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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of modulating sunlight and daylight. By intercepting directto the building owner. Daylight and sunlight have alwaysuse. While the use of daylight in homes is not seen as a

Selkowitz, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Daylighting Calculation in DOE-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4 2.3 Daylight46 3.2.1 Exterior Daylight Availabilityof Interior Daylight Illuminance . . . . . . . . . . ..21

Winkelmann, F.C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1980, pp.l4-20 THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION Stephen SelkowitzEEB-W·-80-19 W-74 THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION Stephen Selkowitz

Selkowitz, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1(d) #12;SECTION 4 Daylighting daylighting controls. · Lighting in daylit zones should have multi-level steps, per Table 130.1-A · Light levels provided at night should be available at all other times · When sufficient daylight is available

California at Davis, University of

5

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1(d) #12;SECTION 5 Daylighting daylighting controls. · Lighting in daylit zones should have multi-level steps, per Table 130.1-A · Light levels provided at night should be available at all other times · When sufficient daylight is available

California at Davis, University of

6

DAYLIGHTING DIRECTORY 1/1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shell for passive heating or cooling and daylight. -To consider daylight as having a major contribution inStr. 'NARY PROVIDING A DAYLIGHT ANALYSIS SERVICE USING

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lighting energy use under daylight linked lighting controls.simulation of annual daylight illumi- nance distributions –and J. Mardaljevic. Useful daylight illuminances: A replace-

Mardaljevic, John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Light and Energy -Daylight measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light and Energy - Daylight measurements #12;Light and Energy - Daylight measurements Authors: Jens;3 Title Light and Energy Subtitle Daylight measurements Authors Jens Christoffersen, Ásta Logadóttir ........................................................................................................ 5 Daylight quantity

9

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1(d) #12;SECTION 4 MINIMUM DAYLIGHTING FOR LARGE SPACES Large enclosed spaces, such as large retail warehouses, are required to have a minimum amount of daylight available when using the prescriptive method of compliance. The minimum

California at Davis, University of

10

Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Daylight in Guinea-Bissau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MYLIGfi Iii GJU£A-BISSAU by HIRAM HALL daylightdaylight of dawning dextrose of my goad the rapidsdreams of~ soul. daylight daylight of my dawning may i wrap

Hall, Hiram

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Energy 101: Daylighting  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Daylighting?the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation?is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

13

Lighting and Daylight Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposing us to the latest products and technologies. Daylight Harvesting A system of controlling the direction and the quantity of light both natural and artificial within a given space. This implies: Control of fenestration in terms of size..., transmission and direction. Control of reflected light within a space. Control of electric light in terms of delivery and amount Daylight harvesting systems are typically designed to maintain a minimum recommended light level. This light level...

Bos, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Daylighting In Schools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Daylighting In Schools: Reanalysis Report TECHNICALREPORT October 2003 Departments, JimVan Dame of My-Lite Daylighting Systems and Products, Doug Gehring of Celotex, Ivan Johnson

15

DAYLIGHTING DIRECTORY 1/1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lighting Design and ~ylight:ing and Passive Solar Buildin. ~Design and Applications, Febo and Kiarch, 1979. "Daylighting and Passive SolarPassive Solar Conference, pp. 271 - 281, January 1979. TERNOEY, STEVEN "Daylighting Design

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Neural daylight control system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper describes the design, the implementation of a neural controller used in an automatic daylight control system. The automatic lighting control system (ALCS) attempt to maintain constant the illuminance at the desired level on working plane even if the daylight contribution is variable. Therefore, the daylight will represent the perturbation signal for the ALCS. The mathematical model of process is unknown. The applied structure of control need the inverse model of process. For this purpose it was used other artificial neural network (ANN) which identify the inverse model of process in an on-line manner. In fact, this ANN identify the inverse model of process + the perturbation signal. In this way the learning signal for neural controller has a better accuracy for the present application.

Grif, Horatiu Stefan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitored performance of the daylighting control system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1999. “Analysis of Daylight Responsive Dimming Systemglare and increase daylight, and 2) Area B had digitalthe stair to approximate the daylight contributions from the

Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quantitative performance indicators of daylight sufficiency?assumptions of existing daylighting performance indicators.existing daylight performance indicators overestimated the

Konis, Kyle Stas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Articles Lighting and Daylighting Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Passive Solar Building Design Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes & Buildings Lighting...

20

Daylighting Calculation in DOE-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 3.2.2 Luminous Efficacy of Solar Radiation . . . . . . .The Availability of Solar Radiation. and Daylight",incidence TSOLNM for solar radiation. TSOLDF =

Winkelmann, F.C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systems for Improved Daylight Performance S. Selkowitz, E.S.Systems for Improved Daylight Performance S. Selkowitz, E.S.Introduction The use of daylight to replace or supplement

Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Daylighting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump to:52c8ff988c1 No38e4011f618b No revision hasDawesCounty isDay,Daylighting

23

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen andLow-Costof

24

Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

daylighting designs is a lack of systems perspective that accounts for, and provides an integrated solution

Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Lightswitch Wizard -- reliable daylight simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A web-based, non-expert daylighting analysis tool has been developed to support daylighting-related design decisions in peripheral private offices during an early design stage (http://buildwiz.com). The tool offers a comparative, reliable, and fast analysis of the annual amount of daylight in the offices (daylight factor and daylight autonomy) and the lighting energy performance of automated lighting controls (occupancy sensors, photocells) compared to standard on/off switches. Blinds are either manually or automatically controlled.

For Initial Design; C. F. Morrison; M. Dubrous; C. F. Reinhart ?; M. Morrison; F. Dubrous

26

DAYLIGHTING METRICS: IS THERE A RELATION BETWEEN USEFUL DAYLIGHT ILLUMINANCE AND DAYLIGHT GLARE PROBABILITY?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The establishment of climate-based daylight modelling within research and practice has led to a fundamental reassessment of both the basis and purpose of daylight metrics. Whilst there is no consensus yet on the precise nature of the metric(s) that should replace the daylight factor, it is generally agreed that these should be founded on climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). In this paper we examine the relation between the predicted annual occurrence of glare and one of the candidate CBDM metrics that has been proposed, called useful daylight illuminance (UDI). The purpose is to determine if one or more of the UDI metrics (predicted for the horizontal workplane) could serve as a proxy for the probability of daylight glare (i.e. a measure of vertical illuminance received at the eye). For glare we use the simplified daylight glare probability model. The setting is a residential building which we use as a ‘virtual laboratory ’ in two design configurations, each evaluated under all 32 combinations of 8 European climates and 4 building orientations.

J. Mardaljevic; M. Andersen; N. Roy; J. Christoffersen

27

Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Venetian Blinds on Daylight Photoelectric Controland Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitzwith the outdoors and daylight to enhance the quality of the

Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A and Mardaljevic J, Useful daylight illuminance: a newparadigm for assessing daylight in buildings, LightingJ and Rogers Z, Dynamic daylight performance metrics for

Grobe, Lars

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Committee E-3.2, "Daylight: International RecommendationsCalculation of Natural Daylight," CIE PUBLICATION No. 16,Committee E-3.2, "Natural Daylight: Official Recommenda-

Bryan, Harvey J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Committee E-3.2, "Daylight: International Recommendationsthe Calculation of Natural Daylight, 11 CIE PUBLICATION No.Committee E-3.2 1 "Natural Daylight: Official Recommenda-

Bryan, Harvey J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Acoustic Daylight: passive acoustic imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Acoustic Daylight: passive acoustic imaging using ambient noise ............................................................................................... xviii SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: Acoustic Daylight......................................................................... 1 1.2 Acoustic Daylight

Buckingham, Michael

32

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Task 21 / Annex 29, Daylight in Buildings. October, 1997.Energy performance of daylight-linked automatic lightingField Commissioning of a daylight-dimming lighting system.

Konis, Kyle Stas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Task 21 / Annex 29, Daylight in Buildings. October, 1997.Energy performance of daylight-linked automatic lightingBegemann, G. et al. (1997). Daylight, artificial light and

Konis, Kyle Stas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

DAYLIGHTING METRICS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is now widely accepted that the standard method for daylighting evaluation- the daylight factor- is due for replacement with metrics founded on absolute values for luminous quantities predicted over the course of a full year using sun and sky conditions derived from standardised climate files. The move to more realistic measures of daylighting introduces significant levels of additional complexity in both the simulation of the luminous quantities and the reduction of the simulation data to readily intelligible metrics. The simulation component, at least for buildings with standard glazing materials, is reasonably well understood. There is no consensus however on the composition of the metrics, and their formulation is an ongoing area of active research. Additionally, non-domestic and residential buildings present very different evaluation scenarios and it is not yet clear if a single metric would be applicable to both. This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings. In addition to daylighting provision for task and disclosing the potential for reducing electric lighting usage, we also investigate the formulation of metrics for non-visual effects such as entrainment of the circadian system.

unknown authors

35

4.430 Daylighting, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This class provides the tools necessary for an efficient integration of daylighting issues in the overall design of a building. The fundamentals of daylighting and electric lighting are introduced and their relevance to ...

Andersen, Marilyne

36

Daylighting systems for the Kuwait National Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylight has a deteriorating effect on the museum objects. For this reason, usually museums totally block the daylight. This research is the part of restoration works of Kuwait National Museum (KNM), which was destroyed during the Gulf War in 1990...

Ahn, Byoungsoo

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Summary Of Daylighting In Schools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Summary Of Daylighting In Schools: Reanalysis Report ReanalysisConocha of Federated Departments, Jim Van Dame of My-Lite Daylighting Systems and Products, Doug Gehring of Celotex

38

Fall Back Daylight Savings time is November  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fall Back ­ Daylight Savings time is November 2nd.The Energy Policy Act of 2005 changed both the starting and ending dates. Beginning in 2007, daylight time starts on the second Sunday in March and ends

Linsley, Braddock K.

39

Daylighting Prediction Software: Comparative Analysis and Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylighting is a beneficial design strategy since it may provide energy savings and contribute to a more sustainable design. In recent studies, daylighting has also been shown to increase staff and student productivity and to decrease absenteeism...

Estes, J. M. Jr.; Schreppler, S.; Newsom, T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Daylight metrics and energy savings J. Mardaljevic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4585E Daylight metrics and energy savings Authors: J. Mardaljevic Institute of Energy 2009; 0: 1­23 ! Daylight metrics and energy savings J. Mardaljevic a , L. Heschong b , E.S. Lee c comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

I Color recognition models of daylight illumi-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I Color recognition models of daylight illumi- nation and hybrid reflectance, and predicts of the color of ob- jects with respect to existing models of daylight [12] and surface reflectance [17, 14, 211 a surface reflectance model for hybrid surfaces and a context-based model of daylight illumination

Draper, Bruce A.

42

A SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING THE EFFECTS OF DAYLIGHT FROM CLEAR SKIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. , "The Calculation of Daylight Factor for Clear Skyand Predetermination of Daylight Illumination," ILLUMINATINGA MEASURING DIAGRAM FOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION, Batsford,

Bryan, Harvey J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Does Extending Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from an Australian Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tellier, F. (2005): Daylight Saving Time and EnergyCEC, 2001: Effects of Daylight Saving Time on California2004): The effects of daylight and daylight saving time on

KELLOGG, RYAN M; Wolff, Hendrik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Investigating Daylight Quality In Malaysian Government Office Buildings Through Daylight Factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract—In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using daylight to save energy in buildings. In tropical regions, daylighting is always an energy saver. On the other hand, daylight provides visual comfort. According to standards, it shows that many criteria should be taken into consideration in order to have daylight utilization and visual comfort. The current standard in Malaysia, MS 1525 does not provide sufficient guideline. Hence, more research is needed on daylight performance. If architects do not consider daylight design, it not only causes inconvenience in working spaces but also causes more energy consumption as well as environmental pollution. This research had surveyed daylight performance in 5 selected office buildings from different area of Malaysian through experimental method. Several parameters of daylight quality such as daylight factor, surface luminance and surface luminance ratio were measured in different rooms in each building. The result of this research demonstrated that most of the buildings were not designed for daylight utilization. Therefore, it is very important that architects follow the daylight design recommendation to reduce consumption of electric power for artificial lighting while the sufficient quality of daylight is available. Keywords—Daylight factor, Field measurement, Daylighting quality, Tropical

Surface Luminance; Mohd Zin K; Mohd Sabere Sulaiman; Yong Razidah Rashid; Dilshan Remaz Ossen; Aminatuzuhariah M; Lim Yaik Wah; Mansour Nikpour

45

Propagation of light in low pressure gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

daylight 12/17/2007 1 Tracking the change in the amount of daylight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

daylight 12/17/2007 1 Tracking the change in the amount of daylight Ever notice that at some times successive days? (c) (Calculus) The daylight graph has been drawn with sine-curve. Find its equation. (d) Use get the following diagram. #12;daylight 12/17/2007 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Taylor, Peter

47

Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF DAYLIGHTING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND DAYLIGHT QUALITY IN AN EXISTING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL A Thesis by UMESH VINAYAK ATRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Architecture EFFECT OF DAYLIGHTING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND DAYLIGHT QUALITY IN AN EXISTING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL A...

Atre, Umesh Vinayak

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

48

Daylighting controls; Orphan of HVAC design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that in the array of strategies employed for energy-efficient design and retrofitting in commercial buildings, the use of daylighting controls is often overlooked or omitted. Thus, daylighting controls are a worthy but neglected orphan of the design process, stranded between the lighting designer, architect and engineer. Most daylighting analysis ignores HVAC effects, despite obvious interactions between windows, heat-from-lights, and thermal loads.

Rundquist, R.A. (R.A. Rundquist Associates Inc., Northampton, MA (US))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or...

