National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for low-pressure sodium daylighting

  1. Daylighting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighting Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Daylighting Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDaylighting&oldid267157...

  2. Daylight Savings Time Starts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daylight Savings Time Starts Daylight Savings Time Starts WHEN: Mar 08, 2015 3:00 AM - 11:59 PM WHERE: World Time Zones CATEGORY: Holiday INTERNAL: Calendar Login Daylight Savings...

  3. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  4. Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » Daylighting Daylighting Daylighting-the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation-is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into your home. Today's highly energy-efficient windows, as well as advances in lighting design, reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems.

  5. Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Daylighting-the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation-is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into your home. Today's highly energy-efficient windows, as well as advances in lighting design, reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems. The best way to incorporate daylighting in your home depends

  6. Window Daylighting Demo

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Daylighting Demo: Accelerated Deployment of Daylighting and Shading Systems Stephen Selkowitz Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory seselkowitz@lbl.gov 510-486-5064 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: * Façade has large energy impacts. Cooling and lighting average ~ 40% of energy use in commercial buildings and often >50% in peak electric demand. * Many glazing/shading/daylighting options exist, but selecting the

  7. Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis Energy 101: Daylighting Basics This video explains how homeowners and businesses can use highly efficient, strategically placed windows to save money. Text Version Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a

  8. Energy 101: Daylighting

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Daylighting?the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation?is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

  9. Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coating to redirect daylight deeper into buildings to significantly offset lighting energy. Impact of Project: A successful daylighting coating with high market penetration has ...

  10. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

    2011-01-25

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  11. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W. (Ithaca, NY); Kramer, John (Ithaca, NY)

    2009-08-04

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  12. Energy 101: Daylighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Daylightingthe use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulationis one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient,...

  13. daylight | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer...

  14. Lighting and Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting and Daylighting Basics Lighting and Daylighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:05pm Addthis Buildings can be lit in two ways: by using artificial lighting, or by using daylighting, or the process of using natural sunlight, windows, and skylights to provide lighting. Learn more about: Lighting Daylighting Addthis Related Articles Daylighting Basics Energy 101: Daylighting The Biggest, Brightest Star of Energy Efficiency Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  15. Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting Energy 101: Daylighting Addthis Description Daylighting-the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation-is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems. Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Daylighting video. The video

  16. Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Daylighting Energy 101: Daylighting May 31, 2011 - 6:10pm Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Daylighting maximizes the benefits of natural lighting and temperature regulation -- reducing lighting, heating and cooling costs for homeowners and businesses. Daylighting takes a simple concept to a new money-saving level in this edition of Energy 101. Through strategic placement of windows and skylights, daylighting

  17. List of Daylighting Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Loan Program Michigan Agricultural Agricultural Equipment Heat pumps Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Daylighting Ethanol Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using...

  18. Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech21_lee_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Window Daylighting Demo High Performance Window Attachments Fenestration Software Tools

  19. Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting Demo Window Daylighting Demo Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs20_selkowitz_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems High Performance Window Attachments HES Program Update and Scoring Tool v2014 Release

  20. Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech21lee040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Window Daylighting Demo High Performance...

  1. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  2. Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address: 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44145...

  3. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses This tip sheet outlines alternative strategies for low-pressure end uses as a pathway to reduced compressed air energy costs. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #11 PDF icon Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Eliminate Inappropriate Uses of Compressed Air Compressed Air System Control Strategies Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency

  4. Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech18_alvine_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems Window Daylighting Demo

  5. Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  6. Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR This project uses CFD simulation and laboratory tests to design single- and multi-layer mesh as an EGR emergency filter to prevent combustion particles from passing back to the engine. PDF icon p-30_knefel.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses

  7. Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for lighting and daylighting. Product Information Advanced Lighting Package ENERGY STAR® Information on the ENERGY STAR Advanced Lighting Project, which allows homeowners to upgrade their light fixtures to more energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR Lightbulbs ENERGY STAR®

  8. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  9. Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory eslee@lbl.gov 510-486-4997 April 5, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: In order to reach BTO's aggressive 50% energy savings goal by 2030, innovative façade systems must minimize both lighting and HVAC energy end use consumption more optimally while addressing occupant comfort and amenity requirements. Impact of Project: An

  10. Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, William L.

    1999-12-01

    This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but with potentially thousands of indirect links. For purposes of the printed version, a list of the links is explicitly provided. This document exists in HTML form at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.html. An equivalent downloadable PDF version, also with live links, at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.pdf. A printed report can be derived directly from either of the electronic versions by simply printing either of them. In addition to the live links in the electronic forms, all report forms, electronic and paper, also have explicitly listed link addresses so that they can be followed up or referenced manually.

  11. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress | Department of Energy Report to Congress Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Report to Congress This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical methods used in the DOE Report to Congress on the impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the U.S. national energy consumption. PDF icon Report to Congress More Documents & Publications Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Technical

  12. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Documentation | Department of Energy Technical Documentation Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Technical Documentation This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical methods used in the DOE Report to Congress on the impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. PDF icon Technical Documentation for Report to Congress More Documents & Publications Impact of Extended Daylight

  13. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Documentation Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Technical Documentation This report presents the detailed results, data, and...

  14. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Report to Congress This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical...

  15. OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-building Daylighting, Airflow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State University OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-building Daylighting, irflow, and Energy Modeling Leveraging Interoperable BIM Data for SMSCB 2014 Building Technologies Office...

  16. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  17. Microlaminate composite structures by low pressure plasma spray deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) process has been utilized in the development and fabrication of metal/metal, metal/carbide, and metal/oxide composite structures; including particulate dispersion and both continuous and discontinuous laminates. This report describes the LPPS process and the development of copper/tungsten microlaminate structures utilizing this processing method. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the Cu/W composites are compared to conventionally produced constituent material properties. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1983-08-09

    A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V[sub 1[minus]x]Cr[sub x])[sub 2] where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 C, at pressures down to 10[sup [minus]6] Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices. 3 figs.

  19. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  20. Photocatalyst activation in a pulsed low pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Guaitella, O.; Gatilova, L.; Thevenet, F.; Guillard, C.; Roepcke, J.; Stancu, G.D.

    2005-11-28

    The effect of combining plasma and photocatalyst for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) removal was investigated in a pulsed low-pressure dc discharge. The photocatalyst was TiO{sub 2} while the VOC was acetylene (1000 ppm) diluted in dry air. The temporal evolution of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentration was measured by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the mid-infrared region during the plasma pulse (one second). The contribution of external ultraviolet radiation and plasma exposure were quantified, both with and without a photocatalyst. The synergetic effect was clearly demonstrated.

  1. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on national energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Chin, Shih -Miao

    2008-10-01

    This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical methods used in the DOE Report to Congress on the impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the U.S. national energy consumption.

  2. CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: John Messner, PSU View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and...

  3. CBEI - Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI - Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review John Messner, jmessner@engr.psu.edu Charles and Elinor Matts Professor of Architectural Engineering CBEI - The Pennsylvania State University Project Summary Timeline: Start date: February 1, 2013 Planned end date: April 30, 2016 Key Milestones: 1. Create OpenStudio code to support enhanced daylighting analysis, improved airflow network analysis and fundamental IFC integration (Apr. 30,

  4. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  5. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #11 PDF icon Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of

  6. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  8. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  9. Daylighting and Electric Lighting Analysis for Complex Spaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-06-07

    SUPERLITE is a powerful lighting analysis program designed to accurately predict interior illuminance in complex building spaces due to daylight and electric lighting systems. The program enables users to model interior daylight levels for any sun and sky condition in spaces having windows, skylights or other standard fenestration systems. SUPERLITE Version 2.0 includes the capability to calculate electric lighting levels in addition to the daylighting prediction, allowing lighting performance simulation for integrated lighting systems. Themore » program calculates lighting levels on all interior surfaces, as well as on planes that can be arbitrarily positioned to represent work surfaces or other locations of interest. SUPERLITE is intended to be used by researchers and lighting designers who require detailed analysis of the illuminance distribution in architecturally complex spaces.« less

  10. CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review | Department of Energy Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: John Messner, PSU View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow, and Energy Modeling Leveraging Interoperable Building Information

  11. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

  12. Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.

  13. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine | Department of Energy Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_baumgard.pdf More Documents & Publications Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in

  16. How Do You Use Daylighting While Reducing Excess Heat from Windows? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Use Daylighting While Reducing Excess Heat from Windows? How Do You Use Daylighting While Reducing Excess Heat from Windows? June 16, 2011 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Elizabeth discussed her south-facing windows and her difficulties balancing the nice daylighting advantages with the excess heat that can come through these windows in the summer. How do you use daylighting while reducing excess heat from windows? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on

  17. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  18. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  19. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J.; Berman, Samuel M.

    1988-01-01

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  20. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  1. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  2. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  3. MELCOR calculations for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A postulated, low-pressure, short term station blackout severe accident has been analyzed using the MELCOR code for the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. Different versions have been used with three different models of the plant. This paper presents results of the effects of different plant models and versions of MELCOR on the calculated results and to present the best-estimating timing of events for this transient.

  4. A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

    2000-12-15

    The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

  5. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuermer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-07-17

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 101 mbar methane or 105 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 105 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak watergas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  6. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thuermer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-07-17

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10–1 mbar methane or 10–5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10–5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence ofmore » the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water–gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.« less

  7. Ductile phase toughening of molybdenum disilicide by low pressure plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Rollett, A.D.; Stanek, P.W. ); Smith, R.W. . Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The low fracture toughness of MoSi{sub 2} at ambient temperature has prompted investigations into new processing methods in order to impart some degree of fracture toughness into this inherently brittle material. In the following investigation, low pressure plasma spraying was employed as a fabricating technique to produce spray-formed deposits of MoSi{sub 2} and ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2} composites containing approximately 10 and 20 volume percent of a discontinuous tantalum lamelli reinforcement. Fracture toughness (K{sub 1C}) measurements of MoSi{sub 2} and the MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites were done using a chevron notched 4-point bend fracture toughness test in both the as-sprayed condition and after hot isostatic pressing at 1200{degrees}C/206 MPa for 1 hour. Results from the ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites have shown fracture toughness increases on the order of 200% over the as-sprayed MoSi{sub 2}. In addition, a marked anisotropy in fracture toughness was observed in the spray-formed deposits due to the layered splat structure produced by the low pressure plasma spray process.

  8. Ductile phase toughening of molybdenum disilicide by low pressure plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Rollett, A.D.; Stanek, P.W.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The low fracture toughness of MoSi{sub 2} at ambient temperature has prompted investigations into new processing methods in order to impart some degree of fracture toughness into this inherently brittle material. In the following investigation, low pressure plasma spraying was employed as a fabricating technique to produce spray-formed deposits of MoSi{sub 2} and ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2} composites containing approximately 10 and 20 volume percent of a discontinuous tantalum lamelli reinforcement. Fracture toughness (K{sub 1C}) measurements of MoSi{sub 2} and the MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites were done using a chevron notched 4-point bend fracture toughness test in both the as-sprayed condition and after hot isostatic pressing at 1200{degrees}C/206 MPa for 1 hour. Results from the ductile reinforced MoSi{sub 2}/Ta composites have shown fracture toughness increases on the order of 200% over the as-sprayed MoSi{sub 2}. In addition, a marked anisotropy in fracture toughness was observed in the spray-formed deposits due to the layered splat structure produced by the low pressure plasma spray process.

  9. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  10. Thermodynamics of methane adsorption on copper HKUST-1 at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-11

    Metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) can be engineered as natural gas storage materials by tuning the pore structures and surface properties. Here we report the direct measurement of CH? adsorption enthalpy on a paddlewheel MOF (Cu HKUST-1) using gas adsorption calorimetry at 25 C at low pressures (below 1 bar). In this pressure region, the CH?CH? intermolecular interactions are minimized and the energetics solely reflects the CH?MOF interactions. Our results suggest moderately exothermic physisorption with an enthalpy of -21.1 1.1 kJ/mol CH? independent of coverage. The calorimetric investigation complements previous computational and crystallographic studies by providing zero coverage enthalpies of CH? adsorption. The analysis of the new and literature data suggests that in initial stages of adsorption the CH?HKUST-1 interaction tends to be more sensitive to the pore dimension than to the guest polarizability, suggesting a less specific chemical binding role for the open Cu site.

  11. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stranak, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Hippler, R.; Cada, M.; Hubicka, Z.; Tichy, M.

    2012-04-02

    Highly ionized discharge for physical vapor deposition at very low pressure is presented in the paper. The discharge is generated by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) which assists with ignition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. The magnetron gun (with Ti target) was built into the single-turn coil RF electrode of the ECWR facility. ECWR assistance provides pre-ionization effect which allows significant reduction of pressure during HiPIMS operation down to p = 0.05 Pa; this is nearly more than an order of magnitude lower than at typical pressure ranges of HiPIMS discharges. We can confirm that nearly all sputtered particles are ionized (only Ti{sup +} and Ti{sup ++} peaks are observed in the mass scan spectra). This corresponds well with high plasma density n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, measured during the HiPIMS pulse.

  12. Direct current-self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhiying; Chen, Lee; Funk, Merritt

    2013-12-16

    For decades, non-ambipolar diffusion has been observed and studied in laboratory plasmas that contain a double layer. However, self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma has yet to be demonstrated. This article reports the method and results for achieving such a condition at low pressure, with a wide power range (as low as 6 W). The findings reveal that to achieve self-sustained non-ambipolar plasma, both the balance between electron and ion heating and the space-potential gradient are critical. The plasma reactor developed in this work has potential applications that include microelectronic surface processing and space propulsion, via space-charge-neutral plasma-beam thruster, when operated in the high power regime.

  13. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  14. Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physiccal Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

  15. Simulation study of nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-02-15

    A self-consistent combination of plasma fluid model, nanoparticle heating model, and surface deposition model is used to investigate the coating of nanosize particles by amorphous carbon layers in a low pressure plasma reactor. The numerical results show that, owing to the net heat release in the surface reactions, the particle temperature increases and its equilibrium value remains always 50?K above the background gas temperature. The deposition rate decreases with increasing of the particle temperature and the corresponding time scale is of the order of 10?ms. The deposition rate is also strongly affected by the change in plasma parameters. When the electron temperature is increased, the deposition rate first increases due to the enhanced ion and radical generation, shows a maximum and then declines as the particle temperature rises above the gas temperature. An enhancement in the background gas pressure and/or temperature leads to a reduction in the deposition rate, which can be explained in terms of the enhanced etching by atomic hydrogen and particle heating by the background gas.

