental assemblies to simulate debris beds formed in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. All but one of the assemblies were irradiated. The experimental assemblies were transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2007 and 2008 for storage, dismantlement, recovery of the uranium for reuse in the nuclear fuel cycle, and disposal of unneeded materials. This paper addresses the effort to dismantle the assemblies down to the primary containment vessel and repackage them for temporary storage until such time as equipment necessary for sodium separation is in place.

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    2011-01-01

    and technological point of view. For example, it is used as coolant in fast-breeding nuclear reactors, and in heatPHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first on the electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium at 400 K, calculated using density functional theory

  7. Deformation by dissolution and plastic flow of a single crystal sodium chloride indenter: An experimental study under the confocal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    Deformation by dissolution and plastic flow of a single crystal sodium chloride indenter. H. Scholz (2008), Deformation by dissolution and plastic flow of a single crystal sodium chloride is undercutting dissolution that reduces the area of the contact, and the second is probably plastic flow

  8. Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Information ABSTRACT: Sodium (Na)-ion batteries offer an attractive option for low cost grid scale storage due to the abundance of Na. Tin (Sn) is touted as a high capacity anode for Na-ion batteries with a high theoretical

  9. F POWER MEASUREMENT FOR GENERATION IV SODIUM FAST R. COULON, S. NORMAND, M. MICHEL, L. BARBOT, T. DOMENECH,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    20 F POWER MEASUREMENT FOR GENERATION IV SODIUM FAST REACTORS R. COULON, S. NORMAND, M. MICHEL, L.F-84500 Bollène, France. ABSTRACT The Phénix nuclear power plant has been a French Sodium Fast Reactor at the Phénix reactor shows that the use of 20 F as power tagging agent gives a fast and accurate power

  10. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  11. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  12. HORTSCIENCE 47(10):15041511. 2012. Sodium Distribution in Salt-stressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    HORTSCIENCE 47(10):1504­1511. 2012. Sodium Distribution in Salt-stressed Citrus Rootstock Seedlings 33850 Additional index words. Na+ exclusion, Na+ transport, salinity tolerance, salt stress, vacuole sequestration Abstract. Although citrus trees are considered relatively salt-sensitive, there are consistent

  13. Recovery of Ammonium and Cesium Ions from Aqueous Waste Streams by Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recovery of Ammonium and Cesium Ions from Aqueous Waste Streams by Sodium Tetraphenylborate Sherman of ammonium and cesium ions from aqueous waste stream simulants. The cesium or ammonium salts precipitated of cesium, the TPB anion is precipitated by addition of tripropylamine and HCl, and the Cs cation

  14. The sodium tail of the Moon M. Matta a,b,*, S. Smith a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendillo, Michael

    , solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Moon Meteors Solar wind Solar radiation Image processing a b s t r wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results

  15. Water Permeation through the Sodium-Dependent Galactose Cotransporter vSGLT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabe, Michael

    Water Permeation through the Sodium-Dependent Galactose Cotransporter vSGLT Seungho Choe, John M It is well accepted that cotransporters facilitate water movement by two independent mechanisms: osmotic flow through a water channel in the protein and flow driven by ion/substrate cotransport. However

  16. Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart, such as the wind and the sun, large-scale electric energy storage systems are becoming extremely important

  17. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation 4 Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu Universityl, Nagano, Japan 380-8553 5 STE Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan 464-8601 *Corresponding author: jyue@lamar.colostate.edu Received January 5, 2009; accepted

  18. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration in stormwater runoff and a decrease in groundwater recharge. Stormwater runoff contains pollutants (nutrients to the degradation of surface waters below stormwater pipe outfalls. Infiltrating stormwater has been shown

  19. THE CHANGES IN GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF MARINE MICROALGAE IN RESPONSE TO SODIUM BICARBONATE AND NITROGEN 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunez, Marcella M.M

    2013-02-04

    of renewable energy. In this biofuels research, two marine phytoplankton (Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis salina) were grown in various sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 gL-1) in f/2 medium during the growth phase...