50

Do Daylight-Saving Time Adjustments Really Impact Stock Returns?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. Taylor, 1935, World Daylight Saving Time, Chicago: Cur-Sleep at the Market: The Daylight Saving Anomaly”, AmericanSleep at the Market: The Daylight Saving Anomaly: Reply”,

Steigerwald, Douglas G; Conte, Marc

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4414E Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional, January 21, 2011. 1 Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater

52

Integrated Daylight Harvesting and Occupancy Detection Using Digital Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Daylight Harvesting and Occupancy Detection Using Digital Imaging Abhijit Sarkar dynamic range CMOS video camera to integrate daylight harvesting and occupancy sensing functionalities by these sensors. The prototype involves three algorithms, daylight estimation, occupancy detection and lighting

Salvaggio, Carl

53

International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitz Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords: daylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, field testing, IEA31 1. INTRODUCTION Most

54

June 1998Program Description Windows and Daylighting Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 1998Program Description THERM 2.0 Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

55

A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight Category: research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight Category: research Abstract Sunlight and skylight that approximates full spectrum daylight for various atmospheric con­ ditions. These conditions are parameterized

Shirley, Peter

56

A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight Category: research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight Category: research Abstract Sunlight and skylight that approximates full spectrum daylight for various atmospheric con- ditions. These conditions are parameterized

Shirley, Peter

57

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Assessing the Feasibility of Creek Daylighting in San Francisco, Part I: A Synthesis of Lessons Learned from Existing Urban Daylighting Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Leonardson 2004). Why Daylight? In San Francisco, creekof San Francisco to daylight historical urban creeks withincity governments to daylight urban creeks, with successful

Smith, Brooke Ray

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quantitative performance indicators of daylight sufficiency?set of daylighting performance indicators for examination inassumptions of performance indicators under real work

Konis, Kyle Stas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quantitative performance indicators of daylight sufficiency?set of daylighting performance indicators for examination inassumptions of performance indicators under real work

Konis, Kyle Stas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hiding patterns with daylight fluorescent inks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a method for hiding patterns within printed images by making use of classical and of two daylight fluorescent magenta and yellow inks. Under the D65 illuminant we establish in the CIELAB space the gamut of a classical cmyk printer and the gamut of the same printer using a combination of classical inks with daylight fluorescent inks. These gamuts show that a significant part of the classical ink gamut can be reproduced by combining classical inks with daylight fluorescent inks. By printing parts of images with a combination of classical and daylight fluorescent inks instead of using classical inks only, we can hide security patterns within printed images. Under normal daylight, we do not see any difference between the parts printed with classical inks only and the parts printed with daylight fluorescent inks and classical inks. By changing the illumination, e.g. by viewing the printed image under a tungsten lamp or under a UV lamp, the daylight fluorescent inks change their colors and reveal the security pattern formed by combinations of classical inks and of daylight fluorescent inks.

Romain Rossier; Roger D. Hersch; School Of Computer; Communication Sciences; Ecole Polytechnique; Fédérale Lausanne

62

SBi 2006:08 Assessment of daylight quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SBi 2006:08 Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions, Phase 2 #12;#12;SBi 2006:08 Danish Building Research Institute 2006 Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions, Phase 2

63

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort Eleanorof means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare.was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaluation of Climate-Based Daylight Performance in Tropical Office Buildings- A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Z. Rogers, Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics forof interior design on the daylight availability in open plan2002. [14] Z. Rogers, Daylight metric development using

Szu-Cheng, CHIEN; King Jet, TSENG

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

SIMULATION-ASSISTED DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE ANALYSISIN A HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDING IN SINGAPORE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flodberg, K. (2013). “Daylight utilisation in perimeterJ. , (2005a). “Useful Daylight Illuminance: A NewParadigm to Access Daylight in Buildings”. Lighting

CHIEN, Szu Cheng; TSENG, King Jet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

761-81. Tregenza PR. 1983. Daylight coefficients. Lighting773. Reinhart CF. 2001. Daylight availability and manualA visualization of an incident daylight matrix (cumulative

Ward, Gregory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Indiana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Energy Impact of Daylight Saving Time Implementation insleep at the market: The daylight saving anomaly. Americansleep at the market: The daylight saving anomaly: Reply.

Kotchen, Matthew J; Grant, Laura E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH ACommittee E-3.2, "Daylight: International RecommendationsCalcula- tion of Natural Daylight," CIE PUBLICATION No. 16,

Bryan, H.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Performance of Integrated Systems of Automated Roller Shade Systems and Daylight Responsive Dimming Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roller Shade Systems and Daylight Responsive Dimming SystemsRoller Shade Systems and Daylight Responsive Dimming SystemsBerkeley, CA 94720 Abstract Daylight responsive dimming

Park, Byoung-Chul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Performance-based assessment of daylight on tropical buildings- a case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

81% 81% 95% 96% 74% 68% Daylight autonomy max (DAmax) >5%32% 28% 11% 9% 11% 6% Useful daylight illuminance (UDI) Daylight Performance Metrics for

Szu Cheng, CHIEN

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

4.492 Daylighting, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The course focuses on the use and optimization of daylight in buildings and on its complementarity to artificial (electric) lighting, to aim at reducing the building's environmental impact while improving the visual comfort ...

Andersen, Marilyne

73

Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during the industrial revolution, architects utilized various daylighting strategies such as window walls, skylighting, monitors, etc. However, glazing technologies were primitive compared with our modern choices, When more efficient and effective...

McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Utilizing Daylighting Controls in a Manufacturing Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing Daylighting Controls in a Manufacturing Facility Som S. Shrestha Dr. Gregory M. Maxwell PhD Candidate Associate Professor som@iastate.edu gmaxwell@iastate.edu Iowa State University Ames, IA ABSTRACT Opportunities exist... to reduce artificial lighting in manufacturing facilities which have skylights and/or fenestration that provide sufficient quantities of daylight to the work space. Using photometric sensors to measure the illuminance in the space, artificial lights can...

Shrestha, S. S.; Maxwell, G. M.

75

Focus group discussions of daylighting practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community systems and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technologies. One such technology is the use of daylighting practices in the design of nonresidential buildings. This document is a report of the findings from meetings of focus groups conducted to gain insight into building designers' perceptions and attitudes about daylighting systems.

Roberson, B.F.; Harkreader, S.A.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Abstract A Hierarchical Algorithm for Radiosity Daylighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new daylight simulation method for radiosity environments is presented. Daylight illumination is transported in a first step where sun and sky are represented as a set of directional sources. Light is transported using parallel projections of these sources. The scene mesh is adaptively subdivided using energy and visibility criteria obtained from a extended scan-line algorithm that computes a layered depth image for each projection. In a second step, diffuse intereflection is computed through a hierarchical Monte Carlo radiosity algorithm. The method is feasible for it extension for environments containing specular surfaces. Relative short time view-independent global illumination results can be obtained with the proposed method, which make it suitable for daylight building design and analysis applications for both indoors and outdoors environments. 1

Gonzalo Besuievsky; Ignacio Martin

78

Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DGP Established performance indicators are illuminanceled to new performance indicators. The Useful Daylightsimulation. The performance indicator used was the Daylight

Grobe, Lars

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylight Illuminance [12] (UGI) relates the illuminance onin three metrics for the UGI, defining exceeding (>2000lx),

Grobe, Lars

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Spatially Augmented Reality Sketching Interface for Architectural Daylighting Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Spatially Augmented Reality Sketching Interface for Architectural Daylighting Design Yu Sheng to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination

Varela, Carlos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill, Frédéric Desobry and Yu-Foong Chong May DST Daylight Saving Time EIA Energy Information Administration GDP Gross Domestic Product GMT

Hill, Simon I.

82

15 Acoustic Daylight Imaging in the Michael J. Buckingham  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 Acoustic Daylight Imaging in the Ocean Michael J. Buckingham Scripps Institution of Oceanography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 15.4 Acoustic daylight images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 15.5 Concluding. Sensors and Imaging ISBN 0­12­379771­3/$30.00 #12;416 15 Acoustic Daylight Imaging in the Ocean Acoustic

Buckingham, Michael

83

Daylighting a Green High School Smart Schools Symposium 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylighting a Green High School Smart Schools Symposium 2013 #12;AMERICAN CANYON HIGH SCHOOL NAPA CHPS Verified School in CA Daylighting a major focus of sustainable design strategy Began design and orientations First and second story Goals: best daylighting possible flexible lighting system simple and cost

California at Davis, University of

84

What is Daylight: Understanding the Sky as a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is Daylight: Understanding the Sky as a Source May 6, 2007; 2:00 to 5:00 p.m. Michael D and diagrams · Sky Conditions · Daylight Availability · Climate & Design Criteria · Case Studies · Summary · Q the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." · Daylighting strategies should embrace

Ahmad, Sajjad

85

Loss of Daylight Vision in Retinal Degeneration: Are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loss of Daylight Vision in Retinal Degeneration: Are Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Dysregulation, particularly in cones, the type of photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision. The evidence, providing our daylight vision, and have many of the same features and vulnerabilities as rod photoreceptors

Tabin, Cliff

86

Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers enormous potential for reducing lighting system to respond to available daylight and demand response control · Allows building occupants--Consider the improved cost-effectiveness of wireless dimming to promote daylighting controls and load- shedding

87

Inferring Architectural Designs from Physical Sketches: Application to Daylighting Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inferring Architectural Designs from Physical Sketches: Application to Daylighting Analysis Barbara and a closed, 3D triangle mesh representation is constructed. We apply the system to architectural daylighting, daylighting analy- sis, and image processing. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.1 Information Interfaces

Varela, Carlos

88

The Impact on Energy Consumption of Daylight Saving Clock Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Impact on Energy Consumption of Daylight Saving Clock Changes S. I. Hilla, , F. Desobrya , E. W demonstrating po- tential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain Daylight Savings result from an extension of Daylight Saving Time (DST) over the months currently on Greenwich Mean Time

Hill, Simon I.

89

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHTING CONTROL ACCEPTANCE DOCUMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHTING CONTROL ACCEPTANCE DOCUMENT CEC-LTG-3A (Revised 07/10) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE LTG-3A Automatic Daylighting Control Acceptance fraction of rated light output. #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHTING CONTROL ACCEPTANCE DOCUMENT

90

Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-3708E Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System Author(s), L. Grobe; S thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight, 94720 California, USA 1. Abstract A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing

91

COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS FOR PREDICTING VERTICAL DAYLIGHT LEVELS IN ATRIUM BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates the impact of well geometry and surface reflectance on vertical daylight levels in atria with square forms under a CIE standard overcast sky. By reviewing some previous investigations and comparing with scale model measurements the vertical daylight factor calculated using Radiance are validated. More simulated vertical daylight factors for a very wide range of atrium geometries and reflectances are given. From the results the attenuation and distribution of the vertical daylight levels on the wall of a square atrium with different reflectances are displayed. Also, the comparisons between simulations and two analytical theories have been performed. Finally some conclusions for supporting daylight design in atria are presented.

Jiangtao Du; Steve Sharples

92

Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

Deen, Sophia 1988-

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

93

PERFORMANCE MODELING OF DAYLIGHT INTEGRATED PHOTOSENSOR- CONTROLLED LIGHTING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some building energy codes now require the incorporation of daylight into buildings and automatic photosensor-controlled switching or dimming of the electric lighting system in areas that receive daylight. This paper describes enhancements to the open-source Daysim daylight analysis software that permit users to model a photosensor control system as it will perform in a real space, considering the directional sensitivity of the photosensor, its mounting position, the space and daylight aperture geometry, window shading configuration; the electric lighting equipment and control zones; exterior obstructions; and site weather conditions. System output includes assessment of the daylight distribution in a space throughout the year, the photosensor’s ability to properly track the daylight and modify electric lighting system output, and the energy savings provided by the modeled control system. The application of daylight coefficients permits annual simulations to be conducted efficiently using hourly or finer weather data time increments. 1

S. Jain; R. R. Creasey; J. Himmelspach; K. P. White; M. Fu; Richard G. Mistrick

94

LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V.sub.1-x Cr.sub.x).sub.2 where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200.degree. C., at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Assessing the Feasibility of Creek Daylighting in San Francisco, Part II: A Preliminary Analysis of Yosemite Creek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or purchased properties) to daylight the stream? Or is itrestoration (Smith 2007). Why Daylight in San Francisco? Inof San Francisco to daylight Yosemite Creek, how and where

Smith, Brooke Ray

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Correlation time of ocean ambient noise intensity in San Diego Bay and target recognition in acoustic daylight images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intensity Data Chapter 3 Acoustic Daylight Image TargetC. L. Epifanio. Acoustic Daylight: Passive Acoustic ImagingRecognition in Acoustic Daylight Images A Thesis submitted

Wadsworth, Adam J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

SMC Lite -- An innovative new low pressure, low density SMC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two fundamental driving forces in the automotive composites industry are the need to reduce cost and reduce weight. Through a combination of resin chemistry, unique thickening technology and Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) formulation, a method has been developed which yields the reduced sheet viscosity required for low pressure molding (<3.5 MPa versus 9.5 MPa for standard SMC), yet yields a handleable, tack-free sheet. A variation of this new resin technology permits the molding of true Class A panels at 1.6 specific gravity versus 1.9 specific gravity panels molded with traditional SMC.

Taylor, W. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but with potentially thousands of indirect links. For purposes of the printed version, a list of the links is explicitly provided. This document exists in HTML form at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.html. An equivalent downloadable PDF version, also with live links, at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.pdf. A printed report can be derived directly from either of the electronic versions by simply printing either of them. In addition to the live links in the electronic forms, all report forms, electronic and paper, also have explicitly listed link addresses so that they can be followed up or referenced manually.

Carroll, William L.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of low-pressure dosing systems as well as estimated costs and maintenance requirements....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System (Spanish)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of low-pressure dosing systems....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

102

OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

aims to boost retrofit projects and enable project teams to easily integrate energy, daylight, and airflow modeling into their design workflows. View the Presentation OpenStudio...