  16. Thermodynamics of methane adsorption on copper HKUST-1 at low pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-11

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can be engineered as natural gas storage materials by tuning the pore structures and surface properties. Here we report the direct measurement of CH₄ adsorption enthalpy on a paddlewheel MOF (Cu HKUST-1) using gas adsorption calorimetry at 25 °C at low pressures (below 1 bar). In this pressure region, the CH₄–CH₄ intermolecular interactions are minimized and the energetics solely reflects the CH₄–MOF interactions. Our results suggest moderately exothermic physisorption with an enthalpy of -21.1 ± 1.1 kJ/mol CH₄ independent of coverage. The calorimetric investigation complements previous computational and crystallographic studies by providing zero coverage enthalpies of CH₄more » adsorption. The analysis of the new and literature data suggests that in initial stages of adsorption the CH₄–HKUST-1 interaction tends to be more sensitive to the pore dimension than to the guest polarizability, suggesting a less specific chemical binding role for the open Cu site.« less

  17. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-08-15

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  18. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  19. Experimental investigations of driving frequency effect in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Gang-Hu; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-04-14

    The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is investigated in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The power absorbed by the plasma is investigated and it is found that the power lost in the matching network can reach 50% or higher under certain conditions. The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is studied from two aspects, i.e., constant absorbed power and electrode voltage. In the former case, the electron density increases with the driving frequency increasing from 13.56 to 40.68?MHz and slightly changes depending on the gas pressures with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. In the latter case, the electron density rapidly increases when the driving frequency increases from 13.56 to 40.68?MHz, and then decreases with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. The electron series resonance is observed at 40.68?MHz and can be attributed to the higher electron density. And the standing wave effect also plays an important role in increasing electron density at 100?MHz and 2.6?Pa.

  20. Transport of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma through a localized magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2014-08-15

    The generation of an ion-ion plasma where only few electrons are present in the discharge could be appropriated in the context of ion plasma source applications. We present in this paper results obtained with a one-dimensional fluid model in the context of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma. Without magnetic field, results show that the electron density is still large in the discharge. With a localized magnetic filter, where the magnetic field strength is such that the transport of the electrons is affected while the transport of ion species remains unmagnetized, we show that a region with a negativepositive ion plasma is found downstream the magnetic filter. The negative ions are produced in the filter due to the decrease of electron temperature. We also find conditions when the plasma sheath near the biased electrode collapses and the negative ion extraction from the plasma becomes possible. In addition, the influence of E??B electron transport on the one-dimensional model results is discussed.

  1. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Miami; Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-04-30

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  2. An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements C. N. Long, K. Younkin, and K. L. Gaustad Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Augustine National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory Surface Radiation Research Branch Boulder, Colorado Introduction A paper by Cess et al. (2000) notes that some clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements they were using from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern

  3. Demonstration of Energy Efficient Retrofits for Lighting and Daylighting in New York City Office Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) Demonstration of Energy Efficient Retrofits for Lighting and Daylighting in New York City Office Buildings 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Eleanor Lee, eslee@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 Planned end date: December 31, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Partner commitment to Living Lab investment, 1/31/14 2. Initial implementation, 6/14, 8/14 3. Final technical report,

  4. Alternative Strategies for Low-Pressure End Uses; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Compressed Air Tip Sheet #11 (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Review the compressed air applications to determine which ones are valid high-pressure and which ones can operate at lower pressures. The ones that can operate at low pressure could be supported with alternative methods. * Consider a professional compressed air system evaluation. Such an exam could determine what applications could be served more effciently and which appropriate alternative applications could replace them.

  5. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6??1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?C to 960?C and 9??1?eV for temperatures above 960?C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  6. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with T-PV and Fiber Optic Daylighting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DiMasi joseph@CreativeLightSource.com Creative Light Source, inc. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with T-PV and Fiber Optic Daylighting 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review ‹#› Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August, 2014 Planned end date: July, 2016 Key Milestones: 1. Y1 prototype test-bed functional; 7/15 2. Full IR-PV cogeneration system; 3/16 3. Building Trials at customer facility; 6/16 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $975,000 (P1 + P2, Y1) Total future DOE $: $750,000

  7. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  8. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

  9. The manufacture of replacement low pressure carrier casings and associated stationary guide vane blading through on site component sample measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    In today`s competitive utility market place, the manufacture of replacement components by alternate manufacturing has become an increasingly important available option for turbine operators seeking to achieve substantive cost and lead time reductions in spare part purchasing. Essential to this strategy--in the absence of a total redesign of the component(s) or their assemblies--is the provision or access to the selected alternate manufacture of the necessary sample parts. This paper details the manufacture by reverse engineering of 3 replacement low pressure carrier guide vane blade casings for a 60 MW steam turbine complete with their associated blading and ancillary parts where the necessary sample parts and assemblies could not be released from site due to outage constraints.

  10. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz

    2012-11-27

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  11. Low pressure CO₂ hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a CeOx/TiO₂ interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Kattel, Shyam; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Nie, Xiaowa; Graciani, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-07-28

    Capture and recycling of CO₂ into valuable chemicals such as alcohols could help mitigate its emissions into the atmosphere. Due to its inert nature, the activation of CO₂ is a critical step in improving the overall reaction kinetics during its chemical conversion. Although pure gold is an inert noble metal and cannot catalyze hydrogenation reactions, it can be activated when deposited as nanoparticles on the appropriate oxide support. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, it is shown that an electronic polarization at the metal–oxide interface of Au nanoparticles anchored and stabilized on a CeOx/TiO₂ substrate generates active centers formore » CO₂ adsorption and its low pressure hydrogenation, leading to a higher selectivity toward methanol. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of localized electronic properties and structure in catalysis for achieving higher alcohol selectivity from CO₂ hydrogenation.« less

  12. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #29 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Large industrial plants often vent signifcant quantities of low-pressure steam to the atmosphere, wasting energy, water, and water-treatment chemicals. Recovery of the latent heat content of low-pressure steam reduces the boiler load, resulting in energy and fuel cost savings. Low-pressure steam's potential uses include driving evaporation and distillation processes, producing hot water, space heating,

  13. Low pressure hydrocyclone separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, D.A.; Stolhand, J.E.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of separating a dispersed phase liquid from a bulk phase liquid of a liquid-liquid mixture, the dispersed phase and bulk phase liquids having different densities. The method comprises the steps of: providing a supply of the liquid-liquid mixture at a first pressure; providing a pump means including means for minimizing degradation of the volumetric means size of droplets of the dispersed phase further including a pump size for maintaining the pump means at substantially near maximum flow rate capacity; pumping the liquid-liquid mixture with at least one pump means to a second pressure such that a differential between the first and second pressures is not substantially greater than a differential pressure at which the pump means begins to substantially degrade the volumetric mean size of droplets of the dispersed phase liquid passing therethrough, the pumping without substantial droplet degradation being achieved by operating the pump means at relatively near its maximum flow rate capacity to substantially reduce on a percentage basis the effect of fluid slippage within the pump means; directing the liquid-liquid mixture from the pump means to a hydrocyclone; and separating a substantial portion of the dispersed phase liquid from the liquid-liquid mixture in the hydrocyclone.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  15. Numerical study of effect of secondary electron emission on discharge characteristics in low pressure capacitive RF argon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Yue, E-mail: liuyue@dlut.edu.cn; Samir, Tagra; Ma, Zhaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Based on the drift and diffusion approximation theory, a 1D fluid model on capacitively coupled RF argon glow discharge at low pressure is established to study the effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the discharge characteristics. The model is numerically solved by using a finite difference method and the numerical results are obtained. The numerical results indicate that when the SEE coefficient is larger, the plasma density is higher and the time of reaching steady state is longer. It is also found that the cycle-averaged electric field, electric potential, and electron temperature change a little as the SEE coefficient is increased. Moreover, the discharge characteristics in some nonequilibrium discharge processes with different SEE coefficients have been compared. The analysis shows that when the SEE coefficient is varied from 0.01 to 0.3, the cycle-averaged electron net power absorption, electron heating rate, thermal convective term, electron energy dissipation, and ionization all have different degrees of growth. While the electron energy dissipation and ionization are quite special, there appear two peaks near each sheath region in the discharge with a relatively larger SEE coefficient. In this case, the discharge is certainly operated in a hybrid ?-?-mode.

  16. Deriving daylight frequency distribution curves from solar radiation data to be used to implement energy saving policies in Palermo, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanchiotti, A.; Cristofalo, S. di

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents proposed guidelines for developing a simplified tool to be used for assessing the compliance of proposed projects with city regulations, with reference to the daylighting aspects. First, the algorithms proposed for calculating the internal illuminance in a point, based on the assumption of perfectly diffusing glazings, are discussed. The result is a light transmission factor, which is a function of the position of the point and of the geometrical and physical characteristics of the room. Then, the daylight input data to be used for such calculations are presented. In order to provide designers with easy to handle data, this information is presented as frequency curves, showing the illuminance cumulative frequency distribution for a year relative to eight fundamental vertical orientations. There are different curves depending on the building type. These curves are obtained by considering only the data relative to hours and days consistent with the profile of use typical of that type of building.

  17. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  18. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building Preprint Rob Guglielmetti, Jennifer Scheib, Shanti D. Pless, and Paul Torcellini National Renewable Energy Laboratory Rachel Petro RNL Design Presented at the ASHRAE Winter Conference Las Vegas, Nevada January 29 - February 2, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-49103 March 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

  19. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, W.J.; Harter, J.W.; Snyder, M.K.

    1983-12-06

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  20. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  1. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  2. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  3. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #11 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Low-pressure steam exhaust from industrial operations such as evaporators or cookers is usually vented to the atmosphere or condensed in a cooling tower. Simultaneously, other plant operations may require intermediate-pressure steam at 20 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Instead of letting down high- pressure steam across a throttling valve to meet these needs, low-pressure waste steam can be mechanically compressed or

  4. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  5. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  6. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-04-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3 and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach two orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1) ten-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ∼ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. This finding may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over an order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ± 25% for OH exposure and within ± 60% for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  7. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ±25 % for OH exposure and within ±60 % for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. OHexp calculated from direct integration and estimated from SO2 decay in the model with laminar and measured residence time distributions (RTDs) are generally within a factor of 2 from the plug-flow OHexp. However, in the models with RTDs, OHexp estimated from SO2 is systematically lower than directly integrated OHexp in the case of significant SO2 consumption. We thus recommended using OHexp estimated from the decay of the species under study when possible, to obtain the most appropriate information on photochemical aging in the OFR. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  8. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNLs Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  10. Comparison of MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 results for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study compares results obtained with two U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored codes, MELCOR version 1.8.3 (1.8PQ) and SCDAP/RELAP5 Mod3.1 release C, for the same transient - a low-pressure, short-term station blackout accident at the Browns Ferry nuclear plant. This work is part of MELCOR assessment activities to compare core damage progression calculations of MELCOR against SCDAP/RELAP5 since the two codes model core damage progression very differently.

  11. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  12. Low pressure CO? hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a CeOx/TiO? interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Kattel, Shyam; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Nie, Xiaowa; Graciani, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-07-28

    Capture and recycling of CO? into valuable chemicals such as alcohols could help mitigate its emissions into the atmosphere. Due to its inert nature, the activation of CO? is a critical step in improving the overall reaction kinetics during its chemical conversion. Although pure gold is an inert noble metal and cannot catalyze hydrogenation reactions, it can be activated when deposited as nanoparticles on the appropriate oxide support. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, it is shown that an electronic polarization at the metaloxide interface of Au nanoparticles anchored and stabilized on a CeOx/TiO? substrate generates active centers for CO? adsorption and its low pressure hydrogenation, leading to a higher selectivity toward methanol. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of localized electronic properties and structure in catalysis for achieving higher alcohol selectivity from CO? hydrogenation.

  13. Identification of combustion intermediates in a low-pressure premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran/oxygen/argon flame with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xuesong; Huang, Zuohua; Wei, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Kuiwen [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Low-pressure (4.0 kPa) premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)/oxygen/argon flame with an equivalence ratio of 2.0 was studied with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry. Photoionization mass spectra of DMF/O{sub 2}/Ar flame were recorded and the photoionization efficiency curves of the combustion intermediates were measured. Flame species, including isomeric intermediates, are identified by comparing the measured ionization energies with those reported in literatures or those calculated with Gaussian-3 procedure. More than 70 species have been detected, including furan and its derivatives, aromatics, and free radicals. Possible reaction pathways of DMF, 2-methylfuran, and furan are proposed based on the intermediates identified. DMF can be consumed by H-abstraction and pyrolysis reactions. 2-Methylfuran and furan can be consumed by H-abstraction, H-addition and pyrolysis reactions. (author)

  14. Containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4 with Mark-I containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Greene, S.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence in a boiling water reactor (BWR-4) with a Mark-I containment. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Other results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR and CONTAIN codes are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. The plant analyzed is the Peach Bottom atomic station, a BWR-4 with a Mark-I containment. The automatic depressurization system was used to depressurize the vessel in accordance with the Emergency Procedure Guidelines. Two different variations of the station blackout were studied: one with a dry cavity and the other with a flooded cavity. For the flooded cavity, it is assumed that a control rod drive (CRD) pump becomes operational after vessel failure, and it is used to pump water into the cavity.

  15. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Zou, Ling; Jones, Barclay G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

  16. Study of metallic powder behavior in very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) Application to the manufacturing of titaniumaluminum coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Montavon, G.; Lapostolle, F.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, metallic materials made of aluminum and titanium were manufactured implementing very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS). Aluminum was selected at first as a demonstrative material due to its rather low vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 381.9 kJmol?). Developments were then carried out with titanium which exhibits a higher vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 563.6 kJmol?). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to analyze the behavior of each solid precursor (metallic powders) when it is injected into the plasma jet under very low pressure (i.e., in the 150 Pa range). Besides, aluminum, titanium and titaniumaluminum coatings were deposited in the same conditions implementing a stick-cathode plasma torch operated at 50 kW, maximum power. Coating phase compositions were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Coating elementary compositions were quantified by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The coating structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coating void content was determined by Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The coatings exhibit a two-scale structure corresponding to condensed vapors (smaller scale) and solidified areas (larger scale). Titaniumaluminum sprayed coatings, with various Ti/Al atomic ratios, are constituted of three phases: metastable ?-Ti, Al and metastable ??-Ti?Al. This latter is formed at elevated temperature in the plasma flow, before being condensed. Its rather small fraction, impeded by the rather small amount of vaporized Ti, does not allow modifying however the coating hardness.