  20. First results of a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.; Foy, R..; Tallon, M.; Migus, A.

    1996-03-06

    This paper presents the first results of a joint experiment carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during January, 1996. Laser and optical systems were tested to provide a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt. This paper presents the results of that experiment.

  1. indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    indirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES conmpounds yielded spectra that bore little resemblance to the coal spec- trum. For example, simulations

  2. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  3. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  4. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  5. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  6. The feasibility of meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for sodium and potassium: a cross-national comparison study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.; Maillot, Matthieu; Mendoza, Alfonso; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-03-20

    dietary costs, while decreasing sodium intakes can likely be achieved in a cost neutral manner. Calorie-indexed dietary guidelines could also help. Population-wide sodium and potassium goals continue to be framed in mg per person per day, regardless... have numerous benefits.35–37 Perceived or actual food costs may be one reason why the observed sodium–potassium ratio is excessively high.38 Merging dietary intakes from the 2001 to 2002 NHANES with a national food price database showed that more...

  7. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5?×?10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8?×?10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  8. Experimental study of the effect of sodium carbonate on the conversion of cellulose to oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Siu-Hung

    1981-01-01

    precipitated very fast, the mixture should be stirred up continuously until the slurry vas fed into the feed tank immediately after the reactor reached the desired preheated temperature. Once the feed vas fed, the feed tank was pressurized with nitrogen...) (Me mbe r) (He ber) (H d of Department- December 1981 ABSTHACT Experimental Study of the Effect of Sodium Carbonate on the Conversion of Cellulose to Oil. (December 19B1) Siu-Hunq Chu, B. A. , National Taiwan University Chairman of Advisory...

  9. Predictors and outcome impact of perioperative serum sodium changes in a high risk population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinck, J.; McNeill, L.; Di Angelantonio, E.; Menon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis Summary statistics were computed for baseline characteristics and outcomes of the cohort. Hospital admissions were fitted in a multivariate logistic regression model to investigate the association between maximum change in sodium... drugs, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors, narcotics and numerous others.34-38 However, we suggest that when a cause is not apparent any abnormality found before major elective surgery should be investigated...

  10. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  11. Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, G.C.; Samson, J.A.R.; Williams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  12. Laser system design for the generation of a sodium-layer laser guide star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The design considerations for a laser system used to generate a sodium-layer guide star are presented. Laser technology developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program is shown to be directly relevant to this problem and results of a demonstration using the AVLIS laser to generate such a guide star are shown. The design of a compact laser suitable for use at a large telescope such as the Keck is also presented.

  13. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the /sup 14/C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units.

  14. Mechanical relaxation behavior of polyurethanes reinforced with the in situ-generated sodium silica-polyphosphate nanophase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. O. Dupanov; S. M. Ponomarenko

    2014-10-31

    Further exploration of hybrid organic/inorganic composites (polyurethane based with inorganic material sodium silica polyphosphate) properties with mechanical relaxometer gives ability to analyze microstructure of such materials in terms of chain reptation tubes filler's fractal aggregates and stress amplification.

  15. Effect of different ratios of sodium to chloride using isokalemic diets for growing and finishing swine raised during hot weather 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othon

    1982-01-01

    ABSTBXCT Effect of Different Ratios of Sodium to Chloride Using Isokalemic Diets for Growing and Pinishing Swine Raised During Hot Weather {Bay 1982) Sergio Othon Serna-Saldivar B. S, Inn tituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de monterrey...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Triflates with Sodium Cyanate: A Practical Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Ureas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fors, Brett P.

    An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N?-di- and N,N,N?-trisubstituted ureas ...

  17. A four-equation two-phase flow model for sodium boiling simulation of LMFBR fuel assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schor, Andrei L.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transients has been developed. The model uses mixture mass and energy equations, while employing a separate momentum equation for each phase. Thermal ...

  18. Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zielinski, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a twodimensional, two fluid code developed at M.I.T. for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, ...

  19. Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2009-01-01

    A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

  20. Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, David H; Gerhart, Jeremy J; Kawakubo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.