103

Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controlsdaylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, fielddeveloping switchable “smart glazings” for over a decade and

Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-6461E Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex

105

Assessing the Feasibility of Creek Daylighting in San Francisco, Part I: A Synthesis of Lessons Learned from Existing Urban Daylighting Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

daylighting can be cost- comparable with conventional, infrastructure- and material-intensive engineering solutions

Smith, Brooke Ray

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting Lead Performer: Creative Light Source,...

107

Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitoredperformance of the daylighting control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that remains unexplained, but operational errors are expected to be resolved as DALI products reach full maturity. The building owner received very competitive bids ($30-75 US/DALI ballast) and was able to justify use of the daylighting control system based on operational cost savings and increased amenity. Additional energy savings due to reduced solar and lighting heat gains were not quantified but will add to the total operational cost savings.

Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2006-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

Green Classroom: Daylighting-conscious Design for Kuwait Autism Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consideration to the natural elements, such as daylighting, at the earliest in the architectural design process is suggested by many as necessary for sustainable buildings. The implementation of a successful daylighting strategy in the design of buildings improves spatial quality and saves energy required, otherwise, for artificial lighting. Daylighting becomes a design mandate in the case of certain spaces; e.g. classrooms in educational buildings. Many researchers have indicated a correlation between the way classrooms are designed and students ' performance. This paper discusses a case study of the environmental design of Kuwait Autism Centre that adopted the provision of adequate daylighting in educational spaces as a major design focus. An extensive daylighting evaluation was conducted on all educational facilities of the proposed conceptual design of the centre. The recommendations from the evaluation were implemented in the design development stages. Earlier conceptual design drawings as well as the final designs are described. The paper summarises the daylighting design recommendations and explains the daylighting simulation process and analysis for decision making in design. Additionally it shows the annual energy savings as a result of the daylighting-conscious design of the classrooms.

Abdullah Al-mohaisen; Omar Khattab

110

Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have analyzed the colorimetric and spectral characteristics of 2600 daylight spectra (global spectral irradiances on a horizontal surface) measured for all sky states during a 2-year period at Granada, Spain. We describe in detail the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCT), luminous efficacies, and relative UV and IR contents of Granada daylight. The chromaticity coordinates of Granada daylight lie far above the CIE locus at high CCTs (?9000 K), and a CCT of 5700 K best typifies this daylight. Our principalcomponents analysis shows that Granada daylight spectra can be adequately represented by using sixdimensional linear models in the visible, whereas seven-dimensional models are required if we include the UV or near-IR. Yet on average only three-dimensional models are needed to reconstruct spectra that are colorimetrically indistinguishable from the original spectra. © 2001 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 010.1290, 330.1710, 330.1730. 1.

Javier Hernández-andrés; Javier Romero; Juan L. Nieves; Raymond L. Lee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Daylighting, dimming, and the electricity crisis in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dimming controls for electric lighting have been one of the mainstays of the effort to use daylighting to reduce annual lighting energy consumption. The coincidence of daylighting with electric utility peak demand makes daylighting controls an effective strategy for reducing commercial building peak electric loads. During times of energy shortage, there is a greatly increased need to reduce electricity use during peak periods, both to ease the burden on electricity providers and to control the operating costs of buildings. The paper presents a typical commercial building electric demand profile during summer, and shows how daylighting-linked lighting controls and load shedding techniques can reduce lighting at precisely those times when electricity is most expensive. We look at the importance of dimming for increasing the reliability of the electricity grid in California and other states, as well as examine the potential cost-effectiveness of widespread use of daylighting to save energy and reduce monthly electricity bills.

Rubinstein, Francis; Neils, Danielle; Colak, Nesrin

2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

113

Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

Ross, M.A.

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

114

(Daylight saving time (DST), implemented as an energy saving policy, impacts many other aspects of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract( (Daylight saving time (DST), implemented as an energy saving policy, impacts many other(of(DST( The idea of daylight saving time is to transfer an hour of morning daylight to the evening. It is achieved (3am-9am, 9am-3pm, 3pm-9pm, 9pm-12am). The(effects(of(daylight

Levinson, David M.

115

Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to 7 deuteranomalous, 7 to the daylight locus rather than along the daylight locus ~Foster & Linnell, 1995; Amano et al., 2003

Foster, David H.

116

The effects of daylight saving time on vehicle crashes in Minnesota Arthur Huang a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of daylight saving time on vehicle crashes in Minnesota Arthur Huang a, , David: Daylight saving time Vehicle crashes Exposure Traffic volume Introduction: Daylight saving time (DST analysis shows that overall DST reduces crashes. Impact on industry: Daylight saving time can lead to fewer

Levinson, David M.

117

Analysis of Low Pressure Steam Turbine Diffuser and Exhaust Hood Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis concerns the computational modelling of low pressure (LP) steam turbine exhaust hood flows. A test case for LP last stage blades (LSBs) with… (more)

BURTON, ZOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Photomicrography for the measurement of steam wetness fraction in low pressure turbines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The measurement of steam wetness fraction at the exit of a low-pressure (LP) turbine stage is important if the highest turbine performance is to be… (more)

Veeder, Tricia Sue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Improving the daylighting conditions of existing buildings : the benefits and limitations of integrating anidolic daylighting systems using the American classroom as a model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Awareness of the benefits of good daylighting has risen in recent years, and the designs of many new buildings take daylighting into consideration. However, the majority of our built environment is older than this recent ...

Kleindienst, Siân A. (Siân Alexandra)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A validation of the Radiance three-phase simulation method for modeling annual daylight performance of optically-complex fenestration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. , 2011. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complexof dynamic RADIANCE-based daylight simulations for a testS.E. , 1998. Energy and Daylight Performance of Angular

McNeil, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

An intuitive daylighting performance analysis and optimization approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effective integration of daylighting considerations into the design process requires many issues to be considered simultaneously, such as daily and seasonal variations, illumination, and thermal comfort. To address the ...

Andersen, Marilyne

123

Daylight variability and contrast-driven architectural effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural light is a dynamic and ephemeral tool for expressing the quality of architectural space. As a compliment to more traditional avenues of daylighting research that assess performance in terms of quantitative illuminance ...

Rockcastle, Siobhan Francois

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Automated support for experimental approaches in daylighting performances assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of daylight and solar reflection has been a topic of increasing interest over the past two decades. A novel mechanical support has been constructed to help better understand this topic that consists of a five ...

Ljubicic, Dean M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

DAYLIGHTING IN CAMBRIDGE LIBRARIES: SHIFTING FOCUS OVER TIME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper aims to explore the various transformations of Cambridge libraries over the ages focusing mainly on the changing role of daylighting in library design. The libraries have been categorised chronologically into four different groups: Medieval libraries, libraries between 16 th cent and Reformation, libraries between Reformation and 19 th cent and modern libraries. The study shows that with the shift from the rules of classicism in medieval libraries to individual styles in modern libraries, the architect has opened up enormous possibilities for design innovations in daylighting. Unlike other environmental services the elements of daylighting are undoubtedly the most visual and expressive. The particular challenge of modern library design is to manipulate natural light for reading and book storage while avoiding reflections on the VDU. It is still a field not fully explored and it remains to be seen how daylighting design can successfully meet all the needs of a modern library. 1.

Ayona Datta

126

Interfacing BIM with Building Thermal and Daylighting Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERFACING BIM WITH BUILDING THERMAL AND DAYLIGHTING MODELING Wei Yan, Mark Clayton, Jeff Haberl, WoonSeong Jeong, Jong Bum Kim, Sandeep Kota, Jose Luis Bermudez Alcocer, and Manish Dixit Texas A&M University, College Station, USA... the BIM authoring tools’ Application Programming Interface (API) to translate BIM into Object-Oriented Physical Models (in Modelica) for building thermal simulation, and input files of ray-tracing software (Radiance) for daylighting simulation. Based...

Yan, Wei; Clayton, Mark; Haberl, Jeff; WoonSeong, Jeong; Bun Kim, Jong; Sandeep, Kota; Bermudez, Jose; Dixit, Manish

127

Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Annex 29, Daylight in Buildings. October, 1997. Atif. M.R.case studies. Energy and Buildings 35 441-461. Attmann,George. 2010. Sustainable Buildings in Practice: What the

Konis, Kyle Stas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jonsson JC. 2013. Daylight performance of a microstructuredH. Device for guiding daylight, US Patent 4,654,243 (JL, Selkowitz S. 2000. Daylight in buildings: A source book

Thanachareonkit, Anothai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Magnetospheric application of high-altitude long-duration balloon technology: Daylight auroral observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetospheric application of high-altitude long-duration balloon technology: Daylight auroral; accepted 12 February 2007 Abstract Daylight auroral imaging is a proposed application of the NASA high

Lummerzheim, Dirk

130

Graphical Representation of Climate-Based Daylight Performance to Support Architectural Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many conventional daylighting design tools are limited in that each simulation represents only one time of year and time of day (or a single, theoretical overcast sky condition). Since daylight is so variable – due to the ...

Kleindienst, Siân

131

Question of the Week: How Do You Feel About the Extended Daylight...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Feel About the Extended Daylight Saving Time? Question of the Week: How Do You Feel About the Extended Daylight Saving Time? March 12, 2009 - 6:00am Addthis Have you been drinking...

132

Historical Survey of Daylighting Calculations Methods and Their Use in Energy Performance Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper traces the historical development of different daylighting calculation methods. Over the years there have been several developments in daylighting calculation methods. The last two decades have seen a number of new ideas and approaches...

Kota, S.; Haberl, J. S.

133

The Soralux Daylighting System : passive solar illumination for deep-plan building spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylight is a valuable resource for both energy and human health. However, this resource is often underutilized in buildings due to the difficulty of controlling the changing qualities of daylight. Deep-plan building spaces ...

Thuot, Kevin W. (Kevin William)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Experimental study of the effects of wakes on separation in low pressure turbine flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing a detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand...

O?ztu?rk, Burak

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Characterization of Drip Emitters and Computing Distribution Uniformity in a Drip Irrigation System at Low Pressure Under Uniform Land Slopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characteristics of emitters under low pressure are essential for designing drip irrigation systems. Low pressure data for drip emitters are not available from manufacturers. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the performance of five types...

Dutta, Deba P.

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

Fernandes, Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

DOES DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME SAVE ENERGY? EVIDENCE FROM A NATURAL EXPERIMENT IN INDIANA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOES DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME SAVE ENERGY? EVIDENCE FROM A NATURAL EXPERIMENT IN INDIANA Matthew J to estimate the effect of daylight saving time (DST) on residential electricity consumption. Our main finding per year. I. Introduction SEVENTY-SIX nations currently practice daylight sav- ing time (DST), which

Kotchen, Matthew J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

DELIGHT2 DAYLIGHTING ANALYSIS IN ENERGY PLUS: INTEGRATION AND PRELIMINARY USER RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DELIGHT2 DAYLIGHTING ANALYSIS IN ENERGY PLUS: INTEGRATION AND PRELIMINARY USER RESULTS William L for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired

142

USING VIDEO FOR ANALYZING DAYLIGHT SIMULATION TOOLS Daniel C. Glaser1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

USING VIDEO FOR ANALYZING DAYLIGHT SIMULATION TOOLS Daniel C. Glaser1 , F. Whitney Smith2 , Barb socio-technical techniques can be employed to analyze video data of people using daylight simulation, a classic daylighting analysis tool; and in the second a lighting professional is asked to use a new data

Varela, Carlos

143

Calculating correlated color temperatures across the entire gamut of daylight and skylight chromaticities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calculating correlated color temperatures across the entire gamut of daylight and skylight daylight and skylight spectra to test an equation that accurately maps CIE 1931 chromaticities x and y by daylight and skylight. © 1999 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 010.1290, 330.1710, 330.1730. 1

Lee Jr., Raymond L.

144

Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting : integration in CODYRUN software and validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting : integration in CODYRUN software in the scientific literature for determining indoor daylighting values. They are classified in three categories. The originality of our paper relies on the coupling of several simplified models of indoor daylighting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

The following VS tools were compared: 2D OPENBABEL, DAYLIGHT2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following VS tools were compared: 2D ­ OPENBABEL, DAYLIGHT2 , MACCS. BCI, MOLPRINT2D3 3D ­ ROCS Software Inc., Cepos Insilico Ltd., Chemical Computing Group, DAYLIGHT, Chemical Information Systems and Digital Chemistry for providing Academic Licences for ROCS, ParaSurf, MOE, DAYLIGHT, and BCI, respectively

Ritchie, Dave

146

Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control switched across their dynamic range and could be fully integrated into a complete daylight, glare

147

AUTOMATING THE SELECTION OF FENESTRATION SYSTEMS TO BEST MEET DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE GOALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATING THE SELECTION OF FENESTRATION SYSTEMS TO BEST MEET DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE GOALS Luís closer to producing the desired flux distribution from the outdoor daylight distribution. INTRODUCTION The selection of fenestration systems for daylighting is traditionally done by trial and error. Designers try

148

P5.60B DERIVATION OF DAYLIGHT AND SOLAR IRRADIANCE DATA FROM SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P5.60B DERIVATION OF DAYLIGHT AND SOLAR IRRADIANCE DATA FROM SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS A. Hammer, D project SATELLIGHT an attempt is made to use satellite methods to derive daylight and solar irradiance). In daylighting applications, knowledge of the lumi- nance distribution of the sky is of primary concern. Thus

Heinemann, Detlev

149

ACTIVITY OF HAWAIIAN REEF FISHES DURING THE EVENING AND MORNING TRANSITIONS BETWEEN DAYLIGHT AND DARKNESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACTIVITY OF HAWAIIAN REEF FISHES DURING THE EVENING AND MORNING TRANSITIONS BETWEEN DAYLIGHT inactive at night, the latter mainly inactive in daylight. During active periods their behavior, with the diurnal species mostly inactive in darkness and the nocturnal species mostly inactive in daylight (Hobson

150

Inverse Modeling Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for Personalized Daylight Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverse Modeling Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for Personalized Daylight Harvesting Ryan: predictive: daylight harvesting: piecewise linear regression: building energy efficiency Abstract: Smart light levels, discretized by sub-hourly sun angles. Applied on two days of daylight and ten days

Agogino, Alice M.