  17. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangels, J.A. (Ceradyne Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  18. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursorshighly rovibrationally excited hydrogen moleculesfor negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  19. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #12 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Low-pressure process steam requirements are usually met by throttling high- pressure steam, but a portion of the process requirements can be achieved at low cost by fashing high-pressure condensate. Flashing is particularly attractive when it is not economically feasible to return the high-pressure condensate to the boiler. In the table below, the quantity of steam obtained per pound of condensate fashed is given as a function of

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

  1. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A. Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  2. Sodium Battery | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new...

  3. On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations To Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    522 August 2010 On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations To Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building Preprint Rob Guglielmetti, Shanti Pless, and Paul Torcellini Presented at SimBuild 2010 New York, New York August 15-19, 2010 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance

  4. Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the house. For example: South-facing windows allow most winter sunlight into the home but little direct sun during the summer, especially when properly shaded North-facing...

  5. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Sodium-based chemistries present promising

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium-based chemistries present promising pathways toward safe, low cost, high performance energy storage technologies with the potential to meet growing demands for grid renovation and vehicle electrification. High-energy-density, low-cost Sodium battery Realizing the potential of sodium batteries means developing practical battery constructs that effectively integrate a low cost, high energy density sodium metal anode, solid-state ion conducting separators, low resistance current collectors,

  7. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  8. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  9. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  10. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  11. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  12. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  13. Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This report...

  14. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    report documents the results of an independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review. The...

  15. Sodium-layer laser guide stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-08-03

    The requirements and design of a laser system to generate a sodium- layer beacon is presented. Early results of photometry and wavefront sensing are given.

  16. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  17. TOXICOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES FROM SODIUM-WATER REACTION IN CELL CONTAINING THE SECONDARY SODIUM TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH RM

    2008-06-25

    The analysis will show the consequences should the solid sodium in the Secondary Sodium Tank react with a presumed layer of water in the cell. The Peer Review Checklist is attached.

  18. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  19. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  20. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  1. EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition...

  2. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  3. Nanodiamonds in dusty low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenbulcke, L.; Gries, T.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2009-01-26

    Dusty plasmas composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen have been evidenced by optical emission spectroscopy and microwave interferometry, due to the increase in electron energy and the decrease in electron density. These plasmas allow homogeneous synthesis of nanodiamond grains composed of either pure diamond nanocrystals only (2-10 nm in size) or of diamond nanocrystals and some sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon entities. The control of their size and their microstructure could open ways for a wide range of fields. Their formation from a plasma-activated gaseous phase is also attractive because the formation of nanodiamonds in the universe is still a matter of controversy.

  4. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium.

  5. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  6. Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

  7. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H 2 –O 2 –Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmore » in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.« less

  8. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H2O2Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmorein practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.less

  9. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... January through March and for years from 2000 through 2007 (excluding the energy crisis year of 2001). ... nationwide, but the decline in financial institution activity in these ...

  10. Tips for Daylighting with Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing how-to practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decisionwhich typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  11. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  12. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J.; Demmel, F.

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  13. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  14. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  15. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  16. Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

  17. Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 | Department of Energy Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This report provides the results of an independent assessment of nuclear safety culture at the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

  18. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  2. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sodium-Beta Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of sodium-beta batteries for large-scale energy storage Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use a solid beta-alumina (ß˝-Al 2 O 3 ) electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode (e.g., a metal halide) and a negative sodium electrode. NBBs typically operate at temperatures near 350˚C. They are increasingly used in renewable storage and utility applications due to

  3. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  4. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

  5. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  6. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  7. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  8. Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate on single-crystal ... John Z 2 ; Xue, Ziling 1 ; Beach, David B 2 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  9. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  10. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1999-06-29

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

  11. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1999-01-01

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

  12. Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – An innovative idea for cleaning up sodium in a decommissioned nuclear reactor at EM’s Idaho site grew from a carpool discussion.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoOsubscript 3Fsubscript 3*Hsubscript 2O Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  14. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenkamp, R.D.; Brunings, J.E. ); Guenther, E. ); Hren, R. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., and the concept development was extended under DOE's Program for Improvement in Advanced Modular LMR Design. The SAFR plant concept employs a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal cooled reactor as its basic module. The reactor assembly module is a standardized shop-fabricated unit that can be shipped to the plant site by barge for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and reduces the plant construction schedule. Reactor modules can be used individually or in multiples at a given site to supply the needed generating capacity.

  15. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  16. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  17. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  18. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  19. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  20. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  1. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOEs complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,00050,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

  2. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modarres, Dariush (12 La Vista Verde, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274)

    1991-01-01

    A light source is projected across the gap between the containment vessel and the reactor vessel. The reflected light is then analyzed with an absorption spectrometer. The presence of any sodium vapor along the optical path results in a change of the optical transmissivity of the media. Since the absorption spectrum of sodium is well known, the light source is chosen such that the sensor is responsive only to the presence of sodium molecules. The optical sensor is designed to be small and require a minimum of amount of change to the reactor containment vessel.

  3. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  4. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Dowgiallo, E.J.

    1994-02-28

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  5. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  6. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) that will improve energy and power densities and...

  7. Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable metallic sodium batteries have application in large-scale energy storage applications such as electric power generation and distribution, in motive applications such as electric vehicles, hybrids, and plug-in hybrids, and for aerospace applications such as powering satellites. So

  8. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  9. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  10. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  11. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  12. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project- Federal- June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review

  13. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project- Contractor- June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review

  14. Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

  15. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  16. Low pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  17. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Conjunction with Ultralow-Sulfur Fuel Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOxPM Applications Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research

  18. Low pressure drop, multi-slit virtual impactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Fluid flow is directed into a multiplicity of slit nozzles positioned so that the fluid flow is directed into a gap between the nozzles and (a) a number of receiving chambers and (b) a number of exhaust chambers. The nozzles and chambers are select so that the fluid flow will be separated into a first particle flow component with larger and a second particle flow component with the smaller particles.

  19. Low pressure EGR system having full range capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Milam, David Michael; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Bond, Michael Steven; Kapic, Amir

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust treatment system for an engine is disclosed and may have an air induction circuit, an exhaust circuit, and an exhaust recirculation circuit. The air induction circuit may be configured to direct air into the engine. The exhaust circuit may be configured to direct exhaust from the engine and include a turbine driven by the exhaust, a particulate filter disposed in series with and downstream of the turbine, and a catalytic device disposed in series with and downstream of the particulate filter. The exhaust recirculation circuit may be configured to selectively redirect at least some of the exhaust from between the particulate filter and the catalytic device to the air induction circuit. The catalytic device is selected to create backpressure within the exhaust circuit sufficient to ensure that, under normal engine operating conditions above low idle, exhaust can flow into the air induction circuit without throttling of the air.

  20. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  1. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  2. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  3. An empirical modeling approach to high sodium glass durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E.P.; Sadler, A.L.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Empirical mixture models have been developed for chemical durability of high sodium borosilicate glass. The response of boron to a seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) was chosen as the measure of durability. The objective of the model development was to support the proposed vitrification of Hanford low-level waste (LLW), the bulk of which is primarily sodium oxide. A full first-order model and a second order model were developed from a database of high-sodium borosilicate glasses. First-order models proved to be satisfactory in a qualitative sense, but root mean squared errors were fairly large for quantitative predictive purposes. The results imply that mechanistic models relating durability to composition should include higher order compositional interactions; a second-order model yielded much improved statistics. The modeling results also suggest that calcium, which is considered a network modifier yet is also regarded as a glass {open_quotes}stiffener{close_quotes}, may improve durability.

  4. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  5. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  6. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  7. Daylight control system device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  8. Daylight control system, device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2012-08-28

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  9. Daylight control system device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2007-03-13

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoO[subscript 3]F[subscript 3]*H[subscript 2]O (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoO[subscript 3]F[subscript 3]*H[subscript 2]O Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoO[subscript 3]F[subscript 3]*H[subscript 2]O Authors: Nava-Avendaño, Jessica ; Frontera, Carlos ; Ayllón, José A. ; Oró-Solé, Judith

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2002-03-30

    This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

  12. Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for Controllable Sodium Incorporation in CIGS Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.l W.; Young, M. R.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS solar cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.

  13. Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for Controllable Sodium Incorporation in CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.; Young, M.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS solar cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.

  14. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Irvine, CA); Higley, Lin R. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  15. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  16. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  17. Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  18. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  19. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  20. Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

  1. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  2. Aquion Energy Inc Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aquion Energy Inc Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications Project Description Aquion Energy and its partners will demonstrate a low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium-ion energy storage device. The energy storage chemistry in this device uses an electrochemical couple that combines a high capacity carbon anode with a sodium intercalation cathode capable of thousands of deep discharge cycles over extended periods of time. The proposed aqueous sodium-ion technology includes the

  3. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A.

    1996-09-27

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of 22 Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  4. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  5. Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE)

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    c~-?i-- I ,3-l Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) .Complex and the Hot Cave Facility (Bldg. 003), Santa Susana ,Fie!d Laboratory, Chatsworth, California ..:'..~::Yerlette Gatl in, MA-232 I am attaching for entry into the Public Document Room, one copy of the N -23 subject documentat ion. These documents are the backup data for the certification that the facilfties are radiologically acceptable for b- unrestricted use as noted in the certification statement

  6. Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA) and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process.

  7. Sodium meta-autunite colloids: Synthesis, characterization,stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    zzuoping@lbl.gov

    2004-04-10

    Waste forms of U such as those in the United States Department of Energy's Hanford Site often contain high concentrations of Na and P. Low solubility sodium uranyl phosphates such as sodium meta-autunite have the potential to form mobile colloids that can facilitate transport of this radionuclide. In order to understand the geochemical behavior of uranyl phosphate colloids, we synthesized sodiummeta-autunite colloids, and characterized their morphology, chemical composition, structure, dehydration, and surface charge. The stability of these synthetic plate-shaped colloids was tested with respect to time and pH. The highest aggregation rate was observed at pH 3, and the rate decreases as pH increases, indicating that higher stability of colloid dispersion under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. The synthetic colloids are all negatively charged and no isoelectric points were found over a pH range of 3 to 9. The zeta-potentials of the colloids in the phosphate solution show a strong pH-dependence in the more acidic range over time, but are relatively constant in the neutral and alkaline pH range. The geochemical behavior of the synthetic colloids can be interpreted using DLVO theory. The results suggest that formation of mobile sodium meta-autunite colloids can enhance the transport of U in some contaminated sediments.

  8. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  9. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  10. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  11. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.M.

    2000-10-30

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  13. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-02

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of {sup 22}Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  14. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactor Prototypes | Department of Energy France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of

  15. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  16. Non destructive examination of immersed structures within liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baque, F.; Paumel, K.; Corneloup, G.; Ploix, M. A.; Augem, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The In Service Inspection of internal structures of future liquid sodium cooled fast reactors implies, among different options, the use of ultrasounds from the outside of sodium circuit. In these conditions, ultrasounds have to propagate through the metallic envelope of main vessel, then other immersed plates. Thus the study aims at mastering ultrasonic propagation in these multilayered structures in order to determine the best conditions allowing NDT of a plate behind some screens. The necessity of propagating a maximum of energy through bounded media orientated the study towards Lamb waves. Those are often employed for singles plates or solid layers but they are less usual for liquid/solid alternations. Theoretical results are obtained using transfer matrix method. They are compared to in water experimental measurements. Cases with one, two and three parallel plates without then with an artificial defect are presented for identical and different thicknesses of plates. Results show that an artificial crack defect is obviously detected in a plate located behind one and two screens. Measured attenuation is compatible with industrial NDT conditions. Thus a promising potential is shown for this inspection technique. (authors)

  17. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O.; Dalle, F.; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  18. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  19. Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single-crystal lanthanum aluminate [100] substrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate on single-crystal lanthanum aluminate [100] substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate on single-crystal lanthanum aluminate [100] substrates Epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TaO{sub 3}, NKT) and sodium potassium niobate

  20. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Iodide and Iodine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supercapacitor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Iodide and Iodine Mediators in a Solid-State Supercapacitor ...

  1. Dissecting ion-specific dielectric spectra of sodium-halide solutions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    water and ionic contributions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dissecting ion-specific dielectric spectra of sodium-halide solutions into solvation water and ...

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging for 1720-DR sodium-filled tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-03-09

    Preparations are under way to sell the sodium stored in the 1720-DR tank in the 1720-DR building. This will require that the tank, as well as the 1720-DR facility, be moved to the 300 Area, so that the sodium may be melted and transferred into a railroad tanker car. Because the sodium is a hazardous material and is being shipped in a nonspecification packaging, a safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) is required. This SEP approves the sodium-filled tank for a single shipment from the 105-DR area to the 300 Area.

  3. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared a EIS that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of treatment and management of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel.

  4. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

  5. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  6. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phnix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  7. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  8. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  9. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  10. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fact Sheet: Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Aquion Energy and its partners will demonstrate a low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium-ion energy storage device. The energy storage chemistry in this device uses an electrochemical couple that combines a high capacity carbon anode with a sodium intercalation cathode capable of thousands of deep discharge cycles over extended periods of time.

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  13. Fiber optic sensors for monitoring sodium circuits and power grid cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Pandian, C.; Vijayakumar, V.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B. K.; Rao, C. B.; Murali, N.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-07-01

    At Kalpakkam, India, a programme on development of Raman Distributed Temperature sensor (RDTS) for Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) application is undertaken. Leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. A second application demonstrates the suitability of using RDTS to monitor this transmission cable for any defect. (authors)

  14. L-Aspartate Links for Stable Sodium Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome L-Aspartate Links for Stable Sodium Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Siman, Peter; Trickett, Christopher A.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; and Yaghi, Omar M. L-Aspartate Links for Stable Sodium Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Comm., 51, 17463-17466 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c5cc07578e L-Aspartate Abstract: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based purely on sodium are rare, typically due to large numbers of coordinating solvent

  15. Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction of Bi{sub

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/BiOI photocatalysts (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/BiOI photocatalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/BiOI photocatalysts Highlights: * Heterostructured Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/BiOI microspheres were prepared via anion exchange. * Sodium citrate-assisted anion

  16. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  17. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  18. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design fixes, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  19. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  20. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  1. Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FUKUI , JAPAN - The Department of Energy today announced that the United States signed a sodium-cooled fast reactor systems arrangement with France and Japan, providing the framework for...

  2. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  3. Design of pulse stretching cell for a sodium guide star optical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.; Horton, J.A.; Kuklo, T.J.; Wong, N.J.

    1992-11-10

    A pulse stretcher has been designed for the LLNL sodium guide star experiment to lower the laser flux and avoid saturation effects. The optical design, mechanical layout and wavefront error analysis are presented.

