National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for low-level burial grounds

  1. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  2. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  3. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  4. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  5. EA-1203: Trench 33 Widening in 218-W-5 Low-level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to widen and operate the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground at the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations...

  6. EA-1276: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste at the U.S. Department of...

  7. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  8. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  9. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  10. Case Study of Anomalies Encountered During Remediation of Mixed Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haass, M.J.; Zacharias, P.E.; Zacharias, A.E.

    2007-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's River Corridor Closure Project, Washington Closure Hanford has completed remediation of more than 10 mixed low-level waste burial grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site. The records of decision for the burial grounds required excavation, characterization, and transport of contaminated material to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976-compliant hazardous waste landfill. This paper discusses a sample of the anomalous waste found during remediation and provides an overview of the waste excavation activities. The 100 Area burial grounds received plutonium production reactor waste and waste associated with various test programs. Examples of 100 Area anomalies include spent nuclear fuel, elemental mercury, reactor hardware, and the remains of animals used in testing the effects of radionuclides on living organisms. The 300 Area burial grounds received waste from research and development laboratories and fuel manufacturing operations. Of the seven 300 Area burial grounds remediated to date, the most challenging has been the 618-2 Burial Ground. It presented significant challenges because of the potential for airborne alpha contamination and the discovery of plutonium in an isotopically pure form. Anomalies encountered in the 618-2 Burial Ground included a combination safe that contained gram quantities of plutonium, miscellaneous containers of unknown liquids, and numerous types of shielded shipping casks. Information presented in this paper will be an aid to those involved in remediation activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex and at other nuclear waste disposal sites. (authors)

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This section provides a brief description of the locale in which the Proposed Action would take place. (5) Environmental Impacts. This section describes the range of environmental impacts, beneficial and adverse, of the Proposed Action. Impacts of alternatives briefly are discussed. (6) Permits and Regulatory Requirements. This section provides a brief description of permits and regulatory requirements for the Proposed Action. (7) Organizations Consulted. This section lists any outside groups, agencies, or individuals contacted as part of the environmental assessment preparation and/or review. (8) References. This section provides a list of documents used to contribute information or data in preparation of this environmental assessment.

  12. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  13. Hanford Progresses in Burial Ground Cleanup

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM’s Richland Operations Office (RL) and cleanup contractor Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) are making tremendous progress cleaning up Hanford’s 618-10 Burial Ground, one of the most hazardous burial grounds in the EM complex.

  14. 118-K-1 Burial Ground - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18-K-1 Burial Ground About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility F

  15. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  16. Recommendation 195: Mitigation of Contamination in Bear Creek Burial Grounds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB requests DOE provide possible remedial actions to mitigate releases of contamination from Bear Creek Burial Grounds.

  17. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  19. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  20. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  1. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management. [Shallow land burial at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations.

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  3. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, M.W.

    1988-12-31

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of transport from these sites are by dissolution in circulating ground water, and the overflow of fluids in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. The waste-disposal areas are underlain by the Conasauga Group (Cambrian age), a complex sequence of mudstone, siltstone, and limestone interbeds grading from one lithotype to the other, both laterally and vertically. Compressional forces that caused regional thrust faulting also caused much internal deformation of the beds. Folds, bedding-plane faults, and joints are widespread. Small solution openings have developed in some areas where the structurally-related openings have provided ingress to ground water.

  4. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A lessons learned is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  5. 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration Disposal

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs.

  7. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  8. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Ludowise; K. L. Vialetti

    2008-05-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization for the remediation of six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Burial Grounds, the 618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 sites.

  9. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  10. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  11. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.

  12. Digging Begins at Hazardous Hanford Burial Ground- River Corridor Contractor Spent Two Years Preparing to Remediate 618-10

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, WASH. After careful preparation and characterization, the Department of Energys (DOE) River Corridor contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, has begun remediation of one of the most hazardous burial grounds tackled to date on the Hanford Sites River Corridor.

  13. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Ludowise

    2009-06-17

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site. A material at risk calculation was performed that determined the radiological inventory for each burial ground to be Hazard Category 3.

  14. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  15. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Vialetti

    2008-05-20

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  16. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-12-06

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  17. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2007-04-12

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  18. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  19. Closure certification report for the Bear Creek burial grounds B area and walk-in pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    On July 5, 1993, the revised RCRA Closure Plan for the Bear Creek Burial Grounds B Area and Walk-In Pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1100&D3 and Y/ER-53&D3, was approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The closure activities described in that closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for B Area and Walk-In Pits (WIPs), including placement of the Kerr Hollow Quarry debris at the WIPs.

  20. Vertical Extraction Process Implemented at the 118-K-1 Burial Ground for Removal of Irradiated Reactor Debris from Silo Structures - 12431

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teachout, Douglas B.; Adamson, Clinton J.; Zacharias, Ames

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of a remediation project is the safe extraction and disposition of diverse waste forms and materials. Remediation of a solid waste burial ground containing reactor hardware and irradiated debris involves handling waste with the potential to expose workers to significantly elevated dose rates. Therefore, a major challenge confronted by any remediation project is developing work processes that facilitate compliant waste management practices while at the same time implementing controls to protect personnel. Traditional burial ground remediation is accomplished using standard excavators to remove materials from trenches and other excavation configurations often times with minimal knowledge of waste that will be encountered at a specific location. In the case of the 118-K-1 burial ground the isotopic activity postulated in historic documents to be contained in vertical cylindrical silos was sufficient to create the potential for a significant radiation hazard to project personnel. Additionally, certain reported waste forms posed an unacceptably high potential to contaminate the surrounding environment and/or workers. Based on process knowledge, waste management requirements, historic document review, and a lack of characterization data it was determined that traditional excavation techniques applied to remediation of vertical silos would expose workers to unacceptable risk. The challenging task for the 118-K-1 burial ground remediation project team then became defining an acceptable replacement technology or modification of an existing technology to complete the silo remediation. Early characterization data provided a good tool for evaluating the location of potential high exposure rate items in the silos. Quantitative characterization was a different case and proved difficult because of the large diameter of the silos and the potential for variable density of attenuating soils and waste forms in the silo. Consequently, the most relevant information supporting job planning and understanding of the conditions was the data obtained from the gross gamma meter that was inserted into each casing to provide a rough estimate of dose rates in the tubes. No added value was realized in attempting to quantify the source term and/or associate the isotopic activity with a particular actual waste form (e.g., sludge). Implementing the WRM system allowed monitoring of worker and boundary exposure rates from a distance, maintaining compliance with ALARA principles. This system also provided the project team early knowledge of items being removed that had high exposure rates associated with them, thus creating an efficient method of acknowledging an issue and arriving at a solution prior to having an upset condition. An electronic dosimeter with telemetry capability replaced the excavator mounted AMP-100 system approximately half way through remediation of the silos. Much higher connectivity efficiency was derived from this configuration. Increasing the data feed efficiency additionally led to less interruption of the remediation effort. Early in system testing process a process handicap on the excavator operator was acknowledged. A loss of depth perception resulted when maneuvering the excavator and bucket using the camera feed to an in-cab monitor. Considerable practice and mock-up testing allowed this handicap to be overcome. The most significant equipment failures involved the cable connection to the camera mounted between the clamshell bucket jaws and the video splitter in the excavator cab. Rotation of the clamshell bucket was identified as the cause of cable connection failures because of the cyclic twisting motion and continuous mechanical jarring of the connection. In-cab vibration was identified as the culprit in causing connection failures of the video splitter. While these failures were repaired, substantial production time was lost. Ultimately, the decision was made to purchase a second cable and higher quality video splitter eliminate the down time. An engineering improvement for future operations would be i

  1. Workplan/RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, S01-S22 - Volume I - Text and Volume II - Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, K.R.

    2000-12-12

    This document presents the assessment of environmental impacts resulting from releases of hazardous substances from the facilities in the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, including Solvent Tanks 650-01E to 650-22E, also referred to as Solvent Tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina.

  2. Low-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as low-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV.

  3. Application of decontamination and melting of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.W.; Hall, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the range of plant, equipment, and techniques developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc at their Capenhurst site to minimize land burial, environmental impact, and recycling of metals. This large nuclear processing facility in the United Kingdom yielded more than 160000 t of suspect surface contaminated material. By the time the project is finally completed at the end of 1996, {approx}99.5% of the contaminated material will have been safely and cost-effectively treated so that it can be recycled for use in a nonnuclear environment. The remaining material as well as minimal quantities of secondary wastes arising from decontamination activities will have been size reduced and/or encapsulated to maximize the cost-effective use of the U.K. low-level-waste burial facility.

  4. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  7. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  8. Tank farms compacted low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetzer, D.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the process of Low-Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report.

  9. Tank farms compacted low level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the process of Low Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report.

  10. Low-level-waste-form criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, R.E.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Efforts in five areas are reported: technical considerations for a high-integrity container for resin wastes; permissible radionuclide loadings for organic ion exchange resin wastes; technical factors affecting low-level waste form acceptance requirements of the proposed 10 CFR 61 and draft BTP; modeling of groundwater transport; and analysis of soils from low-level waste disposal sites (Barnwell, Hanford, and Sheffield). (DLC)

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Low-Level Waste Shipment |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Level Waste Shipment West Valley Demonstration Project Low-Level Waste Shipment PDF icon West Valley Demonstration Project Low-Level Waste Shipment More Documents &...

  12. Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Management Compliance Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) The Low-Level Waste...

  13. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  14. Radionuclide release from low-level waste in field lysimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblath, S B

    1986-01-01

    A field program has been in operation for 8 years at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to determine the leaching/migration behavior of low-level radioactive waste using lysimeters. The lysimeters are soil-filled caissons containing well characterized wastes, with each lysimeter serving as a model of a shallow land burial trench. Sampling and analysis of percolate water and vegetation from the lysimeters provide a determination of the release rates of the radionuclides from the waste/soil system. Vegetative uptake appears to be a major pathway for migration. Fractional release rates from the waste/soil system are less than 0.01% per year. Waste-to-soil leach rates up to 10% per year have been determined by coring several of the lysimeters. The leaching of solidified wasteforms under unsaturated field conditions has agreed well with static, immersion leaching of the same type waste in the laboratory. However, releases from the waste/soil system in the lysimeter may be greater than predicted based on leaching alone, due to complexation of the radionuclides by other components leached from the wastes to form mobile, anionic species.

  15. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  16. Lid design for low level waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holbrook, R.H.; Keener, W.E.

    1995-02-28

    A container for low level waste includes a shell and a lid. The lid has a frame to which a planar member is welded. The lid frame includes a rectangular outer portion made of square metal tubing, a longitudinal beam extending between axial ends of the rectangular outer portion, and a transverse beam extending between opposite lateral sides of the rectangular outer portion. Two pairs of diagonal braces extend between the longitudinal beam and the four corners of the rectangular outer portion of the frame. 6 figs.

  17. Lid design for low level waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holbrook, Richard H.; Keener, Wendell E.

    1995-01-01

    A container for low level waste includes a shell and a lid. The lid has a frame to which a planar member is welded. The lid frame includes a rectangular outer portion made of square metal tubing, a longitudinal beam extending between axial ends of the rectangular outer portion, and a transverse beam extending between opposite lateral sides of the rectangular outer portion. Two pairs of diagonal braces extend between the longitudinal beam and the four corners of the rectangular outer portion of the frame.

  18. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, M.W.; LeBaron, G.J.

    1995-01-16

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated.

  19. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  20. LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY FEDERAL REVIEW GROUP EXECUTION...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY FEDERAL REVIEW GROUP EXECUTION PLAN Los Alamos National ... Safety and Security LFRG Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group LLW ...

  1. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  2. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  3. Draft low level waste technical summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information.

  4. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  5. Disposal of low-level and low-level mixed waste: audit report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-03

    The Department of Energy (Department) is faced with the legacy of thousands of contaminated areas and buildings and large volumes of `backlog` waste requiring disposal. Waste management and environmental restoration activities have become central to the Department`s mission. One of the Department`s priorities is to clean up former nuclear weapons sites and find more effective and timely methods for disposing of nuclear waste. This audit focused on determining if the Department was disposing of low-level and low-level mixed waste in the most cost-effective manner.

  6. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wong, P.B. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 {times} 100 {times} 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10{sup {minus}8}, 10{sup {minus}12} and 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr{sup +6} to Cr{sup +3} and Tc{sup +7} to Tc{sup +4} and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site.

  7. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wong, P.B. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 {times} 100 {times} 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10{sup {minus}8}, 10{sup {minus}12} and 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr{sup +6} to Cr{sup +3} and Tc{sup +7} to Tc{sup +4} and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site.

  8. CRAD, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management - April 30, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management - April 30, 2015 (EA CRAD 31-11, Rev. 0) CRAD, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management - April 30, 2015 (EA CRAD 31-11, Rev. 0) April 2015...

  9. Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) transmitted a letter to the Department regarding its perspective on how DOE should pursue research on low-level radiation. SEAB recommends DOE continue to sponsor a small, sustained, high quality research program primarily in DOE laboratories as well as centers of excellence within universities, medical schools, and hospitals. PDF icon SEAB Letter on Low-Level Radiation

  10. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  11. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  12. Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low- LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY FEDERAL REVIEW GROUP MANUAL REVISION 3 JUNE 2008 (This page intentionally left blank) Low-Level JVllsfe Disposal Fllcili~l' Federal Review Group il1allUlli Revision 3, June 200S Concurrence The Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual, Revision 3, is approved for use as of the most recent date below. Date Chair, Low-Level Waste Disposal Federal Review Group Andrew WalJo, 1II Deputy Director, Otlice of Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance, and

  13. US Army facility for the consolidation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, S.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Murphy, B.L.; Gillings, J.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Lyso, O.M.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    A preliminary study of a waste consolidation facility for the Department of the Army's low-level radioactive waste was carried out to determine a possible site and perform a cost-benefit analysis. Four sites were assessed as possible locations for such a facility, using predetermined site selection criteria. To assist in the selection of a site, an evaluation of environmental issues was included as part of each site review. In addition, a preliminary design for a waste consolidation facility was developed, and facilities at each site were reviewed for their availability and suitability for this purpose. Currently available processes for volume reduction, as well as processes still under development, were then investigated, and the support and handling equipment and the staff needed for the safe operation of a waste consolidation facility were studied. Using current costs for the transportation and burial of low-level waste, a cost comparison was then made between waste disposal with and without the utilization of volume reduction. Finally, regulations that could affect the operation of a waste consolidation facility were identified and their impact was assessed. 11 references, 5 figures, 16 tables.