151

SunCast: Fine-grained Prediction of Natural Sunlight Levels for Improved Daylight Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SunCast: Fine-grained Prediction of Natural Sunlight Levels for Improved Daylight Harvesting, USA {jklu,whitehouse}@cs.virginia.edu ABSTRACT Daylight harvesting is the use of natural sunlight to reduce the need for artificial lighting in buildings. The key challenge of daylight harvesting

Whitehouse, Kamin

152

Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered strategy to shield the circadian clock from daylight fluctuations by localizing coupling to the light

Lefranc, Marc

153

Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator daylight fluctuations by localizing coupling to the light during specific time intervals. In our model

154

Using Simple Light Sensors to Achieve Smart Daylight Harvesting Jiakang Lu, Dagnachew Birru, Kamin Whitehouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Simple Light Sensors to Achieve Smart Daylight Harvesting Jiakang Lu, Dagnachew Birru, Kamin demonstrate how to improve the effectiveness of daylight harvesting with a sin- gle light sensor on each sky to predict the incoming daylight and set window transparency accordingly. We evaluate our system

Whitehouse, Kamin

155

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-6496E Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems

156

Time for a Change? It's not just Daylight Savings Time that should be abolished!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Time for a Change? It's not just Daylight Savings Time that should be abolished! Sunday, March 11. It is just that the clocks are set differently! By government edict! I advocate not just abolishing Daylight of time zone and/or daylight savings time confusion. Every clock and wristwatch in the world would show

157

Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered F, Bouget F-Y, et al. (2010) Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from

Lefranc, Marc

158

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones Government or any agency thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;1 Annual daylighting use in deep perimeter zones of buildings where the windows are subject to high daylight availability

159

DARKNESS, TWILIGHT, AND DAYLIGHT FORAGING SUCCESS OF BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS) ON SALMON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DARKNESS, TWILIGHT, AND DAYLIGHT FORAGING SUCCESS OF BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS) ON SALMON IN COASTAL (2000­2002). Bears (maximum 7 simultaneously) were primarily active during daylight near the onset with other bears (4%). Scavenging was greatest during daylight (19%) and lowest during darkness (3%). Bears

Reimchen, Thomas E.

160

Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.

Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been demonstrated over a point-to-point $\\sim1.6$-km atmospheric optical path in full daylight. This record transmission distance brings QKD a step closer to surface-to-satellite and other long-distance applications.

W. T. Buttler; R. J. Hughes; S. K. Lamoreaux; G. L. Morgan; J. E. Nordholt; C. G. Peterson

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

162

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation of low-pressure inductive discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation of low-pressure inductive discharges Hae driven by an inductive radio frequency wave are simulated with a one-dimensional radiation transport is self-consistently coupled with plasma dynamics. The radiation efficiency is investigated

Lee, Hae June

164

Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first or plasma nitriding of metal parts, in par- ticular those made of steel and cast iron, is extensively ap

165

Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence A is studied using cavitation. The flow is seeded with microscopic gas bubbles and the hydrostatic pressure is reduced until large negative pressure fluctuations trigger cavitation. Cavitation is detected via light

La Porta, Arthur

166

Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

comparing the low pressure system with the high- pressure system equipped with a high-speed compressor pressure of the FC that is defined as the pressure at which the reactant hydrogen and oxygen (air) are delivered to the FC stack flow fields. In the case of stored compressed hydrogen the pressure of the cathode

Peng, Huei

167

Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Experimental data from the subcooled boiling experiment at low pressure conditions of Bartel, and Zeitoun and Shoukri were simulated. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 was executed to determine the axial void faction distribution. The predictions of void fraction distributions...

Reza, S.M. Mohsin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney Engine Low Pressure Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis Overview The goal was to provide Pratt & Whitney with a detailed finitePENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney ­ Engine Low Pressure 3D cloud data to useable CAD model Use finite element analysis to determine the areas of highest

Demirel, Melik C.

169

Observations of an Impurity-driven Hysteresis Behavior in Ice Crystal Growth at Low Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms for this instability, which can be used to produce clean, faceted ice surfaces. 1 IntroductionObservations of an Impurity-driven Hysteresis Behavior in Ice Crystal Growth at Low Pressure Abstract. We describe observations of a novel hysteresis behavior in the growth of ice crystals under near

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

170

BIM-Centric Daylight Profiler for Simulation (BDP4SIM): A Methodology for Automated Product Model Decomposition and Recomposition for Climate-Based Daylighting Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible problem formulation is required for product model-based thermal analysis using multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) environments for cost-effectiveness, accuracy, and scalability in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. The integration of daylighting simulation into an MDO process, however, presents several implementation challenges. In current practice, the process of an architect, engineer, or daylighting consultant to determine how to analyze a given building design for daylighting performance is frequently subjective, time-consuming, and inconsistent. Furthermore, long simulation time requirements for daylighting significantly hinder the realization of many benefits from MDO. The determination of which spaces in a building are sufficiently different to warrant an independent daylighting analysis is based primarily on building

Benjamin Welle; Zack Rogers; Martin Fischer; Benjamin Welle A; Zack Rogers B; Martin Fischer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Based Daylighting Simulation and Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the architect and the engineer have to follow to prepare the simulation input files, and the complexity depends on the tools. Currently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is widely used in the AECO industries and BIM models are used as a means of exchanging... files, graphical user interfaces for defining model geometry were have been created for simulation tools. In addition, geometry modeling tools (CAD tools) were linked with daylighting simulation tools. Currently Building information Model (BIM...

Kota, S.; Haberl, J.S.; Clayton, M.; Yan, W.

172

Validation of the Algorithms Developed for Preliminary Prediction of Daylight Distribution in a Toplighted Atrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VALIDATION OF THE ALGORITHMS DEVELOPED FOR PRELIMINARY PREDICTION OF DAYLIGHT DISTRIBUTION IN A TOPLIGHTED ATRIUM MOHAMED BOUBEKRI MORAD R. ATIF LESTER L. BOYER PhD Candidate PhD Student PhD, Professor Texas A&M University Texas MM University... to understand daylight distribution throughout an atrium space is essential to produce good designs. Simp1 ified daylight prediction algorithms for preliminary design of top1 ighted atriums under overcast and clear diffuse skies have been developed as part...

Boubekri, M.; Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylight Coefficients, Lighting Research and Technology,America, 1999, The IESNA lighting handbook: reference andcontrol of electric lighting and blinds, Solar Energy, 77(

Fernandes, Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Intelligent Daylight Panel Control System based on Fuzzy Control for Green Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract—This paper proposes an intelligent daylight panel control system based on fuzzy control theory for green buildings. The goal of this research is to automatically modulate sunlight efficiently and to enhance the quality of interior illuminations, thus reducing the need for artificial lighting and conserving energy. Daylight panels are typically installed on the outside of windows. By applying the proposed fuzzy controller, the reflection angle of daylight panels could be adjusted and optimized so that interior illuminative quality is improved and energy-saving is achieved at the same time. Index Terms—daylight panel, intelligent control, fuzzy control. I.

T. C. Kuo; J. S. Lin; Y. Takeuchi; Y. J. Huang

175

Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution to the issue of accounting for solar/thermal influences that will likely change as techniques analogous to the daylighting

Carroll, William L.; Hitchcock, Robert J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Daylighting in schools: Improving student performance and health at a price schools can afford: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the next seven years, at least 5,000 new schools will be designed and constructed to meet the needs of American students in kindergarten through grade 12. National efforts are underway to encourage the use of daylighting, energy efficiency, and renewable energy technologies in school designs, which can significantly enhance the learning environment. Recent rigorous statistical studies, involving 21,000 students in three states, reveal that students perform better in daylit classrooms and indicate the health benefits of daylighting. This paper discusses the evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have cost effectively implemented daylighting into their buildings.

Plympton, P.; Conway, S.; Epstein, K.

2000-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

Applicability of daylighting computer modeling in real case studies: Comparison between measured and simulated daylight availability and lighting consumption. Building and Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this paper is published in / Une version de ce document se trouve dans : IEA (International Energy Agency) Task 21 / Annex 29: Daylight in Buildings, November 1998, 68 pp. www.nrc.ca/irc/ircpubs NRCC-42862 Subtask C: Daylighting Design Tools T21/C1-21/CAN/98-11 Applicability of Daylighting Computer Modeling in Real Case Studies: Comparison between Measured and Simulated Daylight Availability and Lighting Consumption A report of IEA SHC Task 21 / IEA ECBCS Annex 29 Daylight in Buildings Subtask C: Daylighting Design Tools Report T21/C1-21/CAN/98-11 Applicability of Daylighting Computer Modeling in Real Case Studies: Comparison between Measured and Simulated Daylight Availability and Lighting Consumption by Anca D. Galasiu * Morad R. Atif * A report of IEA SHC Task 21 / IEA ECBCS Annex 29 * National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, Indoor Environment Research Program Subtask C: Daylighting Design Tools Report T21/C1-21/CAN/98-11 IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC) The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in 1974 as an autonomous agency within the framework of the Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to carry out a comprehensive program of energy cooperation among its 24 member countries and the Commission of the European Communities. An important part of the Agency's program involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, increase long-term energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA's R&D activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small Secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three Working Parties are charged with monitorin...

A. D. Atif

178

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air jump were investigated in low- pressure ambient air during the laser pulse using an optical interferometer. A tiny shockwave-induced density jump could be observed clearly in ambient air with pressure

Tillack, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

Fox, R.L.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

182

A new approach in data visualization to integrate time and space variability of daylighting in the design process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylighting design has great impact on the performance and aesthetical quality of a work of architecture but requires many issues to be addressed during the design process. The way existing daylighting tools deliver data ...

Yi, Lu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigates how indoor daylight environments affect patient Average Length of Stay (ALOS), by evaluating and analyzing daylight levels in patient rooms in comparison to their ALOS. The patient ALOS data were taken at one general hospital...

Choi, Joon Ho

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

Daylight in façade renewal : using new metrics to inform the retrofitting of aging modern-ear façade types  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New methods for quantifying daylight are increasingly accessible to designers and planners. While these methods have enabled new building facades to better balance the admission of daylight with the maintenance of thermal ...

Rice, Edward Oren

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Overview Models of the Example Space Renderings using the Architectural Daylighting Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our new TUI for architectural daylighting design allows multiple users to a) gather around a physical sketching environment and select from b) a set of wall primitives and window and material markers to c) build a rough sketch of an architectural design. A d) visualization of a daylighting simulation is projected onto these surfaces.

Camera B; Joshua Nasman; Barbara Cutler

186

Towards Embedded Wireless-Networked Intelligent Daylighting Systems for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Embedded Wireless-Networked Intelligent Daylighting Systems for Commercial Buildings Yao, daylighting systems are not widely used in the commercial office building. Barriers prohibiting adoption) `Smart Dust motes' wireless platforms is explored. Due to their small size, they can be placed directly

Agogino, Alice M.

187

Invited paper for the 2001 IESNA National Conference Daylighting, Dimming, and the Electricity Crisis in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the Electricity Crisis in California Francis Rubinstein, Danielle Neils and Nesrin Colak Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;Daylighting, Dimming and California Electricity Crisis Rubinstein, Neils & Colak Daylighting, Dimming, and the Electricity Crisis in California Francis Rubinstein

188

Walking on daylight : the application of translucent floor systems as a means of achieving natural daylighting in mid and low rise architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is concerned with the introduction of quality daylight to buildings by means of translucency in the horizontal planes or floors within the building. Since people began to build, the concept of translucency in ...

Widder, James

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Daylighting Requirements in the National Building Energy Codes – They’re Here!  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Requirements for the control of electric lighting in daylighted areas have historically been avoided in the national building energy codes. This is potentially a rich source of energy savings but as most lighting designers and architects know, daylighting design is not simple! The sheer complication of daylighting design makes crafting daylighting control requirements that could be applied generically in a national energy code a difficult task. However, that is currently changing. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been supporting the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 committee in developing improvements to the 90.1 Standard. With subcontract support, the 90.1 Lighting Subcommittee has championed the incorporation of daylighting design and control requirements for the upcoming 2010 version of the nationally available ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 for commercial building energy use.

Richman, Eric E.

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Javier Hernandez-Andres, Javier Romero, and Juan L. Nieves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Europe Javier Herna´ndez-Andre´s, Javier Romero We have analyzed the colorimetric and spectral characteristics of 2600 daylight spectra (global), luminous efficacies, and relative UV and IR contents of Granada daylight. The chromaticity coordinates

Lee Jr., Raymond L.

191

Dynamic daylight control system implementing thin cast arrays of polydimethylsiloxane-based millimeter-scale transparent louvers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic daylight control system implementing thin cast arrays of polydimethylsiloxane: Daylight control system Dynamic window system Energy-efficiency Transparent louvers a b s t r a c in standard office buildings. The development of daylight control systems that maximize the penetration

Aizenberg, Joanna

192

Re: Affordable Textbooks, Fall Semester Update In a message dated 10/28/2010 10:28:50 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time, nicole@studentpirgs.org  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.M. Eastern Daylight Time, nicole@studentpirgs.org writes: Hi everyone, There have been some exciting

Garfunkel, Eric

193

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES FOR DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* corresponding author Application of lighting control technologies has increased the public interest. Although these technologies have been promoted during the last years their successful use in buildings has been accomplished in a small percentage of new projects. One reason is the difficulty in quantifying the energy savings and thus the subsequent payback period. The majority of existing simulation tools (which are embedded in building energy codes) –needed during initial design- are based on the estimation of the potential energy savings due to daylight. The paper focus on the limitations of current simulation approaches comparing their results, in order to assess their accuracy. For this, special test cases have been developed exploiting their domain of validity.