  4. Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wikoff, Penny M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Beller, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Carpenter, Charles J. (Lynn Haven, FL)

    1991-01-01

    433 of 9384 ) United States Patent 5,000,859 Suciu , et al. March 19, 1991 Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

  5. Dissecting ion-specific dielectric spectra of sodium-halide solutions into

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solvation water and ionic contributions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dissecting ion-specific dielectric spectra of sodium-halide solutions into solvation water and ionic contributions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dissecting ion-specific dielectric spectra of sodium-halide solutions into solvation water and ionic contributions Using extensive equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we determine the dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and NaI.

  6. The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F. C.; Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2015-06-10

    In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.

  7. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L.; Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F.; Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N.

    2012-07-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  8. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that

  9. VARIABLE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN A LOW-EXTINCTION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect VARIABLE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN A LOW-EXTINCTION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VARIABLE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN A LOW-EXTINCTION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA Recent observations have revealed that some Type Ia supernovae exhibit narrow, time-variable Na I D absorption features. The origin of the absorbing material is controversial, but it may suggest the presence of circumstellar gas in the progenitor system prior to the explosion, with significant

  10. Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Audit Report Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project OAS-M-13-03 August 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 8, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project"

  11. Dynamic processes and polarizability of sodium atom in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Yue-Ying Ning, Li-Na

    2014-03-15

    Dynamic processes including excitation and ionization, and spectrum parameters including the oscillator strengths, dipole polarizabilities from the orbital 3s,3p of sodium atom embedded in weakly coupled plasma are investigated in the entire energy range of a non-relativistic regime. The interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core is simulated by a model potential, and the plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles is described by the Debye-Hckel model. The screening of Coulomb interactions reduces the number of bound states, decreases their binding energies, broadens their radial distribution of electron wave functions, and significantly changes the continuum wave functions including the amplitudes and phase-shift. These changes strongly affect the dipole matrix elements between the bound-bound and bound-continuum states, and even the oscillator strengths, the photo-ionization cross sections and the dipole polarizabilities. The plasma screening effect changes the interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core into a short-range potential. The energy behaviors of photo-ionization cross sections are unfolded, for instance, its low-energy behavior (obeying Wigner threshold law), and the appearance of multiple shape and virtual-state resonances when the upper bound states emerge into the continuum. The Combet-Farnoux and Cooper minima in the photo-ionization cross sections are also investigated, and here, the Cooper minima appear not only for the l?l+1 channel but also for l?l?1 one, different from that of hydrogen-like ions in a Debye plasma, which appear only in the l?l+1 channel. The total static electric dipole polarizabilities monotonously and dramatically increase with the plasma screening effect increasing, which are similar to those of hydrogen-like ions and lithium atom. Comparison of calculated results for the oscillator strength, the photo-ionization cross section and polarizability with the results of other authors, when available, is made.

  12. Sodium channel activation mechanisms. Insights from deuterium oxide substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicata, D.A.; Rayner, M.D.; Starkus, J.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Schauf and Bullock, using Myxicola giant axons, demonstrated that solvent substitution with deuterium oxide (D2O) significantly affects both sodium channel activation and inactivation kinetics without corresponding changes in gating current or tail current rates. They concluded that (a) no significant component of gating current derives from the final channel opening step, and (b) channels must deactivate (during tail currents) by a different pathway from that used in channel opening. By contrast, Oxford found in squid axons that when a depolarizing pulse is interrupted by a brief (approximately 100 microseconds) return to holding potential, subsequent reactivation (secondary activation) is very rapid and shows almost monoexponential kinetics. Increasing the interpulse interval resulted in secondary activation rate returning towards control, sigmoid (primary activation) kinetics. He concluded that channels open and close (deactivate) via the same pathway. We have repeated both sets of observations in crayfish axons, confirming the results obtained in both previous studies, despite the apparently contradictory conclusions reached by these authors. On the other hand, we find that secondary activation after a brief interpulse interval (50 microseconds) is insensitive to D2O, although reactivation after longer interpulse intervals (approximately 400 microseconds) returns towards a D2O sensitivity similar to that of primary activation. We conclude that D2O-sensitive primary activation and D2O-insensitive tail current deactivation involve separate pathways. However, D2O-insensitive secondary activation involves reversal of the D2O-insensitive deactivation step. These conclusions are consistent with parallel gate models, provided that one gating particle has a substantially reduced effective valence.

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  14. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  15. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  16. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  17. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2004-06-30

    In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

  18. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Bchi, Switzerland) with 115C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  19. Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

  20. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

  1. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benot; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-18

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  2. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  3. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  4. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  5. Health and Safety Considerations Associated with Sodium-Cooled Experimental Nuclear Fuel Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvo, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1980s Sandia National Laboratory constructed eleven experimental assemblies to simulate debris beds formed in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. All but one of the assemblies were irradiated. The experimental assemblies were transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2007 and 2008 for storage, dismantlement, recovery of the uranium for reuse in the nuclear fuel cycle, and disposal of unneeded materials. This paper addresses the effort to dismantle the assemblies down to the primary containment vessel and repackage them for temporary storage until such time as equipment necessary for sodium separation is in place.

  6. OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enhance the functionality of OpenStudio, which is a cross-platform (Windows, Mac, and Linux) collection of software tools that support whole-building energy modeling. To this...

  7. Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of ENERGY STAR qualified light bulbs. Fixtures Guide ENERGY STAR Examples and pictures of ENERGY STAR qualified light fixtures. How to Select Residential LED Under-cabinet...

  8. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Potential non-energy impacts include children traveling to school during darkness, traffic accident rates, crime rates, electronics changeover to new EDST dates, airline schedule ...

  9. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  10. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  11. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Prele, G.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  12. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  13. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  14. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. First results of a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.; Foy, R..; Tallon, M.; Migus, A.

    1996-03-06

    This paper presents the first results of a joint experiment carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during January, 1996. Laser and optical systems were tested to provide a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt. This paper presents the results of that experiment.

  16. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  17. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  18. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cements self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  19. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150C. The cells can even operate at 95C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  20. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5??10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8??10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  1. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J.

    1996-04-01

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  2. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium treatment within the EBR-II primary sodium cooling system and related systems.

  3. Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, G.C.; Samson, J.A.R.; Williams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  4. Laser system design for the generation of a sodium-layer laser guide star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The design considerations for a laser system used to generate a sodium-layer guide star are presented. Laser technology developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program is shown to be directly relevant to this problem and results of a demonstration using the AVLIS laser to generate such a guide star are shown. The design of a compact laser suitable for use at a large telescope such as the Keck is also presented.

  5. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the /sup 14/C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units.

  6. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    A process whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4-1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO.sub.2 extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  7. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-05-30

    A process is described whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4--1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO{sub 2} extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  8. THE EFFECT OF 3HE ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS WITH TRITIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G.; Klein, J.

    2011-01-20

    Absorption isotherm data exists for a wide variety of hydrogen-metal systems. When working with high purity gases, appropriately sized equipment, and hydrides with equilibrium pressures above several hundred Pa, data collection is relatively straightforward. Special consideration must be given to experiments involving low equilibrium pressure hydrides, as even sub-ppm levels of gas impurities can generate partial pressures many times greater than the equilibrium pressures to be measured. Tritium absorption experiments are further complicated by the continuous generation of helium-3. The time required to transfer and absorb a known quantity of tritium onto a sample ultimately limits the minimum pressure range that can be studied using the standard technique. Equations are presented which show the pressure of helium-3 in a sample cell based on the amount of tritium to be absorbed, the sample cell volume and temperature, and the decay time of tritium. Sample calculations for zirconium show that at 300 C, the estimated helium-3 pressure in the cell will be equal to the hydrogen absorption pressure after only milliseconds of tritium decay. An alternate method is presented that permits the collection of equilibrium data at pressures orders of magnitude lower than possible using a direct approach.

  9. Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S. (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T. (Wet Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2010-03-02

    A system and method are disclosed that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. A novel "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates the electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer.

  10. Hugoniot Measurements at Low Pressures in Tin Using 800 MeV proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Cynthia; Hogan, Gary E; King, Nicholas S. P.; Kwiathowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher; Rightley, Paul; Saunders, Alexander

    2009-08-05

    A 2cm long 8 mm diameter cylindrical tin target has been shocked to a pressure in the region of the {beta} {yields} {gamma} phase change using a small, low density PETN charge mounted on the opposite side of a stainless steel diaphragm. The density jump and shock velocity were measured radiographically as the shock wave moved through the sample and the pressure dropped, using the proton radiography facility at LANL. This provided a quasi-continuous record of the equations of state along the Hugoniot for the P1 wave from a shock velocity of 3.25 km/sec down to near the sound speed. Edge release effects were removed from the data using tomographic techniques. The data show evidence for a phase transition that extends over a broad pressure range. The data and analysis will be presented.

  11. HUGONIOT MEASUREMENTS AT LOW PRESSURES IN TIN USING 800 MeV PROTON RADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.; McNeil, W. V.

    2009-12-28

    A 20 mm long 8 mm diameter cylindrical tin target has been shocked to a pressure just below the beta->gamma phase change, using a small, low density PETN charge mounted on the opposite side of a thin stainless steel diaphragm. The density jump and shock velocity were measured radiographically at multiple points as the shock wave moved though the sample and the pressure dropped, using the proton radiography facility at LANL. This provided a quasi-continuous record along the principal Hugoniot from a peak shock velocity of 3.27 km/sec to a minimum of 3.09 km/sec. Edge release effects were removed from the data using simple tomographic reconstruction techniques. The data and analysis are presented.

  12. Low pressure shock initiation of porous HMX for two grain size distributions and two densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Shock initiation measurements have been made on granular HMX (octotetramethylene tetranitrainine) for two particle size distributions and two densities. Samples were pressed to either 65% or 73% of crystal density from fine ({approx} 10 {mu}m grain size) and coarse (broad distribution of grain sizes peaking at {approx} 150 {mu}m) powders. Planar shocks of 0.2--1 GPa were generated by impacting gas gun driven projectiles on plastic targets containing the HMX. Wave profiles were measured at the input and output of the {approx} 3.9 mm thick HMX layer using electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The initiation behavior for the two particle size distributions was very different. The coarse HMX began initiating at input pressures as low as 0.5 GPa. Transmitted wave profiles showed relatively slow reaction with most of the buildup occurring at the shock front. In contrast, the fine particle HMX did not begin to initiate at pressures below 0.9 GPa. When the fine powder did react, however, it did so much faster than the coarse HMX. These observations are consistent with commonly held ideas about bum rates being correlated to surface area, and initiation thresholds being correlated with the size and temperature of the hot spots created by shock passage. For each size, the higher density pressings were less sensitive than the lower density pressings.

  13. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Low-Pressure Solubility of Gases in Liquid Water | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Emmerich Wilhelm, Rubin Battino and Robert J. Wilcock Published Journal Chemical reviews, 1977 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  15. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Tdmore » to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.« less

  16. Microwave ECR plasma electron flood for low pressure wafer charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderberg, Bo; Nakatsugawa, Tomoya; Divergilio, William

    2012-11-06

    Modern ion implanters typically use dc arc discharge Plasma Electron Floods (PEFs) to neutralize wafer charge. The arc discharge requires using at least some refractory metal hardware, e.g. a thermionically emitting filament, which can be undesirable in applications where no metallic contamination is critical. rf discharge PEFs have been proposed to mitigate contamination risks but the gas flows required can result in high process chamber pressures. Axcelis has developed a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) PEF to provide refractory metals contamination-free wafer neutralization with low gas flow requirement. Our PEF uses a custom, reentrant cusp magnet field providing ECR and superior electron confinement. Stable PEF operation with extraction slits sized for 300 mm wafers can be attained at Xe gas flows lower than 0.2 sccm. Electron extraction currents can be as high as 20 mA at absorbed microwave powers < 70 W. On Axcelis' new medium current implanter, plasma generation has proven robust against pressure transients caused by, for example, photoresist outgassing by high power ion beams. Charge monitor and floating potential measurements along the wafer surface corroborate adequate wafer charge neutralization for low energy, high current ion beams.

  17. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  18. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, Alexander Schmidt, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed.

  19. Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-08

    Systems and methods that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. An "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates an electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer. Furthermore, chambers maintained at different pressures can allow for more optimal operating conditions for an electrospray emitter and an ion guide.

  20. Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, David H; Gerhart, Jeremy J; Kawakubo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.

  1. Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-09-01

    Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

  2. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO.sub.2), titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) and sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  3. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H/sub 2/O and/or CO/sub 2/ by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-04-24

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO/sub 2/), titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  4. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  5. Sodium-sulfur battery development. Phase VB final report, October 1, 1981--February 28, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made under Contract No. DE-AM04-79CH10012 between the U.S. Department of Energy, Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporations and Ford Motor Company, for the period 1 October 1981 through 28 February 1985, which is designated as Phase VB of the Sodium-Sulfur Battery Development Program. During this period, Ford Aerospace held prime technical responsibility and Ford Motor Company carried out supporting research. Ceramatec, Inc., was a major subcontractor to Ford Aerospace for electrolyte development and production.

  6. Neutronic/Thermalhydraulic Coupling Technigues for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean Ragusa; Andrew Siegel; Jean-Michel Ruggieri

    2010-09-28

    The objective of this project was to test new coupling algorithms and enable efficient and scalable multi-physics simulations of advanced nuclear reactors, with considerations regarding the implementation of such algorithms in massively parallel environments. Numerical tests were carried out to verify the proposed approach and the examples included some reactor transients. The project was directly related to the Sodium Fast Reactor program element of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative and the Advanced Fuel cycle Initiative, and, supported the requirement of high-fidelity simulation as a mean of achieving the goals of the presidential Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) vision.

  7. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-03-27

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  8. Tracers for monitoring the activity of sodium/glucose cotransporters in health and disease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir

    2014-09-30

    Radiolabeled tracers for sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. The tracers are methyl or ethyl pyranosides having an equatorial hydroxyl group at carbon-2 and a C 1 preferred conformation, radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124I, or free hexoses radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124. Also provided are in vivo and in vitro techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study glucose transport, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

  9. Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the sodium coolant. The cladding temperature requirement is maintained below the creep temperature limit to avoid any damage before core installation. The thermal analysis shows that a helium gas-filled cask can accommodate ABR-1000 fresh minor actinide-bearing fuel with 700-W decay heat. The above analysis results revealed the overall requirement for minor actinide-bearing metal fuel handling. The information is thought to be helpful in the design of the ABR-1000 and future sodium-cooled-reactor fuel-handling system.