  14. Low-level waste certification plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-09-19

    The solid, low-level waste certification plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) describes the organization and methodology for the certification of the solid low-level waste (LLW) that is transferred to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, including up-front minimization, and end product treatment to reduce the volume or toxicity of the waste. The plan also includes segregation of different waste types. This low-level waste certification plan applies only to waste generated in, or is the responsibility of the WSCF Laboratory Complex. The WSCF Laboratory Complex supports technical activities performed at the Hanford Site. Wet Chemical and radiochemical analyses are performed to support site operations, including environmental and effluent monitoring, chemical processing, RCRA and CERCLA analysis, and waste management activities. Environmental and effluent samples include liquid effluents, ground and surface waters, soils, animals, vegetation, and air filters.

  15. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  17. LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE & MIXED WASTE SHIPMENTS TO THE NEVADA NATIONAL SECURITY SITE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NV NY NY NV OH TN TN TN, WA, CA TN TN TN TX y ct 2 Plant Perma-Fix LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE & MIXED WASTE SHIPMENTS TO THE NEVADA NATIONAL SECURITY SITE FIRST QUARTER REPORT, FY 2011 (OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, DECEMBER 2010) Livermore National Laboratory ergy Alliance onal Laboratory Mixed Waste Treatment Project gonne National Laboratory ational Laboratory Gaseous Diffusion Plant Proving Ground terra, LLC en National Laboratory y Environmental Services ecurity Technologies, Inc. h Gaseous Diffusion

  18. Orex based {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} low-level radioactive waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, B.

    1995-11-01

    Nuclear power facilities, both commercial and government operated, generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW is a by-product of maintenance and operation of the power systems which contain radioactive materials. DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. DAW is generated when any material is exposed to loose radioactive particles and subsequently becomes contaminated. In the United States, once a material is contaminated it must be treated as radioactive waste and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Problems facing all commercial and non-commercial nuclear facilities are escalating costs of processing DAW and volumetric reduction of the DAW generated. Currently, approximately 85% of all DAW generated at a typical facility is comprised of anti-contamination clothing and protective barrier materials. A typical 800 megawatt power station will generate between 6,000 to 10,000 cubic feet of DAW annually. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. This curtailment is required for several reasons: (1). The number of radioactive waste repositories now accepting new waste is limited. (2). The current cost of burial at an operating dump site is significant. Costs can be as high as $4,000 for a single 55 gallon drum. (3). The cost of burial is constantly increasing. (4). Onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste is costly and results in a burial fee at plant decommissioning. In order to address this issue, the industry must look to the application of {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} technologies.

  19. Low-level waste vitrification plant environmental permitting plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretsinger, W.T.; Colby, J.M.

    1994-10-03

    This document presents projected environmental permitting and approval requirements for the treatment and disposal of low-level Hanford tank waste by vitrification. Applicability, current status, and strategy are discussed for each potential environmental permit or approval.

  20. Bibliographic Data on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Documents

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-11-10

    The purpose of the system is to allow users (researchers, policy makers, etc) to identify existing documents on a range of subjects related to low-level radioactive waste management. The software is menu driven.

  1. Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Revision 3 of the Low-Level Waste Disposal  Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Manual was prepared primarily to include review criteria for the review of transuranic (TRU) waste disposal...

  2. New York State`s regulations for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngberg, B.; Merges, P.; Owen, K.

    1994-12-31

    The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation`s (NYSDEC) regulations for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities set primarily performance-based criteria for LLRW disposal facilities. The regulations (Part 383 of Title 6 of the New York State Codes of Rules and Regulations) set requirements for design, construction, operation, monitoring, site safety planning, financial assurance, closure, post closure monitoring and maintenance, and institutional control. The regulations are unique in their detail and in presenting specific requirements for below ground disposal units, above ground disposal units, and underground mined repositories.

  3. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress Report for the Period July 1 to September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the progress of four Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period from July 1 to September 310, 1987. The four disposal facilities are the 300 Area Process Trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. This report is the fifth in a series of periodic status reports. During this reporting period, field activities consisted of completing repairs on five monitoring wells originally present around the 183-H Basins and completing construction of 25 monitoring wells around the 200 Area Burial Grounds. The 14 wells in the 200 East Area were completed by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and the 11 wells in the 200 West Area were compelted by ONWEGO Well Drilling. The NRDW Landfill interim characterization report was submitted to the WDOE and the USEPA in August 1987. Analytical results for the 300 Area, 183-H, and the NRDW Landfill indicate no deviations from previously established trends. Results from the NRDW Land-fill indiate that the facility has no effect on the ground-water quality beneath the facility, except for the detection of coliform bacteria. A possible source of this contamination is the solid-waste lanfill (SWL) adjacent to the NRDW Landfill. Ground-water monitoring data for the NRDW and SWL will be evaluated together in the future. Aquifer testing was completed in the 25 new wells surrounding the 200 Area buiral grounds. 13 refs., 19 refs., 13 tabs.

  5. Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 G Approved: XX-XX-XX IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for use with DOE M 435.1-1 Maintenance Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE G 435.1-4 i (and ii) DRAFT XX-XX-XX LLW Maintenance Guide Revision 0, XX-XX-XX Maintenance Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Stability testing of low-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form identifies methods for thermal cycle testing and biodegradation testing of low-level waste forms. These tests were carried out on low-level waste forms to establish whether the tests are reasonable and can be achieved. The thermal-cycle test is believed adequate for demonstrating the thermal stability of solidified waste forms. The biodegradation tests are sufficient for distinguishing materials that are susceptible to biodegradation. However, failure of either of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61.

  7. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  8. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  9. Decontamination & melting of low level waste - a complete environmental restoration solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    BNFL has almost completed the decommissioning of a major nuclear enrichment facility in the UK - the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant. This massive facility, 1,200m long and 150m wide and housed under a single roof consisted of a cascade of 4,800 {open_quote}stage units{close_quote} of various sizes connected by 1,800 km of process gas pipework. Dismantling the plant yielded over 160,000 tonne of suspect surface-contaminated material. By the time the project is fully completed, around the middle of 1996, over 99.5% of the contaminated material will have been safely and cost-effectively treated such that it can be recycled for unrestricted use in a non-nuclear environment. The remaining material, as well as minimal quantities of secondary wastes arising from decontamination activities, will have been size-reduced and/or encapsulated to maximise the cost-effective use of the UK low-level waste burial facility at Drigg.

  10. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  11. Decontamination and melting of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.W.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes the decommissioning project of the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant in Europe. Over 99 percent of the low-level waste was successfully treated and recycled. Topics include the following: decommissioning philosophy; specialized techniques including plant pretreatment, plant dismantling, size reduction, decontamination, melting, and encapsulation of waste; recycled materials and waste stream; project safety; cost drivers and savings. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  15. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  16. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  18. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  19. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  1. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  2. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  3. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-05-25

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements.

  4. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  5. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  6. Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Maintenance Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses PDF icon Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility More Documents & Publications Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

  7. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  8. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  9. Optimising the Performance of the Low Level Waste Repository - 12144

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, Amy; Baker, Andrew; Cummings, Richard; Shevelan, John; Sumerling, Trevor

    2012-07-01

    The Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is the United Kingdom's principal facility for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW). The LLWR made a major submission to its environmental regulator (the Environment Agency) on 1 May 2011, the LLWR's 2011 Environmental Safety Case (ESC). One of the key regulatory requirements is that all aspects of the construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility should be optimised. An optimised Site Development Plan for the repository was developed and produced as part of the ESC. The Site Development Plan covers all aspects of the construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility. This includes the management of past and future disposals, emplacement strategies, design of the disposal vaults, and the closure engineering for the site. The Site Development Plan also covers the period of active institutional control, when disposals at the site have ceased, but it is still under active management, and plans for the long-term sustainable use of the site. We have a practical approach to optimisation based on recorded judgements and realistic assessments of practicable options framed within the demands of UK policy for LLW management and the characteristics the LLWR site and existing elements of the facility. The final performance assessments undertaken for the ESC were based on the Site Development Plan. The ESC will be used as a tool to inform future decision-making concerning the repository design, operation and the acceptance of wastes, as set out in the evolving Site Development Plan. Maintaining the ESC is thus essential to ensure that the Site Development Plan takes account of an up-to-date understanding and analysis of environmental performance, and that the Plan continues to be optimised. (authors)

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Commercial (Burial) Disposal Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Maxey Flats Disposal Site - KY 02 Commercial (Burial) Disposal Site Maxey Flats Disposal Site - KY 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Commercial (Burial) Disposal Site, Maxey Flats Disposal Site (KY.02) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Maxey Flats, Kentucky, Site Documents Related to Commercial (Burial) Disposal Site,

  11. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  12. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  13. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H.D.; Tracey, E.M.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock & Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM).

  14. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  16. Application of EPA regulations to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The survey reported here was conducted with the intent of identifying categories of low-level radioactive wastes which would be classified under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261 as hazardous due to the chemical properties of the waste. Three waste types are identified under these criteria as potential radioactive mixed wastes: wastes containing organic liquids; wastes containing lead metal; and wastes containing chromium. The survey also indicated that certain wastes, specific to particular generators, may also be radioactive mixed wastes. Ultimately, the responsibility for determining whether a facility's wastes are mixed wastes rest with the generator. However, the uncertainties as to which regulations are applicable, and the fact that no legal definition of mixed wastes exists, make such a determination difficult. In addition to identifying mixed wastes, appropriate methods for the management of mixed wastes must be defined. In an ongoing study, BNL is evaluating options for the management of mixed wastes. These options will include segregation, substitution, and treatments to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards associated with the wastes listed above. The impacts of the EPA regulations governing hazardous wastes on radioactive mixed waste cannot be assessed in detail until the applicability of these regulations is agreed upon. This issue is still being discussed by EPA and NRC and should be resolved in the near future. Areas of waste management which may affect generators of mixed wastes include: monitoring/tracking of wastes before shipment; chemical testing of wastes; permits for treatment of storage of wastes; and additional packaging requirements. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  18. Low-Level & Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Shipments to NNSS, FY2010 2nd QTR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NM NY NY NV OH TN TN TN, WA, CA TN TN TN TX Total Shipments by Route Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Batelle Energy Alliance Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Energx Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Aberdeen Proving Ground Sandia National Laboratories Brookhaven National Laboratory West Valley Environmental Services National Security Technologies, Inc. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Duratek/Energy

  19. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  20. Field testing an OREX{reg_sign} based {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} low-level radioactive waste reduction program at FP&L`s St. Lucie Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, K.; Haynes, B.

    1996-10-01

    Nuclear power facilities, both commercial and government operated, generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW is a by-product of maintenance and operation of the power systems which contain radioactive materials. DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. DAW is generated when any material is exposed to loose radioactive particles and subsequently becomes contaminated. In the United States, once a material is contaminated it must be treated as radioactive waste and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Problems facing all commercial and non-commercial nuclear facilities are escalating costs of processing DAW and volumetric reduction of the DAW generated. Currently, approximately 85% of all DAW generated at a typical facility is comprised of anti-contamination clothing and protective barrier materials. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. This curtailment is required for several reasons: the number of radioactive waste repositories now accepting new waste is limited; the current cost of burial at an operating dump site is significant. Costs can be as high as $4,000 for a single 55 gallon drum; the cost of burial is constantly increasing; onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste is costly and results in a burial fee at plant decommissioning.

  1. Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility ... for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments ...

  2. Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility ... for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans CONTENTS ...

  3. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  5. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pace, Brenda Ringe; Gilbert, Hollie Kae

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  6. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  7. Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plans | Department of Energy Closure Plans Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans PDF icon Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans More Documents & Publications Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility U.S. Department of

  8. Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses PDF icon Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility More Documents & Publications Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans LFRG Execution Plan

  9. 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Disposition » 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 The purpose of this Report is to assess whether U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) disposal facilities have sufficient volumetric and radiological capacity to accommodate the low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MLLW) that the Department expects to dispose at these facilities. PDF icon 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal

  10. NMHPD Application for Permit to Excavate Human Burials | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMHPD Application for Permit to Excavate Human Burials Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: NMHPD Application for Permit...

  11. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Fall meeting, October 20--22, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.

  12. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  13. Disposal of Low-Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Low-Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site Disposal of Low-Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site PDF icon Disposal of Low-Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site More Documents & Publications Keynote Address: Update on Environmental Management Communication Is Key to Packaging and Transportation Safety and Compliance Status Updates on the Performance and Risk Assessment Community of Practice

  14. Time of Compliance for Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Time of Compliance for Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Time of Compliance for Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Roger Seitz*, Savannah River National Laboratory ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 25 years of experience conducting and overseeing performance assessments (PAs) for low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration

  15. SEAB Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) transmitted a letter to the Department regarding its perspective on how DOE should pursue research on low-level radiation. SEAB recommends...

  16. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

  18. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  19. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, N.M. A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, N.M. On February 17, 2011, DOE issued the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW)

  20. DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal July 20, 2007 - 2:55pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that it will evaluate disposal options for Greater Than Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, medical activities and nuclear research. DOE delivered to

  1. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  2. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  3. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  4. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  5. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  6. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  7. EA-1135: Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to treat contact-handled low-level mixed waste, containing polychlorinated biphenyls and other organics, to meet existing regulatory...

  8. EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State...

  9. EA-1292: On-site Treatment of Low Level Mixed Waste, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to evaluate the proposed treatment of low level mixed waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

  10. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a ...

  11. Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Requirements Christine Gelles*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Edward Regnier, U.S. Department of Energy; Andrew ...

  12. EA-0843: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to (1) reduce the volume of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) generated low-level waste (LLW)...

  13. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and GTCC-Like Waste (Draft EIS, DOEEIS-0375D) for public review and comment. DOE is inviting public...

  14. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  15. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  16. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

  17. EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee | Department of Energy 305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee SUMMARY This EIS evaluates DOE's proposal to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a Transuranic (TRU) Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at

  18. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  19. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  20. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

  1. Low-level waste management program and interim waste operations technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy currently supports an integrated technology development and transfer program aimed at ensuring that the technology necessary for the safe management and disposal of LLW by the commercial and defense sectors is available. The program focuses on five technical areas: (1) corrective measures technology, (2) improved shallow land burial technology, (3) greater confinement disposal technology, (4) model development and validation, and (5) treatment methods for problem wastes. The results of activities in these areas are reported in the open literature and the Proceedings of the LLWMP Annual Participants Information Meeting.