L. Doulos; A. Tsangrassoulis; F. Topalis

195

Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel et.al [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

Che, Xueke, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China)] [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

BUTCHER,T.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Experience of light : the use of an inverse method and a genetic algorithm in daylight design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integration of daylight availability in time and architectural space is a critical element in achieving optimal comfort and productivity, as well as in minimizing energy consumption. In recent years, there has been an ...

Chutarat, Acharawan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Time-varied daylighting performance to enable a goal-driven design process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to the overwhelming number of decisions to be made during early stage design, there is a need for intuitive methods to communicate data so that it is quickly and easily understood by the designer. In daylighting analysis, ...

Kleindienst, Siân A. (Siân Alexandra)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

McGuire, Molly E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Form and daylight as a creative medium : Church of John Paul II in South End, Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is an architectural design project of a Catholic Church dedicated to Pope John Paul II. The main intention of this Thesis is to explore and clearly present daylighting methods and techniques and how important ...

Gruzewski, Jaroslaw

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Daylighting techniques used in indigenous buildings in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), an investigative approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigated the potential of the daylighting systems used in the indigenous architecture of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), located in Dubai (latitude 25° N longitude 55° E). The analysis tested the lighting performance of three...

Alnuaimi, Maitha Mohammed

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

203

Daylighting Design Tools in Atria for Minimum Cooling Loads in Atrium Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The daylighting and sunlighting value of an atrium are considered the main reasons for including the atrium use in the built environment. However, most atria today are either overlit, which causes tremendous cooling loads, or underlit, requiring...

Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.; Claridge, D. E.

204

Daylight Analysis with Microcomputers for School Buildings in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylighting and other passive energy technologies are critical issues that should be considered in the early stages of building planning and architectural design. Both new design and retrofit of existing buildings benefit greatly by use...

Leaver, J.; McQueen, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

An Empirical Study and Analysis of Daylight Penetration Through a Light Plenum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lighting accounts for approximately 54% of the annual energy consumption of office buildings, and can effectively be reduced through daylighting. The simplest way to provide day lighting into a typical office space has been to use unilateral...

Hill, G. E.; Rowland, D.; Carlson, K.; Karpack, L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Economic and design analysis of daylighting a commercial tower in a hot and humid climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A forty story commercial office tower in Tampa, Florida was redesigned for daylighting. The methods are outlined and results illustrated, A cooling load comparison is done to determine the economic feasibility of such a ...

Roscow, Robert F

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Energy, Shading and Daylighting Analysis for the Austin Bergstrom International Airport Terminal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our firm was under contract with the City of Austin, Texas to perform energy analysis and analysis of the daylighting potential within the New Austin Bergstrom International Airport Terminal. Design of the Passenger Terminal Facility for the New...

Holder, L. M. III; Holder, L. M. IV

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

How Do You Use Daylighting While Reducing Excess Heat from Windows...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

through these windows in the summer. How do you use daylighting while reducing excess heat from windows? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question...

209

Energy efficient commercial buildings : a study of natural daylighting in the context of adaptive reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daylighting is a powerful design element which can have a dramatic impact on people's perception of space, physical and psychological well-being as well as a building's annual and daily energy requirements. Understanding ...

Crowley, John Stephen

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fenestration performance in nonresidential buildings in hot climates is often a large cooling load liability. Proper fenestration design and the use of daylight-responsive dimming controls on electric lights can, in addition to drastically reducing...

Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings compared to the northern regions, a result possibly due to a small, offsetting increase in household air conditioning usage. (4) Changes in national traffic volume and motor gasoline consumption for passenger vehicles in 2007 were determined to be statistically insignificant and therefore, could not be attributed to Extended Daylight Saving Time.

Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Architecture AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT...

Rungchareonrat, N.

213

CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE: BALANCING VISUAL AND NON-VISUAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT INPUT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings, including the formulation of metrics for nonvisual effects. The simulation approach used to generate the performance data from which the metrics are derived is called climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). This approach delivers predictions of various luminous quantities using sun and sky conditions that are derived from standardised annual meteorological datasets. Although there are uncertainties regarding the precise calibration, there is now sufficient empirical data to parameterise models that also simulate the non-visual aspects of daylight, e.g. for circadian entrainment and a general sense of ?alertness?. For these non-visual aspects, vertical illuminance at the eye was predicted using a modified climate-based daylight modelling approach. In the paper, we consider what relation there might be between the three aspects of daylight provision and if these relations appear to be complementary or conflicting in nature: for task; to reduce electric lighting usage; and, for non-visual effects. The implications for future building guidelines for daylighting are also discussed.

M. Andersen; J. Mardaljevic; Nicolas Roy; Jens Christoffersen

214

Spectroscopic study of unique line broadening and inversion in low-pressure microwave generated water plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was demonstrated that low pressure (~0.2 Torr) water vapor plasmas generated in a 10 mm inner diameter quartz tube with an Evenson microwave cavity show at least two features which are not explained by conventional plasma models. First, significant (> 0.25 nm) hydrogen Balmer_ line broadening, of constant width, up to 5 cm from the microwave coupler was recorded. Only hydrogen, and not oxygen, showed significant line broadening. This feature, observed previously in hydrogen-containing mixed gas plasmas generated with high voltage dc and rf discharges was explained by some researchers to result from acceleration of hydrogen ions near the cathode. This explanation cannot apply to the line broadening observed in the (electrodeless) microwave plasmas generated in this work, particularly at distances as great as 5 cm from the microwave coupler. Second, inversion of the line intensities of both the Lyman and Balmer series, again, at distances up to 5 cm from the coupler, were observed. The line inversion suggest...

Mills, R L; Mayo, R M; Nansteel, M; Dhandapani, B; Phillips, J; Phillips, Jonathan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Transient growth mechanisms of low Reynolds number flow over a low-pressure turbine blade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A direct transient growth analysis for three-dimensional perturbations to flow past a periodic array of T-106/300 low-pressure turbine fan blades is presented. The methodology is based on a singular value decomposition of the flow evolution operator, linearised about a steady or periodic base flow. This analysis yields the optimal growth modes. Previous work on global mode stability analysis of this flow geometry showed the flow is asymptotically stable, indicating a non-modal explanation of transition may be more appropriate. The present work extends previous investigations into the transient growth around a steady base flow, to higher Reynolds numbers and periodic base flows. It is found that the notable transient growth of the optimal modes suggests a plausible route to transition in comparison to modal growth for this configuration. The spatial extent and localisation of the optimal modes is examined and possible physical triggering mechanisms are discussed. It is found that for longer times and longer sp...

Sharma, AS; Sherwin, SJ; Theofilis, V; 10.1007/s00162-010-0183-9

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D D

Baumgard, Kirby; Triana, Antonio; Johnson, John; Yang, Song; Premchand, Kiran

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulations banned the production of CFC-11 on January 1, 1996. HCFC-123, the only commercial alternative, will be limited to service applications after January 1, 2020 and will be eliminated from production on January 1, 2030. HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for CFC-11 in retrofit applications and for HCFC-123 in new chillers, but the marginal flammability of HFC-245ca is a major obstacle to its commercial use as a refrigerant in the United States. This report assesses the commercial viability of HFC-245ca based on its experimental performance in a direct drive low pressure centrifugal chiller exclusive of its flammability characteristics. Three different impeller diameters were tested in the chiller, with all impellers having identical discharge blade angles. Experimental work included tests in a 200 ton 3 stage direct drive chiller with 3 impeller sets properly sized for each of three refrigerants, CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HFC-245ca. The commercial viability assessment focused on both retrofit and new product performance and cost.

Keuper, E.F. [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)] [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Transport of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma through a localized magnetic filter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of an ion-ion plasma where only few electrons are present in the discharge could be appropriated in the context of ion plasma source applications. We present in this paper results obtained with a one-dimensional fluid model in the context of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma. Without magnetic field, results show that the electron density is still large in the discharge. With a localized magnetic filter, where the magnetic field strength is such that the transport of the electrons is affected while the transport of ion species remains unmagnetized, we show that a region with a negative–positive ion plasma is found downstream the magnetic filter. The negative ions are produced in the filter due to the decrease of electron temperature. We also find conditions when the plasma sheath near the biased electrode collapses and the negative ion extraction from the plasma becomes possible. In addition, the influence of E?×?B electron transport on the one-dimensional model results is discussed.

Levko, D.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Operation of a THGEM-based detector in low-pressure Helium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operating properties of THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers (THGEM) in pure low-pressure Helium were investigated. This paper includes the effective gain dependence on pressure for different detector configurations (single-, double-, triple-cascade setup), long-term gain stability and energy resolution from tracks of 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Stable operational conditions and maximum detector gains of 10^4-10^7 have been achieved in pure Helium at pressure ranging from 100 torr up to 760 torr. Energy resolution of 6.65% (FWHM) for 690 keV of energy deposited by 5.5 MeV alpha particles at 350 torr was measured. The expected energy resolution for the full track is around 2.4% (FWHM). These results, together with the robustness of THGEM electrodes against spark damage, make THGEM structures highly competitive compared to other technologies considered for TPC applications in an active targ...

Cortesi, Marco; Stolz, Andreas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flow rates and pressures (en,iz > Lsystem) and high magnetic fields (above the threshold value. INTRODUCTION INITIATION of low-pressure helicon discharges is important for several areas of low-temperature in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2009

Scharer, John E.

224

Effectiveness of External Window Attachments Based on Daylight Utilization and Cooling Load Reduction for Small Office Buildings in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduce the amount of the daylight needed to supplement interior lighting. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore which strategy would give a balance between solar heat gain reduction and daylight utilization and result in the most energy...

Soebarto, V. I.; Degelman, L. O.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

CITI Program Website Downtime for Software Upgrade Starting Monday 29 July at 11 a.m. U.S. Eastern Daylight Time, the CITI Program website will be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. Eastern Daylight Time, the CITI Program website will be unavailable for approximately two to three days

226

BUILDING RESEARCH & INFORMATION (2008) Paper in press (mock proof) expected to appear in Vol 36 No 6 (Nov 2008) An intuitive daylighting performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No 6 (Nov 2008) An intuitive daylighting performance analysis and optimization approach M. Andersen1 of daylighting considerations into the design process requires many issues to be addressed simultaneously quantitative and qualitative performance criteria using daylighting analysis data in various forms

Varela, Carlos

227

CLTC is a not-for-profit research, development and demonstration facility leading innovations in energy-efficient lighting and daylighting technologies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in energy-efficient lighting and daylighting technologies. Collaborating with partners in government common ways CLTC utilizes funding to advance the science of energy-efficient lighting and daylighting and field test emerging lighting and daylighting technologies. Demonstrations help vet the performance

California at Davis, University of

228

Evaluation of the Daylight Cycle of Model-Predicted Cloud Amount and Condensed Water Path over Europe with Observations from MSG SEVIRI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of the Daylight Cycle of Model-Predicted Cloud Amount and Condensed Water Path over accurate information on diurnal cycles during daylight hours of cloud properties over land and ocean surfaces. This paper evaluates the daylight cycle of CA and CWP as predicted by the Regional Atmospheric

Stoffelen, Ad

229

Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

230

Impact of Fixed Exterior Shading on Daylighting: A Case Study of the David Brower Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blind systems were always lowered and seasonally adjusted (continued on next page) MS Thesis,Thesis, Dept. of Architecture, UC Berkeley 2011 http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1mq5k9mw blinds,blinds frequently enough to take advantage of daylighting. 14 While MS Thesis,

Zelenay, Krystyna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

D i i f S t i bilit i th B ilt E i tDesigning for Sustainability in the Built Environment Exterior Facade Design for Maximum Daylighting and Solar Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facade Design for Maximum Daylighting and Solar Power GenerationGeneration A frank assessment of issues "...the art and science of daylighting is not so much about how to provide enough daylighting as how to do LIGHTING CHARACTER DUE TO DAYLIGHT VARIABILITY · PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF· PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

232

To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones

233

Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

University of Miami; Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Space, light, and time : prospective analysis of Circadian illumination for health-based daylighting with applications to healthcare architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light in architecture can be studied for its objective or perceptual effects. This thesis describes an objective link between human health and architectural design. Specifically, the link between daylight and human circadian ...

Pechacek, Christopher S. (Christopher Scott)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Origins of Analysis Methods Used to Design High Performance Commercial Buildings: Part III, Lighting and Daylighting Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origins of analysis methods used to design high performance commercial buildings: Part III, Lighting and daylighting simulation Sukjoon Oh Jeff S. Haberl Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE This study is the third part of the review... methods used in lighting and daylighting simulation programs are described. In companion papers, the origins of the analysis methods of whole-building energy and solar energy analysis programs are reviewed(Oh and Haberl 2014a, 2014b). Introduction...

Oh, S.; Haberl, J.S.

236

Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) over a 10-km, 1-airmass atmospheric range during daylight and at night. Secret random bit sequences of the quality required for the cryptographic keys used to initialize secure communications devices were transferred at practical rates with realistic security. By identifying the physical parameters that determine the system's secrecy efficiency, we infer that free-space QKD will be practical over much longer ranges under these and other atmospheric and instrumental conditions.

Richard J. Hughes; Jane E. Nordholt; Derek Derkacs; Charles G. Peterson

2002-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

237

A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Kinetics and radiative processes in Xe/I{sub 2} inductively coupled rf discharges at low pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The environmental concern over the presence of mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps has motivated research into alternative electrically efficient near UV plasma lighting sources. One such candidate is multi-wavelength UV emission from Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures, including excimer radiation from XeI at 253 nm. Previous studies of the XeI system were performed at high pressures and were intended for laser applications. Practical Xe/I{sub 2} lamps will likely operate in the 0.5--10 torr regime and use electrodeless excitation to avoid issues related to electrode erosion by the halogen. In this paper, the authors report on an experimental investigation of low pressure, inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures. The goals of this work are to characterize the UV emission and determine excitation mechanisms in a parameter space of interest to lighting applications.