  10. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more » When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  11. Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel E. Bays; Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Michael A. Pope; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

    2008-02-01

    The sodium fast reactor is under consideration for consuming the transuranic waste in the spent nuclear fuel generated by light water reactors. This work is concerned with specialized target assemblies for an oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor that are designed exclusively for burning the americium and higher mass actinide component of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The associated gamma and neutron radioactivity, as well as thermal heat, associated with decay of these actinides may significantly complicate fuel handling and fabrication of recycled fast reactor fuel. The objective of using targets is to isolate in a smaller number of assemblies these concentrations of higher actinides, thus reducing the volume of fuel having more rigorous handling requirements or a more complicated fabrication process. This is in contrast to homogeneous recycle where all recycled actinides are distributed among all fuel assemblies. Several heterogeneous core geometries were evaluated to determine the fewest target assemblies required to burn these actinides without violating a set of established fuel performance criteria. The DIF3D/REBUS code from Argonne National Laboratory was used to perform the core physics and accompanying fuel cycle calculations in support of this work. Using the REBUS code, each core design was evaluated at the equilibrium cycle condition.

  12. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  13. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Renyu Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-05-01

    Using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds specifically to a pre-formed internal cavity in horse-spleen apoferritin. Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritinSDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 9 M at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the proteinSDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

  14. Synthesis and radiosensitization properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md.; Mohamed, Faizal; Heng, Cheong Kai; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Mohamad, Hur Munawar Kabir

    2014-09-03

    Cancer cells which are large in size are resistant towards radiation therapy due to the presence of large amount of anti-oxidative enzymes and hypoxic cancer cells. Thus radiosensitizer agents have been developed to enhance the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy by increasing the sensitivity of these cancer cells towards radiation. This study is conducted to investigate the radiosensitization properties of radiosensitizer complex containing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate. Combination with sodium hyaluronate may decrease reactivity of hydrogen peroxide but maintain the oxygen concentration needed for radiosensitizing effect. HepG2 cancer cells are cultured as the mean of test subject. Cancer cell samples which are targeted and not targeted with these radiosensitizers are irradiated with 2Gy single fractionated dose. Results obtained shows that the cancer cells which are not targeted with radiosensitizers has a cell viability of 98.800.37% after a time interval of 48 hours and has even repopulated over 100% after a 72 hour time interval. This shows that the cancer cells are resistant towards radiation. However, when the cancer cells are targeted with radiosensitizers prior to irradiation, there is a reduction of cell viability by 25.5010.81% and 10.305.10% at time intervals of 48 and 72 hours respectively. This indicates that through the use of these radiosensitizers, cancer cells are more sensitive towards radiation.

  15. Performance Comparison of Metallic, Actinide Burning Fuel in Lead-Bismuth and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    Various methods have been proposed to incinerate or transmutate the current inventory of trans-uranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non-fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years.

  16. Enhancement of the inherent self-protection of the fast sodium reactor cores with oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, V.A.; Malisheva, I.V.; Matveev, V.I.; Egorov, A.V.; Maslov, P.A.

    2013-07-01

    With the development and research into the generation IV fast sodium reactors, great attention is paid to the enhancement of the core inherent self-protection characteristics. One of the problems dealt here is connected with the reduction of the reactivity margin so that the control rods running should not result in the core overheating and melting. In this paper we consider the possibilities of improving the core of BN-1200 with oxide fuel by a known method of introducing an axial fertile layer into the core. But unlike earlier studies this paper looks at the possibility of using such a layer not only for improving breeding, but also for reducing sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE). This proposed improvement of the BN-1200 core does not solve the problem of strong interference in control and protection system (CPS) rods of BN-1200, but they reduce significantly the reactivity margin for burn-up compensation. This helps compensate all the reactivity balances in the improved core configurations without violating constraints on SVRE value.

  17. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  18. Regulatory Technology Development Plan Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabaskas, David S.; Brunett, Acacia Joann; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Sienicki, James J.; Sofu, Tanju

    2015-02-28

    Construction and operation of a nuclear power installation in the U.S. requires licensing by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A vital part of this licensing process and integrated safety assessment entails the analysis of a source term (or source terms) that represents the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences. Historically, nuclear plant source term analyses have utilized deterministic, bounding assessments of the radionuclides released to the environment. Significant advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic analyses such that a mechanistic source term (MST) assessment is now expected to be a requirement of advanced reactor licensing. This report focuses on the state of development of an MST for a sodium fast reactor (SFR), with the intent of aiding in the process of MST definition by qualitatively identifying and characterizing the major sources and transport processes of radionuclides. Due to common design characteristics among current U.S. SFR vendor designs, a metal-fuel, pool-type SFR has been selected as the reference design for this work, with all phenomenological discussions geared toward this specific reactor configuration. This works also aims to identify the key gaps and uncertainties in the current knowledge state that must be addressed for SFR MST development. It is anticipated that this knowledge state assessment can enable the coordination of technology and analysis tool development discussions such that any knowledge gaps may be addressed. Sources of radionuclides considered in this report include releases originating both in-vessel and ex-vessel, including in-core fuel, primary sodium and cover gas cleanup systems, and spent fuel movement and handling. Transport phenomena affecting various release groups are identified and qualitatively discussed, including fuel pin and primary coolant retention, and behavior in the cover gas and containment. Radionuclides released from a primary sodium fire are also considered as potential sources. Any available experimental data and pertinent results relevant to the aforementioned phenomena are discussed, and operating incidents at domestically operated facilities are also examined. Considering the extensive range of phenomena affecting the release of radionuclides, the existing state of knowledge generally appears to be substantial, and may be sufficient in most areas. For core damage accidents, high retention rates should be expected within the fuel matrix and primary sodium coolant for all radionuclides other than the noble gases. These factors greatly reduce the magnitude of possible radionuclide release to the environment. Several possible gaps within the knowledgebase were identified during this effort. First, there are uncertainties with regard to radionuclide release from metal fuel in the molten state. Another knowledge gap appears in the available thermodynamic data regarding the behavior of lanthanides and actinides in liquid sodium. While not necessarily a phenomenological knowledge gap, a determination of the data requirements for MST development should be formally made prior to the expenditure of significant future research efforts. That is, if additional experimentation is performed in support of MST development, it is important to identify the proper quality assurance requirements for licensing

  19. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety Implications of Advanced Technology Power Conversion and Design Innovations and Simplifications: Investigations of supercritical CO{sub 2} gas turbine Brayton cycles coupled to the sodium-cooled reactors and innovative concepts for sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers were performed to discover new designs for high efficiency electricity production. The objective of the analyses was to characterize the design and safety performance of equipment needed to implement the new power cycle. The project included considerations of heat transfer and power conversion systems arrangements and evaluations of systems performance. Task 4--Post Accident Heat Removal and In-Vessel Retention: Test plans were developed to evaluate (1) freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in subassembly geometry, (2) retention of metallic fuel core melt debris within reactor vessel structures, and (3) consequences of intermixing of high pressure CO{sub 2} and sodium. The objective of the test plan development was to provide planning for measurements of data needed to characterize the consequences of very low probability accident sequences unique to metallic fuel and CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycles. The project produced three test plans ready for execution.

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors/Advanced Burner Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Cho, Dae H.; Momozaki, Yoichi; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Haglund, Robert C.; Reed, Claude B.; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2007-07-01

    An optimized supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle power converter has been developed for the 100 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) eliminating the potential for sodium-water reactions and achieving a small power converter and turbine generator building. Cycle and plant efficiencies of 39.1 and 38.3 %, respectively, are calculated for the ABTR core outlet temperature of 510 deg. C. The ABTR S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle will incorporate Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger{sup TM} units in the Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers, high and low temperature recuperators, and cooler. A new sodium test facility is being completed to investigate the potential for transient plugging of narrow sodium channels typical of a Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger under postulated off-normal or accident conditions. (authors)

  1. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are there differences in the regulation and/or activity of SOS1 in plants differing in their adaptation to salinity?

  2. Sodium laser guide star system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: System description and experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avicola, K.; Brase, J.; Morris, J.

    1994-03-02

    The architecture and major system components of the sodium-layer kw guide star system at LLNL will be described, and experimental results reported. The subsystems include the laser system, the beam delivery system including a pulse stretcher and beam pointing control, the beam director, and the telescope with its adaptive-optics package. The laser system is one developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program. This laser system can be configured in various ways in support of the AVLIS program objectives, and was made available to the guide star program at intermittent times on a non-interference basis. The first light transmitted into the sky was in July of 1992, at a power level of 1. 1 kW. The laser pulse width is about 32 ns, and the pulse repetition rate was 26 kHz for the 1. 1 kW configuration and 13 kHz for a 400 W configuration. The laser linewidth is tailored to match the sodium D{sub 2} absorption line, and the laser system has active control of beam pointing and wavefront quality. Because of the short pulse length the sodium transition is saturated and the laser power is not efficiently utilized. For this reason a pulse stretcher was developed, and the results of this effort will be reported. The beam is delivered via an evacuated pipe from the laser building to the guide star site, a distance of about 100 meters, and then launched vertically. A beam director provides the means to track the sky in the full AO system, but was not used in the experiments reported here. The return signal is collected by a 1/2 meter telescope with the AO package. This telescope is located 5 meters from the km launch tube. Smaller packages for photometry, wavefront measurement, and spot image and motion analysis have been used. Although the unavailability of the AVLIS laser precluded a full AO system demonstration, data supporting feasibility and providing input to the system design for a Lick Observatory AO system was obtained.

  3. Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, M; Li, Z; Qi, JF; Xing, WT; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM; Belcher, AM

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date.

  4. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  5. Minor Actinide Recycle in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using Heterogeneous Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Bays; Pavel Medvedev; Michael Pope; Rodolfo Ferrer; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the plausible design of transmutation target assemblies for minor actinides (MA) in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). A heterogeneous recycling strategy is investigated, whereby after each reactor pass, un-burned MAs from the targets are blended with MAs produced by the driver fuel and additional MAs from Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). A design iteration methodology was adopted for customizing the core design, target assembly design and matrix composition design. The overall design was constrained against allowable peak or maximum in-core performances. While respecting these criteria, the overall design was adjusted to reduce the total number of assemblies fabricated per refueling cycle. It was found that an inert metal-hydride MA-Zr-Hx target matrix gave the highest transmutation efficiency, thus allowing for the least number of targets to be fabricated per reactor cycle.

  6. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  7. Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites—A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Suresh, K. G.

    2014-03-03

    Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300 K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} was observed near 300 K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300 K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300 K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62 K at 280 K.

  8. Neutronic and severe safety aspects of 1500 MWth lead and sodium cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Vidovic, Dragan; Wider, Hartmut

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, neutronics and severe safety characteristics of Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) cores concurrently breeding plutonium and burning minor actinides (MAs) are investigated. For LFR, two core variants were modeled: with active core part 90 cm and 120 cm tall. Monte Carlo code was used for neutronics and European Accident Code EAC-2 for severe safety studies. It is shown that both 1500 MW{sub th} LFR and SFR start-up cores can transmute on average 70 kg of MAs annually in the homogeneous mode. In this case, 5% of MAs were admixed to the core fuel. More than 110 kg of MAs can be burned per year when 10% of MAs are additionally added to axial and radial blankets. LFR core designs show advantages over SFR cores regarding severe safety behavior due to higher thermal inertia, better natural circulation behavior and the higher boiling point of lead. (authors)

  9. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  10. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344F.

  11. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  12. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  13. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  14. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  15. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  16. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  17. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  18. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS. When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  19. Progress reports for Gen IV sodium fast reactor activities FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Tentner, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-04

    An important goal of the US DOE Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) program is to develop the technology necessary to increase safety margins in future fast reactor systems. Although no decision has been made yet about who will build the next demonstration fast reactor, it seems likely that the construction team will include a combination of international companies, and the safety design philosophy for the reactor will reflect a consensus of the participating countries. A significant amount of experience in the design and safety analysis of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) using oxide fuel has been developed in both Japan and France during last few decades. In the US, the traditional approach to reactor safety is based on the principle of defense-in-depth, which is usually expressed in physical terms as multiple barriers to release of radioactive material (e.g. cladding, reactor vessel, containment building), but it is understood that the 'barriers' may consist of active systems or even procedures. As implemented in a reactor design, defense-in-depth is classed in levels of safety. Level 1 includes measures to specify and build a reliable design with significant safety margins that will perform according to the intentions of the designers. Level 2 consists of additional design measures, usually active systems, to protect against unlikely accidental events that may occur during the life of the plant. Level 3 design measures are intended to protect the public in the event of an extremely unlikely accident not foreseen to occur during the plant's life. All of the design measures that make up the first three levels of safety are within the design basis of the plant. Beyond Level 3, and beyond the normal design basis, there are accidents that are not expected to occur in a whole generation of plants, and it is in this class that severe accidents, i.e. accidents involving core melting, are included. Beyond design basis measures to address severe accidents are usually identified as being for prevention of progression into severe accident conditions (prevention of core melting) or for mitigation of severe accident consequences (mitigation of the impact of core melting to protect public health and safety). Because design measures for severe accident prevention and mitigation are beyond the normal design basis, established regulatory guidelines and codes do not provide explicit identification of the design performance requirements for severe accident accommodation. The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key issues of R&D plans for the Gen IV systems in general, and for the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in particular. Despite the lack of an unambiguous definition of safety approach applicable for severe accidents, there is an emerging consensus on the need for their consideration for the design. The US SFR program and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in particular have actively studied the potential scenarios and consequences of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA) for SFRs with oxide fuel during the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) programs in the 70s and 80s. Later, the focus of the US SFR safety R&D activities shifted to the prevention of all HCDAs through passive safety features of the SFRs with metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, and the study of severe accident consequences was de-emphasized. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the current SFR safety approach and the role of severe accidents in Japan and France, in preparation for an expected and more active collaboration in this area between the US, Japan, and France.

  20. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  1. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  2. Conceptual design features of the Kalimer-600 sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Dohee; Kim, Yeong-Il; Kim, Seong-O; Lee, Jae-Han; Lee, Yong-Bum; Jeong, Hae-Yong

    2007-07-01

    An advanced sodium cooled fast reactor concept, KALIMER-600, has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to satisfy the Gen-IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance. The concept enables an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of the radioactive waste. The core design has been developed with a strong emphasis on a proliferation resistance by adopting a single enrichment fuel without blanket assemblies. In addition, a passive residual heat removal system, shortened intermediate heat-transport system piping and seismic isolation have been realized in the reactor system design as enhancements to its safety and economics. The inherent safety characteristics of the KALIMER-600 design were verified through a safety analysis of its bounding events. The results for various unprotected events imply that the KALIMER-600 design can accommodate all the analyzed ATWS events. This self-regulation capability of the power without a scram is mainly attributed to the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms implemented in the metal fuel core design and completely passive decay heat removal system. (authors)

  3. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  4. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanbe, Takamasa |; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki |; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Shiota, Goshi . E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

  5. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter; H. J. M. Chichester; P. G. Medvedev; S. L. Hayes; M. C. Teague

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  6. SODIUM AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC6791 FROM APOGEE H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne V.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bergemann, Maria; Mszros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; Garca Prez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David; Beers, Timothy; Carrera, Ricardo; Geisler, Doug; Gunn, James; and others

    2015-01-10

    The open cluster NGC6791 is among the oldest, most massive, and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of ?0.05-0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T {sub eff} ? 3500-4600K), and include two red clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy (([Fe/H]) = 0.34 0.06) and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Our non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region (16373.86 and 16388.85 ) indicate only small departures from LTE (?0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallicity of the studied stars. The previously reported double population of cluster members with different Na abundances is not found among the studied sample.