  2. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  3. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-15

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes.

  5. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energys mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  7. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  8. Improvement to low-level radioactive-waste vitrification processes. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W.S.

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive waste vitrification (LLWV) is a technically feasible and cost-competitive alternative to the traditional immobilization options, i.e., cementation or bituminization. This thesis analyzes cementation, bituminization and vitrification, reviews the impact of the low-level Waste-stream composition on the vitrification process, then proposes and discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV). The techniques that control the volatile radionuclides include chemical precipitation, electrodialysis, and ion exchange. Ion exchange is preferred. A comparison of the technical specifications, of the regulatory compliance, and of the cost considerations shows the PILLWV to be the superior LLW immobilization option.

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- EM Low-Level Waste Grant Assistance Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant Assistance Program NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Click to subscribe to NNSS News Low-Level Waste Grant Assistance Program An Emergency Management grant program was instituted in fiscal year 2000 to provide funding for enhancing county emergency response capabilities in communities near the Nevada National Security Site. To fund this grant, approved waste generators are charged an additional $.50 per cubic foot of low-level and mixed-level waste disposed. The

  10. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste | Department of Energy 5: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste Summary This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts associated with the proposed development, operation, and long-term management of a disposal facility or facilities for Greater-Than-Class C

  11. Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Requirements | Department of Energy Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Requirements Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Requirements Christine Gelles*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Edward Regnier, U.S. Department of Energy; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The Atomic Energy Act gives the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), the authority to regulate the management of radioactive waste generated by US DOE. This

  12. Low-level Waste Safely Dispositioned Under Runoff Cover at SRS | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Low-level Waste Safely Dispositioned Under Runoff Cover at SRS Low-level Waste Safely Dispositioned Under Runoff Cover at SRS April 26, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis The liner installer heat-welds a sand anchor closed. The sand anchors are installed under the liner and across the length of the slit trench to keep the liner in place and minimize the effects of wind lift. The liner installer heat-welds a sand anchor closed. The sand anchors are installed under the liner and across the

  13. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste | Department of Energy 5: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste Summary This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts associated with the proposed development, operation, and long-term management of a disposal facility or facilities for Greater-Than-Class C

  14. DESCISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Decision Support System For Management Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal At The Nevada Test Site G. Shott, V. Yucel, L. Desotell Bechtel Nevada P.O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 USA J.T. Carilli U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office P.O. Box 98518, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8518 USA ABSTRACT The long-term safety of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive disposal facilities is assessed by conducting a performance assessment --

  15. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years.

  16. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  17. LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY FEDERAL REVIEW GROUP EXECUTION PLAN

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY FEDERAL REVIEW GROUP EXECUTION PLAN Los Alamos National Laboratory Paducah Idaho National Laboratory Hanford Site Savannah River Site Nevada National Security Site Oak Ridge Portsmouth Revision 0 September 2015 3 Contents Acronyms ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.0 Introduction

  18. 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current and Planned Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Revision 2 December 2000 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management i TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ES-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1 Summary of Report Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  19. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  20. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devgun, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Larson, G.S. [Midwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change.

  1. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  2. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ``unpackaged`` volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste.

  3. Jeff Grounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Grounds Jeff Grounds jeffgrounds-sm.jpg Jeff Grounds Facilities Manager JTGrounds@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-7197 Mobile: (510) 207-2273 Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:07:03

  4. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, B.D.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M.

    1998-12-31

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.

  5. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  6. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  7. Melter technology evaluation for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Burgard, K.C.; Weber, E.T.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-04-01

    The current plan at the Hanford Site, in accordance with the Tri-Party Agreement among Washington State, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Department of Energy, is to convert the low-level tank waste fraction into a silicate glass. The low-level waste will be composed primarily of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts concentrated in a highly alkaline aqueous solution. The capability to process up to 200 metric tons/day off glass will be established to produce an estimated 210,000 m{sup 3} for onsite disposal. A program to test and evaluate high-capacity melter technologies is in progress. Testing performed by seven different industrial sources using Joule heating, combustion, plasma, and carbon arc melters is described.

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  10. Preliminary design requirements document for Project W-378, low-level waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-03-31

    The scope of this preliminary Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to accomplish vitrification and disposal of the pretreated low-level waste (LLW) fraction of the Hanford Site tank waste. This document sets forth function requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP). System and physical interfaces between the LLWVP Project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data to be documented by the project.

  11. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  12. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  13. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW.

  14. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site - Current Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce D. Becker, Bechtel Nevada; Bruce M. Crowe, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carl P. Gertz, DOE Nevada Operations Office; Wendy A. Clayton, DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-01

    The performance objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site transcends those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facility, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  15. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site - Year 2000 Current Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce D. Becker, Bechtel Nevada; Bruce M. Crowe, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carl P. Gertz, DOE Nevada; Wendy A. Clayton, DOE Nevada

    1999-08-06

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy's Low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. The expanded paper will describe the technical attributes of the facilities, the present and the future disposal capacities and capabilities, and includes a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  16. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  17. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-119 Investigations of Possible Low-Level

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island CN Long DJ Holdridge November 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product,

  18. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  19. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

  20. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  1. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from petrochemical industries using low-level solid state sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szinyei, W.J.; Kimbell, C.L. (Tracor Atlas, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    Low level solid state sensors provide an inexpensive alternative to monitoring part per billion levels of pollution over wide areas on a continuous basis. Solid state sensors such as those manufactured by Tracer Atlas for hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are commonly applied in personnel protection applications, to monitor for and warn against high levels of certain toxic gases. Although these devices are not precision analytical instruments, with the proper configuration and electronics they can give reliable indication of the presence at the part per billion level of certain polluting gases. These sensors are sufficiently stable so that a general idea of pollutant level at any given time can be established. The configuration, operation and application of sensors sensitive to hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are discussed in particular. Sensitivity, repeatability, and measurement range is also addressed. In low level applications, solid state sensors would be used as perimeter monitors around plants where there might be low level emissions of a pollutant gas that would need to be monitored on a continuous basis. Connecting a distributed group of sensors to an intelligent data gathering system such as a personal computer can allow spatial distributions in time and time weighted averages of pollutant levels to be calculated and charted.

  2. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  4. H.A.R. 13-300 - Rules of Practice and Procedure Relating to Burial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    300 - Rules of Practice and Procedure Relating to Burial Sites and Human Remains Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  5. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  6. Management of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    Potential mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and management options applicable to these wastes have been evaluated. Both the identification and management evaluation have necessarily been based on review of NRC and EPA regulations and recommendations. The underlying intent of both agencies is protection of man and/or environment, but differences may occur in the means by which intent is achieved. Apparent discrepancies, data gaps and unresolved issues that have surfaced during the course of this work are discussed.

  7. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, G.; Balls, V.; Shea, T.; Thiesen, T.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project.

  8. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RHLLW) Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2010-10-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability.

  9. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  10. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation Nicholas W. Miller, Bruno Leonardi, and Robert D'Aquila GE Energy Management Kara Clark National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-64822 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  11. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tankwaste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-05-03

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission.

  12. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant. Part 1: Thermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Feng, X.; Martin, P.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a candidate material to encapsulate low-level waste (LLW) glass. Molten SPC will be poured into a LLW glass cullet-filled canister, surrounding the glass to act as an additional barrier to groundwater intrusion. This paper covers the first part of a study performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory concerned with the fundamental aspects of embedding LLW glass in SPC. Part one is a study of the SPC itself. Variations in SPC properties are discussed, especially in relation to long-term stability and controlling crystallization in a cooling canister.

  13. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  14. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  15. Identification of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    A literature review and survey were conducted on behalf of the US NRC Division of Waste Management to determine whether any commercial low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) could be considered hazardous as defined by EPA under 40 CFR Part 261. The purpose of the study was to identify broad categories of LLW which may require special management as radioactive mixed waste, and to help address uncertainties regarding the regulation of such wastes. Of 239 questionnaires sent out to reactor and non-reactor LLW generators, there were 91 responses representing 29% by volume of all low-level wastes disposed of at commercial disposal sites in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that three waste streams generic to commercial LLW may be potential radioactive mixed wastes. These are as follows: (1) wastes containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators and representing approx. =2.3% by volume of all wastes reported; (2) wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding and lead containers, representing <0.1% by volume of all wastes reported; and (3) wastes containing chromium, i.e., process wastes from nuclear power plants which use chromates as corrosion inhibitors; these represent 0.6% of the total volume reported in the survey. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Identification of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    A literature review and survey were conducted on behalf of the US NRC Division of Waste Management to determine whether any commercial low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) could be considered hazardous as defined by EPA under 40 CFR Part 261. The purpose of the study was to identify broad categories of LLW which may require special management as radioactive mixed waste, and to help address uncertainties regarding the regulation of such wastes. Of 239 questionnaires sent out to reactor and non-reactor LLW generators, there were 91 responses representing 29% by volume of all low-level wastes disposed of at commercial disposal sites in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that the following waste types generic to commercial LLW may be potential radioactive mixed wastes: Wastes containing oil, disposed of by reactors and industrial facilities, and representing 4.2% of the total LLW volume reported in the survey. Wastes containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators, and representing 2.3% by volume of all wastes reported. Wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding and lead containers, representing <0.1% by volume of all wastes reported. Wastes containing chromium, i.e., process wastes from nuclear power plants which use chromates as corrosion inhibitors; these represent 0.6% of the total volume reported in the survey. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well.

  17. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Iron-phosphate ceramics for solidification of mixed low-level waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Kovarskaya, Elena N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Koltsova, Tatiana I. (St. Petersburg, RU); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID); Medvedev, Pavel G. (Ozersk, RU); Todd, Terry (Aberdeen, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A method of immobilizing mixed low-level waste is provided which uses low cost materials and has a relatively long hardening period. The method includes: forming a mixture of iron oxide powders having ratios, in mass %, of FeO:Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 equal to 25-40:40-10:35-50, or weighing a definite amount of magnetite powder. Metallurgical cinder can also be used as the source of iron oxides. A solution of the orthophosphoric acid, or a solution of the orthophosphoric acid and ferric oxide, is formed and a powder phase of low-level waste and the mixture of iron oxide powders or cinder (or magnetite powder) is also formed. The acid solution is mixed with the powder phase to form a slurry with the ratio of components (mass %) of waste:iron oxide powders or magnetite:acid solution=30-60:15-10:55-30. The slurry is blended to form a homogeneous mixture which is cured at room temperature to form the final product.

  19. RF low-level control for the Linac4 H{sup ?} source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A. Grudiev, A.; Lettry, J.; Paoluzzi, M.; Schmitzer, C.; Nishida, K.

    2015-04-08

    The H{sup ?} source for the Linac4 accelerator at CERN uses an RF driven plasma for the production of H{sup ?}. The RF is supplied by a 2?MHz RF tube amplifier with a maximum power output of 100 kW and a pulse duration of up to 2?ms. The low-level RF signal generation and measurement system has been developed using standard CERN controls electronics in the VME form factor. The RF frequency and amplitude reference signals are generated using separate arbitrary waveform generator channels. The frequency and amplitude are both freely programmable over the duration of the RF pulse, which allows fine-tuning of the excitation. Measurements of the forward and reverse RF power signals are performed via directional couplers using high-speed digitizers, and permit the estimation of the plasma impedance and deposited power via an equivalent circuit model. The low-level RF hardware and software implementations are described, and experimental results obtained with the Linac4 ion sources in the test stand are presented.

  20. Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design.

  1. New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Status Report for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attridge, T.; Rapaport, S.; Yang, Qian

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generation in New York State for calendar year 1992. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority) and on data from the US Department of Energy. The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the seventh year generators have been required to submit reports on their waste to the Energy Authority. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are three sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, radioactivity and other characteristics of waste generated in 1992. Section 2 shows historical LLRW generation over the years and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 3 provides a list of all facilities for which 1992 LLRW reports were received.

  2. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  4. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  5. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest, situated immediately north of the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is comprised of 200 acres for waste disposal and a surrounding buffer zone that extends out to the 100-m point of compliance. Disposal units within the footprint of the low-level waste facilities include the Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Component-in-Grout Trenches, the Low-Activity Waste Vault, the Intermediate-Level Vault, and the Naval Reactor Component Disposal Area. Radiological waste disposal operations at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility began in 1994. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility closure will be conducted in three phases: operational closure, interim closure, and final closure. Operational closure will be conducted during the 25-year operation period (30-year period for Slit and Engineered Trenches) as disposal units are filled; interim closure measures will be taken for some units. Interim closure will take place following the end of operations and will consist of an area-wide runoff cover along with additional grading over the trench units. Final closure of all disposal units in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility will take place at the end of the 100-year institutional control period and will consist of the installation of an integrated closure system designed to minimize moisture contact with the waste and to serve as a deterrent to intruders. Radiological dose to human receptors is analyzed in this PA in the all-pathways analysis, the inadvertent intruder analysis and the air pathway analysis, and the results are compared to the relevant performance measures. For the all-pathways analysis, the performance measure of relevance is a 25-mrem/yr EDE to representative members of the public, excluding dose from radon and its progeny in air. For the inadvertent intruder, the applicable performance measures are 100-mrem/yr EDE and 500 mrem/yr EDE for chronic and exposure scenarios, respectively. The relevant performance measure for the air pathway is 10-mrem/yr EDE via the air pathway, excluding dose from radon and its progeny in air. Protecti

  6. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    `Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts` is a supplement to `LLW Notes` and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  7. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    `Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts` is a supplement to `LLW Notes` and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  8. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  9. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-level Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, Karen Nina; Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  10. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, K.A.; Seitz, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  11. A comparison of solidification media for the stabilization of low- level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-10-01

    When requirements exist to stabilize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) prior to disposal, efforts to achieve this stability often center on the mixing of the waste with a solidification medium. Although historically the medium of choice has been based on the use of portland cement as the binder material, several other options have been developed and subsequently implemented. These include thermoplastic polymers, thermosetting polymers and gypsum. No one medium has thus far been successful in providing stability to all forms of LLW. The characteristics and attributes of these different binder materials are reviewed and compared. The aspects examined include availability of information, limitations to use, sensitivity to process or waste chemistry changes, radionuclide retention ability, modeling of radionuclide release processes, ease and safety of use, and relative costs.