Barnes, P.N.; Verdeyen, J.T.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Alaska District, lab partner on cold regions work Subzero temperatures and limited daylight shorten the work season in northern regions. Add  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alaska District, lab partner on cold regions work Subzero temperatures and limited daylight shorten and innovative solutions in engineering, construction and operations in cold regions. The partnership between

US Army Corps of Engineers

240

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

Butcher, T.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Microstructural aspects of low-pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coating on Hastelloy X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Co-32Ni-21Cr-8Al-0.5Y alloy coating plasma sprayed on Hastelloy X. The microstructure of the coating layer consist of ..gamma.. phase solid solution, ..gamma..' phase, and Y-rich intermetallic phase. This coating exhibits excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance after exposure in air and in sodium sulfate at 1,000/sup 0/C for 60 h, due to the formation of ..cap alpha..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ oxide scale. However, the presence of chloride in the sodium sulfate leads to rupture of the aluminium oxide scale, and this results in the precipitation of chlorides and sulfides within the coating layer.

Tjong, S.C.; Shih, G.E.; Ho, N.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

243

Key word:Daylight Factor Window Wall Ratio Pendentive dome Lighting design Tropical region Architecture and Interior design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: Daylighting design plays important role in architecture of religious buildings such as churches and mosques where pendentive dome construction is frequently used. In daylighting design, many designers face difficulty in estimating the interior share of light which is usually expressed by daylight factor due to complexity of interior form. This study aims to provide designers with a rather high precision rule of thumb for average daylight factor in pendentive dome building. Thus, it investigates the Daylight Factor [DF] distribution of such buildings with reference to the tropics. It takes the Window Wall Ratio [WWR] into account and seeks its influence on daylight factor. By a 12 X 12 points grid, it examines five different ratios including 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 on DF of the floor beneath the dome. The results endorse the direct relation of WWR and DF. The least WWR equal to 0.1 yields an average DF of 0.55 % while the greatest WWR of 0.5 yields in average DF of 2.56%. The intermediate WWR in steps of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 correspond to 1.04, 1.56 and 2.07 percent respectively. As a relatively precise rule of thumb, any increment in consequent steps of WWR with 0.1 intervals results in 0.5 % increase in DF. This can be employed by architects and interior designers for lighting design of pendentive dome buildings in tropical region.

Mehrdad Mazloomi

244

Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

Chen, Guoqiang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Manufacturing and properties of newly developed 9%CrMoVNiNbN high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to obtain the improved strength and toughness for high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging, fundamental studies using laboratory heats were performed on the 9CrMoV base materials, and effects of chemistry on toughness and creep rupture strength were investigated. From the investigation, it is showed that the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition provides a superior strength versus toughness balance. Based on these fundamental studies, a trial high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging with diameter of low-pressure section of 1,750 mm and diameter of high-pressure section of 1,200 mm was successfully manufactured from the diameter of 1,800 mm, and the weight of 65 ton ESR ingot. From the evaluation test results of this trial rotor forging, homogeneous distribution of chemistry was confirmed and low impurity contents was observed in the whole forging. The superior strength and toughness were confirmed with good creep rupture strength. The FATT at the center of low-pressure section was {minus}3 C with the tensile strength level of 870 MPa. From the results of fracture toughness test, low cycle fatigue test, and isothermal aging test, superior mechanical properties were demonstrated. Thus, the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition, is particularly suitable for the high-pressure low-pressure rotor material for advanced combined cycle power plants.

Azuma, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Tohru; Yoshida, Hajime; Ikeda, Yasumi [Japan Steel Works, Muroran (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency {omega} on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (={omega}/2{pi}) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f {<=} 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent ''hot tail'' is observed at f{>=} 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the ''hot tail'' is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of {omega}, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower {omega} may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency {nu}{sub en}; the transition being dictated by {omega} {approx} 2{pi}{nu}{sub en}.

Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

An experimental setup to evaluate the daylighting performance of an advanced optical light pipe for deep-plan office buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research focuses on an advanced optical light pipe daylighting system as a means to deliver natural light at the back of deep-plan office buildings (15ft to 30ft), using optimized geometry and high reflective materials. The light pipe...

Martins Mogo de Nadal, Betina Gisela

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Submersible sodium pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

252

2003: Energy performance of daylight-linked automatic lighting control systems in large atrium spaces: report on two field-monitored case studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the field-measured energy performance of two common types of daylight-linked lighting control systems, continuous dimming and automatic on/off installed in two existing large atrium spaces located in Canada. The daylighting performance was evaluated based on the daylight contribution to the indoor illuminance and the amount of electrical lighting displaced by daylighting via the daylight-linked lighting control systems. Measured daylighting contribution to the space indicates that significant lighting energy savings can be achieved in atrium spaces if the daylight-linked lighting control system is appropriately selected, installed and commissioned throughout its existence. Results extrapolated from measurements collected during summer and winter indicate that as installed, the continuous dimming lighting control system provides 46% annual savings in electrical lighting consumption, while the automatic on/off saves between 11-17% in lighting energy. These savings account for 68% of the lighting energy consumed during main occupancy for the continuous dimming system, and 31.5% for the automatic on/off. Operation irregularities such as a reduced dimming linearity and an incorrect adjustment of the phases of the dimming control system, as well as the inadequate location of the photocell controlling the automatic on/off lighting system, the improper maintenance of the skylight during winter and the oversizing of the lighting system reduced the energy efficiency of the lighting control systems by 30-65%.

M. R. Galasiu; Morad R. Atif; Anca D. Galasiu

253

The use of daylight in the design of a controlled environment for food production in the Caribbean and other equatorial climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis addresses the use of daylight in the design of a controlled environment for food production in the Caribbean and other Equatorial climates. An expanding population has put a tremendous burden on the food ...

Charles, Curtis B

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program executive summary of Phase II demonstrations: The low-pressure rocket motor burns in X-Tunnel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three low-pressure rocket motor burn tests were executed in May--June 1997 time frame at the X-tunnel complex located on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.

B. W. Bellow; A. E. Moeller; D. Steele; S. M. Williams; R. L. Heinle; C. O. Pruneda; C. A. Velsko; B. E. Watkins; C. J. Hewitt; H. Fry; J. A. Sanchez; J. R. Stephens; J. R. Carson; W. C. Gray; W. C. Thomas; T. J. Tope; S. W. Allendorf; L. R. Carrillo; H. H. Hirano; H. A. Johnsen; J. Lipkin; D. K. Ottesen; R. L. Peabody; C. R. Shaddix; J. C. Swearengen; R. F. Boehm; A. Smiecinski; K. J. Stetzenback

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Comparative Study of summer, Winter and Quinox Sky Type of India Using Daylight Coefficient Method and Cie Standard General Sky Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract:- Energy efficiency provided by daylight requires an accurate estimation of the amount of daylight entering a building. The actual daylight illuminance of a room is mainly influenced by the luminance levels and patterns of the sky in the direction of view of the window at that time. The daylight coefficient concept, which considers the changes in the luminance of the sky elements, offers a more effective way of computing indoor daylight illuminances. Recently, Kittler et al. have proposed a new range of 15 standard sky luminance distributions including the CIE (International Commission onIllumination) standard clear sky. Lately, these 15 sky luminance models have been adopted as the CIE Standard General Skies.This paper aims to find out representative CIE (International Commission on Illumination) Standard Clear Sky model(s) for three different seasons-winter solstice, equinox, and summer solstice applicable for prevailing clear sky climatic conditions in India [Roorkee]. Indian measured sky luminance distribution database is available only for Roorkee[29 0 51 ' N; 77 0 53 ' E]. To find out the best match between Indian measured sky luminance distribution and each of five CIE Standard Clear sky models, only sky component of spatial illuminance distribution over the working plane of a room was simulated by MATLABfor three different seasons. Daylight Coefficient method has been applied for the simulation using Indian sky luminance database.The simulation has been done for the room with eight different window orientations ranging from 0 0 to 315 0 with an interval of 45 0 to generate data for the entire sky vault. To find out the

Sutapa Mukherjee M. Tech

258

Pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with an X-ray preioniser based on a high-voltage low-pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-ray preioniser with an electron beam energy density of 0.1 J cm{sup -2} based on a high-voltage (20 - 40 kV) low-pressure glow discharge is developed for repetitively pulsed gas lasers. The electron concentration in the CO{sub 2} - N{sub 2} - He mixture as a function of the voltage across the preioniser is calculated for titanium and other foils. The preioniser can be operated both in a single-pulse regime and at pulse repetition rates ranging up to hundreds of Hertz. A specific energy yield of 51 J L{sup -1} is achieved in the X-ray preionised pulsed CO{sub 2} atmospheric-pressure laser. This preioniser was shown to be efficient for other active media (CO and excimer lasers), which opens up new opportunities for the development of repetitively pulsed gas lasers. (lasers)

Oreshkin, V F; Seregin, Aleksandr M; Sinaiskii, V V; Shchetinkina, T A ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Sorokin, A R [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

ID-69 Sodium drain experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

Johnston, D.C.

1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

260

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -...

263

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

264

A SIMULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE HEIGHT OF LIGHT SHELVES TO ENHANCE DAYLIGHTING QUALITY IN TROPICAL OFFICE BUILDINGS UNDER OVERCAST SKY CONDITIONS IN DHAKA, BANGLADESH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of light shelves in tropical office buildings to enhance interior daylighting quality. Daylight simulation was performed for custom light shelves for a typical office floor of Dhaka City in Bangladesh, to determine the best possible location under overcast sky conditions. Six alternative models of a 3m high study space were created with varying heights of light shelves. The 3D models were first generated in the Ecotect to study the distribution and uniformity of daylight in the interior space with splitflux method. These models were then exported to a physically-based backward raytracer, Radiance Synthetic Imaging software to generate realistic lighting levels for validating and crosschecking the Ecotect results. The results showed that for achieving light levels closest to specified standards, light shelves at a height of 2m above floor level perform better among the seven alternatives studied including the alternative where no light shelves are present. Finally, the decisions were verified with DAYSIM simulation program to ensure the compliance of the decisions with dynamic annual climate-based daylight performance metrics.

Md. Ashikur; Rahman Joarder; Zebun Nasreen Ahmed; Andrew Price; Monjur Mourshed

265

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is

Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760/sup 0/C in low pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged at 760/sup 0/C for 3500 h in a low pressure argon or hydrogen atmosphere to determine the effect on mechanical behavior. The seven alloys evaluated were N-155, 19-9DL, 316SS, Nitronic 40, A286, Incoloy 800H, and RA330. Aging produced no appreciable changes in alloy grain size but did promote increased density and growth of precipitate particles in the grains and grain boundaries. Tensile properties were generally degraded by aging, with ductility and strength changes being influenced by grain structure. Aging also decreased creep-rupture strength, with coarse grain materials being more susceptible to strength loss. The presence of hydrogen during aging did not contribute significantly to creep strength degradation in the coarse grain alloys but did result in extensive strength losses in fine grain alloys. Based on current criteria for the Mod I Stirling engine, the N-155 and 19-9DL alloys were the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760/sup 0/C.

Witzke, W.R.; Stephens, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

270

anticoagulant sodium citrate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pressure-velocity boundary ... Huh, Kang Yul 1982-01-01 38 Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy...

271

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This...

273

TOXICOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES FROM SODIUM-WATER REACTION IN CELL CONTAINING THE SECONDARY SODIUM TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis will show the consequences should the solid sodium in the Secondary Sodium Tank react with a presumed layer of water in the cell. The Peer Review Checklist is attached.

MARUSICH RM

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium dodecyl Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes Summary: 1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl...

277

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

278

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

280

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Secretary for Conservation and Solar Energy, Office ofSecretary for Conservation and Solar Energy, Office of

Selkowitz, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Daylighting | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005Department ofDOE AccidentWaste IsolationDashboardsDavid

283

Window Daylighting Demo  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department ofDepartment ofAnnouncementAugust 30,PowerJuneenabledandWindow

284

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

285

A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in… (more)

Baldé, C.P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Low pressure combustor for generating steam downhole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact catalytic combustor for generating steam downhole in an oil reservoir has steam generating tubes that are attached to a metal catalyst support. The metal support comprises sheets of metal that are spaced apart and transverse to the tubes. Heat from combustion is generated on the metal sheets and is conducted to the steam generating tubes. The steam is injected into the oil reservoir. The combustion gas is vented to ground level.

Retallick, W.B.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Low pressure noncryogenic processing for ethylene recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon gas feed stream containing components selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, at least 5 mol % of ethylene, ethane, heavier saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and mixtures. It comprises: countercurrently contacting the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with a lean physical solvent. It comprises paraffinic solvents; naphthenic solvents; benzene, toluene, C{sub 8}--C{sub 10} aromatic compounds; dialkyl ethers of polyalkylene glycol; regenerating the ethylene rich solvent in a distillation column equipped with at least one reflux condenser and at least one reboiler to produce ethylene plus hydrocarbon product as an overhead stream and the lean physical solvent as a bottom stream, the ethylene plus hydrocarbon product being suitable for bypassing a downstream demethanizer.

Mehrta, Y.R.