  7. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  8. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  9. Solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.; Han, B.; Yan, H.; Liu, R.

    1995-10-01

    The solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured at 313.15 K and at pressures up to 3 MPa. The molalities of SDS (m{sub SDS}) in the aqueous solution were 0.0000, 0.0020, 0.0040, 0.0060, 0.0070, 0.0080, 0.0090, 0.0100, 0.0126, 0.0150, 0.0200, and 0.0300. The effect of SDS on the gas solubility in both concentration regions below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was studied. The existence of the micelles of SDS in the solution is favorable to the dissolution of ethane due to the hydrocarbon-like interior of the micelles. The solubilities of ethane in each micelle at different pressures were evaluated based on some assumptions. It was found that the intramicellar solubility of ethane is less than that of the gas in n-dodecane. It was also found that the solubility of ethane in the micelles increases linearly with the partial pressure of ethane. The cmc of SDS was evaluated based on the solubility vs m{sub SDS} curves and the effect of dissolved ethane on the cmc was studied. It was observed that the cmc shifts toward a higher value with the increase in dissolved ethane.

  10. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  11. ASTRID sodium cooled fast reactor: Program for improving in service inspection and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jadot, F.; De Dinechin, G.; Augem, J. M.; Sibilo, J.

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the CEA, EDF, AREVA coordinated research program for the development of Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), the ASTRID project was launched in 2010. For the future prototype, the improvement of in-service inspection and repair (ISI and R) capabilities was identified as a major issue. Following the pluri-annual SFR research program, the ISI and R main R and D axes remain: i) improvement of the primary system conceptual design, ii) development of measurement and inspection techniques (continuous monitoring instrumentation and periodic inspection tools), iii) accessibility and associated robotics, and iv) development and validation of repair processes. Associated ISI and R needs are being defined through an iterative method between designers and instrumentation specialists: adaptation of the Design to ISI and R requirements, fission chamber development, validation of the ultrasonic and chemical transducers, of ultrasonic non destructive simulation, of acoustic surveillance, of laser repair intervention processes, of connected robotic equipment. Moreover, CEA, as leader of the ASTRID Project, is willing to find new contributors, partners or suppliers, in order to get innovative, diversified, exhaustive and efficient solutions. (authors)

  12. Surface studies on aluminized and thermally oxidized superalloy 690 substrates interacted with simulated nuclear waste and sodium borosilicate melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusufali, C. Sengupta, P.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.

    2014-04-24

    Aluminized and thermally oxidized Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on top have been exposed in nitrate based environment (simulated high level nuclear liquid waste) at 373 K for 216 hours and sodium borosilicate melt at 1248 K for 192 hours. The surfaces of exposed samples have been characterized by using Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Elemental X-ray mapping on coated specimen that exposed in simulated nuclear waste solution revealed that the surface is enriched with Ni, Cr and Al. X-ray mapping on surface of the specimen that interacted with sodium borosilicate melt indicated that the surface is composed of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr.

  13. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  14. Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

  15. Potential-induced degradation in solar cells: Electronic structure and diffusion mechanism of sodium in stacking faults of silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt Gumbsch, Peter; Mrovec, Matous; Elssser, Christian

    2014-09-07

    Sodium decorated stacking faults (SFs) were recently identified as the primary cause of potential-induced degradation in silicon (Si) solar-cells due to local electrical short-circuiting of the p-n junctions. In the present study, we investigate these defects by first principles calculations based on density functional theory in order to elucidate their structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties. Our calculations show that the presence of sodium (Na) atoms leads to a substantial elongation of the Si-Si bonds across the SF, and the coverage and continuity of the Na layer strongly affect the diffusion behavior of Na within the SF. An analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the presence of Na in the SF gives rise to partially occupied defect levels within the Si band gap that participate in electrical conduction along the SF.

  16. LABORATORY STUDY FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) USING SODIUM METABISULFITE UNDER ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAM JB; GUTHRIE MD; LUECK KJ; AVILA M

    2007-07-18

    This report describes the results from RPP-PLAN-32738, 'Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome(VI) to Chrome(I1I) in the Secondary Waste Stream', using sodium metabisulfite. Appendix A presents the report as submitted by the Center for Laboratory Sciences (CLS) to CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The CLS carried out the laboratory effort under Contract Number 21065, release Number 30. This report extracts the more pertinent aspects of the laboratory effort.

  17. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.N. |

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  18. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2003-06-01

    The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid- liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high- level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals.1 Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind a mixture of radionuclides and minor inorganic salts. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high- level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

  19. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2002-06-01

    The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind the radionuclides. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high-level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

  20. Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO{sub 2} Nanowires for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D; Li, Ju; Wang, Chongmin

    2013-09-30

    Nonlithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO{sub 2} nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries (Huang, J. Y.; et al. Science 2010, 330, 1515-1520). Upon Na insertion into SnO{sub 2}, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous Na{sub x}Sn nanoparticles dispersed in Na{sub 2}O matrix. With further Na insertion, the Na{sub x}Sn crystallized into Na{sub 15}Sn{sub 4} (x = 3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the Na{sub x}Sn transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with the dealloying, pores are found to form, leading to a structure of Sn particles confined in a hollow matrix of Na{sub 2}O. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO{sub 2}. DFT calculations indicate that Na{sup +} diffuses 30 times slower than Li{sup +} in SnO{sub 2}, in agreement with in situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemomechanically soften the reaction product to a greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO{sub 2} significantly less dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

  1. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

  2. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  3. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the experienced user-base and the experimental validation base was decaying away quickly.

  4. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  5. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  6. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). A diminished concentration at 10% of MA, reduces the size of the external storage and the cooling time of the assemblies becomes compatible with the management of the irradiated fuel. Even with a low allowable power for the washing device, the economic impact on the capital cost is less than 2.5%. (authors)

  7. A frictional work predictive method for the initiation of solid high explosives from low-pressure impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S.K.; Green, L.G.; Lee, C.G.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of these tests was to provide information that would aid in the prediction of HE response in accident situations where the initiating stimulus was less than that required for direct shock initiation. Before these tests were run, a prediction of threshold impact velocity was made (70m/s) using a rough average of previously reported threshold factional work from skid tests (1 cal/cm{sub 2}) and the experimental value for coefficient of friction of 0.5({plus_minus}) measured in the same tests for PBX-9404. The actual testing proved the threshold impact velocity to be much less, and the pretest prediction was not only wrong, it was not conservative. This work presents a methodology for more accurately predicting the reaction threshold for HE involved in an accident such as an airplane crash or a severe land transportation accident. The main focus of this work is on LX-10-1 (94.5% 5.5% Viton A binder, density 1.86g/cm{sup 3}). Additional work was done on LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% KelF binder, density 1.90g/cm{sub 3}), a very insensitive explosive. The explicit two-dimensional finite element code, DYNA2D, was used to model the tests and predict the HE response. The finite element mesh of the projectile and target were generated using MAZE. The post-processing of the DYNA2D analysis was done with ORION.

  8. One-dimensional time-dependent fluid model of a very high density low-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-12-28

    A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne~ > 5x1019 m–3) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D, with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z,t) and temperature Te(z,t), and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated in order to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pAr = 30-60 mTorr. Lastly, we present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna.

  9. Position reconstruction in fission fragment detection using the low pressure MWPC technique for the JLab experiment E02-017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi-Yu, Qiu; Tang, Liguang; Margaryan, Amur T.; Jin-Zhang, Xu; Bi-Tao, Hu; Xi-Meng, Chen

    2014-07-01

    When a lambda hyperon was embedded in a nucleus, it can form a hypernucleus. The lifetime and its mass dependence of stable hypernuclei provide information about the weak decay of lambda hyperon inside nuclear medium. This work will introduce the Jefferson Lab experiment (E02-017) which aims to study the lifetime of the heavy hypernuclei using a specially developed fission fragment detection technique, a multi-wire proportional chamber operated under low gas pressure (LPMWPC). Presented here are the method and performance of the reconstruction of fission position on the target foil, the separation of target materials at different regions and the comparison and verification with the Mote Carlo simulation.

  10. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2014-02-15

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge.

  11. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermoscompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam - Steam Tip Sheet #29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  13. Chemical conversion of cisplatin and carboplatin with histidine in a model protein crystallized under sodium iodide conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Helliwell, John R.

    2014-08-29

    Crystals of HEWL with cisplatin and HEWL with carboplatin grown in sodium iodide conditions both show a partial chemical transformation of cisplatin or carboplatin to a transiodoplatin (PtI{sub 2}X{sub 2}) form. The binding is only at the N{sup ?} atom of His15. A further Pt species (PtI{sub 3}X) is also seen, in both cases bound in a crevice between symmetry-related protein molecules. Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum anticancer agents that are used to treat a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) showed a partial chemical conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high sodium chloride concentration used in the crystallization conditions. Also, the co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin in sodium bromide conditions resulted in the partial conversion of carboplatin to the transbromoplatin form, with a portion of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate (CBDC) moiety still present. The results of the co-crystallization of HEWL with cisplatin or carboplatin in sodium iodide conditions are now reported in order to determine whether the cisplatin and carboplatin converted to the iodo form, and whether this took place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin in NaCl conditions or to transbromoplatin in NaBr conditions as seen previously. It is reported here that a partial chemical transformation has taken place to a transplatin form for both ligands. The NaI-grown crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The chemically transformed cisplatin and carboplatin bind to both His15 residues, i.e. in each asymmetric unit. The binding is only at the N{sup ?} atom of His15. A third platinum species is also seen in both conditions bound in a crevice between symmetry-related molecules. Here, the platinum is bound to three I atoms identified based on their anomalous difference electron densities and their refined occupancies, with the fourth bound atom being a Cl atom (in the cisplatin case) or a portion of the CBDC moiety (in the carboplatin case)

  14. Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate Direct Intralesional Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformations of the Vulva and Vagina: Report of Five Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis; Venetucci, Pietro; Hatzidakis, Adam; Iaccarino, Vittorio

    2011-02-15

    We report five cases of female patients affected by symptomatic focal external genital venous malformations treated with percutaneous direct intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS). All patients were referred because of discomfort and pain when sexual intercourse was attempted. Direct sclerotherapy with 3% STS was performed on a day-hospital basis with the patient under local anesthesia. Complete resolution of the symptoms was achieved in all cases. No major adverse effects were reported. Direct intralesional sclerotherapy with STS may be considered a safe and effective method for the treatment of female external genital malformation without the necessity of general anesthesia for pain control.

  15. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  16. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiley, Ted; Whitacre, Jay; Eshoo, Michael; Noland, James; Campbell, Williams; Spears, Christopher

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy??s Smart Grid Demonstration Program ?? Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion??s low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles. As outlined in the Program documents, the original goals of the project were to demonstrate a unit that: 1. Has a projected capital cost of less than $250/kWh at the pack level 2. A deep discharge cycle life of > 10,000 cycles 3. A volumetric energy density of >20 kWh/m3 4. Projected calendar life of over 10 years 5. A device that contains no hazardous materials and retains best in class safety characteristics. Through the course of this project Aquion developed its aqueous electrolyte electrochemical energy storage device to the point where large demonstration units (> 10 kWh) were able to function in grid-supporting functions detailed by their collaborators. Aquion??s final deliverable was an ~15 kWh system that has the ability to perform medium to long duration (> 2 hours) charge and discharge functions approaching 95% DC-DC efficiency. The system has functioned, and continues to function as predicted with no indication that it will not tolerate well beyond 10 calendar years and 10,000 cycles. It has been in continuous operation for more than 1 year with 1,000 cycles (of varying depth of discharge, including 100% depth of discharge) and no identifiable degradation to the system. The final thick electrode cell structure has shown an energy density of 25 kWh/m3 at a five hour (or greater) discharge time. The primary chemistry has remained non-toxic, containing no acids or other corrosive chemicals, and the battery units have passed numerous safety tests, including flame resistance testing. These tests have verified the claim that the device is safe to use and contains no hazardous materials. Current projections show costs at the pack level to offer best in class value and are competitive with lead-acid batteries, factoring in LCOE.

  17. High strength and heat resistant chromium steels for sodium-cooled fast reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, S.; Grandy, C.; Farmer, M.; Brunsvold, A.

    2004-12-22

    This report provides the results of a preliminary phase of a project supporting the Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Initiative at ANL. The project targets the Generation IV nuclear energy systems, particularly the area of reducing the cost of sodium-cooled fast-reactors by utilizing innovative materials. The main goal of the project is to provide the nuclear heat exchanger designers a simplified means to quantify the cost advantages of the recently developed high strength and heat resistant ferritic steels with 9 to 13% chromium content. The emphasis in the preliminary phase is on two steels that show distinctive advantages and have been proposed as candidate materials for heat exchangers and also for reactor vessels and near-core components of Gen IV reactors. These steels are the 12Cr-2W (HCM12A) and 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo). When these steels are in tube form, they are referred to in ASTM Standards as T122 and T91, respectively. A simple thermal-hydraulics analytical model of a counter-flow, shell-and-tube, once-through type superheated steam generator is developed to determine the required tube length and tube wall temperature profile. The single-tube model calculations are then extended to cover the following design criteria: (i) ratio of the tube stress due to water/steam pressure to the ASME B&PV Code allowable stress, (ii) ratio of the strain due to through-tube-wall temperature differences to the material fatigue limit, (iii) overall differential thermal expansion between the tube and shell, and (iv) total amount of tube material required for the specified heat exchanger thermal power. Calculations were done for a 292 MW steam generator design with 2200 tubes and a steam exit condition of 457 C and 16 MPa. The calculations were performed with the tubes made of the two advanced ferritic steels, 12Cr-2W and 9Cr-1MoVNb, and of the most commonly used steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo. Compared to the 2 1/4Cr-1Mo results, the 12Cr-2W tubes required 29% less material and the 9Cr-1MoVNb tubes required 25% less material. Also, with the advanced steels, the thermal strains in the tubes and differential thermal expansion between tubes and shell were significantly better. For steam generators with higher steam exit temperatures, the benefits of the advanced steels become much larger. A thorough search for the thermal and mechanical properties of the two advanced steels was conducted. A summary of the search results is provided. It shows what is presently known about these two advanced steels and what still needs to be determined so that they can be used in nuclear heat exchanger designs. Possible follow up steps are outlined.