  12. WRAP low level waste restricted waste management (LLW RWM) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leist, K.J.

    1997-11-24

    On April 22, 1997, the Low Level Waste Restricted Waste Management (LLW RWM) glovebox was tested using acceptance test procedure 13027A-87. Mr. Robert L. Warmenhoven served as test director, Mr. Kendrick Leist acted as test operator and test witness, and Michael Lane provided miscellaneous software support. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine glovebox control system interlocks, operator Interface Unit (OIU) menus, alarms, and messages. Basic drum port and lift table control sequences were demonstrated. OIU menus, messages, and alarm sequences were examined, with few exceptions noted. Barcode testing was bypassed, due to the lack of installed equipment as well as the switch from basic reliance on fixed bar code readers to the enhanced use of portable bar code readers. Bar code testing was completed during performance of the LLW RWM OTP. Mechanical and control deficiencies were documented as Test Exceptions during performance of this Acceptance Test. These items are attached as Appendix A to this report.

  13. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  14. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  15. Choosing solidification or vitrification for low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-02-14

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450 000m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes how Fernald is choosing between solidification and vitrification as the primary waste treatment method.

  16. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2014-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  17. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austad, S. L.; Guillen, L. E.; McKnight, C. W.; Ferguson, D. S.

    2015-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK).

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  2. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  3. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  4. Considerations of the effects of high winds on a low-level radioactive interim storage pile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.E. )

    1991-11-01

    On Wednesday, March 27, 1991, the St. Louis area experienced high winds that damaged a synthetic cover of a low-level radioactive waste storage pile at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) in Hazelwood, Missouri. Winds in the St. Louis area at the time of the incident were reported to be 35 mi/h with gusts up to 50 mi/h. Tornado warnings were in effect at the time. The purpose of this summary is to analyze the effects of uplift forces on a synthetic pile cover because of high winds. Consideration is given to anchoring the synthetic cover, type and placement of ballast on the pile, and the type of synthetic membranes best suited to this application. Discussion also includes the emergency procedures used in responding to the incident.

  5. Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-06-28

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

  6. Low-level waste vitrification phase 1 vendor test sample analysis data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, E.S.

    1995-10-04

    A multi-phase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests was performed in vendor test facilities using simulated LLW and was completed during FY-1995. Test samples taken during Phase 1 testing were analyzed by independent laboratories who reported the analyses results to Westinghouse Hanford Company for integration and evaluation. The reported analytical results were integrated into an electronic data base using Microsoft Excel*5.0. This report documents this data base as of the end of FY-1995, and is supplemental to the Phase 1 LLW melter testing summary report, WHC-SD-WM-ER-498, revision 0.

  7. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received.

  8. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  9. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

  10. GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-26

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029).

  11. Contaminant transport in unconfined aquifer, input to low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, A.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-14

    This report describes briefly the Hanford sitewide groundwater model and its application to the Low-Level Tank Waste Disposal (LLTWD) interim Performance Assessment (PA). The Well Intercept Factor (WIF) or dilution factor from a given areal flux entering the aquifer released from the LLTWD site are calculated for base case and various sensitivity cases. In conjunction with the calculation for released fluxes through vadose zone transport,the dose at the compliance point can be obtained by a simple multiplication. The relative dose contribution from the upstream sources was also calculated and presented in the appendix for an equal areal flux at the LLTWD site. The results provide input for management decisions on remediation action needed for reduction of the released fluxes from the upstream facilities to the allowed level to meet the required dose criteria.

  12. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  13. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  14. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references.

  15. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual`s lifetime radiation dose.

  17. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  18. EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates DOE's proposal to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a Transuranic (TRU) Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste.

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Nicholas W.; Leonardi, Bruno; D'Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable generation (e.g., wind and solar) and low synchronous generation (e.g., significant coal power plant decommitment or retirement); and 2) Analyzing both the large-scale stability of the Western Interconnection and regional stability issues driven by more geographically dispersed renewable generation interacting with a transmission grid that evolved with large, central station plants at key nodes. As noted above, the work reported here is an extension of the research performed in WWSIS-3.

  20. Comparison of selected DOE and non-DOE requirements, standards, and practices for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, L.; Kudera, D.; Newberry, W.

    1995-12-01

    This document results from the Secretary of Energy`s response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94--2. The Secretary stated that the US Department of Energy (DOE) would ``address such issues as...the need for additional requirements, standards, and guidance on low-level radioactive waste management. `` The authors gathered information and compared DOE requirements and standards for the safety aspects Of low-level disposal with similar requirements and standards of non-DOE entities.

  1. Evaluate the Effect of Upper-Level Cirrus Clouds on Satellite Retrievals of Low-Level Cloud Droplet Effective Radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Effect of Upper-Level Cirrus Clouds on Satellite Retrievals of Low-Level Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L. Chang and Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction The earth's radiation budget is sensitive to changes in the microphysical properties of low-level stratiform clouds. Their extensive coverage can significantly reduce the solar energy

  2. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  3. Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Miller; D. Shafer; K. Gray; B. Church; S. Campbell; B. Holz

    2005-08-01

    Since 1980, over 651,558 m{sup 3} (23,000,000 ft{sup 3}) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been disposed of at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by shallow land burial. Since 1988, the majority of this waste has been generated at other United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DoD) sites and facilities in the U.S. Between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and the publication date, the volumes of LLW being shipped by truck to the NTS increased sharply with the accelerated closure of DOE Environmental Management (EM) Program sites (DOE, 2002). The NTS is located 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in the U.S. There continue to be public concerns over the safety of LLW shipments to the NTS. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) the risk of accidents involving trucks traveling on public highways; and (2) whether residents along transportation routes receive cumulative exposure from individual LLW shipments that pose a long-term health risk. The DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is a perceived risk from members of the public about cumulative exposure, particularly when ''Main Street'' and the routes being used by LLW trucks are one in the same. To provide an objective assessment of gamma radiation exposure to members of the public from LLW transport by truck, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) established a stationary and automated array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) in a vehicle pullout for LLW trucks to pass through just outside the entrance to the NTS. The PICs were positioned at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height of 1.5 m (5.0 ft) to simulate conditions that a member of the public (Turner, 1995) might experience if a truck were to pass while the person was on the side of the road, or if a truck were to come to a stop at a stoplight in one of the smaller towns along the transportation routes. The 1.0-m (3.3-ft) distance also allowed for comparison with gamma readings of trucks taken with portable, hand-held instruments at the two LLW disposal sites at the NTS: the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The purpose in automating the system was to provide the most objective and consistent measurement and calculation of radiation exposure from the trucks possible. The array was set up in November 2002 and equipment was tested and calibrated over the next two months. Data collection on trucks began on February 13, 2003, and continued to the end of December 2003. In all, external gamma readings were collected from 1,012 of the 2,260 trucks that delivered LLW to the NTS during this period. Because DOE could not contractually require waste generators to participate in the study, the database is biased toward voluntary participants; however, data were collected from the 10 generators that represented 92 percent of the LLW shipments to the NTS during the study period, with another eight generators accounting for the balance of the shipments. Because of the voluntary nature of the participation, the identity of the waste generators is not used in the report. Previous studies on potential exposure to the public from transporting LLW to the NTS either relied on calculated exposures (Davis et al., 2002) or was based on a small population of trucks (e.g., 88) where a relatively high-background value of 50 microRoentgens per hour (R/h) (background value measured at the LLW disposal sites) were subtracted from the gross reading of the truck trailer as measured by portable, handheld instruments (Gertz, 2001). The dataset that resulted from the DRI study is the largest collection of measurements of LLW trucks in transit of which the authors are aware.

  4. Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J; Shafer, D; Gray, K; Church, B; Campbell, S; Holtz, B.

    2005-08-15

    Since 1980, over 651,558 m{sup 3} (23,000,000 ft{sup 3}) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been disposed of at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by shallow land burial. Since 1988, the majority of this waste has been generated at other United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DoD) sites and facilities in the U.S. Between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and the publication date, the volumes of LLW being shipped by truck to the NTS increased sharply with the accelerated closure of DOE Environmental Management (EM) Program sites (DOE, 2002). The NTS is located 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in the U.S. There continue to be public concerns over the safety of LLW shipments to the NTS. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) the risk of accidents involving trucks traveling on public highways; and (2) whether residents along transportation routes receive cumulative exposure from individual LLW shipments that pose a long-term health risk. The DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is a perceived risk from members of the public about cumulative exposure, particularly when ''Main Street'' and the routes being used by LLW trucks are one in the same. To provide an objective assessment of gamma radiation exposure to members of the public from LLW transport by truck, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) established a stationary and automated array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) in a vehicle pullout for LLW trucks to pass through just outside the entrance to the NTS. The PICs were positioned at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height of 1.5 m (5.0 ft) to simulate conditions that a member of the public (Turner, 1995) might experience if a truck were to pass while the person was on the side of the road, or if a truck were to come to a stop at a stoplight in one of the smaller towns along the transportation routes. The 1.0-m (3.3-ft) distance also allowed for comparison with gamma readings of trucks taken with portable, hand-held instruments at the two LLW disposal sites at the NTS: the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The purpose in automating the system was to provide the most objective and consistent measurement and calculation of radiation exposure from the trucks possible. The array was set up in November 2002 and equipment was tested and calibrated over the next two months. Data collection on trucks began on February 13, 2003, and continued to the end of December 2003. In all, external gamma readings were collected from 1,012 of the 2,260 trucks that delivered LLW to the NTS during this period. Because DOE could not contractually require waste generators to participate in the study, the database is biased toward voluntary participants; however, data were collected from the 10 generators that represented 92 percent of the LLW shipments to the NTS during the study period, with another eight generators accounting for the balance of the shipments. Because of the voluntary nature of the participation, the identity of the waste generators is not used in the report. Previous studies on potential exposure to the public from transporting LLW to the NTS either relied on calculated exposures (Davis et al., 2002) or was based on a small population of trucks (e.g., 88) where a relatively high-background value of 50 microRoentgens per hour ({micro}R/h) (background value measured at the LLW disposal sites) were subtracted from the gross reading of the truck trailer as measured by portable, handheld instruments (Gertz, 2001). The dataset that resulted from the DRI study is the largest collection of measurements of LLW trucks in transit of which the authors are aware.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site -- Current status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, B.D.; Crowe, B.M.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.

    1999-04-01

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy`s Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the US. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 800 feet above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity wastes, classified materials, and high-specific-activity special case wastes. Twenty miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS`s since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  6. Siting process for disposal site of low level radiactive waste in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Thiengtrongjit, S.; Sriyotha, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste in Thailand is composed of low level waste from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. In addition, the high activity of sealed radiation sources i.e. Cs-137 Co-60 and Ra-226 are also accumulated. Since the volume of treated waste has been gradually increased, the general needs for a repository become apparent. The near surface disposal method has been chosen for this aspect. The feasibility study on the underground disposal site has been done since 1982. The site selection criteria have been established, consisting of the rejection criteria, the technical performance criteria and the economic criteria. About 50 locations have been picked for consideration and 5 candidate sites have been selected and subsequent investigated. After thoroughly investigation, a definite location in Ratchburi Province, about 180 kilometers southwest of Bangkok, has been selected as the most suitable place for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Thailand.

  7. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  8. Equity of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal fees. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    In the Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 1997 Senate Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, the Senate Appropriations Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a study of the costs of operating a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility such as the one at Barnwell, South Carolina, and to determine whether LLW generators are paying equitable disposal fees. The disposal costs of four facilities are reviewed in this report, two operating facilities and two planned facilities. The operating facilities are located at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Richland, Washington. They are operated by Chem-Nuclear, LLC, (Chem-Nuclear), and US Ecology, Inc., (US Ecology), respectively. The planned facilities are expected to be built at Ward Valley, California, and Sierra Blanca, Texas. They will be operated by US Ecology and the State of Texas, respectively. This report found that disposal fees vary significantly among facilities for a variety of reasons. However, the information suggests that at each disposal facility, LLW generators pay equitable disposal fees.

  9. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-12-31

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  11. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  12. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Leaching mechanisms of solidified low-level waste. The literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-06-01

    A literature survey on leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching from solidified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was compiled. Physicochemical mechanisms identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. Diffusion was generally considered to be the predominant mechanism in LLW leachability. However, this hierarchy of importance has been strongly questioned for waste forms containing soluble salts and has been shown to be invalid for waste forms incorporating sorbents which control the release of radionuclides by ion exchange. Leaching behavior was modeled both mathematically for curve fitting to leaching data and by consideration of physical and chemical interactions within and between solidification agents, waste materials and additives, if any. Physicochemical analyses of bitumen and polymer solidification agents have considered them to be inert encapsulants with limited water permeability. All of the mathematical models are derived from solutions to the diffusion equation. Other mechanistic processes are included as additional terms in the equation. No comprehensive evaluations of mathematical models for LLW based on curve fitting to data were found in the literature. Factors that affect leaching have been categorized as system factors, leachant factors and waste form factors. System factors include temperature, pressure, radiation, time and the ratio of waste form area to leachant volume. Leachant factors include pH, Eh, flow or replacement frequency and composition while waste form factors include composition, surface condition, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. Information from the literature is reported for each of these factors. 75 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  15. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  16. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation`s landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  18. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  19. Commissioning of the LHC Low Level RF System Remote Configuration Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Mastorides, Themis; Rivetta, Claudio; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Butterworth, Andrew; Molendijk, John; /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The LHC Low Level RF system (LLRF) is a complex multi-loop system used to regulate the superconductive cavity gap voltage as well as to reduce the impedance presented by RF stations to the beam. The RF system can have a profound impact on the stability of the beam; a mis-configured RF system has the potential of causing longitudinal instabilities, beam diffusion and beam loss. To configure the RF station for operation, a set of parameters in the LLRF multi-loop system have to be defined. Initial system commissioning as well as ongoing operation requires a consistent method of computer based remote measurement and model-based design of each RF station feedback system. This paper describes the suite of Matlab tools used for configuring the LHC RF system during the start up in Nov2009-Feb2010. We present a brief overview of the tool, examples of commissioning results, and basics of the model-based design algorithms. This work complements our previous presentation, where the algorithms and methodology followed in the tools were described.

  20. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy`s mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department`s MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW.