1991-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Experimental analysis on a 1:2 scale model of the double light pipe, an innovative technological device for daylight transmission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors present the double light pipe, an innovative technological device, designed as an evolution of a traditional light pipe, which distributes daylight to underground areas of a building, illuminating, at the same time, the passage areas thanks to a larger collector and a second transparent pipe attached to the first one. Unlike the traditional light pipe, thanks to this double illuminating function it can be located in the middle of a room, despite its encumbrance. In this paper the technological design of the double light pipe is presented and the results of an experimental analysis on a reduced scale (1:2) model are shown. Internal illuminance data over horizontal and vertical work-planes were measured in various sky conditions with or without direct solar radiation. Being this innovative device obtained by a light pipe integrated with a second pipe, it performs like a traditional light pipe for the final room and, at the same time, illuminates the intermediate room giving it uniform and high quality light, particularly indicated for wide plant areas, such as show-rooms or museums. (author)

Baroncini, C.; Boccia, O.; Chella, F.; Zazzini, P. [D.S.S.A.R.R. Faculty of Architecture, University ''G. D'Annunzio'' Viale Pindaro 42, 65127 Pescara (Italy)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CENTRE FOR MEDICAL, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES MODIFICATION OF ATRIUM DESIGN TO IMPROVE THERMAL AND DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The inclusion of a central court or atrium within a building is a popular design due to its aesthetic, open appearance. The greater penetration of natural light aids in the reduction in use of artificial lighting during the day. Care must be taken to balance the solar heat gain against the daylight penetration. This balance is critical for the reduction of the electrical energy load of the building, whilst maintaining a high level of comfort for the occupants. In the tropics modifications to atrium building designs are necessary to diminish high elevation direct solar heat gain. Traditionally, shading the window apertures or lowering the transmission through the glazing was used. These solutions limit the view and reduce the light level. The use of angular selective glazing upon atria allows the rejection of high elevation direct sunlight whilst redirecting and therefore improving low elevation skylight penetration. Tilted angular selective glazing used upon adjoining spaces to atria help vertical light in the atrium well to be redirected horizontally deep into the space. These effects reduce overheating which would normally restrict the use of atria in warmer environments as well as improve illumination penetration into adjoining spaces.

Ashley Mabb; Centre For Medical; Environmental Physics

298

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

299

Prediction of slug-to-annular flow pattern transition (STA) for reducing the risk of gas-lift instabilities and effective gas/liquid transport from low-pressure reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow-pattern instabilities have frequently been observed in both conventional gas-lifting and unloading operations of water and oil in low-pressure gas and coalbed reservoirs. This paper identifies the slug-to-annular flow-pattern transition (STA) during upward gas/liquid transportation as a potential cause of flow instability in these operations. It is recommended that the slug-flow pattern be used mainly to minimize the pressure drop and gas compression work associated with gas-lifting large volumes of oil and water. Conversely, the annular flow pattern should be used during the unloading operation to produce gas with relatively small amounts of water and condensate. New and efficient artificial lifting strategies are required to transport the liquid out of the depleted gas or coalbed reservoir level to the surface. This paper presents held data and laboratory measurements supporting the hypothesis that STA significantly contributes to flow instabilities and should therefore be avoided in upward gas/liquid transportation operations. Laboratory high-speed measurements of flow-pressure components under a broad range of gas-injection rates including STA have also been included to illustrate the onset of large STA-related flow-pressure oscillations. The latter body of data provides important insights into gas deliquification mechanisms and identifies potential solutions for improved gas-lifting and unloading procedures. A comparison of laboratory data with existing STA models was performed first. Selected models were then numerically tested in field situations. Effective field strategies for avoiding STA occurrence in marginal and new (offshore) field applications (i.e.. through the use of a slug or annular flow pattern regimen from the bottomhole to wellhead levels) are discussed.

Toma, P.R.; Vargas, E.; Kuru, E.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

305

Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

escalating In price due to the Imbalance In market demand. Chlorine and caustic are produced together by the electrolysis 01 sodium chloride brine solutions. Every ECU (electrochemical unit) 01 chlorine resu~s In the production 01 one ECU 01 caustic soda... cell also produces an acid product that is contaminated with unreacted sullate. The voltage 01 a three compartment is higher, however, and the process system Is more complex. Process System Current density and efficiency determines the amount 01...

Niksa, M. J.

306

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Ma, Yanping (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

313

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley...

314

Efficacy of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the in-situ immobilisation of uranium."Environmental Chemistry 4:293-300. Authors: DM Wellman EM Pierce MM Valenta...

315

aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

316

Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

319

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Tips for Daylighting with Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mardaljevic and A. Nabil. Electrochromic glazing and facadeoptimiza- tion of electrochromic operations for occupantmodulating materials (e.g. electrochromic glazing), blinds,

Mardaljevic, John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

DAYLIGHTING DIRECTORY 1/1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of computerized energy trade off studies of AVAILABILITYDES IG:-1 ~1ETHODS 2. Energy trade off analysis of north

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

DAYLIGHTING DIRECTORY 1/1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRESENTATIONS ' ~solar Radiation Data, Natural Lighting, andJUROVICS, S.A. "Solar Radiation Data, Natural Lighting, and

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with various ‘performance indicators’ becomes ever moreextent that such performance indicators are crude, or the

Mardaljevic, John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased thetowards sustainable, low-energy buildings places increasing

Mardaljevic, John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Natural Daylighting - An Energy Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the final design, as a percentage of the building enclosure within a typical 25 foot wide office bay, is approximately 39 percent. The glass on the north and south elevations is shaded by a brick spandrel which projects 18 inches. East-west facing... glass is shaded by a 15 inch brick spandrel. Projecting brick col umns he1 p to shade the glass with north-south pro- jections of 20 inches and east-west pro- jections of 34 inches. The glazing selected is a one-inch insulated, bronze tinted glass...

Jarrell, R. P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

daylight | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats GeothermalElectric Coop Home7databus

328

OpenEI Community - daylight  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/Geothermal < Oklahomast, 2012Coast

329

Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovationHydrogenNRGA C T Sof

330

Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than the performance of sodium bentonite for either the clay-amended sand or the GCL application, and was substantially worse than the performance of sodium bentonite in the bentonite-cement mixture. A drained angle of internal friction of 21{degree} was measured for calcium bentonite, compared to 10{degree} for sodium bentonite. Except for a larger drained shear strength, no advantage of calcium bentonite over sodium bentonite could be identified from the results of this study.

Gleason, M.H. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Columbia, MD (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eykholt, G.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fast sodium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sodium in the PFBR). The same initiating events occurring in both thermal and fast reactors could produce... specifications of demonstration fast reactors.* Thermal Sodium void...

336

Experimental investigations on sodium plugging in narrow flow channels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed to investigate the potential for plugging of narrow flow channels of sodium by impurities (e.g., oxides). In the first phase of the experiments, clean sodium was circulated through the test sections simulating flow channels in a compact diffusion-bonded heat exchanger such as a printed circuit heat exchanger. The primary objective was to see if small channels whose cross sections are semicircles of 2, 4, and 6 mm in diameter are usable in liquid sodium applications where sodium purity is carefully controlled. It was concluded that the 2-mm channels, the smallest of the three, could be used in clean sodium systems at temperatures even as low as 100 to 110 C without plugging. In the second phase, sodium oxide was added to the loop, and the oxygen concentration in the liquid sodium was controlled by means of varying the cold-trap temperature. Intentional plugging was induced by creating a cold spot in the test sections, and the subsequent plugging behavior was observed. It was found that plugging in the 2-mm test section was initiated by lowering the cold spot temperature below the cold-trap temperature by 10 to 30 C. Unplugging of the plugged channels was accomplished by heating the affected test section.

Momozaki, Y.; Cho, D. H.; Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

aged sodium borophosphate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultraviolet flux will produce a similar variation in the column of neutral sodium for a fixed mass flux and density. However, if the cold gas is in pressure equilibrium with a hot...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

aqueous sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 58 Systematic...

342

Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

Denman, Matthew R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

Suo-Anttila, A.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applicatio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu.2012."Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications."Nano Letters 12(7):37833787....

346

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Sodium Chloride.--In order to test the recovery of added salt, several molasses feeds were selected, weighed out, and varying amounts of salt added, in the form of a N/10 solution of sodium chloride. The salt was added hy a different person from... ............................... . . Preliminary ~vork on laboratory methocls ........ . . ............................... Laboratory method adopted.. ............................. Tests of the laboratory niethod. ................... Application of the methold to feed mixtures...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Classification : Original Article VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS POTENTIATE THE INVASIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms

Boyer, Edmond

349

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Numerical Methodology to Evaluate Fast Reactor Sodium Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, a numerical methodology for sodium combustion has been developed for the safety evaluation of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. The methodology includes a fast-running zone model computer program for safety evaluation, a field model program for multidimensional thermal hydraulics, and a chemical reaction analysis program based on chemical equilibrium theory. Two recently performed experiments have been analyzed using the computer programs, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments. Although sodium combustion is a complex phenomenon, use of these computer programs gives better understanding of the coupled thermal hydraulics and chemical reaction.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi; Okano, Yasushi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 100 calcium while rations 3 and4contained 3.85 p. 100 calcium. Sodium bicarbonate was added at a level. The duodenum was entered at the top of the loop and the electrode tip immersed its full length down the posterior side of the loop. The #12;mid-intestinal reading was taken with the incision at approximately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7/NBCn1 pulled down syntrophin c2 and con- versely GST/syntrophin c2 pulled down NBCn1. Moreover normally moves Na+ and HCO3 Ã? into cells and protects intracel- lular pH (pHi) from falling below normal

Hall, Randy A

358

Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Compatibility Assessment of Advanced Stainless Steels in Sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Type 316L stainless steel capsules containing commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS (austenitic, 14Cr-16Ni), NF-616 (ferritic/martensitic, 9Cr-2W-0.5Mo), or 316L (austenitic, 17Cr-10Ni-2Mo) stainless steel were exposed at 600 or 700 C for 100 and 400 h as a screening test for compatibility. Using weight change, tensile testing, and metallographic analysis, HT-UPS and 316L were found to be largely immune to changes resulting from sodium exposure, but NF-616 was found susceptible to substantial decarburization at 700 C. Subsequently, two thermal convection loops (TCLs) constructed of 316L and loaded with commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS and 316L were operated for 2000 h each one between 500 and 650 C, the other between 565 and 725 C at a flow rate of about 1.5 cm/s. Changes in specimen appearance, weight, and tensile properties were observed to be very minor in all cases, and there was no metallographic evidence of microstructure changes, composition gradients, or mass transfer resulting from prolonged exposure in a TCL. Thus, it appears that HT-UPS and 316L stainless steels are similarly compatible with commercially pure sodium under these exposure conditions.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

Weston, Ken

364

apical sodium-chloride cotransporter: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 302 The...

365

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

366

Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

367

Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb A Christensen Submitted of Philosophy Abstract The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23

368

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

Kim, Ji Man

369

Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Project Director- Kirby Baumgard John Deere Power Systems DOE Project Officer- Steve Cooke Subcontract with Michigan Tech August 21...

370

Low pressure EGR system having full range capability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exhaust treatment system for an engine is disclosed and may have an air induction circuit, an exhaust circuit, and an exhaust recirculation circuit. The air induction circuit may be configured to direct air into the engine. The exhaust circuit may be configured to direct exhaust from the engine and include a turbine driven by the exhaust, a particulate filter disposed in series with and downstream of the turbine, and a catalytic device disposed in series with and downstream of the particulate filter. The exhaust recirculation circuit may be configured to selectively redirect at least some of the exhaust from between the particulate filter and the catalytic device to the air induction circuit. The catalytic device is selected to create backpressure within the exhaust circuit sufficient to ensure that, under normal engine operating conditions above low idle, exhaust can flow into the air induction circuit without throttling of the air.

Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Milam, David Michael; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Bond, Michael Steven; Kapic, Amir

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

372

A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

Fiori, Mario P.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

Prono, D.S.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

Electrical breakdown at low pressure for planar microelectromechanical systems with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a major drawback for the simulation of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However when the Navier

Dalang, Robert C.

376

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed.9-0s) All OtherDepartment ofThis tip sheet outlines

378

Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

Auluck, S K H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign Object Damage 3 B.Catalysts. | EMSLInnovation

380

Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECMConstruction andElectrolytes76 I Street,lines

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sandia National Laboratories: low-pressure metal hydride design  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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382

Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant.

Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

1984-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

383

Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Sodium boiling dryout correlation for LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain postulated accident conditions for a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), such as the failure of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS), sodium boiling and clad dryout might occur in the fuel assemblies. It is important to predict the time from boiling inception to dryout, since sustained clad dryout will result in core damage. In this paper a dryout correlation is presented. This correlation is based on 21 boiling tests which resulted in dryout from the THORS BUNDLE 6A, a 19-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly and from the THORS Bundle 9, a 61-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly. All these tests were performed as follows: for each specified bundle power, an initial steady-state high sodium flow was established, for which sodium boiling did not occur in the bundle. The temperature at the outlet of the test section was approx. 700/sup 0/C. Then, using a programmable pump control system, the flow was reduced to a low value and boiling occurred.

Carbajo, J.J.; Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Practical features of illumination with high pressure sodium lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of concerns raised about the health effects of high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are discussed. The notion of a ''natural'' human photic environment based on sunlight is disputed. Humans are better adapted to the ''greenish'' spectral composition of forest light than to direct sunlight. It is ironic that the artificial light source which has received the most disapproval, cool white flourescent lamp, has a spectral composition similar to that of forest light. HPS is also available in a full range of colors. Some successful examples of HPS--from North Division High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to museum exhibits at National Geographic in Washington--are listed.

Corth, R.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Dynamic stability experiments in sodium-heated steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seventy-two dynamic stability tests were performed in the sodium-heated boiling-water test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A full-scale LMFBR steam generator tube was employed as the test section operating over the water parameter ranges of 6.9 to 15.9 MPa pressure and 170 to 800 kg/m/sup 2/.s mass flux. The stability thresholds from the test compared well to the predictions of a modified version of a correlation equation recently published by other investigators. Typical experimental data and the modified correlation equation are presented.

France, D.M.; Roy, R.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Interaction Between Trace Metals, Sodium and Sorbents in Combustion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

Wendt, O.L.; Davis, S.

1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

392

Nanofriction on Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Brushes in Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigated the frictional properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) brushes in water by frictional force microscopy (FFM). Polyelectrolyte brushes were prepared on silicon wafers by the grafting-to method. The brushes considerably reduce the frictional force and coefficient of kinetic friction compared to hydrodynamic lubrication on a smooth Si wafer. Frictional force is independent of sliding speed, but is lower for lower degrees of NaPSS polymerization. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the polymer chains in a brush are stretched strongly away from the substrate. These results suggest that polymer chains point support the FFM probe tip in water and reduced contact area and friction.