  18. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  19. The development of a realistic source term for sodium-cooled fast reactors : assessment of current status and future needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-06-01

    Sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) continue to be proposed and designed throughout the United States and the world. Although the number of SFRs actually operating has declined substantially since the 1980s, a significant interest in advancing these types of reactor systems remains. Of the many issues associated with the development and deployment of SFRs, one of high regulatory importance is the source term to be used in the siting of the reactor. A substantial amount of modeling and experimental work has been performed over the past four decades on accident analysis, sodium coolant behavior, and radionuclide release for SFRs. The objective of this report is to aid in determining the gaps and issues related to the development of a realistic, mechanistically derived source term for SFRs. This report will allow the reader to become familiar with the severe accident source term concept and gain a broad understanding of the current status of the models and experimental work. Further, this report will allow insight into future work, in terms of both model development and experimental validation, which is necessary in order to develop a realistic source term for SFRs.

  20. CHPRC CORRESPONDENCE For Questions or Distribution/MSIN Corrections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... air from the 242-A Evaporator vessel ventilation system. ... sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature reactor ... Ci re EDP code)b (M 3 S) - CiinL 296-A-46 ...

  1. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  2. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  3. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

    2012-01-20

    FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  5. Development of an improved sodium titanate for the pretreatment of nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Poirier, M.R.; Barnes, M.J.; Peters, T.B.; Fondeur, F.F.; Thompson, M.E.; Fink, S.D. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Nyman, M.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal. The MST and separated Cs-137 will be encapsulated into a borosilicate glass wasteform for eventual entombment at the federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material. (authors)

  6. An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

    2014-03-01

    Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

  7. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan K.

    2002-01-02

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  8. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  9. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  10. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  11. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for free-space quantum key distribution in daylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Lamoreaux, Steve K.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2004-06-08

    A quantum cryptography apparatus securely generates a key to be used for secure transmission between a sender and a receiver connected by an atmospheric transmission link. A first laser outputs a timing bright light pulse; other lasers output polarized optical data pulses after having been enabled by a random bit generator. Output optics transmit output light from the lasers that is received by receiving optics. A first beam splitter receives light from the receiving optics, where a received timing bright light pulse is directed to a delay circuit for establishing a timing window for receiving light from the lasers and where an optical data pulse from one of the lasers has a probability of being either transmitted by the beam splitter or reflected by the beam splitter. A first polarizer receives transmitted optical data pulses to output one data bit value and a second polarizer receives reflected optical data pulses to output a second data bit value. A computer receives pulses representing receipt of a timing bright timing pulse and the first and second data bit values, where receipt of the first and second data bit values is indexed by the bright timing pulse.

  13. Top 8 Things You Didn't Know About Daylight Saving Time | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... increasing the energy of laser beams as they make their way toward the target chamber. NIF recently achieved a 500 terawatt shot - 1,000 times more power than the United States ...

  14. Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0{sub 2}Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J.

    2011-04-12

    The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling the reactor side of the plant in combination with the existing automatic control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle are explored using the ANL Plant Dynamics Code together with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Analysis Code System coupled together using the iterative coupling formulation previously developed and implemented into the Plant Dynamics Code. The first option assumes that the reactor side can be ideally controlled through movement of control rods and changing the speeds of both the primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pumps such that the intermediate sodium flow rate and inlet temperature to the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger (RHX) remain unvarying while the intermediate sodium outlet temperature changes as the load demand from the electric grid changes and the S-CO{sub 2} cycle conditions adjust according to the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control strategy. For this option, the reactor plant follows an assumed change in load demand from 100 to 0 % nominal at 5 % reduction per minute in a suitable fashion. The second option allows the reactor core power and primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pump flow rates to change autonomously in response to the strong reactivity feedbacks of the metallic fueled core and assumed constant pump torques representing unchanging output from the pump electric motors. The plant behavior to the assumed load demand reduction is surprising close to that calculated for the first option. The only negative result observed is a slight increase in the intermediate inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C. This temperature rise could presumably be precluded or significantly reduced through fine adjustment of the control rods and pump motors. The third option assumes that the reactor core power and primary and intermediate system flow rates are ideally reduced linearly in a programmed fashion that instantaneously matches the prescribed load demand. The calculated behavior of this idealized case reveals a number of difficulties because the control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle overcools the reactor potentially resulting in the calculation of sodium bulk freezing and the onset of sodium boiling. The results show that autonomous SFR operation may be viable for the particular assumed load change transient and deserves further investigation for other transients and postulated accidents.

  15. Immobilization of sodium-bearing high-level radioactive waste in synroc containing (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Luo, S.; Tang, B.; Wang, D.

    1997-01-01

    This study on the immobilization of high-sodium-bearing HLW in synroc indicates that (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite can be used to incorporate a high content of sodium in synroc. Synroc samples containing 13.0 wt% waste oxide and 5.7 wt% Na{sub 2}O show very well chemical durability and physical properties. The standard Synroc-C formulation can incorporate only 2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, so this study greatly improved the immobilization ability of sodium in Synroc-related material.

  16. Experimental Study on Flow Optimization in Upper Plenum of Reactor Vessel for a Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Kamide, Hideki; Itoh, Masami; Sekine, Tadashi

    2005-11-15

    An innovative sodium-cooled fast reactor has been investigated in a feasibility study of fast breeder reactor cycle systems in Japan. A compact reactor vessel and a column-type upper inner structure with a radial slit for an arm of a fuel-handling machine (FHM) are adopted. Dipped plates are set in the reactor vessel below the free surface to prevent gas entrainment. We performed a one-tenth-scaled model water experiment for the upper plenum of the reactor vessel. Gas entrainment was not observed in the experiment under the same velocity condition as the reactor. Three vortex cavitations were observed near the hot-leg inlet. A vertical rib on the reactor vessel wall was set to restrict the rotating flow near the hot leg. The vortex cavitation between the reactor vessel wall and the hot leg was suppressed by the rib under the same cavitation factor condition as in the reactor. The cylindrical plug was installed through the hole in the dipped plates for the FHM to reduce the flow toward the free surface. It was effective when the plug was submerged into the middle height in the upper plenum. This combination of two components had a possibility to optimize the flow in the compact reactor vessel.

  17. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  18. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  19. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influencemore » over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.« less

  20. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  1. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  2. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  3. Measurement of the second-order Zeeman effect on the sodium clock transition in the weak-magnetic-field region using the scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Numazaki, Kazuya; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morinaga, Atsuo [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The second-order Zeeman effect of the sodium clock transition in a weak magnetic field of less than 50 {mu}T was measured as the scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase by two-photon stimulated Raman atom interferometry. The ac Stark effect of the Raman pulse was canceled out by adopting an appropriate intensity ratio of two photons in the Raman pulse. The Ramsey fringes for the pulse separation of 7 ms were obtained with a phase uncertainty of {pi}/200 rad. The nondispersive feature of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase was clearly demonstrated through 18 fringes with constant amplitude. The Breit-Rabi formula of the sodium clock transition was verified to be {Delta}{nu}=(0.222{+-}0.003)x10{sup 12}xB{sup 1.998{+-}0.004} in a magnetic field of less than 50 {mu}T.

  4. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  5. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  6. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  7. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-06-27

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

  8. Overall results of and lessons learned from the IAEA CRP on sodium natural circulation test performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.; Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Control Rod Withdrawal and Sodium Natural Circulation Tests Performed during the Phenix End-of-Life Experiments'. The overall purpose of the CRP, performed within the framework of the IAEA programme in support of innovative fast reactor technology development and deployment, is to improve the Member States' analytical capabilities in the various fields of research and design of sodium-cooled fast reactors through data and codes verification and validation. In particular the CRP, taking advantage of the End-of-Life set of experiments performed before the final shut-down of the French prototype fast breeder power reactor Phenix, aims at improving fast reactor simulation methods and design capabilities in the field of temperature and power distribution evaluation, as well as of the analysis of sodium natural circulation phenomena. The paper presents the overall results of the CRP, including blind calculations and post-test and sensitivity analyses carried out by the CRP participants, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for further future implementations to resolve open issues. (authors)

  9. Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

    2014-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would provide sophisticated operational information visualization, coupled with adaptive automation schemes and operator support systems to reduce complexity. These all have to be mapped at some point to human performance requirements. The EBR-II results will be used as a baseline that will be extrapolated in the extended Cognitive Work Analysis phase to the analysis of a selected advanced sodium-cooled SMR design as a way to establish non-conventional operational concepts. The Work Domain Analysis results achieved during this phase have not only established an organizing and analytical framework for describing existing sociotechnical systems, but have also indicated that the method is particularly suited to the analysis of prospective and immature designs. The results of the EBR-II Work Domain Analysis have indicated that the methodology is scientifically sound and generalizable to any operating environment.

  10. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  11. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  12. Structural, microstructural and thermal properties of lead-free bismuthsodiumbariumtitanate piezoceramics synthesized by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amini, Rasool; Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Morteza; Ardakani, Hamed Ahmadi; Ghaffari, Mohammad

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics with nanocrystalline/amorphous structure and homogeneous composition: partial transformation of constituents to BNBT, BNT and pyrochlore, amorphous phase formation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, pyrochlore-to-perovskite BNBT phase transformation during the process. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Perovskite BNBT powders with homogeneous composition were synthesized by MA. ? Partial transformation of constituents to BNBT, BNT and pyrochlore occurred by MA. ? Formation of an amorphous phase and afterwards its crystallization occurred by MA. ? Pyrochlore-to-perovskite BNBT phase transformation occurred after prolong milling. ? Polymorphic transformations of TiO{sub 2} act as the main alloying impediment during MA. -- Abstract: Bismuthsodiumbariumtitanate piezoceramics with a composition of (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} (BNBT) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Structural analysis and phase identification were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural studies and chemical composition homogeneity were performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Furthermore, thermal properties of the as-milled powders were evaluated by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). During the initial milling, the constituents were transformed to the perovskite, pyrochlore, and BNT phases; in addition, partial amorphization of the structure appeared during the milling cycle. As MA progressed, transformation of pyrochlore-to-perovskite and crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred and also, the BNBT phase was significantly developed. It was found that the MA process has the ability to synthesize the BNBT powders with a submicron particle size, regular morphology, and uniform elemental distribution.

  13. The potential reproductive, neurobehavioral and systemic effects of soluble sodium tungstate exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInturf, S.M. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Bekkedal, M.Y.V. [Two Steps Forward, LLC, Sun Prairie, WI (United States); Wilfong, E. [U.S. Naval Academy, 572M Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD (United States); Arfsten, D. [Navy Drug Screening Laboratory P.O. Box 113, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, FL (United States); Chapman, G. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Gunasekar, P.G., E-mail: palur.gunasekar@wpafb.af.mil [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of daily pre-and postnatal exposure via oral gavage to 5, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg/day of NaW through mating, gestation and weaning (PND 0-20). Daily administration of NaW produced no overt evidence of toxicity and had no apparent effect on mating success or offspring physical development. Distress vocalizations were elevated in F{sub 1} offspring from the high dose group, whereas righting reflex showed unexpected sex differences where males demonstrated faster righting than females; however, the effects were not dose-dependent. Locomotor activity was affected in both low and high-dose groups of F{sub 1} females. Low-dose group showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. The high-dose group had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group. Maternal retrieval was not affected by NaW exposure. Tungsten analysis showed a systemic distribution of NaW in both parents and offspring, with preferential uptake within the immune organs, including the femur, spleen and thymus. Histopathological evidence suggested no severe chronic injury or loss of function in these organs. However, the heart showed histological lesions, histiocytic inflammation from minimal to mild with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis in several P{sub 0} animals of 125 mg NaW dose group. The result of this study suggests that pre and postnatal exposure to NaW may produce subtle neurobehavioral effects in offspring related to motor activity and emotionality.

  14. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  15. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  16. Coordinated role of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger in sustaining microglial activation during inflammation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, Muhammad M.; Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2013-12-01

    Persistent neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an integral role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. We investigated the role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchangers (NHE) in the activation of immortalized microglial cells (BV-2) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. LPS (10 and 100 ng/ml) caused a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of intracellular sodium [(Na{sup +}){sub i}] in BV-2 cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the VGSC antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 ?M) abolished short-term Na{sup +} influx, but was unable to prevent the accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} observed at 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. The NHE inhibitor cariporide (1 ?M) significantly reduced accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. Furthermore, LPS increased the mRNA expression and protein level of NHE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced after co-treatment with TTX and/or cariporide. LPS increased production of TNF-?, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression of gp91{sup phox}, an active subunit of NADPH oxidase, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced by TTX or TTX + cariporide. Collectively, these data demonstrate a closely-linked temporal relationship between VGSC and NHE-1 in regulating function in activated microglia, which may provide avenues for therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neuroinflammation. - Highlights: LPS causes immediate increase in sodium through VGSC and subsequently through the NHE-1. Inhibition of VGSC reduces increases in NHE-1 and gp91{sup phox}. Inhibition of VGSC and NHE-1 reduces NADPH oxidase-mediated Tnf-?, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. NHE-1 and Na{sub v}1.6 may be viable targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease.

  17. Rab27a regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity through synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 effector mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Sunil K. . E-mail: ssaxena@stevens.edu; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-06-02

    Liddle's syndrome (excessive absorption of sodium ions) and PHA-1 (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1) with decreased sodium absorption are caused by the mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. Earlier, we reported that Rab27a inhibits ENaC-mediated currents through protein-protein interaction in HT-29 cells. We hereby report that Rab27a-dependent inhibition is associated with the GTP/GDP status as constitutively active or GTPase-deficient mutant Q78L inhibits amiloride-sensitive currents whereas GDP-locked inactive mutant T23N showed no effect. In order to further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, we performed competitive assays with two Rab27a-binding proteins: synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). Both proteins eliminate negative modulation of Rab27a on ENaC function. The SLP-5 reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C-terminal C2A/C2B domains assigned for putative phospholipids-binding function while the Rab27a-binding SHD motif imparted higher inhibition. The ENaC-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab27a though SLP-5 appears to strongly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that in the presence of excessive Munc13-4 and SLP-5 proteins, Rab27a interaction with ENaC is diminished. Munc13-4 and SLP-5 limit the Rab27a availability to ENaC, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a inhibits ENaC function through a complex mechanism that involves GTP/GDP status, and protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins.