  1. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  2. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tank waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection and recommendations for Phase 2 testing completed. This paper describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing program and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  3. Vitrification of low-level radioactive waste in a slagging combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, M.J.; Downs, W.; Higley, B.A. [and others

    1995-07-01

    The suitability of a Babcock & Wilcox cyclone furnace to vitrify a low-level radioactive liquid waste was evaluated. The feed stream contained a mixture of simulated radioactive liquid waste and glass formers. The U.S. Department of Energy is testing technologies to vitrify over 60,000,000 gallons of this waste at the Hanford site. The tests reported here demonstrated the technical feasibility of Babcock & Wilcox`s cyclone vitrification technology to produce a glass for near surface disposal. Glass was produced over a period of 24-hours at a rate of 100 to 150 lb/hr. Based on glass analyses performed by an independent laboratory, all of the glass samples had leachabilities at least as low as those of the laboratory glass that the recipe was based upon. This paper presents the results of this demonstration, and includes descriptions of feed preparation, glass properties, system operation, and flue gas composition. The paper also provides discussions on key technical issues required to match cyclone furnace vitrification technology to this U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site application.

  4. Preliminary PCT data on glass formulations developed for Hanford Site low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Schweiger, M.J.; Hrma, P.R.; Palmer, S.E.; Smith, D.E.; Kim, D.; Gong, M.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site are to be separated into high-level and low-level waste (LLW) fractions and vitrified for disposal. The high content of Na{sub 2}O in the LLW, averaging about 80 wt% on an oxide basis, necessitates the development of durable high-sodium glasses. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing glass formulations for the LLW vitrification program. The most important considerations for acceptable LLW waste glass compositions are the following: (1) the capability to incorporate high sodium content from LLW; (2) satisfactory long-term durability; and (3) proper processability, such as desired viscosity at melting temperature. To develop durable high-sodium glasses in a reasonably short time and to supply data needed for modeling the glass`s long-term performance, several short-term test methods, such as 7-day PCT (Product Consistency Test), 28-day Materials Characterization Center MCC-1 test, single-pass flow through test, and vapor-hydration test have been used. A long-term static test (up to one year using PCT) is also being performed for selected glasses. This data report includes only the PCT data available at the time of the publication.

  5. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  6. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-04-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  7. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

    1999-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  8. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  9. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-09-01

    As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  11. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-05-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  12. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-10-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  13. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  14. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  15. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-05-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  18. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  19. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  20. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-03-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

  1. DOE`s planning process for mixed low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1995-03-01

    A disposal planning process was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) Disposal Workgroup. The process, jointly developed with the States, includes three steps: site-screening, site-evaluation, and configuration study. As a result of the screening process, 28 sites have been eliminated from further consideration for MLLW disposal and 4 sites have been assigned a lower priority for evaluation. Currently 16 sites are being evaluated by the DOE for their potential strengths and weaknesses as MLLW disposal sites. The results of the evaluation will provide a general idea of the technical capability of the 16 disposal sites; the results can also be used to identify which treated MLLW streams can be disposed on-site and which should be disposed of off-site. The information will then serve as the basis for a disposal configuration study, which includes analysis of both technical as well as non-technical issues, that will lead to the ultimate decision on MLLW disposal site locations.

  2. NMAC 4.10.11 - Permits to Excavate Unmarked Human Burials | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Permits to Excavate Unmarked Human Burials Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 4.10.11 - Permits to...

  3. MCA 22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 22-3-801 -...

  4. NMAC 4.10.11 Issuance of Permits to Excavate Unmarked Human Burials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Issuance of Permits to Excavate Unmarked Human Burials in the State of New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  5. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  6. Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

  7. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  8. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow and load scenarios. (authors)

  9. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

  10. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratorys recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energys ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  11. Analysis of the Three Mile Island submerged demineralizer system vessel burial data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Amir, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) was used during the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor cleanup to remove cesium and strontium from contaminated water. The SDS vessels are 2-ft-in diameter and 4-ft tall stainless steel cylinders containing up to 60 kCi of radioactive cesium and strontium loaded on damp zeolite. The water in the damp zeolite absorbs some of the ionizing radiation and decomposes to hydrogen and oxygen by a process called radiolysis. Gas generation rates approaching 1 L/h (Quinn et al. 1984) have been calculated and measured for some of these loaded vessels. Each of the SDS vessels contains a catalyst bed to recombine the available hydrogen and oxygen back to water. Tests have proven this hydrogen control method to be highly effective, even under very wet (but unsubmerged) conditions. Nineteen SDS vessels, packaged one at a time in a shielded and licensed shipping cask, were shipped to Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Collectively, these vessels contain approximately 7,500 kCi of radioactive material. Sixteen vessels were transloaded into concrete overpacks and buried at the Hanford Site. The contents of the other three vessels were vitrified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Subsequent to placement of the SDS vessels in the burial grounds, DOE Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988) was issued in September 1988. This order requires wastes to be evaluated against 10 CFR 61.55 for radioactivity above greater-than-class C(GTCC) limits. Fourteen of the sixteen vessels buried at the Hanford Site have been determined to be GTCC waste. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results are insensitive to TRU waste-related parameters. Limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench can meet DOE performance objectives for disposal of TRU waste and contribute negligibly to disposal site risk. Leaving limited quantities of buried TRU waste in-place may be preferred over retrieval for disposal in a deep geologic repository.

  13. Catalog of documents produced by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This catalog provides a ready reference for documents prepared by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) Management Program. The GTCC LLW Management Program is part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The NLLWMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is responsible for assisting the DOE in meeting its obligations under Public Law 99-240, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. This law assigns DOE the responsibility of ensuring the safe disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NLLWMP is managed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  14. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  15. Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Research, Hospitals and Nuclear Medical Centers in Egypt - 13469

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in medical diagnosis and therapy is an important issue. Physicians can use radioisotopes to diagnose and treat diseases. Methods of treatment, conditioning and management of low level radioactive wastes from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in hospitals and nuclear medicine application, are described. Solid Radioactive waste with low-level activity after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a compactor according to the international standards. Conditioned drums are transported to the interim storage site at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) represented in Hot Labs and Waste Management Center (HLWMC) for storage and monitoring. (authors)

  16. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts.

  17. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  19. Low Level Radioactive Wastes Conditioning during Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramenkova, G.; Klavins, M.; Abramenkovs, A.

    2008-01-15

    The decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor is connected with the treatment of 2200 tons different materials. The largest part of all materials ({approx}60 % of all dismantled materials) is connected with low level radioactive wastes conditioning activities. Dismantled radioactive materials were cemented in concrete containers using water-cement mortar. According to elaborated technology, the tritiated water (150 tons of liquid wastes from special canalization tanks) was used for preparation of water-cement mortar. Such approach excludes the emissions of tritiated water into environment and increases the efficiency of radioactive wastes management system for decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor. The Environmental Impact Assessment studies for Salaspils research reactor decommissioning (2004) and for upgrade of repository 'Radons' for decommissioning purposes (2005) induced the investigations of radionuclides release parameters from cemented radioactive waste packages. These data were necessary for implementation of quality assurance demands during conditioning of radioactive wastes and for safety assessment modeling for institutional control period during 300 years. Experimental studies indicated, that during solidification of water- cement samples proceeds the increase of temperature up to 81 deg. C. It is unpleasant phenomena since it can result in damage of concrete container due to expansion differences for mortar and concrete walls. Another unpleasant factor is connected with the formation of bubbles and cavities in the mortar structure which can reduce the mechanical stability of samples and increase the release of radionuclides from solidified cement matrix. The several additives, fly ash and PENETRON were used for decrease of solidification temperature. It was found, that addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar can reduce the solidification temperature up to 62 deg. C. Addition of PENETRON results in increasing of solidification temperature up to 83 deg. C. Experimental data shows, that water/cement ratio significantly influences on water-cement mortar's viscosity and solidified samples mechanical stability. Increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases water-cement mortar's viscosity from 1100 mPas up to 90 mPas. Significant reduction of viscosity is an important factor, which facilitates the fulfillment all gaps and cavities with the mortar during conditioning of solid radioactive wastes in containers. On the other hand, increase water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases mechanical stability of water-cement samples from 23 N/mm{sup 2} to the 12 N/mm{sup 2}. It means that water-cement bulk stability significantly decreases with increasing of water content. Technologically is important to increase the tritiated water content in container with cemented radioactive wastes. It gives a possibility to increase the fulfillment of container with radioactive materials. On the other hand, additional water significantly reduces bulk stability of containers with cemented radioactive wastes, which can result in disintegration of radioactive wastes packages in repository during 300 years. Taking into account the experimental results, it is not recommended to exceed the water/cement ratio more than 0.60. Tritium and Cs{sup 137} leakage tests show, that radionuclides release curves has a complicate structure. Experimental results indicated that addition of fly ash result in facilitation of tritium and cesium release in water phase. This is unpleasant factor, which significantly decreases the safety of disposed radioactive wastes. Despite the positive impact on solidification temperature drop, the addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar is not recommended in case of cementation of radionuclides in concrete containers. In conclusion: The cementation processes of solid radioactive wastes in concrete containers were investigated. The influence of additives on cementation processes was studied. It was shown, that the increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases water-cement mortar

  20. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE and commercial disposal options exist for contact-handled LLW; however, offsite disposal options are either not currently available (i.e., commercial disposal facilities), practical, or cost-effective for all remote-handled LLW streams generated at INL. Offsite disposal of all INL and tenant-generated remote-handled waste is further complicated by issues associated with transporting highly radioactive waste in commerce; and infrastructure and processing changes at the generating facilities, specifically NRF, that would be required to support offsite disposal. The INL Remote-Handled LLW Disposal Project will develop a new remote handled LLW disposal facility to meet mission-critical, remote-handled LLW disposal needs. A formal DOE decision to proceed with the project has been made in accordance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (42 USC§ 4321 et seq.). Remote-handled LLW is generated from nuclear programs conducted at INL, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at NRF and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled LLW also will be generated by new INL programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex.

  1. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  2. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  3. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Statements of work for FY 1996 to 2001 for the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, F.M.

    1995-06-07

    The statements of work for each activity and task of the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment project are given for the fiscal years 1996 through 2001. The end product of this program is approval of a final performance assessment by the Department of Energy in the year 2000.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  6. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  7. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air-filled pores of cementitious materials. The ARM also combines the individual transport models constructed for each E-Area disposal facility into a single model, and was ultimately used to analyze the LFRG concern regarding the potential for atmospheric plume overlap at the SRS boundary during the IC period. To evaluate the plume overlap issue, a conservative approach was adopted whereby the MEI at the SRS boundary was exposed to the releases from all E-Area disposal facilities simultaneously. This is equivalent to a 100% overlap of all atmospheric plumes emanating from E-Area. Should the dose received from this level of atmospheric plume overlap still fall below the permissible exposure level of 10 mrem/yr, then the LFRG concern would be alleviated. The structuring of the ARM enables this evaluation to be easily performed. During the IC period, the peak of the 'total plume overlap dose' was computed to be 1.9E-05 mrem/yr, which is five orders of magnitude lower than the 10 mrem/yr PA performance objective for the atmospheric release pathway. The main conclusion of this study is that for atmospheric releases from the E-Area disposal facilities, plume overlap does not cause the total dose to the MEI at the SRS boundary during the IC to exceed the Performance Assessment (PA) performance objective. Additionally, the potential for plume overlap was assessed in the post-Institutional Control period. Atmospheric plume overlap is less likely to occur during this period but conceivably could occur if the prevailing wind direction shifted so as to pass directly over all EArea disposal facilities and transport airborne radionuclides to the MEI at the 100 m point of compliance (POC). This concern was also demonstrated of little concern, as the maximum plume overlap dose was found to be 1.45E+00 mrem/yr (or {approx}15% of the performance measure) during this period and under these unlikely conditions.

  8. Grounding and shielding in the accelerator environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, Q.

    1991-12-31

    Everyday features of the accelerator environment include long cable runs, high power and low level equipment sharing building space, stray electromagnetic fields and ground voltage differences between the sending and receiving ends of an installation. This paper pictures some Fermilab installations chosen to highlight significant features and presents practices, test methods and equipment that have been helpful in achieving successful shielding. Throughout the report are numbered statements aimed at summarizing good practices and avoiding pitfalls.

  9. CONTAINMENT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AT THE DOE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.; Flach, G.

    2012-03-29

    As facilities look for permanent storage of toxic materials, they are forced to address the long-term impacts to the environment as well as any individuals living in affected area. As these materials are stored underground, modeling of the contaminant transport through the ground is an essential part of the evaluation. The contaminant transport model must address the long-term degradation of the containment system as well as any movement of the contaminant through the soil and into the groundwater. In order for disposal facilities to meet their performance objectives, engineered and natural barriers are relied upon. Engineered barriers include things like the design of the disposal unit, while natural barriers include things like the depth of soil between the disposal unit and the water table. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is an example of a waste disposal unit that must be evaluated over a timeframe of thousands of years. The engineered and natural barriers for the SDF allow it to meet its performance objective over the long time frame. Some waste disposal facilities are required to meet certain standards to ensure public safety. These type of facilities require an engineered containment system to ensure that these requirements are met. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an example of this type of facility. The facility is evaluated based on a groundwater pathway analysis which considers long-term changes to material properties due to physical and chemical degradation processes. The facility is able to meet these performance objectives due to the multiple engineered and natural barriers to contaminant migration.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  11. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  12. file://L:\DOE-hanford.gov\public\boards\hab\advice\advice103.ht

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keith Klein, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations P.O. Box 550 (A7-50) Richland, WA 99352 Subject: Characterization of Burial Grounds and Importation of Waste Dear Messrs. Clarke, Fitzsimmons, and Klein: Historical records, process knowledge and documentation of burial, as late as 1995, indicate that the Hanford Site's low-level waste burial grounds contain mixed low-level waste, which contain "hazardous" or "dangerous" waste. If the burial grounds do

  13. EIS-0110: Central Waste Disposal Facility for Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS assessed the environmental impacts of alternatives for the disposal of low-level waste and by-product materials generated by the three major plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). In addition to the no-action alternative, two classes of alternatives were evaluated: facility design alternatives and siting alternatives. This project was cancelled after the Draft Environmental Impact Statement was issued.