Takuya Fujima; Eitaro Futakuchi; Fumihiro Kino

2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications. |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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394

ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS: SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND ORGANOTIN HYDRIDES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane… (more)

McLafferty, Jason

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: equipment, vehicles Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) 200-500 ppm Nets, boots, clothing. Surfaces must be clean... hypochlorite solution.Note: Bleach is 5.25%...

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline sodium borohydride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aardahl, PNNL) The most critical hurdle for the use of sodium ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure...

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum sodium chloride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

agents Water Acetyl chloride, alkaline and alkaline... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium ... Source: Hall, Sharon J. - School of Life Sciences, Arizona...

398

REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

399

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CANDLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokai University, Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); AISA, Fuchu, Ishioka, Ibaraki 315-0013 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

TRUEX partitioning studies applied to ICPP sodium-bearing waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located in southeast Idaho at the USDOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly reprocessed highly enriched spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The HLW raffinates from the combined PUREX/REDOX type uranium recovery process were converted to solid oxides (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. Liquid effluents from the calcination process were combined with liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW) generated primarily in conjunction with decontamination activities. Due to the high sodium content in the SBW, this secondary waste stream is not directly amenable to solidification via calcination. Currently, approximately 1.5 millon gallons of liquid SBW are stored at the ICPP in large tanks. Several treatment options for the SBW are currently being considered, including the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed by Horwitz and co-workers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in preparation for the final disposition of SBW. Herein described are experimental results of radionuclide tracer studies with simulated SBW using the TRUEX process solvent.

Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Law, J.D.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O. [AREVA (France); Dalle, F. [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPIE Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency andon Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency andon Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and

Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Experimental Evaluation of Innovative Wall Daylighting Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to deliver most of the light from the projecting mirror to the two inner spaces. One way of doing this without causing glare to the occupants is to project the light on the area of ceiling over the two spaces and allow the ceiling to serve aa a secondary.... Providing illumination in buildings using sunlight as a substitute for electric light is attractive for several reasons: 1. The solar illumination resource is substantial; during most working hours, the solar illumination on a building is several times...

Place, J. W.; Howard, T. C.; Paulos, S.; Chung, K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology for dynamic, smart glazings has the potential toSwitchable Glazing: Towards the Development of the Smart

Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

List of Daylighting Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

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407

Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems |  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3-- ------------------------------Chapter 39.208-006Energy

408

Times are in Mountain Daylight Savings Time  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 th , 2007 AnthonyDepartmentofGeothermalATF

409

Times are in Mountain Daylight Savings Time  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 th , 2007

410

THE INTEGRATED APPROACH TIPS FOR DAYLIGHTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions

411

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Daylight and Retail Sales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through the integrated design, construction, and operation of building systems. The Integrated Energy to the final report of a larger research effort called Integrated Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Heschong, Project Director Fair Oaks, California Managed By: New Buildings Institute Cathy Higgins, Program

412

Lighting and Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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413

Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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414

Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles asSecond stage ofDefects on . GradeCool Roofs Energy

415

Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles asSecond stage ofDefects on . GradeCool Roofs

416

Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of EnergyofProject isNovember 07, 2007What Isand SupplyEnergy Wind and

417

4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

Cohen, Ronald C.

418

Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is critically important in the translocation of death receptor to the cell surface. Moreover, sodium arsenite and further down-regulates cFLIP levels in melanoma cells. We have evaluated the effects of sequentialSequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL

419

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina David A. Litton March 1998; accepted 21 October 1998) Sodium silicate intergranular films (IGF) in contact. The results were compared to previous simulations of calcium silicate and sol-gel silica IGF's in contact

Garofalini, Stephen H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Art (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Lambert, John (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Hayes, Steven (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting. Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Idaho Falls, ID); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS/IPSL, Verrie`res-Le-Buisson, France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling F. Leblanc Service d'Ae´ronomie du CNRS December 2003. [1] A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four

Johnson, Robert E.

428

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

Levin, Alan Edward

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne...

435

Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An Evaluation of the Annular Fuel and Bottle-Shaped Fuel Concepts for Sodium Fast Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two innovative fuel concepts, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel and the bottle-shaped fuel, were investigated with the goal of increasing the power density and reduce the pressure drop in the sodium-cooled ...

Memmott, Matthew

437

Ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms : interactions in sodium and lithium gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23 atomic gases were studied near a Feshbach resonance at high magnetic fields. The enhanced interactions between atoms in the presence ...

Christensen, Caleb A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Beta-Neutrino Correlation in Sodium-21 and Other Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIA?INTproc?abetanu THE BETA-NEUTRINO CORRELATION IN SODIUM-electrons shaken off in beta decay. High detection ef?ciencyTOF template spectra for beta decays to 21 Ne + , are shown

Vetter, Paul A.; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Freedman, Stuart J.; Maruyama, Reina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Application of the Technology Neutral Framework to Sodium-­Cooled Fast Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG-1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

Johnson, Brian C.

440

Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

Nitta, Christopher C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Application of the technology neutral framework to sodium cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG- 1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

Johnson, Brian C. (Brian Carl)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

Memmott, Matthew J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual ineel sodium-bearing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: actual ineel sodium-bearing Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 RAC Report No. 4-CDC-Task Order 1-1999-Final FINAL REPORT Summary: Dose Reconstruction Study at the INEEL Centers for...

447

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

448

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere ± composition and chemistry) Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

449

Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLER WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZPZPK FREY Approved as to style and content by...

Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Shepherd, David Preston

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four decades to be passed down to future generations.

Rodriguez, G.; Baque, F.; Astegiano, J.C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d'Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

Parekh, Manhar C

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

456

An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitored performance of the daylighting control system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to instead achieve net “zero energy buildings” (ZEB) bysystems to achieve net zero energy use. Switchable windows,

Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitored performance of the daylighting control system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with LBNL sensors to monitor outdoor solar conditions,RTD temperature sensor (±0.39°C) shielded from direct solar

Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

Two-dimensional computational modeling of sodium boiling in simulated LMFBR fuel-pin bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive sodium boiling tests have been carried out in two simulated LMFBR fuel pin bundles in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Experimental results from a 19-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 6A) have been previously reported, and experimental results from a 61-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 9) will be reported soon. The results discussed here are from the 19-pin bundle. Preliminary analysis has shown that the computational methods used and conclusions reached are equally valid for the 61-pin bundle, as well as the 19-pin in-reactor Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-1 experiment. The main result of THORS sodium boiling experimentation is that boiling behavior is determined by two-dimensional effects, i.e., the rates of mass, momentum and energy transfer in the direction perpendicular to the axes of the fuel pins.

Dearing, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

466

Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

GIF sodium fast reactor project R and D on safety and operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Safety and Operation' project is started in 2009 within the framework of Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) research and development program. In the safety area, the project involves R and D activities on phenomenological model development and experimental programs, conceptual studies in support of the design of safety provisions, preliminary assessment of safety systems, framework and methods for analysis of safety architecture. In the operation area, the project involves R and D activities on fast reactors safety tests and analysis of reactor operations, feedback from decommissioning, in-service inspection technique development, under-sodium viewing and sodium chemistry. This paper presents a summary of such activities and the main achievements. (authors)

Vasile, A.; Sofu, T.; Jeong, H. Y.; Sakai, T. [CEA DEN Cadarache, DER, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel''. In addition to information concerning the background, purpose and need for the proposed action, and the National Environmental Policy Act process, this summary describes the characteristics of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, the proposed treatment methods, the proposed facilities, the alternatives considered, and the environmental consequences of these alternatives. A glossary is included at the end to assist the reader with some of the technical terms used in this document.

N /A

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

Galvanic corrosion of structural aluminum coupled with mild steel in a dilute sodium dichromate electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GALVANIC COP?'SION OF STRUCTURAL ALI'I'lINUl'I COUPLED WITH MILD STEEL IN A OILLrl'E SODIUM DICHPOliATE FLECTROLY'I E A Tl. esi, ROBERT FRANKLIN FORD, JR. Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas AEM University in Partia1 fuifiilment.... Approved as to style and content by: + ~J Co-Chairman of Commii:t C Co-Chair n of Committe~e Member+ I Head of D=p rtm t) Januar; IDIO ABSTRACT Calvanic Corrosion of Structural Aluminum Coup'led with Mild Steel in a Dilute Sodium Dichromate...

Ford, Robert Franklin

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

472

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

475

Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors and the Pyro-Process: Conversion of Nuclear Waste into a Fuel Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors and the Pyro-Process: Conversion of Nuclear Waste into a Fuel Source. Belanger Chair, Department of Physics #12;2 Abstract A review of the sodium cooled fast reactor........................................................................................23 1.3.5 Reactor Startup

Belanger, David P.

476

Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge iguez,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge Íñiguez,1,2 T. Yildirim,1, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA (Received 2 June 2004; published 3 August 2004) We have studied the structure, energetics, and dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate NaAlH4 , focusing on the possibility

Yildirim, Taner

477

The feasibility of meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for sodium and potassium: a cross-national comparison study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and meat/poultry mixed dishes, are among the most important sources of dietary sodium in the US.31 32 Processed foods, including breads, cereals and grains contribute a majority of sodium in the United Kingdom, and France as well.12 33 It is important...

Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.; Maillot, Matthieu; Mendoza, Alfonso; Monsivais, Pablo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron distributed in the silicate network and shares corner with silicate tetrahedra. The existence of a majority, such as the increase of the elastic modulus of sodium silicate glasses with increasing Fe-concentration. Our data

Boyer, Edmond

479

Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest Michael- composition of pure cellulose by up to 50%, compared with stream water alone. These effects emerged after 134). We provide experimental evidence that Na shortage slows the carbon cycle. Because 80% of global

Kaspari, Mike

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-pressure sodium daylighting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

483

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China DG Masters JR Lindsay SX Yu DX of Traditional Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xiaoxihu, Lanzhou, Gansu, China An examination of the mineral status of grazing sheep at 3 sites in northern China has provided evidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

484

Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies is introduced which employs a linear relationship between nanotube cohesive energies determined via Density between ionic and cohesive bonding energies indicate that, as the nanotubes become longer, ionic bonding

Hanusa, Christopher

485

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

Bellan, Paul M.

486

indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cleaning Technology (Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981). 10. Z. Hussain, E. Umbach, D. Aindirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES

Howat, Ian M.

487

Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of the Zintl Phase Sodium Silicide Ral Quesada Cabreraa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reduction of Na+ to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations and germanides belong to the family of Zintl phases, in which polyanionic species, formed of the tetrelide atoms counterbalance the electropositive metal cations [1-3]. These compounds are interesting because the Si and Ge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Sodium in 7-Pin LMFBR Bundle Under Hypothetical Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the frame of safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under hypothetical Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) conditions two-phase flow of sodium is simulated in a 7-pin bundle, with hexagonal lattice. Molecular dynamics, with the application of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and a macroscopic model describing rewetting sequences due to the flow of a sodium liquid film along the pin surfaces, are applied to simulate the coolant in the bundle. The pin surfaces and the inner surface of the hexagonal canning are treated in the Monte Carlo simulation as diffusively reflecting surfaces. Collisions of sodium molecules are computed with the 'hard-sphere' model. With respect to previous work the following improvements of the computational code were made: i) The full bundle is simulated, thus allowing for asymmetries, like a skewed power distribution, to be accounted for; ii) A pin model calculates detailed temperature distributions in the pins, so that temperature boundary conditions are computed and not imposed; iii) Post processing visualisation of computed results was developed. An out of pile sodium boiling experiment run at the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe, Germany, is simulated and conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the methodology in computer codes dedicated to breeder reactors safety analysis. (authors)

Bottoni, Maurizio [University of Ferrara, Physics Department, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bottoni, Claudio; Scanu, John [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure model and from failing human heart Carmen R. Valdivia, William W. Chu, Jielin Pu 1 , Jason D. Foell, Robert A December 2004 Abstract Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels in heart failure causes action

Kamp, Tim

490

Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor Chien-Jung Loa,b , Yoshiyuki potential difference. It consists of an 50-nm rotor and up to 10 independent stators anchored to the cell of electrical and chemical potential. All 25 torque­speed curves had the same concave-down shape as fully

Berry, Richard

491

determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta et al., 2007; Mathy et al., 2009) and may thereby mediate the direction and speed of learning in Purkinje cells (Mathy, apparently even down to the level of electrical synapses of the infe- rior olive (Lefler et al., 2014; Mathy

Oertner, Thomas

492

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy and utility applications, such as pump hydro, compressed air, y-wheel and electrochemicalRoom-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart

Wang, Wei Hua

493

Evaluation of a sodium/Hastelloy-X heat pipe for wing leading edge cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

495

Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons and Respiratory excitability, which is inconsistent with a pacemaker-essential mechanism of respiratory rhythmogenesis evaluate here in the mamma- lian respiratory network. The cellular mechanisms that underlie respiratory

Del Negro, Christopher A.

497

Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep P. THIVEND, J.-P. JOUANY Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Four adult sheep had taken place in the rumen bacterial population (table 3). Overall digestive utilization of organic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

498

Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is 3.2% W-1 cm-1 . This compact solid-state light source applications involving the high- resolution sodium spectrum, including laser remote sensing, biology, communications, display technology [1], and Bose­Einstein condensation [2]. A narrow- band solid-state source

499

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be seen in the field. Based on model results, shallow groundwater will be rapidly and highly impactedModeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration device. Introduction Urbanization has increased the amount of impervious surfaces, leading to an increase

Clark, Shirley E.

500

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. DOE has identified electrometallurgical treatment as its Preferred Alternative for the treatment and management of all sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, except for the Fermi-1 blanket fuel. The No Action Alternative is preferred for the Fermi-1 blanket spent nuclear fuel.

N /A

2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z