  18. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  19. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  20. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

  1. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Filter Sensing Technologies, Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Filter Sensing Technologies, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

  4. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunioshi, Nilson; Komori, Seisaku; Fukutani, Seishiro

    2006-10-15

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  5. Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  7. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  8. Chemical Reduction of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350°C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders show diamagnetic below 24 K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound.more » The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature.« less

  9. Chemical Reduction of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??powders show diamagnetic below 24?K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound. The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature.

  10. An adaptive optics package designed for astronomical use with a laser guide star tuned to an absorption line of atomic sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, J.T.; Avicola, K.; Brase, J.M.

    1994-04-11

    We present the design and implementation of a very compact adaptive optic system that senses the return light from a sodium guide-star and controls a deformable mirror and a pointing mirror to compensate atmospheric perturbations in the wavefront. The deformable mirror has 19 electrostrictive actuators and triangular subapertures. The wavefront sensor is a Hartmann sensor with lenslets on triangular centers. The high-bandwidth steering mirror assembly incorporates an analog controller that samples the tilt with an avalanche photodiode quad cell. An {line_integral}/25 imaging leg focuses the light into a science camera that can either obtain long-exposure images or speckle data. In laboratory tests overall Strehl ratios were improved by a factor of 3 when a mylar sheet was used as an aberrator. The crossover frequency at unity gain is 30 Hz.

  11. Density Profiles in Sputtered Molybdenum Thin Films and Their Effects on Sodium Diffusion in Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Mansfield, L.; Young, M.; Yan, Y.; Contreras, M.; Noufi, R.; Terry Jr., F. L.; Levi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were sputtered onto soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The main variable in the deposition parameters, the argon (Ar) pressure p{sub Ar}, was varied in the range of 6-20 mTorr. Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was performed to find out that the dielectric functions {var_epsilon} of the Mo films were strongly dependent on p{sub Ar}, indicating a consistent and significant decrease in the Mo film density {rho}{sub Mo} with increasing p{sub Ar}. This trend was confirmed by high-angle-annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. {var_epsilon} of Mo was then found to be correlated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles of Sodium (Na) in the Cu(In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layer grown on top of Mo/SLG. Therefore, in situ optical diagnostics can be applied for process monitoring and optimization in the deposition of Mo for CIGS solar cells. Such capability is demonstrated with simulated optical transmission and reflectance of variously polarized incident light, using {var_epsilon} deduced from SE.

  12. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Groth, Katrina M.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  13. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a well-ordered layered sodium aluminoalcoholate complex: a useful precursor for the preparation of porous Al2O3 particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, XS; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Smith, SJ; McKay, I; Muller, P; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2014-01-01

    One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a robust tetranuclear sodium hexakis(glycolato)tris(methanolato)aluminate complex Na-3[Al-4(OCH3)(3)(OCH2CH2O)(6)] via a modified yet rigorous base-catalyzed transesterification mechanism is presented here. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies indicate that this unique Al complex contains three pentacoordinate Al3+ ions, each bound to two bidentate ethylene glycolate chelators and one monodentate methanolate ligand. The remaining fourth Al3+ ion is octahedrally coordinated to one oxygen atom from each of the six surrounding glycolate chelators, effectively stitching the three pentacoordinate Al moieties together into a novel tetranuclear Al complex. This aluminate complex is periodically self-assembled into well-ordered layers normal to the [110] axis with the intra-/inter-layer bonding involving extensive ionic bonds from the three charge-counterbalancing Na+ cations rather than the more typical hydrogen bonding interactions as a result of fewer free hydroxyl groups present in its structure. It can also serve as a valuable precursor toward the facile synthesis of high-surface-area alumina powders using a very efficient rapid pyrolysis technique.

  14. Progress in the R and D Project on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened and Precipitation Hardened Ferritic Steels for Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    High burnup capability of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR) fuels depends significantly on irradiation performance of their component materials. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels and a precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steel as the most prospective materials for fuel pin cladding and duct tubes, respectively. Technology for small-scale manufacturing is already established, and several hundreds of ODS steel cladding tubes and dozens of PH steel duct tubes were successfully produced. We will step forward to develop manufacturing technology for mass production to supply these steels for future SFR fuels. Mechanical properties of the products were examined by out-of-pile and in-pile tests including material irradiation tests in the experimental fast reactor JOYO and foreign fast reactors. The material strength standards (MSSs) were tentatively compiled in 2005 for ODS steels and in 1993 for PH steel. In order to upgrade the MSSs and to demonstrate high burnup capability of the materials, we will perform a series of irradiation tests in BOR-60 and JOYO until 2015 and contribute to design study for a demonstration SFR of which operation is expected after 2025. (authors)

  15. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 210 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 3050 has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  16. Second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for a USAB V-160 Stirling engine: Evaluation of on-sun test results using the proposed IEA guidelines and analysis of heat pipe damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Traebing, C.

    1997-11-01

    Dish/Stirling technology has demonstrated the highest conversion efficiencies of all solar thermal conversion systems. At the DLR a second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for the Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (SBP) 9-kW{sub e} dish/Stirling system has been developed and constructed. Long-term operation occurred from Oct. 1992 until Aug. 1993 at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain, accumulating 950 operating hours. The performance of the SBP 9-kW{sub e} system with a sodium heat pipe receiver is evaluated according to the guidelines for dish/Stirling performance evaluation by Stine and Powel, as proposed to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Tests were stopped due to a leak in the receiver absorber surface. The analysis of this damage is reported.

  17. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  18. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the chargedischarge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  19. Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure ...

  1. Sodium purification apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gould, Marc I. [Van Nuys, CA

    1980-03-04

    An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

  2. Sodium purification apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gould, M.I.

    1980-03-04

    An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal are disclosed. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter. 1 fig.

  3. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Neill (Dearborn, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure.

  4. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, N.

    1985-03-19

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

  5. Synthesis of nanosized sodium titanates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, David T.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Elvington, Mark C.

    2015-09-29

    Methods directed to the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosized monosodium titanate are described. Methods include combination of reactants at a low concentration to a solution including a nonionic surfactant. The nanosized monosodium titanate can exhibit high selectivity for sorbing various metallic ions.

  6. Sodium arsenite represses the expression of myogenin in C2C12 mouse myoblast cells through histone modifications and altered expression of Ezh2, Glp, and Igf-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Gia-Ming; Present address: The University of Chicago, Section of Hematology Bain, Lisa J.

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic is a toxicant commonly found in water systems and chronic exposure can result in adverse developmental effects including increased neonatal death, stillbirths, and miscarriages, low birth weight, and altered locomotor activity. Previous studies indicate that 20 nM sodium arsenite exposure to C2C12 mouse myocyte cells delayed myoblast differentiation due to reduced myogenin expression, the transcription factor that differentiates myoblasts into myotubes. In this study, several mechanisms by which arsenic could alter myogenin expression were examined. Exposing differentiating C2C12 cells to 20 nM arsenic increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) by 3-fold near the transcription start site of myogenin, which is indicative of increased repressive marks, and reduced H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) by 0.5-fold, indicative of reduced permissive marks. Protein expression of Glp or Ehmt1, a H3-K9 methyltransferase, was also increased by 1.6-fold in arsenic-exposed cells. In addition to the altered histone remodeling status on the myogenin promoter, protein and mRNA levels of Igf-1, a myogenic growth factor, were significantly repressed by arsenic exposure. Moreover, a 2-fold induction of Ezh2 expression, and an increased recruitment of Ezh2 (3.3-fold) and Dnmt3a (? 2-fold) to the myogenin promoter at the transcription start site (? 40 to + 42), were detected in the arsenic-treated cells. Together, we conclude that the repressed myogenin expression in arsenic-exposed C2C12 cells was likely due to a combination of reduced expression of Igf-1, enhanced nuclear expression and promoter recruitment of Ezh2, and altered histone remodeling status on myogenin promoter (? 40 to + 42). -- Highlights: ? Igf-1 expression is decreased in C2C12 cells after 20 nM arsenite exposure. ? Arsenic exposure alters histone remodeling on the myogenin promoter. ? Glp expression, a H3K9 methyltransferase, was increased in arsenic-exposed cells. ? Ezh2 and Dnmt3a localization to the myogenin promoter is induced by arsenic.

  7. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ? 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. The yield diagram for NaCoH{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 C. We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for NaCoH{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of CoH{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase ?-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  8. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnther, T-hat nia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; Ourique da Silva, Fabiana; Bcker, Ndia Cristina Falco; Pich, Claus Trger; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-01-18

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC{sub 50} = 5.8 ?M at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 ?M) the EC{sub 50} fell to 3.3 ?M. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate (23-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}. The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment.

  9. Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W. E.

    2006-01-31

    The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass degradation model developed for use in repository licensing, and HLW glass can be used as a surrogate for both CWF and MWF in performance assessment calculations. Test results indicate that the radionuclide release from CWF and MWF is adequately described by other relevant performance assessment models, such as the models for the solution chemistries in breached waste packages, dissolved concentration limits, and the formation of radionuclide-bearing colloids.

  10. OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow, and Energy Modeling Leveraging Interoperable Building Information Modeling Data- 2014 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: John Messner, the Pennsylvania State University Consortium for Building Energy Innovation Energy modeling often is inconsistently applied in the small- and medium-sized commercial building (SMSCB) market, in part because existing models are either too complex relative to the project size or because models are not interoperable with other retrofit design tools.

  11. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of NABUREN in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute radiation proctitis. There was a correlation between some endpoints and clinical risk factors.

  12. Reorientation of the free OH group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called free O-H group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the free O-H group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the free O-H changes from about 35.3 degrees 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.6 Lighting

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 Typical Efficacies and Lifetimes of Lamps (1) Current Technology CRI (2) Incandescent 10 - 19 97 Halogen 14 - 20 99 Fluorescent - T5 25 - 55 52 - 75 Fluorescent - T8 35 - 87 7,500 - 20,000 52 - 90 Fluorescent - T12 35 - 92 7,500 - 20,000 50 - 92 Compact Fluorescent 40 - 70 82 Mercury Vapor 25 - 50 15 - 50 Metal Halide 65 - 70 High-Pressure Sodium 22 Low-Pressure Sodium 0 Solid State Lighting 33-97 Note(s): Source(s): 18 - 180 18,000 20 - 100 15,000 - 50,000 1) Theoretical maximum luminous

  14. Nanomaterials for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Nie, Zimin

    2015-05-05

    A crystalline nanowire and method of making a crystalline nanowire are disclosed. The method includes dissolving a first nitrate salt and a second nitrate salt in an acrylic acid aqueous solution. An initiator is added to the solution, which is then heated to form polyacrylatyes. The polyacrylates are dried and calcined. The nanowires show high reversible capacity, enhanced cycleability, and promising rate capability for a battery or capacitor.

  15. Process for degrading hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxtable, William P.; Griffith, William L.; Compere, Alicia L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for degrading hypochlorite waste and lithium hypochlorite solutions uses a cobalt oxide/molybdenum oxide catalyst formed from about 1-10 w/w % cobalt oxide and 1-15 w/w % molybdenum oxide disposed on a suitable substrate. The major advantage of the catalyst lies in its high degree of effectiveness and its very low cost.

  16. Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-09-18

    This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

  17. A sodium gadolinium phosphate with two different types of tunnel structure: Synthesis, crystal structure, and optical properties of Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M.; Cheng, W.-D. Zhang, H.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, W.-L.; Yang, S.-L.

    2008-09-15

    A sodium gadolinium phosphate crystal, Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}, has been synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction, and it exhibits a new structural family of the alkali-metal-rare-earth phosphate system. Although many compounds with formula M{sub 3}LnP{sub 2}O{sub 8} have been reported, but they were shown to be orthorhombic [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] rather than monoclinic as shown in this paper. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows the structure to be monoclinic with space group C2/c and the cell parameters: a=27.55 (25), b=5.312 (4), c=13.935(11) A, {beta}=91.30(1){sup o}, and V=2038.80 A{sup 3}, Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 3-} anionic framework with two different types of interesting tunnels at where Na atoms are located by different manners. The framework is constructed by Gd polyhedra and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. It is different from the structure of K{sub 3}NdP{sub 2}O{sub 8} [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] with space group P2{sub 1}/m that shows only one type of tunnel. The emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the compound have been investigated. Additionally, the calculations of band structure, density of states, dielectric constants, and refractive indexes have been also performed with the density functional theory method. The obtained results tend to support the experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the structure of Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8} with a unit cell edge along the b-axis. The Na-O bonds are omitted for clarity.

  18. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building lifemore » cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  19. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Burket, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput.

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Daylighting, Comprehensive...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar - Passive, Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Daylighting, Yes; specific technologies not identified...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, Refrigerators...

  4. List of Siding Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  5. List of Compressed air Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  6. List of Agricultural Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  7. Local Loan Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting, Lighting, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Other EE, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Personal Computing...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Daylighting, Clothes Washers,...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher,...

  11. Building Controls and Lighting Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    February 22, 2011 Francis Rubinstein Lead, Lighting Group Environmental Energy ... A. Building Systems Windows, Facades, and Daylighting Lighting Controls ...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Daylighting, Wind (Small) Marin County- Green Building Requirements Marin County's original Single Family Dwelling Energy...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial, Residential, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Solar - Passive, Solar Photovoltaics, Daylighting, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Daylighting, Wind (Small) Renewable Energy Systems Tax Credit (Corporate) Residential Systems:... Eligibility: Commercial, Construction,...

  16. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  17. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In September 2007 China, France, Japan, Russia and the United States hosted the second GNEP Ministerial in Vienna, Austria where 35 countries and three intergovernmental ...

  18. Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 62; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All ...

  19. Hydrogen peroxide modified sodium titanates with improved sorption capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hobbs, David T. (North Augusta, SC)

    2009-02-24

    The sorption capabilities (e.g., kinetics, selectivity, capacity) of the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) sorbent material currently being used to sequester Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radioisotopes at the Savannah River Site are significantly improved when treated with hydrogen peroxide; either during the original synthesis of MST, or, as a post-treatment step after the MST has been synthesized. It is expected that these peroxide-modified MST sorbent materials will have significantly improved sorption capabilities for non-radioactive cations found in industrial processes and waste streams.

  20. Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    two adjacent linear temperature detector sensors being out of service. The linear temperature detector system is safety- 7 significant and prevents a ground-level release...