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Appendix A, Environmental and regulatory planning and documentation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental & Regulatory Planning & Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL`s waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  15. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

  16. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the DOE low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240, requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to manage an escrow account creatd by collection of 25% of the non-penalty surcharge fees paid by the generators in non-sited regions and nonmember states to sited states for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. For the milestone period ending June 30, 1986, a total of $921,807.84, representing surcharge fees collected and interest earned, was in escrow during 1986 for rebate to the nonmember states, non-sited compact regions, and sited states. As of December 31, 1986, $802,194.54 had been rebated from the Escrow Account with an additional $118,517.62 scheduled for rebate in early 1987. The remaining rebate to be disbursed under this milestone is $1,095.68 for the state of Delaware. At the request of the state of Delaware, this rebate amount is being held in the Escrow Account until the state provides specific instructions for its disbursement. Individual rebate expenditure reports were submitted to DOE by all the non-sited compact regions and nonmember states that received rebates in 1986. Only $14.00 of these rebates were expended in 1986. DOE reviewed all of these reports and concluded that the single expenditure complies with the expenditure limitations stated in the Act.

  17. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford low-level waste melter tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC Subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The report contains description of the tests, observation, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. Testing consisted of melter feed preparation and three melter tests, the first of which was to fulfill the requirements of the statement of work (WHC-SD-EM-RD-044), and the second and third were to address issues identified during the first test. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas report issued as a separate document U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Melter Offgas Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-032).

  18. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

  19. U.S. Bureau of Mines, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-27

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The document contains the complete offgas report for the first 24-hour melter test (WHC-1) as prepared by Entropy Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the``U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-WM-VI-030).

  20. Potential co-disposal of greater-than-class C low-level radioactive waste with Department of Energy special case waste - greater-than-class C low-level waste management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allred, W.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates the feasibility of co-disposing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) special case waste (SCW). This document: (1) Discusses and evaluates key issues concerning co-disposal of GTCC LLW with SCW. This includes examining these issues in terms of regulatory concerns, technical feasibility, and economics; (2) Examines advantages and disadvantages of such co-disposal; and (3) Makes recommendations. Research and analysis of the issues presented in this report indicate that it would be technically and economically feasible to co-dispose of GTCC LLW with DOE SCW. However, a dilemma will likely arise in the current division of regulatory responsibilities between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and DOE (i.e., current requirement for disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). DOE SCW is currently not subject to this licensing requirement.

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  2. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  3. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  4. Evaluation of melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1994-03-21

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased demonstration testing and evaluation of candidate melter system technologies for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank wastes. The testing is to be performed by melter equipment and vitrification technology commercial suppliers. This Statement of Work is for Phases 1 and 2 of the demonstration testing program. The primary objective of the demonstration testing is to identify the best available melter system technology for the Hanford Site LLW vitrification facility. Data obtained also will support various WHC engineering studies and conceptual design of the LLW vitrification facility. Multiple technologies will be selected for demonstration and evaluation. Testing will be conducted using non-radioactive LLW simulants in Seller-specified pilot/testing facilities.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  6. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  7. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  8. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION SINCE 2008 PA ON CURRENT LOW-LEVEL SOLID WASTE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: ? New K{sub d} values for iodine, radium and uranium ? Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors ? Updated radionuclide data ? Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides ? Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025 ? Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0 of this UDQE has rendered the projected final SOF for SLIT9 less than the WITS Admin Limit. With respect to future disposal unit operations in the East Slit Trench Group, consideration of new information for Slit Trench#14 (SLIT14) reduced the current SOF for the limiting All-Pathways 200-1000 year period (AP2) by an order of magnitude and by one quarter for the Beta-Gamma 12-100 year period (BG2) pathway. On the balance, updates to K{sub d} values and dose factors and elimination of CDP factors (generally favorable) more than compensated for the detrimental impact of a more rigorous treatment of plume dispersion. These observations suggest that future operations in the East Slit Trench Group can be conducted with higher confidence using current inventory limits, and that limits could be increased if desired for future low-level waste disposal units. The same general conclusion applies to future STs in the West Slit Trench Group based on the Impacted Final SOFs for existing STs in that area.

  9. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-09-21

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management.

  10. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report is submitted in response to Title 1 of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, (the Act). The report summarizes expenditures made by compact regions and unaffiliated states during calendar year 1995 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones, and the January 1, 1993, deadline. Section 5(d)(2)(A) of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a surcharge escrow account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compact regions (compact regions currently without disposal sites) and nonmember states (states without disposal sites that are not members of compact regions) to the three sited states (states with operating disposal facilities--Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) for the use of facilities in sited states through the end of 1992. In administering the surcharge escrow account, the Act requires DOE to: (1) Invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities with the highest available yield; (2) Determine eligibility for rebates of the funds by evaluating compact region and state progress toward developing new disposal sites against the milestone requirements set forth in the Act; (3) Disburse the collected rebates and accrued interest to eligible compact regions, states, or generators; (4) Assess compliance of rebate expenditures in accordance with the conditions and limitations prescribed in the Act; and (5) Submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by state and compact region and assessing the compliance of each such state or compact region with the requirement for expenditure of the rebates as provided in section 5(d)(2)(E) of the Act.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

  12. Recent progress in siting low-level waste disposal facilities in the Southwestern Compact and the Central Interstate Compact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeOld, J.H.; Shaffner, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    US Ecology is the private contractor selected to develop and operate low-level waste disposal facilities in the Southwestern and the Central Interstate Compacts. These initiatives have been proceeding for almost a decade in somewhat different regulatory and political climates. This paper chronicles recent events in both projects. In both cases there is reason for continued optimism that low-level waste facilities to serve the needs of waste generators in these two compacts will soon be a reality. When the California Department of Health Services issued a license for the proposed Ward Valley LLRW disposal facility on September 16, 1993, it represented a significant step in implementation of a new generation of regional LLRW disposal facilities. While limited scope land transfer hearings were on the horizon, project beneficiaries were confident that the disposal site would be operational by 1995. Since then, however, political initiatives championed by Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA) have clouded the federal land transfer process and left the commencement date of operations indeterminant. Since 1993, the biomedical community, waste generators most affected by delays, have been petitioning the current administration to emphasize the need for a timely solution. These efforts are aimed at Clinton administration officials responsible for current delays, who apparently have not recognized the importance of the Ward Valley facility to California`s economy, nor the national ramifications of their delaying actions. The current status of challenges to the Ward Valley license and California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) documentation is also provided. The presentation also discusses the recently completed National Academy of Science evaluation of reports critical of the Ward Valley development process.

  13. EA-1405: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    05: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1405: Final Environmental Assessment Transuranic Waste Retrieval from the 218-W-4B and 218-W-4C Low-Level Burial Grounds, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) needs to improve management of post-1970, contact-handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers (primarily drums) that are stacked in modules and covered with soil in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). PDF icon Environmental

  14. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 Annual Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.

  15. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose during the 1) institutional control period (0-100 years), compliance period (0-1000 years) and post-compliance period (>1000 years). Evaluation of the all pathway dose included the dose from ingestion and irrigation of contaminated groundwater extracted from a well 100 meters downgradient, in addition to the dose received from direct contact of radionuclides deposited near the surface resulting from facility overflow. Depending on the disposal facility radionuclide inventory, facility design, cover performance, and the location and environment where the facility is situated, the dose from exposure via direct contact of near surface deposited radionuclides can be much greater than the dose received via transport to the groundwater and subsequent ingestion.

  16. EA-1061: The Off-site Volume Reduction of Low-level Radioactive Waste From the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes generated at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site located...

  17. EA-1793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled Low-level Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of replacement capability for disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017.

  18. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  19. Analysis of the suitability of DOE facilities for treatment of commercial low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    This report evaluates the capabilities of the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) existing and proposed facilities to treat 52 commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed (LLMW) waste streams that were previously identified as being difficult-to-treat using commercial treatment capabilities. The evaluation was performed by comparing the waste matrix and hazardous waste codes for the commercial LLMW streams with the waste acceptance criteria of the treatment facilities, as identified in the following DOE databases: Mixed Waste Inventory Report, Site Treatment Plan, and Waste Stream and Technology Data System. DOE facility personnel also reviewed the list of 52 commercially generated LLMW streams and provided their opinion on whether the wastes were technically acceptable at their facilities, setting aside possible administrative barriers. The evaluation tentatively concludes that the DOE is likely to have at least one treatment facility (either existing or planned) that is technically compatible for most of these difficult-to-treat commercially generated LLMW streams. This conclusion is tempered, however, by the limited amount of data available on the commercially generated LLMW streams, by the preliminary stage of planning for some of the proposed DOE treatment facilities, and by the need to comply with environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act.

  20. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  1. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. I. Evolution and Effects on Local Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pinto, James O.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Shaw, William J.; Orr, Brad W.

    2004-10-01

    A Doppler lidar deployed to the center of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) basin during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) in October 2000 found a diurnal cycle of the along-basin winds with northerly, up-basin flow during the day and a southerly, down-basin low-level jet at night. The emphasis of VTMX was on stable atmospheric processes in the cold-air pool that formed in the basin at night. During the night the jet was fully formed as it entered the GSL basin from the south. Thus it was a feature of the complex string of basins draining into the Great Salt Lake, which included at least the Utah Lake basin to the south. The timing of the evening reversal to down-basin flow was sensitive to the larger-scale north-south pressure gradient imposed on the basin complex. On nights when the pressure gradient was not too strong, local drainage flow (slope flows and canyon outflow) was well developed along the Wasatch Range to the east and coexisted with the basin jet. The coexistence of these two types of flow generated localized regions of convergence and divergence, in which regions of vertical motions and transport were focused. Mesoscale numerical simulations captured these features and indicated that updrafts on the order of 5 cm/s could persist in these localized convergence zones, contributing to vertical displacement of air masses within the basin cold pool.

  2. Low-Level Waste Regulation: Putting Principles Into Practice - 13297 - The Richard S. Hodes, M.D., Honor Lecture Award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, James E.

    2013-07-01

    In carrying out its mission to ensure the safe use of radioactive materials for beneficial civilian purposes while protecting people and the environment, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) adheres to its Principles of Good Regulation. The Principles-Independence, Openness, Efficiency, Clarity, and Reliability-apply to the agency as a whole in its decision-making and to the individual conduct of NRC employees. This paper describes the application of the Principles in a real-life staff activity, a guidance document used in the NRC's low-level radioactive waste (LLW) program, the Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation Branch Technical Position (CA BTP). The staff's process to revise the document, as well as the final content of the document, were influenced by following the Principles. For example, consistent with the Openness Principle, the staff conducted a number of outreach activities and received many comments on three drafts of the document. Stakeholder comments affected the final staff positions in some cases. The revised CA BTP, once implemented, is expected to improve management and disposal of LLW in the United States. Its positions have an improved nexus to health and safety; are more performance-based than previously, thus providing licensees with options for how they achieve the required outcome of protecting an inadvertent human intruder into a disposal facility; and provide for disposal of more sealed radioactive sources, which are a potential threat to national security. (author)

  3. Vendor glass durability study during evaluation of melter system technologies for vitrification of Hanford low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Kim, D.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The low level radioactive wastes (LLW) separated from the single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site will be immobilized into glass. A melter system technology testing, and evaluation program is being conducted to identify the demonstration, best overall melter system technology available to vitrify the Hanford LLW streams. The melter technologies being demonstrated use a variety of heating methods to melt the glass, including plasma torch, fossil-fuel-fired cyclone burner, carbon arc and joule-heating. The Phase I testing is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system technology can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content LLW feed and produce a glass product of consistent quality. Target waste oxide loading of LLW simulant was specified to be about 25 wt%. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing glass formulation support for this program. The five candidate vendor glasses at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O level provided by PNL are alumino-borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with melting points around 1300{degrees}. Glasses adopted by vendors were tested at PNL to verify the required properties. The testing included durability evaluation through product consistency test, MCC-1 tests, and flow through tests and viscosity measurements.

  4. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  5. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  7. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratorys proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energys Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dams capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for their erosion potential, ability to overflow the proposed disposal facility, and for their ability to increase migration of contaminants from the facility. The assessment of available literature suggests that the likelihood of detrimental flood water impacting the proposed RH-LLW facility is extremely low. The annual exceedance probability associated with uncontrolled flows in the Big Lost River impacting either of the proposed sites is 1x10-5, with return interval (RI) of 10,000yrs. The most probable dam failure scenario has an annual exceedance probability of 6.3x10-6 (1.6x105 yr RI). In any of the scenarios generating possible on-site water, the duration is expected to be quite short, water depths are not expected to exceed 0.5 m, and the erosion potential can easily be mitigated by emplacement of a berm (operational period), and an engineered cover (post closure period). Subsurface mobilization of radionuclides was evaluated for a very conservative flooding scenario resulting in 50 cm deep, 30.5 day on-site water. The annual exceedance probability for which is much smaller than 3.6x10-7 (2.8x106 yr RI). For the purposes of illustration, the facility was assumed to flood every 500 years. The periodically recurring flood waters were predicted to marginally increase peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer by at most by a factor of three for non-sorbing radionuclides, and to have limited impact on peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer for contaminants that do sorb.

  8. Conceptual Evaluation for the Installation of Treatment Capability for Mixed Low Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-11-24

    National Security Technologies, LLC, initiated an evaluation of treatment technologies that they would manage and operate as part of the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal facilities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive waste from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex since the 1960s, and since 2005 the NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive and MLLW for disposal only. In accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all mixed waste must meet land disposal restrictions (LDRs) prior to disposal. Compliance with LDRs is attained through treatment of the waste to mitigate the characteristics of the listed waste hazard. Presently, most generators utilize commercial capacity for waste treatment prior to shipment to the NNSS Disposal Facility. The objectives of this evaluation are to provide a conceptual study of waste treatment needs (i.e., demand), identify potential waste treatment technologies to meet demand, and analyze implementation considerations for initiating MLLW treatment capacity at the NNSS Disposal Facility. A review of DOE complex waste generation forecast data indicates that current and future Departmental demand for mixed waste treatment capacity will remain steady and strong. Analysis and screening of over 30 treatment technologies narrowed the field of treatment technologies to four: Macroencapsulation Stabilization/microencapsulation Sort and segregation Bench-scale mercury amalgamation The analysis of treatment technologies also considered existing permits, current the NNSS Disposal Facility infrastructure such as utilities and procedures, and past experiences such as green-light and red-light lessons learned. A schedule duration estimate has been developed for permitting, design, and construction of onsite treatment capability at the NNSS Disposal Facility. Treatment capability can be ready in 20 months.

  9. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  10. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  11. Nocturnal Low-Level-Jet-Dominated Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observed by a Doppler Lidar Over Oklahoma City during JU2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yansen; Klipp, Cheryl L.; Garvey, Dennis M.; Ligon, David; Williamson, Chatt C.; Chang, Sam S.; Newsom, Rob K.; Calhoun, Ron

    2007-12-01

    Boundary layer wind data observed by a Doppler lidar and sonic anemometers during the mornings of three intensive observational periods (IOP2, IOP3, and IOP7) of the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are analyzed to extract the mean and turbulent characteristics of airflow over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A strong nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) dominated the flow in the boundary layer over the measurement domain from midnight to the morning hours. Lidar scans through the LLJ taken after sunrise indicate that the LLJ elevation shows a gradual increase of 25-100 m over the urban area relative to that over the upstream suburban area. The mean wind speed beneath the jet over the urban area is about 10%-15% slower than that over the suburban area. Sonic anemometer observations combined with Doppler lidar observations in the urban and suburban areas are also analyzed to investigate the boundary layer turbulence production in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer. The turbulence kinetic energy was higher over the urban domain mainly because of the shear production of building surfaces and building wakes. Direct transport of turbulent momentum flux from the LLJ to the urban street level was very small because of the relatively high elevation of the jet. However, since the LLJ dominated the mean wind in the boundary layer, the turbulence kinetic energy in the urban domain is correlated directly with the LLJ maximum speed and inversely with its height. The results indicate that the jet Richardson number is a reasonably good indicator for turbulent kinetic energy over the urban domain in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer.

  12. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 2: Main report -- Part A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the, waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  14. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 6: Appendices G--J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  16. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-11-06

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratificationmore » at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the tradewind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. As a result, these findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.« less

  17. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  18. Ground difference compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: On-Site Treatment of Low Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-03-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1292) to evaluate the proposed treatment of low level mixed waste (LLMW) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). The purpose of the action is to treat LLMW in order to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions specified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the waste acceptance criteria of the planned disposal site(s). Approximately 17,000 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of LLMW are currently stored at the Site. Another 65,000 m{sup 3}of LLMW are likely to be generated by Site closure activities (a total of 82,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW). About 35,000 m{sup 3} can be directly disposed of off-site without treatment, and most of the remaining 47,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW can be treated at off-site treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. However, some LLMW will require treatment on-site, either because it does not meet shipping requirements or because off-site treatment is not available for these particular types of LLMW. Currently, this LLMW is stored at the Site pending the development and implementation of effective treatment processes. The Site needs to treat this LLMW on-site prior to shipment to off-site disposal facilities, in order to meet the DOE long-term objective of clean up and closure of the Site. All on-site treatment of LLMW would comply with applicable Federal and State laws designed to protect public health and safety and to enhance protection of the environment. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the proposed action (using ten mobile treatment processes to treat waste on-site), and the alternatives of treating waste onsite (using two fixed treatment processes), and of taking no action. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from February 3 to 24, 1999. No written or other comments regarding the EA were received.

  20. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  1. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  2. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  3. ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO THE PUBLIC FROM LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (LLW) TRANSPORTATION TO THE NEVADA TEST SITE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.J.; Campbell, S.; Church, B.W.; Shafer, D. S.; Gillespie, D.; Sedano, S.; Cebe, J.J.

    2003-02-27

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of two regional sites where low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from approved DOE and U.S. DOD generators across the United States is disposed. In federal fiscal year (FY) 2002, over 57,000 cubic meters of waste was transported to and disposed at the NTS. DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is perceived risk from members of the public about incremental exposure from LLW trucks, especially when ''Main Street'' and the LLW transportation route are the same. To better quantify the exposure to gamma radiation, a stationary monitoring array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) have been set up in a pullout just before LLW trucks reach the entrance to the NTS. The PICs are positioned at a distance of one meter from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height appropriate for the design of the trucks that will be used in FY2003 to haul LLW to the NTS. The use of four PICs (two on each side of the truck) is to minimize and to correct for non-uniformity where radiation levels from waste packages vary from side to side, and from front to back in the truck trailer. The PIC array is being calibrated by collecting readings from each PIC exposed to a known 137Cs source that was positioned at different locations on a flatbed stationed in the PIC array, along with taking secondary readings from other known sources. Continuous data collection using the PICs, with and without a truck in the array, is being used to develop background readings. In addition, acoustic sensors are positioned on each side of the PIC array to record when a large object (presumably a truck) enters the array. In FY2003, PIC surveys from as many incoming LLW trucks as possible will be made and survey data recorded automatically by dataloggers that will be periodically downloaded. Solar panels provide power for the batteries to run both the dataloggers and PICs. Truck drivers have been asked to park their truck within the PIC array for only the time it takes to complete an information log before moving on to one of two Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) on the NTS. On the log, the truck drivers record their shipment identification number, the time of day, where the waste originated, and information on the route they used to reach the NTS. This data will facilitate comparison of PIC readings with waste manifests and other waste disposal operations data collected at the RWMSs. Gamma radiation measurements collected from the PICs will be analyzed using standard health physics and statistical methods for comparison to DOT standards, but with the added benefit of obtaining an improved understanding of the variability of readings that can occur in the near vicinity of a LLW truck. The data collected will be combined with measurements of street width and other information about transportation routes through towns to develop realistic dose scenarios for citizens in Nevada and Utah towns.

  4. DOE issues Finding of No Significant Impact on Environmental Assessment for Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low Level Radioactive Waste Generated at Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho Falls, ID After completing a careful assessment, the U.S. Department of Energy has determined that building a new facility at its Idaho National Laboratory site for continued disposal of remote-handled low level radioactive waste generated by operations at the site will not have a significant impact on the environment.

  5. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in the United States: What Have We Wrought? The Richard S. Hodes, M.D. Honor Lecture Award - 12222

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, Lawrence R.

    2012-07-01

    In 1979, radioactive waste disposal was an important national issue. State governors were closing the gates on the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites and the ultimate disposition of spent fuel was undecided. A few years later, the United States Congress thought they had solved both problems by passing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1981, which established a network of regional compacts for low-level radioactive waste disposal, and by passing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to set out how a final resting place for high-level waste would be determined. Upon passage of the acts, State, Regional and Federal officials went to work. Here we are some 30 years later with little to show for our combined effort. The envisioned national repository for high-level radioactive waste has not materialized. Efforts to develop the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility were abandoned after spending $13 billion on the failed project. Recently, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future issued its draft report that correctly concludes the existing policy toward high-level nuclear waste is 'all but completely broken down'. A couple of new low-level waste disposal facilities have opened since 1981, but neither were the result of efforts under the act. What the Act has done is interject a system of interstate compacts with a byzantine interstate import and export system to complicate the handling of low-level radioactive waste, with attendant costs. As this paper is being written in the fourth-quarter of 2011, after 30 years of political and bureaucratic turmoil, a new comprehensive low-level waste disposal facility at Andrews Texas is approaching its initial operating date. The Yucca Mountain project might be completed or it might not. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is commencing a review of their 1981 volume reduction policy statement. The Department of Energy after 26 years has yet to figure out how to implement its obligations under the 1985 amendments to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. But, the last three decades have not been a total loss. A great deal has been learned about radioactive waste disposal since 1979 and the efforts of the public and private sector have shaped and focused the work to be done in the future. So, this lecturer asks the question: 'What have we wrought?' to which he provides his perspective and his recommendations for radioactive waste management policy for the next 30 years. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call into question certain aspects of the analyses. For example, if the volumes and activities of waste disposed of during the remainder of the disposal facility's lifetime differ significantly from those projected, the doses projected by the analyses may no longer apply. DOE field sites are required to implement a performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. The purpose of this program is to ensure the continued applicability of the analyses through incremental improvement of the level of understanding of the disposal site and facility. Site personnel are required to conduct field and experimental work to reduce the uncertainty in the data and models used in the assessments. Furthermore, they are required to conduct periodic reviews of waste receipts, comparing them to projected waste disposal rates. The radiological inventory for Area G was updated in conjunction with Revision 4 of the performance assessment and composite analysis (Shuman, 2008). That effort used disposal records and other sources of information to estimate the quantities of radioactive waste that have been disposed of at Area G from 1959, the year the facility started receiving waste on a routine basis, through 2007. It also estimated the quantities of LLW that will require disposal from 2008 through 2044, the year in which it is assumed that disposal operations at Area G will cease. This report documents the fourth review of Area G disposal receipts since the inventory was updated and examines information for waste placed in the ground during fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2011. The primary objective of the disposal receipt review is to ensure that the future waste inventory projections developed for the performance assessment and composite analysis are consistent with the actual types and quantities of waste being disposed of at Area G. Toward this end, the disposal data that are the subject of this review are used to update the future waste inventory projections for the disposal facility. These projections are compared to the future inventory projections that were develope

  7. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This document is the fourth annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, this document lists FFA activities planned for FY 1997. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service.

  8. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  9. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  10. Ocean-current measurements at the Farallon Islands Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, 1977-1978. Includes appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report discusses the results of ocean bottom current measurements obtain from the Farallon Islands Low-Level Waste Disposal Site off the California coast, near San Francisco. The report includes a discussion of the velocity of the currents over the time period and area measured relative to large-scale currents off the California coast, and the possibility for shoreward transport of LLW Materials from the Farallon Islands Site.

  11. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  12. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  13. Low level TOC measurement method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

  14. Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    618-10 Burial Ground Page: 1 2 3

  15. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  16. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  17. Stakeholder Engagement on the Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste -12565

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, Christine; Joyce, James; Edelman, Arnold

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Disposal Operations is responsible for developing a permanent disposal capability for a small volume, but highly radioactive, class of commercial low-level radioactive waste, known as Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. DOE has issued a draft environmental impact statement (EIS) and will be completing a final EIS under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that evaluates a range of disposal alternatives. Like other classes of radioactive waste, proposing and evaluating disposal options for GTCC waste is highly controversial, presents local and national impacts, and generates passionate views from stakeholders. Recent national and international events, such as the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, have heighten stakeholder awareness of everything nuclear, including disposal of radioactive waste. With these challenges, the Office of Disposal Operations recognizes that informed decision-making that will result from stakeholder engagement and participation is critical to the success of the GTCC EIS project. This paper discusses the approach used by the Office of Disposal Operations to engage stakeholders on the GTCC EIS project, provides advice based on our experiences, and proffers some ideas for future engagements in today's open, always connected cyber environment. (authors)

  18. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) 325

  19. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, Toms; Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N.; Kornblihtt, Laura; Alvarez, Elida M.; Blanco, Guillermo A.

    2012-02-01

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the ChouTalalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup ?} at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 ?M hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O{sub 2}{sup ?} levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O{sub 2}{sup ?} levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup ?} at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O{sub 2}{sup ?} production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O{sub 2}{sup ?} levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ? Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by ChouTalalay method. ? Cytotoxic effect associated with superoxide levels as assessed by flow cytometry. ? Synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 leukemia cell line. ? Synergism turned into antagonism by low levels of hydrogen peroxide. ? Resistance to arsenic cytotoxicity linked to early superoxide anion increased levels.

  20. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  1. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N.

    1994-10-20

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

  2. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  3. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  4. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

    2010-09-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energys Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources are then addressed. Differences in required analyses and data are captured as outstanding data needs.

  5. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  6. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low-level waste repository sites. Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species (BLT-MS) is a U.S. NRC sponsored code which simulates release and transport of contaminants from a subsurface low-level waste disposal facility. GoldSim is commercially available probabilistic software package that has radionuclide transport capabilities. The following report guides a user through the steps necessary to use the integrated model and presents a successful application of the paradigm of renewing legacy codes for contemporary application.

  7. Application of Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling for Optimization of Maintenance Studies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; DiSanza, F.

    2002-02-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration of the Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose defense-generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed radioactive waste, and ''classified waste'' in shallow trenches and pits. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated by the DOE under DOE Order 435.1. This Order requires formal review of a performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA; assessment of all interacting radiological sources) for each LLW disposal system followed by an active maintenance program that extends through and beyond the site closure program. The Nevada disposal facilities continue to receive NTS-generated LLW and defense-generated LLW from across the DOE complex. The PA/CAs for the sites have been conditionally approved and the facilities are now under a formal maintenance program that requires testing of conceptual models, quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty, and implementing confirmatory and long-term background monitoring, all leading to eventual closure of the disposal sites. To streamline and reduce the cost of the maintenance program, the NNSA/NV is converting the deterministic PA/CAs to probabilistic models using GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation computer code. The output of probabilistic models will provide expanded information supporting long-term decision objectives of the NTS disposal sites.

  8. An informal expert judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management sites on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.M. |; Leary, K.; Jacobson, R.; Bensinger, H.; Dolenc, M.

    1999-03-01

    An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium.

  9. Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

    2011-04-01

    This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

  10. Field lysimeter investigations - test results. Low-level waste data base development program: Test results for fiscal years 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Findlay, M.W.; Davis, E.C.; Jastrow, J.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Hilton, L.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the first 4 years of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both Portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period.

  11. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  12. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  13. Field Lysimeter Investigations -- Test results. Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Brey, R.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Hilton, L.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Wickliff Hicks, D.S.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the second 4 years of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period.

  14. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  15. Impact of WRF Physics and Grid Resolution on Low-level Wind Prediction: Towards the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Future Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, H S; Glascoe, L; Lundquist, J; Wharton, S

    2010-02-24

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used in short-range simulations to explore the sensitivity of model physics and horizontal grid resolution. We choose five events with the clear-sky conditions to study the impact of different planetary boundary layer (PBL), surface and soil-layer physics on low-level wind forecast for two wind farms; one in California (CA) and the other in Texas (TX). Short-range simulations are validated with field measurements. Results indicate that the forecast error of the CA case decreases with increasing grid resolution due to the improved representation of valley winds. Besides, the model physics configuration has a significant impact on the forecast error at this location. In contrast, the forecast error of the TX case exhibits little dependence on grid resolution and is relatively independent of physics configuration. Therefore, the occurrence frequency of lowest root mean square errors (RMSEs) at this location is used to determine an optimal model configuration for subsequent decade-scale regional climate model (RCM) simulations. In this study, we perform two sets of 20-year RCM simulations using the data from the NCAR Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations; one set models the present climate and the other simulates the future climate. These RCM simulations will be used to assess the impact of climate change on future wind energy.

  16. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  17. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford Site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whyatt, G.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shade, J.W.; Stegen, G.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW stimulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  18. Project management plan for low-level mixed wastes and greater-than category 3 waste per Tri-Party Agreement M-91-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOUNINI, L.

    1999-06-17

    The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-Than-Category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10. The plan was developed in four steps: (1) the volumes of the applicable waste streams and the physical, dangerous, and radioactive characteristics were established using existing databases and forecasts; (2) required treatment was identified for each waste stream based on land disposal restriction treatment standards and waste characterization data; (3) alternatives for providing the required treatment were evaluated and the preferred options were selected; and (4) an acquisition plan was developed to establish the techuical, schedule, and cost baselines for providing the required treatment capabilities. The major waste streams are summarized in the table below, along with the required treatment for disposal.

  19. Project management plan for low-level mixed waste and greater-than-category 3 waste per tri-party agreement M-91-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOUNINI, L.

    1999-05-20

    The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-thaw category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10, The plan was developed in four steps: (1) the volumes of the applicable waste streams and the physical, dangerous, and radioactive characteristics were established using existing databases and forecasts; (2) required treatment was identified for each waste stream based on land disposal restriction treatment standards and waste characterization data; (3) alternatives for providing the required treatment were evaluated and the preferred options were selected; (4) an acquisition plan was developed to establish the technical, schedule, and cost baselines for providing the required treatment capabilities. The major waste streams are tabulated, along with the required treatment for disposal.

  20. A Bayesian inversion framework for yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, Gardar; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Ramirez, Abe; Ford, Sean; Rodgers, Artie

    2015-09-07

    A Bayesian inversion framework is presented to estimate the yield of an explosion and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial (HOB/DOB) using seismic and air pressure data. This is accomplished by first calibrating the parameters in the forward models that relate the observations to the yield and HOB/DOB and then using the calibrated model to estimate yield and HOB/DOB associated with a new set of seismic and air pressure observations. The MCMC algorithms required to perform these steps are outlined, and the results with real data are shown. Finally, an extension is proposed for a case when clustering in the seismic displacement occurs as a function of different types of rock and other factors.

  1. Integration of US Department of Energy contractor installations for the purpose of optimizing treatment, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, M.; Gnoose, J.; Coony, M.; Martin, E.; Piscitella, R.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages a multibillion dollar environmental management (EM) program. In June 1996, the Assistant Secretary of Energy for EM issued a memorandum with guidance and a vision for a ten year planning process for the EM Program. The purpose of this process, which became known as the Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006, is to make step changes within the DOE complex regarding the approach for making meaningful environmental cleanup progress. To augment the process, Assistant Secretary requested the site contractors to engage in an effort to identify and evaluate integration alternatives for EM waste stream treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) that would parallel the 2006 Plan. In October 1996, ten DOE contractor installations began the task of identifying alternative opportunities for low level radioactive waste (LLW). Cost effective, efficient solutions were necessary to meet all requirements associated with storing, characterizing, treating, packaging, transporting, and disposing of LLW while protecting the workers` health and safety, and minimizing impacts to the environment. To develop these solutions, a systems engineering approach was used to establish the baseline requirements, to develop alternatives, and to evaluate the alternatives. Key assumptions were that unique disposal capabilities exist within the DOE that must be maintained; private sector disposal capability for some LLW may not continue to exist into the foreseeable future; and decisions made by the LLW Team must be made on a system or complex wide basis to fully realize the potential cost and schedule benefits. This integration effort promoted more accurate waste volume estimates and forecasts; enhanced recognition of existing treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities and capacities; and improved identification of cost savings across the complex.

  2. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  3. The Low-Level Jet over the Southern Great Plains Determined from Observations and Reanalyses and Its Impact on Moisture Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Huang, Maoyi

    2015-09-01

    This study utilizes five commonly used reanalysis products, including the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NCEP2), ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA)-Interim, Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25), Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to evaluate features of the Southern Great Plains Low Level Jet (LLJ) above the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. Two sets of radiosonde data are utilized: the six-week Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), and a ten-year period spanning 2001-2010. All five reanalysis are compared to MC3E data, while only the NARR and MERRA are compared to the ten-year data. Each reanalysis is able to represent most aspects of the composite LLJ profile, although there is a tendency for each reanalysis to overestimate the wind speed between the nose of the LLJ and 700 mb. There are large discrepancies in the number of LLJ observed and derived from the reanalysis, particularly for strong LLJs that leads to an underestimate of the water vapor transport associated with LLJs. When the ten-year period is considered, the NARR overestimates and MERRA underestimates the total moisture transport, but both underestimate the transport associated with strong LLJs by factors of 2.0 and 2.7 for the NARR and MERR, respectively. During MC3E there were differences in the patterns of moisture convergence and divergence, with the MERRA having an area of moisture divergence over Oklahoma, while the NARR has moisture convergence. The patterns of moisture convergence and divergence are more consistent during the ten-year period.

  4. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  5. Grounded Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grounded Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grounded Renewable Energy Place: Carbondale, Colorado Zip: 81623 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Grounded...

  6. Category:Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Magnetics page? For detailed information on Ground...

  7. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  8. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining radionuclides would exceed the maximum contaminant levels for either site location. The predicted cumulative effective dose equivalent from all 13 radionuclides also was less than the dose criteria set forth in Department of Energy Order 435.1 for each site location. An evaluation of composite impacts showed one site is preferable over the other based on the potential for commingling of groundwater contamination with other facilities.

  9. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline; Villar, Rosangela Correa; Castro, Gilberto de; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might translate into improved CRT efficacy.

  10. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  11. Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Magnetics Details Activities (25) Areas (19) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration...

  12. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  13. Public Invited to Comment on Draft Environmental Assessment for Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy invites the public to read and comment on a draft environmental assessment it has prepared, for a proposal to provide a replacement capability for continued disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste that is generated at the Idaho National Laboratory site.

  14. Testimony of Mark Whitney Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Before the Subcommittee on Environment and the Economy House Energy and Commerce Committee Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Testimony of Mark Whitney Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Before the Subcommittee on Environment and the Economy House Energy and Commerce Committee Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C Waste October 28, 2015

  15. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  17. DOE Media Advisory- DOE extends public comment period on Draft Environmental Assessment for Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In response to requests from people interested in National Environmental Policy Act activities occurring at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho Operations Office, the department has extended the public comment period that began September 1 on the Draft Environmental Assessment for Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho Site.

  18. Ground Source Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: NG22 9GW Sector: Buildings Product: UK-based installer of ground source energy systems to domestic and commercial buildings. References: Ground Source...

  19. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...

  20. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

  1. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. Technical survey of DOE programs and facilities applicable to the co-storage of commercial greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and DOE special Case Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allred, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information on those US Department of Energy (DOE) management programs and facilities, existing and planned, that are potentially capable of storing DOE Special Case Waste (SCW) until a disposal capability is available. Major emphasis is given to the possibility of storing commercial greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) together with DOE SCW, as well as with other waste types. In addition to this primary issue, the report gives an in-depth background on SCW and GTCC LLW, and discusses their similarities. Institutional issues concerning these waste types are not addressed in this report.

  3. Low Level Radiation SEAB Ltr. to Moniz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Deutch Institute Professor 77 Massachusetts Avenue Department of Chemistry Building 6-215 Tel: 617 253 1479 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Fax: 617 258 6700 Email: jmd@mit.edu Secretary Ernest J. Moniz U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue S.W. Washington D.C. 20585 June 23, 2015 Dear Mr. Secretary, SEAB has requested that I respond to your letter of June 16, 2015 requesting "...SEAB's perspective on how DOE should pursue research on

  4. Low Level Radiation SEAB Ltr. to Moniz

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and citizens in the vicinity of commercial nuclear power plants and associated fuel cycle activities, especially with regard to the increased likelihood of cancer fatality. ...

  5. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  6. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detectors coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  7. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, Andy; Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; McCarty, Michael

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  8. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing Andy Hoke, Austin Nelson, and Sudipta Chakraborty National Renewable Energy Laboratory Justin Chebahtah, Trudie Wang, and Michael McCarty SolarCity Corporation Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-64173 August 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  9. GPG Green Proving Ground Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GSA Green Proving Ground Program Technology Overview of Federal Technology Demonstration Programs Eleni Reed GSA Public Buildings Service August 11, 2015 GPG Program Overview FEDERAL MANDATES SET THE PACE Efficiency results from innovation and policy Executive Order 13693, 2015 2.5% annual reduction in EUI through 2025, over 2015 levels Net zero energy (water/waste where feasible) * New construction designs starting 2020 & percentage of existing buildings Energy Independence and Security

  10. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1989: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This response is submitted in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act), Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes expenditures made during the calendar year 1989 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, milestones. Title I of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a Surcharge Escrow Account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compacts (regional compacts currently without operating disposal sites) and nonmember States (States without disposal sites that are not members of compacts) to the three States with operating disposal facilities (Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) (sited States) for using their disposal facilities. In administering the Surcharge Escrow Account, the Act requires DOE to: invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities; determine eligibility of rebates of the funds by evaluating State and compact progress toward developing new disposal sites against milestones set forth in the Act; disburse the collected rebates and interest; assess compliance of rebate expenditures with the limitations prescribed in the Act; and submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by States and regions. 5 tabs.

  11. Oak Ridge completes field work on Recovery Act-projects | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Completion Date: February 2013 Bethel Valley Burial Grounds: The Bethel Valley Burial Ground Project remediated a series of sites including Solid Waste Storage Areas 1 and 3,...

  12. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating andor cooling system that takes advantage of the relatively constant year-round ground temperature to pump heat to or from the ground. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle...

  13. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  14. Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration...

  15. Tritium Ground Water Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ground Water Issues Tritium Ground Water Issues Presentation from the 35th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Princeton, New Jersey on May 05-07, 2015. PDF icon Tritium Ground Water Issues More Documents & Publications Managing Uncertainty and Demonstrating Compliance EA-1356: Final Environmental Assessment SRS FTF Section 3116 Basis for Determination

  16. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

  17. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  18. Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Ground Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    costs, are highly energy efficient, and require no surface facilities or ground water pumpingrecharge (Freethey et al., 2002; Morrison and Spangler, 1992; Shoemaker et al., 1995). ...

  19. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data have also complemented other remote sensors such as K-band cloud Doppler radar and Doppler lidar. In addition, radiometric observations compose a database of ground- truth...

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grounds Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-05

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #4 and #5: Case study overview of the grounds maintenance program for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  1. Ground Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2000) Dixie Valley Geothermal Area 1999 2000 Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management Ground Gravity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Blackwell, Et...

  2. Ground Control Progress Continues at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 4, 2015 Ground Control Progress Continues at WIPP Underground Operations Personnel at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have made significant progress since resuming...

  3. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R. (Calgary, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  4. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  5. Final environmental assessment for off-site transportation of low-level waste from four California sites under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office (DOE/OAK) manages sites within California that generate Low Level Waste (LLW) in the course or routine site operations. It is the preference of the DOE to dispose of LLW at federally owned and DOE-operated disposal facilities; however, in some circumstances DOE Headquarters has determined that disposal at commercial facilities is appropriate, as long as the facility meets all regulatory requirements for the acceptance and disposal of LLW, including the passage of a DOE audit to determine the adequacy of the disposal site. The DOE would like to ship LLW from four DOE/OAK sites in California which generate LLW, to NRC-licensed commercial nuclear waste disposal facilities such as Envirocare in Clive, Utah and Chem Nuclear in Barnwell, South Carolina. Transportation impacts for shipment of LLW and MLLW from DOE Oakland sites to other DOE sites was included in the impacts identified in the Department`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS), published in May, 1997, and determined to be low. The low impacts for shipment to commercial sites identified herein is consistent with the WM-PEIS results.

  6. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  8. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described.

  9. Document Number Q0029500 Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water Model

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water Model This section presents a steady-state ground water flow model and a coupled solute transport model (ground water model) for the alluvial aquifer within OU 111 of the MMTS. Transport of uranium is simulated for a 50-yr period beginning October 2002. Uranium was selected among site COCs for transport modeling because it is the principal contributor to potential risk to human health. The model assumes stable ground water flow since completion of site

  10. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    efficient when cooling your home. Not only does this save energy and money, it reduces air pollution. GSHP System Ground source heat pump systems consist of three parts: the...

  11. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  12. Audit Report: IG-0624 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4 Audit Report: IG-0624 Octover 23, 2003 Transuranic Waste Retrieval and Processing at the Hanford Site In 1996, the Department of Energy (Department) amended its Tri-Party Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Washington regarding cleanup of the Hanford Site. Included in the amendment was an enforceable milestone that the Department would remove about 10,000 containers of transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 4, located in Hanford's Low-Level Burial Grounds, by the

  13. Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area...

  14. Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal...

  15. Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot...

  16. Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler, 1964) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At...

  17. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  18. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  19. Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River...

  20. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  1. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles, Et Al., 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity...

  2. Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel Cell Applications Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel Cell Applications...

  3. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after ...

  4. Category:Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Electromagnetic Techniques page? For...

  5. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution...

  6. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System...

  7. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  8. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  9. Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City,...

  10. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  11. Breaking Ground on Computational Research and Theory Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Breaks Ground on New Computational Research Facility Breaking Ground on Computational Research and Theory Facility CRT to Foster Scientific Collaboration in...

  12. Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National Cemetery Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National Cemetery ...

  13. Appendix B Ground Water Management Policy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Management Policy for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas This page intentionally left blank Docun~ent Number Q0029500 Appendix B State of Utah DEPARTblENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF WATER RIGHTS Ground-Water Management Policy for the Mot~ticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas The Monticello Mill Tailings Site is on the southeast portion of the tovm of Monticello in Sectton 36, T33S, K23E and Section 31, i33S. R24E, SLB&M. The mill site was used

  14. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Sun

    2000-04-07

    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k_0=0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the stability of the openings. No credit or account was given for the initial ground support in modeling the final ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts in this analysis.

  15. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  16. Record of Decision for Ground Water | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water (April 1997) PDF icon Record of Decision for Ground Water More Documents & Publications EIS-0198: Record of Decision EIS-0170: Record of Decision (April 1997) EIS-0251: Second Record of Decision (May 1997)

  17. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  18. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  19. Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech16_liu_040313.pdf More Documents & Publications Three new/under-utilized ground loop designs being evaluated for their ground loop cost reduction potential<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy Buildings Oak Ridge City Center

  20. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Volumes I & II (October 1996) Optical character recognition has been applied to these files, but full search capabilities are not guaranteed. PDF icon Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume I PDF icon Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume