National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for low-flow shower heads

  1. A study to determine the most effective actuation valve and water distribution head combination for emergency showers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presswood, James Columbus

    1977-01-01

    measure for chemical burns, it is essential that emergency showers be connected to an adequate supply of potable water. Generally, an adequate supply is interpreted to mean a source which can provide 20 to 60 gallons per minute for a period of 15..., new processes, and a wealth- of new and dangerous materials mean that industrial workers are exposed to injury more than ever. The phenomenal growth of the chemical industry in the United States has increased the variety and severity of hazards...

  2. Considerations for Energy Efficient Showers in Hot-Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    higher than standard heads to achieve comparable temperatures in the spray pattern. This is because of evaporative cooling by the aerating shower nozzles. Further study also indicated lower shower water usage than initially estimated due to shorter inmate...

  3. PROJECTS FROM FEDERAL REGION IX DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PART II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    wood, biomass, and low-head hydroelectric technologies.insulation blankets, low-flow shower heads, and faucet

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy saving products at no cost to the customer. The installation include: CFLs, low-flow shower heads, low flow... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Multifamily Residential...

  5. QCD Jets and Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan R. Webber

    2010-09-29

    I discuss the calculation of QCD jet rates in e+e- annihilation as a testing ground for parton shower simulations and jet finding algorithms.

  6. Time Structure of Muonic Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon; R. A. Vazquez; A. A. Watson; E. Zas

    2003-11-10

    An analytical description of the time structure of the pulses induced by muons in air showers at ground level is deduced assuming the production distance distribution for the muons can be obtained elsewhere. The results of this description are compared against those obtained from simulated showers using AIRES. Major contributions to muon time delays are identified and a relation between the time structure and the depth distribution is unveiled.

  7. QCD Matrix Elements + Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Catani; F. Krauss; R. Kuhn; B. R. Webber

    2001-09-25

    We propose a method for combining QCD matrix elements and parton showers in Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic final states in $e^+e^-$ annihilation. The matrix element and parton shower domains are separated at some value $y_{ini}$ of the jet resolution, defined according to the $k_T$-clustering algorithm. The matrix elements are modified by Sudakov form factors and the parton showers are subjected to a veto procedure to cancel dependence on $y_{ini}$ to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The method provides a leading-order description of hard multi-jet configurations together with jet fragmentation, while avoiding the most serious problems of double counting. We present first results of an approximate implementation using the event generator APACIC++.

  8. Shower and Decide How much water is going down your shower drain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shower and Decide How much water is going down your shower drain? Much of the water we use in our homes is used in our bathrooms. Did you know that taking a shower without a water-saver showerhead uses about seven gallons of water per minute? The next time you begin a shower, set a stopwatch or timer

  9. EECBG Success Story: Classes, Kits and Energy Savings for Pinellas...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Pinellas County, Florida will receive energy kits with weather stripping, low-flow shower heads, and window insulators once they attend a special class, courtesy of the...

  10. Guide for Benchmarking Residential Energy Efficiency Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to "customer contracted work" (see definition). Commonly includes products such as lighting and low-flow shower heads - may also include services such as air sealing....

  11. Air-Shower Spectroscopy at horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion

    2005-11-20

    Horizontal and Upward air-showers are suppressed by deep atmosphere opacity and by the Earth shadows. In such noise-free horizontal and upward directions rare Ultra High Cosmic rays and rarer neutrino induced air-showers may shine, mostly mediated by resonant PeVs interactions in air or by higher energy Tau Air-showers originated by neutrino tau skimming the Earth. At high altitude (mountains, planes, balloons) the air density is so rarefied that nearly all common air-showers might be observed at their maximal growth at a tuned altitude and directions. The arrival angle samples different distances and the corresponding most probable primary cosmic ray energy. The larger and larger distances (between observer and C.R. interaction) make wider and wider the shower area and it enlarge the probability to be observed (up to three order of magnitude more than vertical showers); the observation of a maximal electromagnetic shower development may amplify the signal by two-three order of magnitude (respect suppressed shower at sea level); the peculiar altitude-angle range may disentangle at best the primary cosmic ray energy and composition. Even from existing mountain observatory the up-going air-showers may trace, above the horizons, PeV-EeV high energy cosmic rays and, below the horizons, PeV-EeV neutrino astronomy: their early signals may be captured in already existing gamma telescopes as Magic at Canarie, while facing the Earth edges during (useless) cloudy nights.

  12. Air Shower Measurements in Karlsruhe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haungs, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The Karlsruhe multi-detector set-ups KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and LOPES aim on measurements of cosmic rays in the energy range of the so called knee between 10^14 eV and 10^18 eV. The multidimensional analysis of the air shower data measured by KASCADE indicates a distinct knee in the energy spectra of light primary cosmic rays and an increasing dominance of heavy ones towards higher energies. This provides, together with the results of large scale anisotropy studies, implications for discriminating astrophysical models of the origin of the knee. To improve the reconstruction quality and statistics at higher energies, where the knee of the heavy primaries is expected at around 100 PeV, KASCADE has been extended by a factor 10 in area to the new experiment KASCADE-Grande. LOPES is located on site of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. It measures radio pulses from extensive air showers with the goal to establish this renewed detection technique for future large scale experiments.

  13. Air Shower Measurements in Karlsruhe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Haungs

    2007-05-02

    The Karlsruhe multi-detector set-ups KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and LOPES aim on measurements of cosmic rays in the energy range of the so called knee between 10^14 eV and 10^18 eV. The multidimensional analysis of the air shower data measured by KASCADE indicates a distinct knee in the energy spectra of light primary cosmic rays and an increasing dominance of heavy ones towards higher energies. This provides, together with the results of large scale anisotropy studies, implications for discriminating astrophysical models of the origin of the knee. To improve the reconstruction quality and statistics at higher energies, where the knee of the heavy primaries is expected at around 100 PeV, KASCADE has been extended by a factor 10 in area to the new experiment KASCADE-Grande. LOPES is located on site of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. It measures radio pulses from extensive air showers with the goal to establish this renewed detection technique for future large scale experiments.

  14. 10Tips to Lower Electric and Water Bills Find air leaks (such as around

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    for a free home energy review. You may be able to get a free low-flow shower head and energy saving light bulbs with the review! 7 Get a low-flow shower head. Ask your local water district for one-- it should

  15. Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Q. Richardson

    2012-06-28

    Final Technical Report for the Recovery Act Project for the Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility. The Abiquiu hydroelectric facility existed with two each 6.9 MW vertical flow Francis turbine-generators. This project installed a new 3.1 MW horizontal flow low flow turbine-generator. The total plant flow range to capture energy and generate power increased from between 250 and 1,300 cfs to between 75 and 1,550 cfs. Fifty full time equivalent (FTE) construction jobs were created for this project - 50% (or 25 FTE) were credited to ARRA funding due to the ARRA 50% project cost match. The Abiquiu facility has increased capacity, increased efficiency and provides for an improved aquatic environment owing to installed dissolved oxygen capabilities during traditional low flow periods in the Rio Chama. A new powerhouse addition was constructed to house the new turbine-generator equipment.

  16. THE RETURN OF THE ANDROMEDIDS METEOR SHOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegert, Paul A.; Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, Robert J.; Wong, Daniel K., E-mail: pwiegert@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A3K7 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    The Andromedid meteor shower underwent spectacular outbursts in 1872 and 1885, producing thousands of visual meteors per hour and described as ''stars fell like rain'' in Chinese records of the time. The shower originates from comet 3D/Biela whose disintegration in the mid-1800's is linked to the outbursts, but the shower has been weak or absent since the late 19th century. This shower returned in 2011 December with a zenithal hourly rate of approximately 50, the strongest return in over a hundred years. Some 122 probable Andromedid orbits were detected by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar while one possible brighter Andromedid member was detected by the Southern Ontario Meteor Network and several single station possible Andromedids by the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory. The shower outburst occurred during 2011 December 3-5. The radiant at R.A. +18 Degree-Sign and decl. +56 Degree-Sign is typical of the ''classical'' Andromedids of the early 1800s, whose radiant was actually in Cassiopeia. Numerical simulations of the shower were necessary to identify it with the Andromedids, as the observed radiant differs markedly from the current radiant associated with that shower. The shower's orbital elements indicate that the material involved was released before 3D/Biela's breakup prior to 1846. The observed shower in 2011 had a slow geocentric speed (V{sub G} = 16 km s{sup -1}) and was comprised of small particles: the mean measured mass from the radar is {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} kg, corresponding to radii of 0.5 mm at a bulk density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Numerical simulations of the parent comet indicate that the meteoroids of the 2011 return of the Andromedids shower were primarily ejected during 3D/Biela's 1649 perihelion passage. The orbital characteristics, radiant, and timing as well as the absence of large particles in the streamlet are all broadly consistent with simulations. However, simulations of the 1649 perihelion passage necessitate going back five Lyapunov times (which is only 25 yr for the highly perturbed parent). As a result, the stream evolution is somewhat uncertain and some discrepancy with the observations is to be expected: the radiant is 8 Degree-Sign off, the inclination 3 Degree-Sign higher, and the peak of the shower occurs a day earlier than predicted. Predictions are made regarding other appearances of the shower in the years 2000-2047 based on our numerical model. We note that the details of the 2011 return can, in principle, be used to better constrain the orbit of 3D/Biela prior to the comets first recorded return in 1772 and we address this issue briefly as well.

  17. New formalism for QCD parton showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Gieseke; Philip Stephens; Bryan Webber

    2003-10-09

    We present a new formalism for parton shower simulation of QCD jets, which incorporates the following features: invariance under boosts along jet axes, improved treatment of heavy quark fragmentation, angular-ordered evolution with soft gluon coherence, more accurate soft gluon angular distributions, and better coverage of phase space. It is implemented in the new HERWIG++ event generator.

  18. Combining QCD Matrix Elements and Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. Webber

    2000-05-04

    A new method for combining QCD matrix elements and parton showers in Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic final states is outlined. The aim is to provide at least a leading-order description of all hard multi-jet configurations together with jet fragmentation to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, while avoiding the most serious problems of double counting.

  19. Systematic Improvement of QCD Parton Showers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, Jan; Hoeche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Zapp, Korinna; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank; /Freiburg U.

    2012-05-17

    In this contribution, we will give a brief overview of the progress that has been achieved in the field of combining matrix elements and parton showers. We exemplify this by focusing on the case of electron-positron collisions and by reporting on recent developments as accomplished within the SHERPA event generation framework.

  20. The midpoint between dipole and parton showers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan

    2015-09-28

    We present a new parton-shower algorithm. Borrowing from the basic ideas of dipole cascades, the evolution variable is judiciously chosen as the transverse momentum in the soft limit. This leads to a very simple analytic structure of the evolution. A weighting algorithm is implemented that allows one to consistently treat potentially negative values of the splitting functions and the parton distributions. Thus, we provide two independent, publicly available implementations for the two event generators PYTHIA and SHERPA.

  1. Precise determination of muon and electromagnetic shower contents from shower universality property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Yushkov; M. Ambrosio; C. Aramo; F. Guarino; D. D'Urso; L. Valore

    2010-04-21

    We consider two new aspects of Extensive Air Shower development universality allowing to make accurate estimation of muon and electromagnetic (EM) shower contents in two independent ways. In the first case, to get muon (or EM) signal in water Cherenkov tanks or in scintillator detectors it is enough to know the vertical depth of shower maximum and the total signal in the ground detector. In the second case, the EM signal can be calculated from the primary particle energy and the zenith angle. In both cases the parametrizations of muon and EM signals are almost independent on primary particle nature, energy and zenith angle. Implications of the considered properties for mass composition and hadronic interaction studies are briefly discussed. The present study is performed on 28000 of proton, oxygen and iron showers, generated with CORSIKA 6.735 for $E^{-1}$ spectrum in the energy range log(E/eV)=18.5-20.0 and uniformly distributed in cos^2(theta) in zenith angle interval theta=0-65 degrees for QGSJET II/Fluka interaction models.

  2. Merging parton showers and matrix elements -- back to basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavesson, Nils

    2008-01-01

    We make a thorough comparison between different schemes of merging fixed-order tree-level matrix element generators with parton-shower models. We use the most basic benchmark of the O(alpha_S) correction to e+e- -> jets, where the simple kinematics allows us to study in detail the transition between the matrix-element and parton-shower regions. We find that the CKKW-based schemes give a reasonably smooth transition between these regions, although problems may occur if the parton shower used is not ordered in transverse momentum. However, the so-called Pseudo-Shower and MLM schemes turn out to have potentially serious problems due to different scale definitions in different regions of phase space, and due to sensitivity to the details in the initial conditions of the parton shower programs used.

  3. Merging parton showers and matrix elements -- back to basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Lavesson; Leif Lonnblad

    2008-04-23

    We make a thorough comparison between different schemes of merging fixed-order tree-level matrix element generators with parton-shower models. We use the most basic benchmark of the O(alpha_S) correction to e+e- -> jets, where the simple kinematics allows us to study in detail the transition between the matrix-element and parton-shower regions. We find that the CKKW-based schemes give a reasonably smooth transition between these regions, although problems may occur if the parton shower used is not ordered in transverse momentum. However, the so-called Pseudo-Shower and MLM schemes turn out to have potentially serious problems due to different scale definitions in different regions of phase space, and due to sensitivity to the details in the initial conditions of the parton shower programs used.

  4. On sampling fractions and electron shower shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peryshkin, Alexander; Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    We study the usage of various definitions of sampling fractions in understanding electron shower shapes in a sampling multilayer electromagnetic calorimeter. We show that the sampling fractions obtained by the conventional definition (I) of (average observed energy in layer)/(average deposited energy in layer) will not give the best energy resolution for the calorimeter. The reason for this is shown to be the presence of layer by layer correlations in an electromagnetic shower. The best resolution is obtained by minimizing the deviation from the total input energy using a least squares algorithm. The 'sampling fractions' obtained by this method (II) are shown to give the best resolution for overall energy. We further show that the method (II) sampling fractions are obtained by summing the columns of a non-local {lambda} tensor that incorporates the correlations. We establish that the sampling fractions (II) cannot be used to predict the layer by layer energies and that one needs to employ the full {lambda} tensor for this purpose. This effect is again a result of the correlations.

  5. Coherent Radio Pulses From GEANT Generated Electromagnetic Showers In Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soebur Razzaque; Surujhdeo Seunarine; David Z. Besson; Douglas W. McKay; John P. Ralston; David Seckel

    2002-02-25

    Radio Cherenkov radiation is arguably the most efficient mechanism for detecting showers from ultra-high energy particles of 1 PeV and above. Showers occuring in Antarctic ice should be detectable at distances up to 1 km. We report on electromagnetic shower development in ice using a GEANT Monte Carlo simulation. We have studied energy deposition by shower particles and determined shower parameters for several different media, finding agreement with published results where available. We also report on radio pulse emission from the charged particles in the shower, focusing on coherent emission at the Cherenkov angle. Previous work has focused on frequencies in the 100 MHz to 1 GHz range. Surprisingly, we find that the coherence regime extends up to tens of Ghz. This may have substantial impact on future radio-based neutrino detection experiments as well as any test beam experiment which seeks to measure coherent Cherenkov radiation from an electromagnetic shower. Our study is particularly important for the RICE experiment at the South Pole.

  6. Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus. [PWR; BWR; LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-03-01

    An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF.

  7. pp Interaction in Extended Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kendi Kohara; Erasmo Ferreira; Takeshi Kodama

    2014-10-30

    Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  8. Shower Testing for the Texas Department of Corrections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted on four low flow showerheads highly recommended by utilities. These measurements were made to determine expected cost savings in TDC installations, based on water savings, sewer savings, and ...

  9. High Speed Pumps Are No Longer Limited to Low Flow Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, P. Y.

    1986-01-01

    number) impellers have been introduced to produce a smooth, ris ing to shut-off head/flow curve shape. mounted upstream of the impell er to ra ise the process flu id pressure (pump suction) to a sufficient level to prevent cavitation within...

  10. Air Shower Simulations in a Hybrid Approach using Cascade Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher; Glennys R. Farrar

    2003-05-28

    A new hybrid approach to air shower simulations is described. At highest energies, each particle is followed individually using the traditional Monte Carlo method; this initializes a system of cascade equations which are applicable for energies such that the shower is one-dimensional. The cascade equations are solved numerically down to energies at which lateral spreading becomes significant, then their output serves as a source function for a 3-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of the final stage of the shower. This simulation procedure reproduces the natural fluctuations in the initial stages of the shower, gives accurate lateral distribution functions, and provides detailed information about all low energy particles on an event-by-event basis. It is quite efficient in computation time.

  11. A Fast Hybrid Approach to Air Shower Simulations and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher; Glennys Farrar; Marcus Bleicher; Manuel Reiter; Sven Soff; Horst Stoecker

    2003-05-22

    The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower simulations, is presented. It combines the use of efficient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to reproduce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite efficient in computation time. As an application of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.

  12. Trigger simulation study of the air shower fluorescence telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebbeker, Thomas

    #12;Contents 1 Outline 3 2 Cosmic rays 5 2.1 Energy spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.2 Shower geometry reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8 Summary and Outlook 39 accelerated particles. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina is the world's largest observatory

  13. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  14. Potential Effect of Climate Change on Design-Period Low Flows in the Mid-Atlantic Mary E. Schoen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (TMDLs) of primary pollutants. Stepwise linear regression is used for predicting the future low change in low flow and the resulting change in TMDL of a point-source primary pollutant are estimated in precipitation and air temperature. For example, increases in air temperature may induce a shift in aquatic biota

  15. THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS-phase micro- channel heat sinks under a fixed liquid coolant flow rate. The parameters relevant to heat sink-channel dimensions corresponding to the prescribed dissipative heat flux and liquid coolant flow rate. Heat sink

  16. Air Shower Measurements with the LOPES Radio Antenna Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Haungs; for the LOPES collaboration

    2008-11-12

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and investigate radio pulses from Extensive Air Showers. Since radio waves suffer very little attenuation, radio measurements allow the detection of very distant or highly inclined showers. These waves can be recorded day and night, and provide a bolometric measure of the leptonic shower component. LOPES is designed as a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. The LOPES antennas are absolutely amplitude calibrated allowing to reconstruct the electric field strength which can be compared with predictions from detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We report about the analysis of correlations present in the radio signals measured by the LOPES 30 antenna array. Additionally, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES-STAR) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Status, recent results of the data analysis and further perspectives of LOPES and the possible large scale application of this new detection technique are discussed.

  17. Alternative energy estimation from the shower lateral distribution function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Souza, V; Brito, J; Dobrigkeit, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Souza, Vitor de; Escobar, Carlos O.; Brito, Joel; Dobrigkeit, Carola; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The surface detector technique has been successfully used to detect cosmic ray showers for several decades. Scintillators or Cerenkov water tanks can be used to measure the number of particles and/or the energy density at a given depth in the atmosphere and reconstruct the primary particle properties. It has been shown that the experiment configuration and the resolution in reconstructing the core position determine a distance to the shower axis in which the lateral distribution function (LDF) of particles shows the least variation with respect to different primary particles type, simulation models and specific shapes of the LDF. Therefore, the signal at this distance (600 m for Haverah Park and 1000 m for Auger Observatory) has shown to be a good estimator of the shower energy. Revisiting the above technique, we show that a range of distances to the shower axis, instead of one single point, can be used as estimator of the shower energy. A comparison is done for the Auger Observatory configuration and the new...

  18. Alternative energy estimation from the shower lateral distribution function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitor de Souza; Carlos O. Escobar; Joel Brito; Carola Dobrigkeit; Gustavo Medina-Tanco

    2005-09-16

    The surface detector technique has been successfully used to detect cosmic ray showers for several decades. Scintillators or Cerenkov water tanks can be used to measure the number of particles and/or the energy density at a given depth in the atmosphere and reconstruct the primary particle properties. It has been shown that the experiment configuration and the resolution in reconstructing the core position determine a distance to the shower axis in which the lateral distribution function (LDF) of particles shows the least variation with respect to different primary particles type, simulation models and specific shapes of the LDF. Therefore, the signal at this distance (600 m for Haverah Park and 1000 m for Auger Observatory) has shown to be a good estimator of the shower energy. Revisiting the above technique, we show that a range of distances to the shower axis, instead of one single point, can be used as estimator of the shower energy. A comparison is done for the Auger Observatory configuration and the new estimator proposed here is shown to be a good and robust alternative to the standard single point procedure.

  19. Department Head Resource Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 Department Head Resource Portal CREATING DEPARTMENT GOALS A goal is a condition we envision;2 Department Head Resource Portal NO DO YOU HAVE IT? YES ffff Achieve Preserve Avoid Eliminate NO DO YOU HAVE

  20. Department Head Resource Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 Department Head Resource Portal NEW EMPLOYEE CHECKLIST New Staff Member Name: Department: Start Appearance expectations (e.g., business casual) #12;2 Department Head Resource Portal First Day Prep://myinfo.rit.edu (pay stub, benefits info, emergency contact, etc) Emergency exits #12;3 Department Head Resource Portal

  1. Universality of electron distributions in high-energy air showers - description of Cherenkov light production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Nerling; J. Blümer; R. Engel; M. Risse

    2005-12-22

    The shower simulation code CORSIKA has been used to investigate the electron energy and angular distributions in high-energy showers. Based on the universality of both distributions, we develop an analytical description of Cherenkov light emission in extensive air showers, which provides the total number and angular distribution of photons. The parameterisation can be used e.g. to calculate the contribution of direct and scattered Cherenkov light to shower profiles measured with the air fluorescence technique.

  2. Simulation of air shower image in fluorescence light based on energy deposits derived from CORSIKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gora; D. Heck; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski

    2004-03-01

    Spatial distributions of energy deposited by an extensive air shower in the atmosphere through ionization, as obtained from the CORSIKA simulation program, are used to find the fluorescence light distribution in the optical image of the shower. The shower image derived in this way is somewhat smaller than that obtained from the NKG lateral distribution of particles in the shower. The size of the image shows a small dependence on the primary particle type.

  3. Indoor bicycle storage and shower station Covered bicycle storage outside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    materials in interior finishes Lots of natural day lighting Energy recovery units that reduce humidity, bring in outside air and reduce energy use Water conserving dual-flush toilets Low-flow faucets pavers in driveways to reduce storm-water runoff Digital television and website displays campus energy

  4. Hadronic interactions and extensive air showers Ralph Engel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    multiparticle production is important for deriving the composition and energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany E-mail: ralph.engel@ik.fzk.de Abstract. Understanding hadronic from air shower measurements at high energy. In this article, predictions of hadronic interaction

  5. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

  6. Bottom head assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  7. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.

    1995-07-04

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step. 5 figs.

  8. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Syn, Chol K. (Moraga, CA); Lesuer, Donald R. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step.

  9. Matching Fully Differential NNLO Calculations and Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Alioli; Christian W. Bauer; Calvin Berggren; Frank J. Tackmann; Jonathan R. Walsh; Saba Zuberi

    2013-11-01

    We present a general method to match fully differential next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculations to parton shower programs. We discuss in detail the perturbative accuracy criteria a complete NNLO+PS matching has to satisfy. Our method is based on consistently improving a given NNLO calculation with the leading-logarithmic (LL) resummation in a chosen jet resolution variable. The resulting NNLO$+$LL calculation is cast in the form of an event generator for physical events that can be directly interfaced with a parton shower routine, and we give an explicit construction of the input "Monte Carlo cross sections" satisfying all required criteria. We also show how other proposed approaches naturally arise as special cases in our method.

  10. Tagging Spallation Backgrounds with Showers in Water-Cherenkov Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shirley Weishi

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons and especially their secondaries break apart nuclei ("spallation") and produce fast neutrons and beta-decay isotopes, which are backgrounds for low-energy experiments. In Super-Kamiokande, these beta decays are the dominant background in 6--18 MeV, relevant for solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. In a previous paper, we showed that these spallation isotopes are produced primarily in showers, instead of in isolation. This explains an empirical spatial correlation between a peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and the spallation decay, which Super-Kamiokande used to develop a new spallation cut. However, the muon light profiles that Super-Kamiokande measured are grossly inconsistent with shower physics. We show how to resolve this discrepancy and how to reconstruct accurate profiles of muons and their showers from their Cherenkov light. We propose a new spallation cut based on these improved profiles and quantify its effects. Our results can significantly benefit ...

  11. The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Erlykin

    2007-01-22

    Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core ('neutron thunder') are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the termalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the production of secondary gamma-quanta. This conclusion raises the important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment since they have often hydrogen containing materials like polyethilene in neutron monitors. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors. It can be particularly important for the signals from scintillator or water tank detectors at km-long distances from the EAS core where neutrons of the shower become the dominant component after a few mcsec behind the EAS front.

  12. Tagging Spallation Backgrounds with Showers in Water-Cherenkov Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley Weishi Li; John F. Beacom

    2015-08-21

    Cosmic-ray muons and especially their secondaries break apart nuclei ("spallation") and produce fast neutrons and beta-decay isotopes, which are backgrounds for low-energy experiments. In Super-Kamiokande, these beta decays are the dominant background in 6--18 MeV, relevant for solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. In a previous paper, we showed that these spallation isotopes are produced primarily in showers, instead of in isolation. This explains an empirical spatial correlation between a peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and the spallation decay, which Super-Kamiokande used to develop a new spallation cut. However, the muon light profiles that Super-Kamiokande measured are grossly inconsistent with shower physics. We show how to resolve this discrepancy and how to reconstruct accurate profiles of muons and their showers from their Cherenkov light. We propose a new spallation cut based on these improved profiles and quantify its effects. Our results can significantly benefit low-energy studies in Super-Kamiokande, and will be especially important for detectors at shallower depths, like the proposed Hyper-Kamiokande.

  13. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  14. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W. Thor (Idaho Falls, ID); Reutzel, Edward W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  15. Modelling for post-dryout heat transfer and droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, H.Y.; No, H.C. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-10-01

    A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j*{sub g} = 0.5 {approximately} 4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 15%, respectively.

  16. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M.; Kim, H.

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. In conclusion, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  17. Comparison of hybrid and pure Monte Carlo shower generators on an event by event basis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeff Allen; Hans-Joachim Drescher; Glennys Farrar

    2007-08-21

    SENECA is a hybrid air shower simulation written by H. Drescher that utilizes both Monte Carlo simulation and cascade equations. By using the cascade equations only in the high energy portion of the shower, where the shower is inherently one-dimensional, SENECA is able to utilize the advantages in speed from the cascade equations yet still produce complete, three dimensional particle distributions at ground level which capture the shower to shower variations coming from the early interactions. We present a comparison, on an event by event basis, of SENECA and CORSIKA, a well trusted MC simulation code. By using the same first interaction in both SENECA and CORSIKA, the effect of the cascade equations can be studied within a single shower, rather than averaged over many showers. Our study shows that for showers produced in this manner, SENECA agrees with CORSIKA to a very high accuracy with respect to densities, energies, and timing information for individual species of ground-level particles from both iron and proton primaries with energies between 1 EeV and 100 EeV. Used properly, SENECA produces ground particle distributions virtually indistinguishable from those of CORSIKA in a fraction of the time. For example, for a shower induced by a 10 EeV proton, SENECA is 10 times faster than CORSIKA, with comparable accuracy.

  18. Estimation of Lateral Distribution Function in Extensive Air Showers by Using AIRES Simulation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ahmed Al-Rubaiee; Ahmed Jumaah

    2013-05-25

    In this work the estimation of the lateral distribution function in Extensive Air showers was performed by using a system for air shower simulations which is called AIRES version 2.6 for different hadronic models like (QGSJET99, SIBYLL and SIBYLL1.6). The simulation was fulfilled in the high energy range (10^15-10^19 eV) for different primary particles like (gamma, protons and iron nuclei) for vertical showers. This simulation can be used to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated Extensive Air showers for charged particles that registered with different arrays.

  19. Tutorial Note on Merging Matrix Elements with Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Rössler

    2015-03-26

    In this short note, I introduce to essential conceptual features and main building blocks of matrix element merging algorithms, operating on fixed order calculations both at leading order and next-to-leading order. The intention is purely pedagogical, i.e. to familiarize the reader with the essential basic concepts in a concise way, thus serving as an introduction to beginners and other interested readers. Unitarization is discussed briefly. The tutorial is highly biased towards transverse momentum ordered parton showers, and in particular towards merging schemes as they are implemented in the Pythia8 general purpose Monte Carlo generator.

  20. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Air Shower Arrays A.I. Mincer 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    and for searching for transient sources such as gamma ray bursts. The Milagro detector is currently operating such as gamma ray bursts or to study the time variation of ``steady'' sources, air shower arrays are usedGamma Ray Astronomy with Air Shower Arrays A.I. Mincer 1 New York University, New York, NY 10003

  1. Splish, Splash, I Was Takin= a Bath, or Should It Be a Shower? Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of water used taking a bath. $ Learn the amount of water used taking a shower. $ Learn ways to conserve water when taking a shower or a bath. Materials Needed: ruler, paper, pencil, and your bathtub Research the depth of the water (how deep is the water with your ruler measuring vertically) at four different

  2. Addendum to "Coherent radio pulses from GEANT generated electromagnetic showers in ice"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Razzaque; S. Seunarine; S. Chambers; D. Besson; D. McKay; J. Ralston; D. Seckel

    2003-06-13

    We reevaluate our published calculations of electromagnetic showers generated by GEANT 3.21 and the radio frequency pulses they produce in ice. We are prompted by a recent report showing that GEANT 3.21-modeled showers are sensitive to internal settings in the electron tracking subroutine. We report the shower and pulse characteristics obtained with different settings of GEANT 3.21 and with GEANT 4. The default setting of electron tracking in GEANT 3.21 we used in previous work speeds up the shower simulation at the cost of information near the end of the tracks. We find that settings tracking electron and positron to lower energy yield a more accurate calculation, a more intense shower, and proportionately stronger radio pulses at low frequencies. At high frequencies the relation between shower tracking algorithm and pulse spectrum is more complex. We obtain radial distributions of shower particles and phase distributions of pulses from 100 GeV showers that are consistent with our published results.

  3. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  4. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon

    2013-01-15

    Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  5. Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 490 c Copernicus Gesellschaft 2001 Study of the longitudinal development of air showers with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics, New York, NY 10027 Abstract. The HiRes air fluorescence experiment directly observes the Nitrogen the shower profile to both ends in or- der to reconstruct the air shower and to determine the shower energy age. Consequently, we try a Gaussian function in age as an alternative to the G-H function

  6. Functional Heads and Interpretation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adger, David

    on interpretation is a subsidiary concern.The argument of the thesis goes as follows: firstly, reference must be made to both an independently projecting functional head Agr and to a level of discourse representation in order to adequately analyse the phenomenon...

  7. Dominant Contributions to Lateral Distribution Functions in Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher; Glennys R. Farrar

    2002-06-12

    In hadron induced air showers of highest energies (E> 1e18 eV), the lateral distribution functions of electrons and muons are a superposition of many separate electromagnetic sub-showers, initiated by meson decay at different altitudes and energies. The lateral distribution function is the primary tool for reconstructing the energy of the primary in a UHE cosmic ray shower, so understanding it in detail is a prerequisite for having confidence in the energy determination. We analyze in this paper the dominant contributions to the ground level lateral distribution functions, as a function of the altitude and energy at which the sub-showers are initiated. Far from the core, the dominant contribution to the density of electrons comes from sub-showers initiated at low altitudes and low energies (E<100 GeV). The dominant sub-showers are initiated at large radial distance from the core and at a large angle with respect to the main shower axis. This demonstrates the need for careful treatment of low energy hadron physics modeling even for ultrahigh energy primaries.

  8. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  9. Matching NLO QCD computations and parton shower simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Frixione; B. R. Webber

    2002-07-12

    We propose a method for matching the next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation of a given QCD process with a parton shower Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The method has the following features: fully exclusive events are generated, with hadronization according to the MC model; total exclusive rates are accurate to NLO; NLO results for distributions are recovered upon expansion in $\\alpha_S$; hard emissions are treated as in NLO computations while soft/collinear emissions are handled by the MC simulation, with the same logarithmic accuracy as the MC; and matching between the hard- and soft/collinear-emission regions is smooth. A fraction of events with negative weight is generated, but unweighting remains possible with reasonable efficiency. The method is clarified using a simple toy model, and illustrated by application to the hadroproduction of W$^+$W$^-$ pairs.

  10. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-07-15

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  11. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  12. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. A study of electromagnetic showers in the high density projection chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, E.; Berggren, M.; Cattai, A.; Fischer, H.G.; Flammier, M.; Gerutti, G.; Innocenti, P.G.; Iversen, P.S.

    1983-02-01

    A prototype module of a High density Projection Chamber (HPC) has been tested in an electron beam. The HPC, with the shower conversion separated from the charge collection, offers a simple, homogeneous large volume detector with an energy resolution of 12.5%/..sqrt..E and an exceptionally fine granularity both along and transverse to the shower axis. The results from the test are presented together with a description of the calorimeter system.

  14. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. D. Apel; J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez; L. Bähren; K. Bekk; M. Bertaina; P. L. Biermann; J. Blümer; H. Bozdog; I. M. Brancus; E. Cantoni; A. Chiavassa; K. Daumiller; V. de Souza; F. Di Pierro; P. Doll; R. Engel; H. Falcke; B. Fuchs; H. Gemmeke; C. Grupen; A. Haungs; D. Heck; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; D. Huber; T. Huege; P. G. Isar; K. -H. Kampert; D. Kang; O. Krömer; J. Kuijpers; K. Link; P. Luczak; M. Ludwig; H. J. Mathes; M. Melissas; C. Morello; J. Oehlschläger; N. Palmieri; T. Pierog; J. Rautenberg; H. Rebel; M. Roth; C. Rühle; A. Saftoiu; H. Schieler; A. Schmidt; S. Schoo; F. G. Schröder; O. Sima; G. Toma; G. C. Trinchero; A. Weindl; J. Wochele; J. Zabierowski; J. A. Zensus

    2014-08-07

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above $10^{17}\\,$eV and zenith angles smaller than $45^\\circ$, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances $\\gtrsim 50\\,$m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately $140\\,$g/cm$^2$. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, $X_\\mathrm{max}$, better than $30\\,$g/cm$^2$. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  15. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schellart, P; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  16. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bähren, L.; Falcke, H.; Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di; Biermann, P.L.; Brancus, I.M.; De Souza, V.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ?> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  17. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  18. Extensive Air Showers and the Physics of High Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Erlykin

    2007-03-20

    Extensive Air Showers are still the only source of information on primary cosmic rays and their interactions at energies above PeV. However, this information is hidden inside the multiplicative character of the cascading process. Inspite of the great experimental and theoretical efforts the results of different studies are often ambiguous and even conflicting. These controversies can partly be referred to imperfections of our models of high energy interactions. The first part of the paper is concerned with this problem. The author thinks that the present models should be corrected to give slightly deeper penetration of the cascade into the atmosphere. In this respect the modification suggested by the QGSJET-II model seems to be the step in the right direction. The Sibyll 2.1 model provides a similar penetrating properties. However, this modification is not enough and a small additional transfer of the energy from EAS hadrons to the electromagnetic component is needed too. As a possible candidate for such a process the inelastic charge exchange of pions is discussed. In the second part of the paper the author discusses the need to account for the interaction of EAS with the stuff of detectors, their environment and the ground in the light of the 'neutron thunder' phenomenon, discovered recently.

  19. Matching NLO QCD and parton showers in heavy flavour production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Frixione; P. Nason; B. R. Webber

    2003-11-04

    We apply the MC@NLO approach to the process of heavy flavour hadroproduction. MC@NLO is a method for matching next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations and parton shower Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, with the following features: fully exclusive events are generated, with hadronisation according to the MC model; total rates are accurate to NLO; NLO results for distributions are recovered upon expansion in $\\as$; hard emissions are treated as in NLO computations while soft/collinear emissions are handled by the MC simulation, with the same logarithmic accuracy as the MC; matching between the hard and soft regions is smooth, and no intermediate integration steps are necessary. The method was applied previously to the hadroproduction of gauge boson pairs, which at NLO involves only initial-state QCD radiation and a unique colour structure. In heavy flavour production, it is necessary to include contributions from final-state QCD radiation and different colour flows. We present illustrative results on top and bottom production at the Tevatron and LHC.

  20. A radio air shower surface detector as an extension for IceCube and IceTop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Auffenberg; T. Gaisser; K. Helbing; T. Huege; T. Karg; A. Karle

    2007-08-24

    The IceCube neutrino detector is built into the Antarctic ice sheet at the South Pole to measure high energy neutrinos. For this, 4800 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being deployed at depths between 1450 and 2450 meters into the ice to measure neutrino induced charged particles like muons. IceTop is a surface air shower detector consisting of 160 Cherenkov ice tanks located on top of IceCube. To extend IceTop, a radio air shower detector could be built to significantly increase the sensitivity at higher shower energies and for inclined showers. As air showers induced by cosmic rays are a major part of the muonic background in IceCube, IceTop is not only an air shower detector, but also a veto to reduce the background in IceCube. Air showers are detectable by radio signals with a radio surface detector. The major emission process is the coherent synchrotron radiation emitted by e+ e- shower particles in the Earths magnetic field (geosynchrotron effect). Simulations of the expected radio signals of air showers are shown. The sensitivity and the energy threshold of different antenna field configurations are estimated.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWER COUNTER SYSTEM OF THE MARK II DETECTOR AT SPEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    shower simulation using EGS. Etr corrects for variations inR, L, Ford and W, R, Nelson, EGS Code, SLAC Report NO, 210 (

  2. Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    1985. Residential hot water energy analysis: Instruments andto determine waste of water and energy in residential hot-LBNL-5115E Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower

  3. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Huege; J. D. Bray; S. Buitink; R. Dallier; R. D. Ekers; H. Falcke; A. Haungs; C. W. James; L. Martin; B. Revenu; O. Scholten; F. G. Schröder; A. Zilles

    2015-08-14

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere via their radio emission. With its very dense and uniform antenna spacing in a fiducial area of one km$^2$ and its large bandwidth of 50-350 MHz, the low-frequency part of the SKA will provide very precise measurements of individual cosmic ray air showers. These precision measurements will allow detailed studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy region of transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin. Also, the SKA will facilitate three-dimensional "tomography" of the electromagnetic cascades of air showers, allowing the study of particle interactions at energies beyond the reach of the LHC. Finally, studies of possible connections between air showers and lightning initiation can be taken to a new level with the SKA. We discuss the science potential of air shower detection with the SKA and report on the technical requirements and project status.

  4. UC Davis Student Housing, a division of Student Affairs WALL, CAMPBELL, and POTTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    connections · Room controlled cooling/heating · ADA compliant rooms & baths · Card key controlled building of each building. Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) The project is registered under the U · Low flow faucets, toilets, and shower heads · Dual-stream waste chute to capture recyclable material

  5. Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Annkatrin

    Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency

  6. A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

  7. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; A. Aab; P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; M. Ahlers; E. J. Ahn; I. Al Samarai; I. F. M. Albuquerque; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; A. Almela; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; R. Alves Batista; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; C. Aramo; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Ave; M. Avenier; G. Avila; A. M. Badescu; K. B. Barber; J. Bäuml; C. Baus; J. J. Beatty; K. H. Becker; J. A. Bellido; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; I. Brancus; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; M. Buscemi; K. S. Caballero-Mora; B. Caccianiga; L. Caccianiga; M. Candusso; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; A. G. Chavez; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; J. Chudoba; M. Cilmo; R. W. Clay; G. Cocciolo; R. Colalillo; L. Collica; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceição; F. Contreras; M. J. Cooper; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Criss; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; R. Dallier; B. Daniel; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; M. De Domenico; S. J. de Jong; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; I. De Mitri; J. de Oliveira; V. de Souza; L. del Peral; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; A. Di Matteo; J. C. Diaz; M. L. D\\'\\iaz Castro; P. N. Diep; F. Diogo; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh; M. T. Dova; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; M. Erfani; C. O. Escobar; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; H. Falcke; K. Fang; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; M. Fernandes; B. Fick; J. M. Figueira; A. Filevich; A. Filip?i?; B. D. Fox; O. Fratu; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; T. Fuji; R. Gaior; B. Garc\\'\\ia; S. T. Garcia Roca; D. Garcia-Gamez; D. Garcia-Pinto; G. Garilli; A. Gascon Bravo; F. Gate; H. Gemmeke; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giammarchi; M. Giller; C. Glaser; H. Glass; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. F. Gómez Vitale; P. Gonçalves; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; A. Gorgi; P. Gorham; P. Gouffon; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; A. F. Grillo; T. D. Grubb; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; P. Hansen; D. Harari; T. A. Harrison; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; P. Heimann; A. E. Herve; G. C. Hill; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; E. Holt; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; P. Horvath; M. Hrabovský; D. Huber; T. Huege; A. Insolia; P. G. Isar; K. Islo; I. Jandt; S. Jansen; C. Jarne; M. Josebachuili; A. Kääpä; O. Kambeitz; K. H. Kampert; P. Kasper; I. Katkov; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; R. Krause; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; D. Kuempel; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; D. LaHurd; L. Latronico; R. Lauer; M. Lauscher; P. Lautridou; S. Le Coz; M. S. A. B. Leão; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; R. López; A. Lopez Agëra; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; L. Lu; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; M. C. Maccarone; M. Malacari; S. Maldera; J. Maller; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; V. Marin; I. C. Mari?; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Mart\\'\\inez Bravo; D. Martraire; J. J. Mas\\'\\ias Meza; H. J. Mathes; S. Mathys; A. J. Matthews; J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurel; D. Maurizio; E. Mayotte; P. O. Mazur; C. Medina; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; S. Messina; R. Meyhandan; S. Mi?anovi?; M. I. Micheletti; L. Middendorf; I. A. Minaya; L. Miramonti; B. Mitrica; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; C. Morello; J. C. Moreno; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; D. Newton; M. Niechciol; L. Niemietz; T. Niggemann; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; V. Novotny; L. Nožka; L. Ochilo; A. Olinto; M. Oliveira; V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja; M. Ortiz; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; P. Papenbreer; G. Parente; A. Parra; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. P?kala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; C. Peters; S. Petrera; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; M. Plum; A. Porcelli; C. Porowski; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; V. Purrello; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; S. Quinn; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; I. Rodriguez Cabo; G. Rodriguez Fernandez; J. Rodriguez Rojo; M. D. Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias; G. Ros; J. Rosado; T. Rossler; M. Roth; E. Roulet; A. C. Rovero; C. Rühle; S. J. Saffi; A. Saftoiu; F. Salamida; H. Salazar; F. Salesa Greus

    2014-07-11

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than $60^\\circ$ detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  8. Comparison of Air Fluorescence and Ionization Measurements of E.M. Shower Depth Profiles: Test of a UHECR Detector Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belz, J.; Cao, Z.; Huentemeyer, P.; Jui, C.C.H.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J.; Maestas, M.; Smith, J.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Thomas, S.; /Utah U.; Chen,P.; Field, Clive; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Ng, J.S.T.; Odian, A.; Reil, K.; Vincke, H.; Walz, D.; /SLAC /Montana U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; ,

    2005-10-07

    Measurements are reported on the fluorescence of air as a function of depth in electromagnetic showers initiated by bunches of 28.5 GeV electrons. The light yield is compared with the expected and observed depth profiles of ionization in the showers. It validates the use of atmospheric fluorescence profiles in measuring ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  9. Late Arriving Particles in Cosmic Ray Air Showers and AGASA's Determination of UHECR Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher; Glennys R. Farrar

    2005-06-08

    We give the first detailed study of the arrival time distribution of nucleons in UHECR air showers. We analyze in detail the influence of late arriving particles on the energy determination of the AGASA experiment, as well as how the arrival time distribution changes with distance from shower core. Our calculations are consistent with experimental observations of the AGASA group. Crucial to obtaining agreement, is the correct implementation of the energy loss for low-energy protons. We confirm AGASA's estimation of the error in their energy determination associated with late-arriving particles, assuming primary protons.

  10. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  11. Coherent radio pulses from showers in different media: A unified parameterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz; Enrique Marqués; Ricardo A. Vázquez; Enrique Zas

    2005-12-13

    We study the frequency and angular dependences of Cherenkov radio pulses originated by the excess of electrons in electromagnetic showers in different dense media. We develop a simple model to relate the main characteristics of the electric field spectrum to the properties of the shower such as longitudinal and lateral development. This model allows us to establish the scaling of the electric field spectrum with the properties of the medium such as density, radiation length, Moliere radius, critical energy and refraction index. We normalize the predictions of the scaling relations to the numerical results obtained in our own developed GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulation, and we give a unified parameterization of the frequency spectrum and angular distribution of the electric field in ice, salt, and the lunar regolith, in terms of the relevant properties of the media. Our parameterizations are valid for electromagnetic showers below the energy at which the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect starts to be relevant in these media. They also provide an approximate estimate of radio emission in hadronic showers induced by high energy cosmic rays or neutrinos.

  12. Measurement of the Muon content of Extensive Air Showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Espadanal; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-05-20

    Several methods developed within the Pierre Auger Collaboration for the estimation of the muonic component of the Extensive Air Showers observed in the surface Cherenkov detectors are described. The results derived from the data show a deficit of muons predicted by the current hadronic interactions models at ultra-high energies.

  13. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huege, T; Buitink, S; Dallier, R; Ekers, R D; Falcke, H; Haungs, A; James, C W; Martin, L; Revenu, B; Scholten, O; Schröder, F G; Zilles, A

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere via their radio emission. With its very dense and uniform antenna spacing in a fiducial area of one km$^2$ and its large bandwidth of 50-350 MHz, the low-frequency part of the SKA will provide very precise measurements of individual cosmic ray air showers. These precision measurements will allow detailed studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy region of transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin. Also, the SKA will facilitate three-dimensional "tomography" of the electromagnetic cascades of air showers, allowing the study of particle interactions at energies beyond the reach of the LHC. Finally, studies of possible connections between air showers and lightning initiation ...

  14. Gamma Ray Bursts as seen by a Giant Air Shower Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Escobar; P. L. Da Silva; R. A. Vázquez

    1997-12-19

    The potentiality of a Giant Shower Array to low energy gamma rays from gamma ray bursts is discussed. Effective areas are calculated for different scenarios and the results are encouraging. If gamma ray bursts have a spectrum which continues in the high energy gamma ray region, the Pierre Auger Observatory will be able to detect it.

  15. Development of Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array for a new EAS hybrid Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jinsheng; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liuming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiaobin; Lin, Yuhui; Zhang, Xueyao; Feng, Cunfeng; Jia, Huanyu; Zhou, Xunxiu; DanZengLuoBu,; Chen, Tianlu; Li, Haijin; Liu, Maoyuan; Yuan, Aifang

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition at the "knee" energy region, we have been developinga new type air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522$^\\circ$ E, 30.102$^\\circ$ N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m$^2$) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thick and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to $10^{6}$ MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named "YAC-I", consists of 16 YAC detectors each having the size 40 cm $\\times$ 50 cm and distributing in a grid with an effective area of 10 m$^{2}$. YAC-I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment,...

  16. A parton shower algorithm based on Catani-Seymour dipole factorisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffen Schumann; Frank Krauss

    2007-09-07

    In this publication the implementation of a new parton shower model based on the Catani-Seymour dipole factorisation, as first suggested by Z. Nagy and D. E. Soper, is discussed. First results obtained with the new algorithm are compared with experimental data.

  17. Drell-Yan Lepton pair production at NNLO QCD with parton showers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoeche, Stefan; Li, Ye; Prestel, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    We present a simple approach to combine NNLO QCD calculations and parton showers, based on the UNLOPS technique. We apply the method to the computation of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production at the Large Hadron Collider. We comment on possible improvements and intrinsic uncertainties.

  18. DEGREE DAYS AND WEATHER NOTES Weather Forecast: Chance of showers and storms through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    1 DEGREE DAYS AND WEATHER NOTES Weather Forecast: Chance of showers and storms through Thursday by ~225. Complete weather summaries and forecasts are at available enviroweather.msu.edu GDD (from March 1.isaacslab.ent.msu.edu/blueberryscout/blueberryscout.htm Contents · Crop Stages · Weather Notes · Disease Update · Scouting the Major Diseases of Highbush

  19. HeadLock: Wide-Range Head Pose Estimation for Low Resolution Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Deb

    HeadLock: Wide-Range Head Pose Estimation for Low Resolution Video Philip DeCamp B-Range Head Pose Estimation for Low Resolution Video by Philip DeCamp Submitted to the Program in Media Arts on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head

  20. OROZCO et al.: HEAD POSE CLASSIFICATION IN CROWDED SCENES 1 Head Pose Classification in Crowded Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shaogang

    attempts have been made on head pose estimation in low-resolution images by treating the problem as a multi for head pose classification given low resolution images. In their approach, 360 head pose in c 2009OROZCO et al.: HEAD POSE CLASSIFICATION IN CROWDED SCENES 1 Head Pose Classification in Crowded

  1. Rotating head and piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomm, T.J.; Messick, N.C.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a rotary piston combustion engine. It comprises a housing means, an engine block housing a single toroidal bore, a piston carrier ring spaced outwardly along the entire perimeter of the toroidal bore with at least one finger extending inwardly for piston attachment, a power transfer cylinder, a power output shaft, an auxiliary shaft with driven gearing means meshing with the driving gearing means, a rotating head with windows for piston passage, a trapezoidal porting means in the engine block and in the rotating head, an exhaust port means.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWER COUNTER SYSTEM OF THE MARK II DETECTOR AT SPEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    of California. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWERMark II detector is a large lead/liquid argon system of theof-flight information, lead/liquid argon shower counters,

  3. The LPM effect for EeV hadronic showers in ice: implications for radio detection of neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alvarez-Muñiz; E. Zas

    1998-06-06

    We study the longitudinal development of hadronic showers in ice for energies up to 100 EeV and its implications for radio and optical Cherenkov emission. A small fraction of showers induced by primaries of energy above 1 EeV is shown to display the characteristic elongation associated to the Landau Pomeranchuck Migdal (LPM) effect. The rest look like ordinary showers because the highest energy $\\pi^0$'s interact instead of decaying in two photons. The LPM effect observed in this fraction of the showers is mainly due to $\\eta$ and $\\eta '$ production and decay. We give parameterizations for the total and excess charge tracklengths and for the amplitude and angular spread of the electric field spectrum in the Cherenkov direction. Implications for neutrino detection are briefly addressed.

  4. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    Conversely, low-frequency variations in head, such as asensitivities al­ low one to invert transient head waveformswhich utilize low frequency information, such as static head

  5. Analyzing pulse from head motions in video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Guha

    2014-01-01

    We extract heart rate and beat lengths from videos by measuring subtle head oscillations that accompany the cardiac cycle. Our method tracks features on the head, temporally filters their trajectories and performs principal ...

  6. Automatic Head Motion Prediction from Speech Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofer, Gregor; Shimodaira, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach to generate a sequence of head motion units given some speech. The modelling approach is based on the notion that head motion can be divided into a number of short homogeneous ...

  7. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carla Bleve; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-06-11

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  8. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray and UHE Neutrino-Z Showering in Dark Halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Fargion; P. G. De Sanctis Lucentini; M. Grossi; M. De Santis; Barbara Mele

    2002-01-03

    The Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR), by UHE neutrino-relic neutrino--Z showering in Hot Dark Halos (HDM), shows an energy spectra, an anisotropy following the relic neutrino masses and clustering in dark halo. The lighter are the relic neutrinos masses, the higher their corresponding Z resonance energy peaks. A twin light neutrino mass splitting may reflect into a twin Z resonance and a complex UHECR spectra modulation as a twin bump at at highest GZK energy cut-off. Each possible neutrino mass associates a characteristic dark halo size (galactic, local, super cluster) and its anisotropy due to our peculiar position within that dark matter distribution. The expected Z or WW,ZZ showering into proton-anti proton and neutron-anti neutron might correspond to peculiar clustering in observed UHECR at 10^{19}, 2 10^{19}, 4 10^{19} eV. A neutrino light HDM halo around a Mpc will allow to the UHECR neutron--anti-neutron secondary component at E_n> 10^{20} eV (due to Z decay) to arise playing a role comparable with the charged p-bar{p} ones. Their un-deflected n-bar{n} flight is shorter leading to a prompt and hard UHECR trace pointing toward the original UHECR source direction. The direct proton-antiproton pairs are split and spread by random magnetic fields into a more diluted and smeared and lower energy UHECR signal around the original source direction. Additional prompt TeVs signals by synchrotron radiation of electro-magnetic Z showering must also occur solving the Infrared-TeV cut-off. The observed hard doublet and triplets spectra, their time and space clustering already favour the rising key role of UHECR n-bar n secondaries originated by neutrino-Z tail shower.

  9. Top-pair production and decay at NLO matched with parton showers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R. Keith; Nason, Paolo; Re, Emanuele

    2015-04-21

    We present a next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation of tt¯ production in hadronic collisions interfaced to shower generators according to the POWHEG method. We start from an NLO result from previous work, obtained in the zero width limit, where radiative corrections to both production and decays are included. The POWHEG interface required an extension of the POWHEG BOX framework, in order to deal with radiation from the decay of resonances. This extension is fully general (i.e. it can be applied in principle to any process considered in the zero width limit), and is here applied for the first time. In ordermore »to perform a realistic simulation, we introduce finite width effects using different approximations, that we validated by comparing with published exact NLO results. We have interfaced our POWHEG code to the PYTHIA8 shower Monte Carlo generator. At this stage, we dealt with novel issues related to the treatment of resonances, especially with regard to the initial scale for the shower that needs to be set appropriately. This procedure affects, for example, the fragmentation function of the b quark, that we have studied with particular attention. We believe that the tool presented here improves over previous generators for all aspects that have to do with top decays, and especially for the study of issues related to top mass measurements that involve B hadrons or b jets. The work presented here also constitutes a first step towards a fully consistent matching of NLO calculations involving intermediate resonances decaying into coloured particles, with parton showers.« less

  10. Drell-Yan Production at NNLL'+NNLO Matched to Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Alioli; Christian W. Bauer; Calvin Berggren; Frank J. Tackmann; Jonathan R. Walsh

    2015-08-06

    We present results for Drell-Yan production from the GENEVA Monte-Carlo framework. We combine the fully-differential NNLO calculation with higher-order resummation in the 0-jettiness resolution variable. The resulting parton-level events are further combined with parton showering and hadronization provided by PYTHIA8. The 0-jettiness resummation is carried out to NNLL', which consistently incorporates all singular virtual and real NNLO corrections. It thus provides a natural perturbative connection between the NNLO calculation and the parton shower regime, including a systematic assessment of perturbative uncertainties. In this way, inclusive observables are correct to NNLO, up to small power corrections in the resolution cutoff. Furthermore, the perturbative accuracy of 0-jet-like resummation variables is significantly improved beyond the parton shower approximation. We provide comparisons with LHC measurements of Drell-Yan production at 7 TeV from ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. As already observed in $e^+e^-$ collisions, for resummation-sensitive observables, the agreement with data is noticeably improved by using a lower value of $\\alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1135$.

  11. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. P. Dembinski; B. Kégl; I. C. Mari?; M. Roth; D. Veberi?

    2015-03-31

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated toy experiments, which mimic realistic experimental conditions.

  12. Lateral density and arrival time distributions of Cherenkov photons in extensive air showers: a simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hazarika; U. D. Goswami; V. R. Chitnis; B. S. Acharya; G. S. Das; B. B. Singh; R. J. Britto

    2015-02-20

    We have investigated some features of the density and arrival time distributions of Cherenkov photons in extensive air showers using the CORSIKA simulation package. The main thrust of this study is to see the effect of hadronic interaction models on the production pattern of Cherenkov photons with respect to distance from the shower core. Such studies are very important in ground based $\\gamma$-ray astronomy for an effective rejection of huge cosmic ray background, where the atmospheric Cherenkov technique is being used extensively within the energy range of some hundred GeV to few TeV. We have found that for all primary particles, the density distribution patterns of Cherenkov photons follow the negative exponential function with different coefficients and slopes depending on the type of primary particle, its energy and the type of interaction model combinations. Whereas the arrival time distribution patterns of Cherenkov photons follow the function of the form $t (r) = t_{0}e^{\\Gamma/r^{\\lambda}}$, with different values of the function parameters. There is no significant effect of hadronic interaction model combinations on the density and arrival time distributions for the $\\gamma$-ray primaries. However, for the hadronic showers, the effects of the model combinations are significant under different conditions.

  13. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Govi, Aldo R. (Greensburg, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  14. Development of Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array for a new EAS hybrid Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinsheng Liu; Jing Huang; Ding Chen; Ying Zhang; Liuming Zhai; Xu Chen; Xiaobin Hu; Yuhui Lin; Xueyao Zhang; Cunfeng Feng; Huanyu Jia; Xunxiu Zhou; DanZengLuoBu; Tianlu Chen; Haijin Li; Maoyuan Liu; Aifang Yuan

    2015-07-06

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition at the "knee" energy region, we have been developinga new type air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522$^\\circ$ E, 30.102$^\\circ$ N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m$^2$) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thick and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to $10^{6}$ MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named "YAC-I", consists of 16 YAC detectors each having the size 40 cm $\\times$ 50 cm and distributing in a grid with an effective area of 10 m$^{2}$. YAC-I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment, called "YAC-II", consists of 124 YAC detectors with coverage about 500 m$^2$. The inner 100 detectors of 80 cm $\\times $ 50 cm each are deployed in a 10 $\\times$ 10 matrix from with a 1.9 m separation and the outer 24 detectors of 100 cm $\\times$ 50 cm each are distributed around them to reject non-core events whose shower cores are far from the YAC-II array. YAC-II is used to study the primary cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of proton, helium and iron nuclei between 5$\\times$$10^{13}$ eV and $10^{16}$ eV covering the "knee" and also being connected with direct observations at energies around 100 TeV. We present the design and performance of YAC-II in this paper.

  15. Spallation Backgrounds in Super-Kamiokande Are Made in Muon-Induced Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley Weishi Li; John F. Beacom

    2015-04-28

    Crucial questions about solar and supernova neutrinos remain unanswered. Super-Kamiokande has the exposure needed for progress, but detector backgrounds are a limiting factor. A leading component is the beta decays of isotopes produced by cosmic-ray muons and their secondaries, which initiate nuclear spallation reactions. Cuts of events after and surrounding muon tracks reduce this spallation decay background by $\\simeq 90\\%$ (at a cost of $\\simeq 20\\%$ deadtime), but its rate at 6--18 MeV is still dominant. A better way to cut this background was suggested in a Super-Kamiokande paper [Bays {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~D {\\bf 85}, 052007 (2012)] on a search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background. They found that spallation decays above 16 MeV were preceded near the same location by a peak in the apparent Cherenkov light profile from the muon; a more aggressive cut was applied to a limited section of the muon track, leading to decreased background without increased deadtime. We put their empirical discovery on a firm theoretical foundation. We show that almost all spallation decay isotopes are produced by muon-induced showers and that these showers are rare enough and energetic enough to be identifiable. This is the first such demonstration for any detector. We detail how the physics of showers explains the peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and other Super-K observations. Our results provide a physical basis for practical improvements in background rejection that will benefit multiple studies. For solar neutrinos, in particular, it should be possible to dramatically reduce backgrounds at energies as low as 6 MeV.

  16. Consequences of parton's saturation and string's percolation on the developments of cosmic ray showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Pajares; D. Sousa; R. A. Vázquez

    2000-05-31

    At high gluon or string densities, gluons' saturation or the strong interaction among strings, either forming colour ropes or giving rise to string's percolation, induces a strong suppression in the particle multiplicities produced at high energy. This suppression implies important modifications on cosmic ray shower development. In particular, it is shown that it affects the depth of maximum, the elongation rate, and the behaviour of the number of muons at energies around 10^{17}-10^{18} eV. The existing cosmic ray data point out in the same direction.

  17. OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M. G.; Besson, David Zeke

    2013-02-15

    The Astrophysical Journal, 765:55 (9pp), 2013 March 1 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/55 C© 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY M. G...; accepted 2012 December 16; published 2013 February 15 ABSTRACT We report on the observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at PeV energies. The analysis is based on data taken between 2009 and 2012 with the IceTop air...

  18. HeadLock : wide-range head pose estimation for low resolution video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head pose, as an approximation of gaze direction, is a key indicator of human behavior and interaction. ...

  19. Methods of Determination of the Energy and Mass of Primary Cosmic Ray Particles at Extensive Air Shower Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl-Heinz Kampert

    2001-01-29

    Measurements of cosmic ray particles at energies above E = 5 x 10^{14} eV are performed by large area ground based air shower experiments. Only they provide the collection power required for obtaining sufficient statistics at the low flux levels involved. In this review we briefly outline the physics and astrophysics interests of such measurements and discuss in more detail various experimental techniques applied for reconstructing the energy and mass of the primary particles. These include surface arrays of particle detectors as well as observations of Cherenkov- and of fluorescence light. A large variety of air shower observables is then reconstructed from such data and used to infer the properties of the primary particles via comparisons to air shower simulations. Advantages, limitations, and systematic uncertainties of different approaches will be critically discussed.

  20. Deferred Imitation of Human Head Movements by an Active Stereo Vision Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demiris, Yiannis

    Deferred Imitation of Human Head Movements by an Active Stereo Vision Head J. Demiriszy, S the possibilities for efficient social learning through observation and imitation, is chal­ lenging since on the deferred imitation of human head movements. 1 Introduction Robots of the near future are expected

  1. On the Treatment of Resonances in Next-to-Leading Order Calculations Matched to a Parton Shower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ježo, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a new subtraction method for next-to-leading order calculations that is particularly convenient even when narrow resonances are present. The method is particularly suitable for the implementation of next-to-leading order calculations matched to parton shower generators. It allows at the same time for the inclusion of all finite width effects, including interferences, and for a consistent treatment of resonances in the shower approach, preserving the mass of resonances near their peak. We implement our method, in a fully general and automatic way, within the POWHEG BOX framework, and illustrate it using as a test case the process of $p p \\to \\mu^+ \

  2. Combining Higher-Order Resummation with Multiple NLO Calculations and Parton Showers in GENEVA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Alioli; Christian W. Bauer; Calvin Berggren; Andrew Hornig; Frank J. Tackmann; Christopher K. Vermilion; Jonathan R. Walsh; Saba Zuberi

    2013-10-06

    We extend the lowest-order matching of tree-level matrix elements with parton showers to give a complete description at the next higher perturbative accuracy in alpha_s at both small and large jet resolutions, which has not been achieved so far. This requires the combination of the higher-order resummation of large Sudakov logarithms at small values of the jet resolution variable with the full next-to-leading order (NLO) matrix-element corrections at large values. As a by-product this combination naturally leads to a smooth connection of the NLO calculations for different jet multiplicities. In this paper, we focus on the general construction of our method and discuss its application to e+e and pp collisions. We present first results of the implementation in the GENEVA Monte Carlo framework, where we employ N-jettiness as the jet resolution variable, combining its next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic resummation with fully exclusive NLO matrix elements, and PYTHIA8 as the backend for further parton showering and hadronization. For hadronic collisions, we take Drell-Yan production as an example to apply our construction. For e+e- -> jets, taking alpha_s(mZ) = 0.1135 from fits to LEP thrust data, together with the PYTHIA8 hadronization model, we obtain good agreement with LEP data for a variety of 2-jet observables.

  3. Research Report Head Up, Foot Down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    Research Report Head Up, Foot Down Object Words Orient Attention to the Objects' Typical Location, and object words encode these spatial associa- tions. We tested whether such object words (e.g., head, foot denoting low objects hindered target iden- tification at the bottom of the display. Thus, object words

  4. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-01-01

    and P. Green, “The effect of HUD warning location on driverComparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (also use heads-up displays (HUDs) to convey information to

  5. Numerical and experimental investigations of the head/disk interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duwensee, Maik

    2007-01-01

    Flying Head Slider Bearings in Magnetic Hard Disk Drives.for Flying Head Slider Bearings in Magnetic Storage. ASME J.Warner et al. Magnetic Head Air Bearing Slider. U.S. Patent

  6. Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt No. 15-14-NG

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 23, 2015, Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC (together, “Bear Head LNG”), filed an application for long-term, multi-contract authorization to engage in imports from,...

  7. Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and External Aerodynamics- Cummins Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and...

  8. Nanotechnology in Head and Neck Cancer: The Race Is On

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Sayed, Ivan H.

    2010-01-01

    10.1007/s11912-010-0087-2 Nanotechnology in Head and Neckthe applications of nanotechnology in head and neck cancer,plasmonic gold nanotechnology. Keywords Nanotechnology .

  9. Srinivasan Named Head of NERSC's Computational Systems Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Srinivasan Named Head of NERSC's Computational Systems Group Srinivasan Named Head of NERSC's Computational Systems Group August 31, 2011 | Tags: NERSC Jay Srinivasan has been...

  10. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New...

  11. Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New head of stockpile manufacturing and support Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support Carl Beard is the new associate director for stockpile...

  12. KU alumna to head Spencer Research Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-06-18

    12/5/13 KU alumna to head Spencer Research Library www.lib.ku.edu/news/spencer_head_announced.shtml 1/2 The University of Kansas Libraries Libraries Home Articles & Databases Catalog: books & more E-journals Research by Subject Course Reserves... Library Pages A-Z Images KU ScholarWorks KU Digital Collections Hours My Account Request Articles, Books,… Friends & Benefactors Suggestions University of Kansas alumna Beth M. Whittaker will become the next head of KU’s Kenneth Spencer Research Library...

  13. Implementing the De-thinning Method for High Energy Cosmic Rays Extensive Air Shower Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estupiñán, A; Núñez, L A

    2015-01-01

    To simulate the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth atmosphere requires highly complex computational resources and several statistical techniques have been developed to simplify those calculations. It is common to implement the thinning algorithms to reduce the number of secondary particles by assigning weights to representative particles in the evolution of the cascade. However, since this is a compression method with information loss, it is required to recover the original flux of secondary particles without introduce artificial biases. In this work we present the preliminary results of our version of the de-thinning algorithm for the reconstruction of thinned simulations of extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays and photons in the energy range $10^{15} < E/\\mathrm{eV} < 10^{17}$.

  14. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Al-Rubaiee; U. Hashim; Marwah M.; Y. Al-Douri

    2015-05-06

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code, in the energy range (10^13-10^16) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation which measured with Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability for identifying of the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades determining of its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Rubaiee, A A; M., Marwah; Al-Douri, Y

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code, in the energy range (10^13-10^16) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation which measured with Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability for identifying of the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades determining of its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  16. Distortions of Experimental Muon Arrival Time Distributions of Extensive Air Showers by the Observation Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Haeusler; A. F. Badea; H. Rebel; I. M. Brancus; J. Oehlschlaeger

    2001-10-17

    Event-by-event measured arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) muons are affected and distorted by various interrelated effects which originate from the time resolution of the timing detectors, from fluctuations of the reference time and the number (multiplicity) of detected muons spanning the arrival time distribution of the individual EAS events. The origin of these effects is discussed, and different correction procedures, which involve detailed simulations, are proposed and illustrated. The discussed distortions are relevant for relatively small observation distances (R < 200 m) from the EAS core. Their significance decreases with increasing observation distance and increasing primary energies. Local arrival time distributions which refer to the observed arrival time of the first local muon prove to be less sensitive to the mass of the primary. This feature points to the necessity of arrival time measurements with additional information on the curvature of the EAS disk.

  17. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujii, T; Bertaina, M; Casolino, M; Dawson, B; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Jiang, J; Mandat, D; Matalon, A; Matthews, J N; Motloch, P; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Privitera, P; Schovanek, P; Takizawa, Y; Thomas, S B; Travnicek, P; Yamazaki, K

    2015-01-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Tele- scopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometres as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.

  18. Cross Calibration of Telescope Optical Throughput Efficiencies using Reconstructed Shower Energies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, A M W; Hofmann, W; Bernloehr, K

    2015-01-01

    For reliable event reconstruction of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), calibration of the optical throughput efficiency is required. Within current facilities, this is achieved through the use of ring shaped images generated by muons. Here, a complementary approach is explored, achieving cross calibration of elements of IACT arrays through pairwise comparisons between telescopes, focussing on its applicability to the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Intercalibration of telescopes of a particular type using eventwise comparisons of shower image amplitudes has previously been demonstrated to recover the relative telescope optical responses. A method utilising the reconstructed energy as an alternative to image amplitude is presented, enabling cross calibration between telescopes of varying types within an IACT array. Monte Carlo studies for two plausible CTA layouts have shown that this calibration procedure recovers the relative telescope response efficiencies at the few percent level.

  19. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: from Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Sciascio, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.). The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 10$^{11}$ - 10$^{18}$ eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  20. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: from Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Di Sciascio

    2015-03-18

    Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.). The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 10$^{11}$ - 10$^{18}$ eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  1. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  2. Head & base production optimization : setup time reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    At Schlumberger, the make-to-order strategy and number of Head & Base product types (about 1000 types) requires a flexible manufacturing system in which the machine setup is frequent. However, the lengthy CNC machine setup ...

  3. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  4. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  5. ZABULIS et al.: 3D HEAD POSE ESTIMATION FROM MULTIPLE DISTANT VIEWS 1 3D head pose estimation from multiple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabulis, Xenophon

    imaging, despite the low-resolution appearance of subjects. 1 Introduction 3D head pose estimation. In such situations, a human head is imaged in relatively low resolution, illumination artifacts are frequentZABULIS et al.: 3D HEAD POSE ESTIMATION FROM MULTIPLE DISTANT VIEWS 1 3D head pose estimation from

  6. Most Workers Who Suffer Head Injuries- Were Not Wearing Head Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of accidents and injuries noted that most workers who suffered impact injuries to the head were not wearing head protection. In addition, the same survey showed that the majority of workers were injured while performing their normal jobs at their regular worksites.

  7. Training and Certification of Lock Operators IMTS Heads-up Paper Heads-up Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Training and Certification of Lock Operators IMTS Heads-up Paper 1 Heads-up Paper Training called "Training and Certification of Lock and Dam Operators." Interested individuals can send ideas of the Training and Certification program. Examples of what will be in those draft documents are as follows

  8. Possibility of Using a Satellite-Based Detector for Recording Cherenkov Light from Ultrahigh-Energy Extensive Air Showers Penetrating into the Ocean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shustova, O P; Khrenov, B A

    2011-01-01

    We have estimated the reflected component of Cherenkov radiation, which arises in developing of an extensive air shower with primary energy of 10^20 eV over the ocean surface. It has been shown that, under conditions of the TUS experiment, a flash of the reflected Cherenkov photons at the end of the fluorescence track can be identified in showers with zenith angles up to 20 degrees.

  9. Architecture of the Mediator head module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Calero, Guillermo; Cai, Gang; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Yamada, Kentaro; Cardelli, Francesco; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Berger, Imre; Kornberg, Guy Lorch; Asturias, Francisco J.; Kornberg, Roger D.; Takagi, Yuichiro (Stanford); (Indiana-Med); (EMBL); (Scripps); (MSKCC)

    2011-09-06

    Mediator is a key regulator of eukaryotic transcription, connecting activators and repressors bound to regulatory DNA elements with RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator comprises 25 subunits with a total mass of more than one megadalton (refs 5, 6) and is organized into three modules, called head, middle/arm and tail. Our understanding of Mediator assembly and its role in regulating transcription has been impeded so far by limited structural information. Here we report the crystal structure of the essential Mediator head module (seven subunits, with a mass of 223 kilodaltons) at a resolution of 4.3 angstroms. Our structure reveals three distinct domains, with the integrity of the complex centred on a bundle of ten helices from five different head subunits. An intricate pattern of interactions within this helical bundle ensures the stable assembly of the head subunits and provides the binding sites for general transcription factors and Pol II. Our structural and functional data suggest that the head module juxtaposes transcription factor IIH and the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of Pol II, thereby facilitating phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of Pol II. Our results reveal architectural principles underlying the role of Mediator in the regulation of gene expression.

  10. Accelerator measurements of magnetically-induced radio emission from particle cascades with applications to cosmic-ray air showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Belov; K. Mulrey; A. Romero-Wolf; S. A. Wissel; A. Zilles; K. Bechtol; K. Borch; P. Chen; J. Clem; P. W. Gorham; C. Hast; T. Huege; R. Hyneman; K. Jobe; K. Kuwatani; J. Lam; T. Liu; J. Nam; C. Naudet; R. Nichol; B. F. Rauch; B. Rotter; D. Saltzberg; H. Schoorlemmer; D. Seckel; B. Strutt; A. G. Vieregg; C. Williams

    2015-07-27

    An experiment at SLAC provides the first beam test of radio-frequency (RF) radiation from a charged particle cascade in the presence of a magnetic field (up to $\\sim$1~kG), a model system for RF emission from a cosmic-ray air shower. This experiment provides a suite of controlled laboratory measurements to compare to particle-level simulations of RF emission, which are relied upon in ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray air shower detection. We compare simulations to data for intensity, linearity with magnetic field, angular distribution, polarization, and spectral content. In particular, we confirm recent predictions that the magnetically induced emission forms a beam that peaks at the Cherenkov angle and show that the simulations reproduce the data within systematic uncertainties.

  11. Reconstruction of the energy and depth of maximum of cosmic-ray air-showers from LOPES radio measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. D. Apel; J. C. Arteaga-Velazquez; L. Bähren; K. Bekk; M. Bertaina; P. L. Biermann; J. Blümer; H. Bozdog; I. M. Brancus; E. Cantoni; A. Chiavassa; K. Daumiller; V. de Souza; F. Di Pierro; P. Doll; R. Engel; H. Falcke; B. Fuchs; D. Fuhrmann; H. Gemmeke; C. Grupen; A. Haungs; D. Heck; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; D. Huber; T. Huege; P. G. Isar; K. -H. Kampert; D. Kang; O. Krömer; J. Kuijpers; K. Link; P. ?uczak; M. Ludwig; H. J. Mathes; M. Melissas; C. Morello; J. Oehlschläger; N. Palmieri; T. Pierog; J. Rautenberg; H. Rebel; M. Roth; C. Rühle; A. Saftoiu; H. Schieler; A. Schmidt; F. G. Schröder; O. Sima; G. Toma; G. C. Trinchero; A. Weindl; J. Wochele; J. Zabierowski; J. A. Zensus

    2014-08-11

    LOPES is a digital radio interferometer located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, which measures radio emission from extensive air showers at MHz frequencies in coincidence with KASCADE-Grande. In this article, we explore a method (slope method) which leverages the slope of the measured radio lateral distribution to reconstruct crucial attributes of primary cosmic rays. First, we present an investigation of the method on the basis of pure simulations. Second, we directly apply the slope method to LOPES measurements. Applying the slope method to simulations, we obtain uncertainties on the reconstruction of energy and depth of shower maximum Xmax of 13% and 50 g/cm^2, respectively. Applying it to LOPES measurements, we are able to reconstruct energy and Xmax of individual events with upper limits on the precision of 20-25% for the primary energy and 95 g/cm^2 for Xmax, despite strong human-made noise at the LOPES site.

  12. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  13. Combining Higher-Order Resummation with Multiple NLO Calculations and Parton Showers in the GENEVA Monte Carlo Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Alioli; Christian W. Bauer; Calvin Berggren; Andrew Hornig; Frank J. Tackmann; Christopher K. Vermilion; Jonathan R. Walsh; Saba Zuberi

    2013-05-22

    We discuss the GENEVA Monte Carlo framework, which combines higher-order resummation (NNLL) of large Sudakov logarithms with multiple next-to-leading-order (NLO) matrix-element corrections and parton showering (using PYTHIA8) to give a complete description at the next higher perturbative accuracy in alpha_s at both small and large jet resolution scales. Results for e+e- -> jets compared to LEP data and for Drell-Yan production are presented.

  14. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. F. M. Albuquerque; D. Allard; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; T. Anti?i?; A. Anzalone; C. Aramo; E. Arganda; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Ave; M. Avenier; G. Avila; T. Bäcker; M. Balzer; K. B. Barber; A. F. Barbosa; R. Bardenet; S. L. C. Barroso; B. Baughman; J. Bäuml; J. J. Beatty; B. R. Becker; K. H. Becker; A. Bellétoile; J. A. Bellido; S. BenZvi; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; R. Bruijn; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; R. E. Burton; K. S. Caballero-Mora; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; O. Catalano; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; J. Chauvin; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; A. Chou; J. Chudoba; R. W. Clay; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceição; F. Contreras; H. Cook; M. J. Cooper; J. Coppens; A. Cordier; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Creusot; A. Criss; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; S. Dagoret-Campagne; R. Dallier; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; M. De Domenico; C. De Donato; S. J. de Jong; G. De La Vega; W. J. M. de Mello Junior; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; I. De Mitri; V. de Souza; K. D. de Vries; G. Decerprit; L. del Peral; M. del Río; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; J. C. Diaz; M. L. Díaz Castro; P. N. Diep; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; J. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; D. D'Urso; I. Dutan; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; C. O. Escobar; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; I. Fajardo Tapia; H. Falcke; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; A. Ferrero; B. Fick; A. Filevich; A. Filip?i?; S. Fliescher; C. E. Fracchiolla; E. D. Fraenkel; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; R. Gaior; R. F. Gamarra; S. Gambetta; B. García; D. García Gámez; D. Garcia-Pinto; A. Gascon; H. Gemmeke; K. Gesterling; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giller; H. Glass; M. S. Gold; G. Golup; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. Gonçalves; D. Gonzalez; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; D. Góra; A. Gorgi; P. Gouffon; S. R. Gozzini; E. Grashorn; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; M. Grigat; A. F. Grillo; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; A. Guzman; J. D. Hague; P. Hansen; D. Harari; S. Harmsma; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; A. E. Herve; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; V. C. Holmes; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Hrabovský; T. Huege; A. Insolia; F. Ionita; A. Italiano; C. Jarne; S. Jiraskova; M. Josebachuili; K. Kadija; K. H. Kampert; P. Karhan; P. Kasper; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; J. L. Kelley; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; J. Knapp; D. -H. Koang; K. Kotera; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; F. Kuehn; D. Kuempel; J. K. Kulbartz; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; C. Lachaud; P. Lautridou; M. S. A. B. Leão; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Lemiere; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; R. López; A. Lopez Agüera; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; L. Lu; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; M. C. Maccarone; C. Macolino; S. Maldera; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; J. Marin; V. Marin; I. C. Maris; H. R. Marquez Falcon; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; H. J. Mathes; J. Matthews; J. A. J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; P. O. Mazur; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; P. Mertsch; C. Meurer; S. Mi?anovi?; M. I. Micheletti; W. Miller; L. Miramonti; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; B. Morales; C. Morello; E. Moreno; J. C. Moreno; C. Morris; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; S. Mueller; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra ‡; J. L. Navarro; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; P. T. Nhung; L. Niemietz; N. Nierstenhoefer; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; L. Nožka; M. Nyklicek; J. Oehlschläger; A. Olinto; P. Oliva; V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja; M. Ortiz; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; G. Parente; E. Parizot; A. Parra; R. D. Parsons; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. P?kala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; S. Petrera; P. Petrinca; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; J. Petrovic; C. Pfendner; N. Phan; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; V. H. Ponce; M. Pontz; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; H. Rivera; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; C. Robledo; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; G. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez Martino; J. Rodriguez Rojo

    2011-11-28

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10^{17} and 10^{19} eV and zenith angles up to 65 degs. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte-Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  15. Radio measurements of the energy and depth of maximum of cosmic-ray air showers by Tunka-Rex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezyazeekov, P A; Gress, O A; Haungs, A; Hiller, R; Huege, T; Kazarina, Y; Kleifges, M; Konstantinov, E N; Korosteleva, E E; Kostunin, D; Krömer, O; Kuzmichev, L A; Lubsandorzhiev, N; Mirgazov, R R; Monkhoev, R; Pakhorukov, A; Pankov, L; Prosin, V V; Rubtsov, G I; Schröder, F G

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the energy and the position of the shower maximum of air showers with energies $E \\gtrsim 100\\,$PeV using radio measurements performed with Tunka-Rex. A comparison to air-Cherenkov measurements of the same air showers with the Tunka-133 photomultiplier array confirms that the radio reconstruction works reliably. Splitting our data set into two seasons, we had blinded the Tunka-133 reconstruction for the second season, which we used as later, independent cross-check of the methods developed for the first season. This gives additional confidence in the radio reconstruction. An event-to-event comparison of Tunka-Rex and Tunka-133 shows that both experiments yield consistent values for energy and $X_{\\mathrm{max}}$. The energy precision of Tunka-Rex is comparable to the Tunka-133 precision of $15\\,\\%$, and comes with a $20\\,\\%$ uncertainty on the absolute scale dominated by the amplitude calibration of the antennas. For $X_{\\mathrm{max}}$, this is the first direct experimental correlation of radi...

  16. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Donald N. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  17. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  18. Muon content of ultra-high-energy air showers: Yakutsk data versus simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Glushkov; I. T. Makarov; M. I. Pravdin; I. E. Sleptsov; D. S. Gorbunov; G. I. Rubtsov; S. V. Troitsky

    2008-02-18

    We analyse a sample of 33 extensive air showers (EAS) with estimated primary energies above 2\\cdot 10^{19} eV and high-quality muon data recorded by the Yakutsk EAS array. We compare, event-by-event, the observed muon density to that expected from CORSIKA simulations for primary protons and iron, using SIBYLL and EPOS hadronic interaction models. The study suggests the presence of two distinct hadronic components, ``light'' and ``heavy''. Simulations with EPOS are in a good agreement with the expected composition in which the light component corresponds to protons and the heavy component to iron-like nuclei. With SYBILL, simulated muon densities for iron primaries are a factor of \\sim 1.5 less than those observed for the heavy component, for the same electromagnetic signal. Assuming two-component proton-iron composition and the EPOS model, the fraction of protons with energies E>10^{19} eV is 0.52^{+0.19}_{-0.20} at 95% confidence level.

  19. Judith Sheine Professor and Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design Studio 1983-87 New York Institute of Technology, Center for Architecture, Old Westbury, NY Adjunct of Technology; Pratt Institute; School of Architecture, Marnes-la-Vallee, France; Southern California InstituteJudith Sheine Professor and Department Head Department of Architecture School of Architecture

  20. Area Activation 1 Running Head: AREA ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomplun, Marc

    Area Activation 1 Running Head: AREA ACTIVATION Advancing Area Activation towards a General Model at Boston 100 Morrissey Boulevard Boston, MA 02125-3393 USA Phone: 617-287-6485 Fax: 617-287-6433 e. Without great effort, human observers clearly outperform every current artificial vision system in tasks

  1. First Person -- George Neil Named Head of FEL Program (Inside...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    first-person-george-neil-named-head-fel-program-inside-business First Person -- George Neil By Lakeshia Artis, Inside Business March 3, 2008 George Neil, head of the Free-Electron...

  2. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  3. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; A. Aab; P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. Al Samarai; I. F. M. Albuquerque; I. Allekotte; P. Allison; A. Almela; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; R. Alves Batista; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; G. A. Anastasi; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; C. Aramo; F. Arqueros; N. Arsene; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; G. Avila; N. Awal; A. M. Badescu; C. Baus; J. J. Beatty; K. H. Becker; J. A. Bellido; C. Berat; M. E. Bertaina; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; S. G. Blaess; A. Blanco; M. Blanco; J. Blazek; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; N. Borodai; J. Brack; I. Brancus; T. Bretz; A. Bridgeman; P. Brogueira; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; S. Buitink; M. Buscemi; K. S. Caballero-Mora; B. Caccianiga; L. Caccianiga; M. Candusso; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; A. G. Chavez; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; J. Chudoba; M. Cilmo; R. W. Clay; G. Cocciolo; R. Colalillo; A. Coleman; L. Collica; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceição; F. Contreras; M. J. Cooper; A. Cordier; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; J. Cronin; R. Dallier; B. Daniel; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; S. J. de Jong; G. De Mauro; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; I. De Mitri; J. de Oliveira; V. de Souza; L. del Peral; O. Deligny; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; A. Di Matteo; J. C. Diaz; M. L. Díaz Castro; F. Diogo; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; A. Dorofeev; Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh; R. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; M. Erfani; C. O. Escobar; J. Eser; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; H. Falcke; K. Fang; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; B. Fick; J. M. Figueira; A. Filevich; A. Filip?i?; O. Fratu; M. M. Freire; T. Fujii; B. García; D. García-Gámez; D. Garcia-Pinto; F. Gate; H. Gemmeke; A. Gherghel-Lascu; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giammarchi; M. Giller; D. G?as; C. Glaser; H. Glass; G. Golup; M. Gómez Berisso; P. F. Gómez Vitale; N. González; B. Gookin; J. Gordon; A. Gorgi; P. Gorham; P. Gouffon; N. Griffith; A. F. Grillo; T. D. Grubb; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; M. R. Hampel; P. Hansen; D. Harari; T. A. Harrison; S. Hartmann; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; P. Heimann; A. E. Hervé; G. C. Hill; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; E. Holt; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; P. Horvath; M. Hrabovský; D. Huber; T. Huege; A. Insolia; P. G. Isar; I. Jandt; S. Jansen; C. Jarne; J. A. Johnsen; M. Josebachuili; A. Kääpä; O. Kambeitz; K. H. Kampert; P. Kasper; I. Katkov; B. Keilhauer; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; R. Krause; N. Krohm; D. Kuempel; G. Kukec Mezek; N. Kunka; A. W. Kuotb Awad; D. LaHurd; A. Lang; L. Latronico; R. Lauer; M. Lauscher; P. Lautridou; S. Le Coz; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; L. Lopes; R. López; A. López Casado; K. Louedec; A. Lucero; M. Malacari; M. Mallamaci; J. Maller; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; V. Marin; I. C. Mari?; G. Marsella; D. Martello; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; D. Martraire; J. J. Masías Meza; H. J. Mathes; S. Mathys; J. Matthews; J. A. J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; E. Mayotte; P. O. Mazur; C. Medina; G. Medina-Tanco; R. Meissner; V. B. B. Mello; D. Melo; A. Menshikov; S. Messina; M. I. Micheletti; L. Middendorf; I. A. Minaya; L. Miramonti; B. Mitrica; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; F. Montanet; C. Morello; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; G. Müller; M. A. Muller; S. Müller; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; P. H. Nguyen; M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu; M. Niechciol; L. Niemietz; T. Niggemann; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; V. Novotny; L. Nožka; L. A. Núñez; L. Ochilo; F. Oikonomou; A. Olinto; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; P. Papenbreer; G. Parente; A. Parra; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. P?kala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; E. Petermann; C. Peters; S. Petrera; Y. Petrov; J. Phuntsok; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; M. Plum; A. Porcelli; C. Porowski; R. R. Prado; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; S. Quinn; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; D. Reinert; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; M. Risse; P. Ristori; V. Rizi; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; J. Rodriguez Rojo; M. D. Rodríguez-Frías; D. Rogozin; J. Rosado; M. Roth; E. Roulet; A. C. Rovero; S. J. Saffi; A. Saftoiu; H. Salazar; A. Saleh; F. Salesa Greus; G. Salina; J. D. Sanabria Gomez; F. Sánchez; P. Sanchez-Lucas; E. M. Santos; E. Santos; F. Sarazin; B. Sarkar; R. Sarmento; C. Sarmiento-Cano; R. Sato; C. Scarso; M. Schauer; V. Scherini; H. Schieler; D. Schmidt; O. Scholten; H. Schoorlemmer; P. Schovánek; F. G. Schröder; A. Schulz; J. Schulz; J. Schumacher; S. J. Sciutto; A. Segreto; M. Settimo; A. Shadkam; R. C. Shellard; G. Sigl; O. Sima; A. ?mia?kowski

    2015-12-07

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  4. Colour Invariant Head Pose Classification in Low Resolution Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Colour Invariant Head Pose Classification in Low Resolution Video Ben Benfold and Ian Reid,ian}@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract This paper presents an algorithm for the classification of head pose in low res- olution video, a pose estimation from a low resolution head image can be used to determine whether or not a close

  5. Real Time Head Pose Estimation from Consumer Depth Cameras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    for estimating location and orientation of a person's head, from depth data acquired by a low quality device. OurReal Time Head Pose Estimation from Consumer Depth Cameras Gabriele Fanelli1 , Thibaut Weise2 and the variance of the head position and orientation. We evaluate three different approaches to jointly take

  6. Optimized electrode positions and stimulation patterns in head EIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    . One key challenge is the low distinguishability of head EIT. In this paper, we develop a strategy1 Optimized electrode positions and stimulation patterns in head EIT Yasin Mamatjan1 , Sujin Ahn2 potential for imaging of the head to image cerebral edema and stroke, and to assist the EEG inverse problem

  7. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1995-12-19

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

  8. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-11-17

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 22 figs.

  9. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, Singh C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  10. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  11. Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall

    2009-01-01

    estimate the low-level location and head movement of meetingup manner, following low-level facial Head Angle: Known HeadJ. Crowley, “Head pose estimation on low resolution images,”

  12. Investigation of the radio wavefront of air showers with LOPES measurements and CoREAS simulations (ARENA 2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schröder, F G; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schoo, S; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers with LOPES measurements and CoREAS simulations: the wavefront is of approximately hyperbolic shape and its steepness is sensitive to the shower maximum. For this study we used 316 events with an energy above 0.1 EeV and zenith angles below $45^\\circ$ measured by the LOPES experiment. LOPES was a digital radio interferometer consisting of up to 30 antennas on an area of approximately 200 m x 200 m at an altitude of 110 m above sea level. Triggered by KASCADE-Grande, LOPES measured the radio emission between 43 and 74 MHz, and our analysis might strictly hold only for such conditions. Moreover, we used CoREAS simulations made for each event, which show much clearer results than the measurements suffering from high background. A detailed description of our result is available in our recent paper published in JCAP09(2014)025. The present proceeding contains a summary and focuses on some additional aspects, e.g., the asymmetry of the wavefront: Accordin...

  13. Integrated head package for top mounted nuclear instrumentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malandra, Louis J. (McKeesport, PA); Hornak, Leonard P. (Forest Hills, PA); Meuschke, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor such as a pressurized water reactor has an integrated head package providing structural support and increasing shielding leading toward the vessel head. A reactor vessel head engages the reactor vessel, and a control rod guide mechanism over the vessel head raises and lowers control rods in certain of the thimble tubes, traversing penetrations in the reactor vessel head, and being coupled to the control rods. An instrumentation tube structure includes instrumentation tubes with sensors movable into certain thimble tubes disposed in the fuel assemblies. Couplings for the sensors also traverse penetrations in the reactor vessel head. A shroud is attached over the reactor vessel head and encloses the control rod guide mechanism and at least a portion of the instrumentation tubes when retracted. The shroud forms a structural element of sufficient strength to support the vessel head, the control rod guide mechanism and the instrumentation tube structure, and includes radiation shielding material for limiting passage of radiation from retracted instrumentation tubes. The shroud is thicker at the bottom adjacent the vessel head, where the more irradiated lower ends of retracted sensors reside. The vessel head, shroud and contents thus can be removed from the reactor as a unit and rested safely and securely on a support.

  14. Low Frequency Observations of a Head-Tail Radio Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharam Vir Lal; A. Pramesh Rao

    2004-06-28

    We have mapped the head-tail radio galaxy, 3C 129 at 240 and 610 MHz using the GMRT and studied the detailed morphology and spectral index variations in this object. This is the first attempt to observe a sample of head-tail sources at low frequencies. We find weak spectral steepening as we go away from the head along the jet. The Crosspiece has a spectral index of 0.9 (S$_{\

  15. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V. Hindawi Publishing Corporation None...

  16. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine 68bhydrogreensmallhydroch11.ppt More Documents & Publications Real World Demonstration of a New American...

  17. The Use and Destruction of Minoan Stone Bull's Head Rhyta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehak, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study of Minoan bull-head rhyta examines all the surviving fragments and concludes that they were deliberately smashed, probably in some kind of ritual.

  18. Turning heads: The biology of solar tracking in sunflower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandenbrink, JP; Brown, EA; Harmer, SL; Blackman, BK

    2014-01-01

    Cessation of solar tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solar tracking is not solely driven by the movement of theEcological function(s) of solar tracking and mature head

  19. Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Memorandum: Council...

  20. Head Observation Organizer (HObO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Predmore

    2008-03-06

    The Head Observation Organizer, HObO, is a computer program that stores and manages measured ground-water levels. HObO was developed to help ground-water modelers compile, manage, and document water-level data needed to calibrate ground-water models. Well-construction and water-level data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Database (NWIS) easily can be imported into HObO from the NWIS web site (NWISWeb). The water-level data can be flagged to determine which data will be included in the calibration data set. The utility program HObO_NWISWeb was developed to simplify the down loading of well and water-level data from NWISWeb. An ArcGIS NWISWeb Extension was developed to retrieve site information from NWISWeb. A tutorial is presented showing the basic elements of HObO.

  1. Corey Casper, MD Head, Program in Global Oncology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    Corey Casper, MD Head, Program in Global Oncology Member, Vaccine and Infectious Disease and Public of Washington Dr. Casper focuses on infection-related cancers and cancer in low-resource settings. He is the Head of the Program in Global Oncology at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, where he is also

  2. Stable p-Type Conduction from Sb-Decorated Head-to-Head Basal Plane Inversion Domain Boundaries in ZnO Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    Stable p-Type Conduction from Sb-Decorated Head-to-Head Basal Plane Inversion Domain Boundaries of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States ABSTRACT: We report that Sb-decorated head-to-head-type dopant due to low dopant solubility, native donor defects, and large acceptor ionization energies has

  3. Abstract: In this paper, we propose a fast and practical head pose estimation scheme for eye-head controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    -head controlled human computer interface with non-constrained background. The method we propose uses complete a novel image-based human computer interface controlled by eye and head, which is a subtask]. Conventional human computer interaction techniques such as keyboard and mouse are considered as bottlenecks

  4. The fate of the Juan de Fuca plate: Implications for a Yellowstone plume head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Mei; Allen, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    for a mantle plume head is the unusual low velocity layerthe plume head material is expected to have a low velocitylow velocity anomaly is comparable with that expected for plume head

  5. Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall

    2009-01-01

    1.3 Head Pose Estimation Methods . . . . . .Chapter 1 A Survey of Head Pose Estimation in Computer 1.11.4 Head Pose Estimation Comparisons . . . . . . . . 1.4.1

  6. Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger...

  7. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers at high mountain altitude produced by different primary particles in wide energy range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mishev; J. Stamenov

    2005-12-16

    The general aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles precisely by. protons, Helium, Iron, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium, Silicon and gamma quanta in wide energy range at high mountain observation level of Chacaltaya cosmic ray station. The simulations are divided generally in two energy ranges 10GeV-10 TeV and 10 TeV-10 PeV. One large detector has been used for simulations, the aim being to reduce the statistical fluctuations of the obtained characteristics. The shape of the obtained lateral distributions of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers is discussed and the scientific potential for solution of different problems as well.

  9. The primary cosmic ray composition between 10**15 and 10**16 eV from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aglietta, M; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Bergamasco, L; Bertaina, M; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Chiavassa, A; Cini, G; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; Di Sciascio, G; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Iacovacci, M; Mannocchi, G; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Saavedra, O; Stamerra, A; Trinchero, G C; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10**15 and 10**16 eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10**5 m**2 collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m**2 effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (Ne) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (Nmu) recorded by MACRO. The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees. The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual Nmu-Ne studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming heavier at the knee of the primary spectrum, the kn...

  10. Effects of Shower Partons on Soft and Semihard hadrons Produced in Pb-Pb Collisions at 2.76 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilin Zhu; Rudolph C. Hwa

    2014-11-05

    The production of all identified hadrons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is studied with emphasis on the $p_T$ distributions up to 20 GeV/c in central collisions. In the framework of the recombination model we find that the shower partons (due to the fragmentation of semihard partons) play an important role in the formation of hadrons in the low- and intermediate-$p_T$ regions. Parameters that control the energy loss of minijets are determined by fitting the upper half of the $p_T$ range of the pion distribution. The resultant soft shower partons are then found to dominate over the thermal partons in the non-strange sector, but not in the strange sector. Since the data on the $p_T$ spectra of all observed hadrons are well reproduced, there is no way out of the implication that any alternative dynamical model on particle production would be incomplete if it does not consider the effects of minijets even at very low $p_T$. Hydrodynamics that relies on rapid equilibration without accounting for the delayed thermalization effects of the hard and semihard partons copiously produced at LHC is an example of such models. The difference between the densities of shower partons produced at LHC and at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) is quantified and discussed.

  11. Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Raft...

  12. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2004 October 15, 2004 On August 25, 2004, an employee of Washington TRU Solution, LLC (WTS) sustained a head injury when he was struck by a C-clamp and rope attachment that broke...

  13. Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrer, P. J.; Jones, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two moderately sized ammonia refrigeration systems retrofitted for floating head pressure control. It also presents a parametric analysis to assist in selecting appropriate pressures in an ammonia refrigeration...

  14. Tony Reilly appointed to be SRF Operations Department Head |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to be SRF Operations Department Head Following the appointment of Joe Preble to be the LCLS II Project Lead for Jefferson Lab, we initiated a search to replace Joe as SRF...

  15. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.

    2007-08-15

    A high-frequency, asymptotic solution for transient head,appropriate for a medium containing smoothly varying heterogeneity,provides a basis for efficient inverse modeling. The semi analyticsolution is trajectory based, akin to ray methods used in modeling wavepropagation, and may be constructed by post processing the output of anumerical simulator. For high frequencies, the amplitude sensitivities,the relationship between changes in flow properties and changes in headampliude, are dominated by the phase term which may be computed directlyfrom the output of the simulator. Thus, transient head waveforms may beinverted with little more computation than is required to invert arrivaltimes. An applicatino to synthetic head values indicates that thetechnique can be used to improve the fit to waveforms. An application totransient head data from the Migration experiment in Switzerland revealsa narrow, high conductivity pathway within a 0.5 m thick zone offracturing.

  16. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  17. PPE-HEAD PROTECTION GUIDE Source Assessment of Hazard Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    . Specify type. (See ANSI performance requirements) Collision with fixed object Hard Hat. (See ANSI Hat, depending upon exposure. (See ANSI performance requirements) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEAD PROTECTION Class A Class B Class C

  18. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic head was observed in seven surrounding wellsHydraulic conductivity variation used for numerical trajectory computations. The wellhydraulic conductivity, given the significant variations in travel time to the observation wells.

  19. Running Head: EMOTION AND AGING Emotion and Aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Mara

    Running Head: EMOTION AND AGING Emotion and Aging Mara Mather, M., & Ponzio, A. (in press). Emotion and aging. In L. Feldman Barrett, M. All of these basic mechanisms and contextual factors change in normal aging

  20. Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt. No.- 15-33-LNG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on February 25, 2015, by Bear Head LNG, requesting long-term multi-contract authority as further described in their...

  1. Bunker View: Limited-range head-motion-parallax visualization for complex data sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    of head-motion-parallax. In particular, the frame rates are often too low for convincing headBunker View: Limited-range head-motion-parallax visualization for complex data sets Andrei State Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27514 ABSTRACT This work presents a head-motion-parallax visualization

  2. Is precise discrimination of low level motion needed for heading discrimination?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaina, Lucia M.

    Is precise discrimination of low level motion needed for heading discrimination? Constance S be that this aspect of heading perception is more reliant on low level motion perception. Another aspect of heading judgments on low level motion perception and the relationship between heading and scene reconstruction, we

  3. Priming of Head Premotor Circuits During Oculomotor Preparation Brian D. Corneil,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corneil, Brian D.

    of the eyes and head. However, it remains unclear whether low-frequency activity emitted by oculomotor neurons that such low- frequency activity contributes to eye-head coordination by selectively priming head premotor that low-frequency oculomotor activity primes head premotor circuits well in advance of gaze shift

  4. Driving With Hemianopia: IV. Head Scanning and Detection at Intersections in a Simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peli, Eli

    Low Vision Driving With Hemianopia: IV. Head Scanning and Detection at Intersections in a Simulator AR, Ananyev E, Mandel AJ, Goldstein RB, Peli E. Driving with hemianopia: IV. Head scanning) on head scanning behaviors at intersections and evaluated the role of inadequate head scanning

  5. A Real-Time Head Nod and Shake Detector Ashish Kapoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Real-Time Head Nod and Shake Detector Ashish Kapoor Affective Computing, MIT Media Lab 20 Ames Media Lab 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 +1-617-253-0369 picard@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT Head nods conversational functions. We describe a vision-based system that detects head nods and head shakes in real time

  6. Using Self-Context for Multimodal Detection of Head Nods in Face-to-Face Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    Using Self-Context for Multimodal Detection of Head Nods in Face-to-Face Interactions Laurent gatica@idiap.ch ABSTRACT Head nods occur in virtually every face-to-face discussion. As part communicative attention. Detecting head nods in natural interactions is a challenging task as head nods can

  7. Integrated head package cable carrier for a nuclear power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meuschke, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA); Trombola, Daniel M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A cabling arrangement is provided for a nuclear reactor located within a containment. Structure inside the containment is characterized by a wall having a near side surrounding the reactor vessel defining a cavity, an operating deck outside the cavity, a sub-space below the deck and on a far side of the wall spaced from the near side, and an operating area above the deck. The arrangement includes a movable frame supporting a plurality of cables extending through the frame, each connectable at a first end to a head package on the reactor vessel and each having a second end located in the sub-space. The frame is movable, with the cables, between a first position during normal operation of the reactor when the cables are connected to the head package, located outside the sub-space proximate the head package, and a second position during refueling when the cables are disconnected from the head package, located in the sub-space. In a preferred embodiment, the frame straddles the top of the wall in a substantially horizontal orientation in the first position, pivots about an end distal from the head package to a substantially vertically oriented intermediate position, and is guided, while remaining about vertically oriented, along a track in the sub-space to the second position.

  8. The coolability limits of a reactor pressure vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Syri, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Configuration II of the ULPU experimental facility is described, and from a comprehensive set of experiments are provided. The facility affords full-scale simulations of the boiling crisis phenomenon on the hemispherical lower head of a reactor pressure vessel submerged in water, and heated internally. Whereas Configuration I experiments (published previously) established the lower limits of coolability under low submergence, pool-boiling conditions, with Configuration II we investigate coolability under conditions more appropriate to practical interest in severe accident management; that is, heat flux shapes (as functions of angular position) representative of a core melt contained by the lower head, full submergence of the reactor pressure vessel, and natural circulation. Critical heat fluxes as a function of the angular position on the lower head are reported and related the observed two-phase flow regimes.

  9. Challenges Ahead Head movements and other social acts in conversations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    Challenges Ahead Head movements and other social acts in conversations Dirk Heylen University of face-to-face interactions. The fact that conversations are a type of joint activity involving social in functions that are served by the multitude of movements that people display during conversations. 1

  10. Running head: Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Running head: Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Oliver, O. C., & Wirth, M. M. (2008). Biopsychological aspects of motivation. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action (2 ed., pp. 247-271). New York: Cambridge University Press. #12

  11. Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power Steven J. Stanton and Oliver C. Schultheiss University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA To appear in: K. Dowding (Ed.), Encyclopedia of power-647-9440, email: stantons@umich.edu #12;Testosterone and power 2 Across many studies in humans, two functional

  12. F A C U L T Y DIVISION HEAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    F A C U L T Y DIVISION HEAD Lanny C. Morley PROFESSORS Wayne P. Bailey, Robert Cacioppo, Ruthie. Miller, Anthony M. Vazzana, Dana R. Vazzana ASSISTANT PROFESSORS K. Scott Alberts, Don Bindner, Dean De Thatcher INSTRUCTORS Donna J. Bailey, Karen Croarkin, Joe Moyer D E G R E E S O F F E R E D Bachelor

  13. F A C U L T Y DIVISION HEAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    F A C U L T Y DIVISION HEAD Lanny C. Morley PROFESSORS Wayne P. Bailey, Robert Cacioppo, Kevin. Scott Alberts, Don Bindner, Dean DeCock, David Garth, Alan Garvey, Carol Hoferkamp, Hyun-Joo Kim FACULTY Yuichi Iwashita, Thomas Tegtmeyer D E G R E E S O F F E R E D Bachelor of Science, BS Bachelor

  14. Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tailleux, Remi

    Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in Stratified Fluids R´emi Tailleux in classi- cal thermodynamics, however, usually relies on the concept of exergy, and is usually measured/eddy decompositions, APE in incompressible fluids, APE and irreversible turbulent mixing, and the role of mechanical

  15. AUTOMATIC AND ROBUST SEMANTIC REGISTRATION OF 3D HEAD SCANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisert, Peter

    useful for error- prone vision techniques like stereo analysis but also for model based repairing for applications such as 3D graphics production and also for computer vision research. Laser scanners are the primeAUTOMATIC AND ROBUST SEMANTIC REGISTRATION OF 3D HEAD SCANS David C. Schneider, Peter Eisert

  16. Data Mining: Where is it Heading? Database Systems Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jiawei

    Data Mining: Where is it Heading? (Panel) Jiawei Han Database Systems Research Laboratory School of Computing Science Simon Fraser University, B.C., Canada V5A 1S6 E-mail: han@cs.sfu.ca Abstract Data mining on the issues in the field. Data mining has attracted popular interest recently, due to the high demand

  17. Molecular architecture of the prolate head of bacteriophage T4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    -Maklaya Street, Moscow 117997, Russia; and §Department of Biology, Center for Advanced Training in Cell) The head of bacteriophage T4 is a prolate icosahedron with one unique portal vertex to which the phage tail by the portal protein gp20. The prohead contains an internal core made up of the major core protein, gp22

  18. Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini Danny K. Joseph Theodore J@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu Abstract. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy NIRS and diffuse optical im- aging DOI are increasingly used to detect of optodes in NIRS instruments has hampered measurement of optical signals from diverse brain regions. Our

  19. Future Choices 1 Running head: EFFECT OF FUTURE CHOICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Future Choices 1 Running head: EFFECT OF FUTURE CHOICES The Effect of Highlighting Future Choices on Current Preferences Uzma Khan Carnegie Mellon University Ravi Dhar Yale School of Management #12;Future future choices rather than as an isolated choice. Our finding contrasts with the general wisdom

  20. Evaluation of a New Method of Heading Estimation for Pedestrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Evaluation of a New Method of Heading Estimation for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using Shoe Mounted) (Email: Lachapelle@geomatics.ucalgary.ca) In this paper, a novel method of sensor based pedestrian dead with respect to a high accuracy reference trajectory. KEY WORDS 1. Pedestrian Navigation. 2. Dead Reckoning. 1

  1. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  2. Heading Off Correlated Failures through Independence-as-a-Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Heading Off Correlated Failures through Independence-as-a-Service Ennan Zhai1 Ruichuan Chen2, David Losses Data Center Outages Generate Big Losses Downtime in a data center can cost an average of $505 Operational Trends Report #12;Service Outage Losses Data Center Outages Generate Big Losses Downtime in a data

  3. RENEWABLE RESOURCES Selected SUBJECT HEADINGS for ILink catalog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    renewable energy sources biosphere renewable natural resources environmental policy sustainable agriculture Architecture Stks SB 469 .L3 V.93 Renewable Energy Stks TJ 807 .R46 and online SELECTED PRINT INDEXES (valuableRENEWABLE RESOURCES Selected SUBJECT HEADINGS for ILink catalog agricultural industries landscape

  4. Learning expressive human-like head motion sequences from speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busso, Carlos

    With the development of new trends in human-machine interfaces, animated feature films and video games, better avatars and virtual agents are required that more accurately mimic how humans communicate and interact. Gestures the emotional perception of facial animations [6]. Given the importance of head motion in human-human

  5. Stereo-Based Head Pose Tracking Using Iterative Closest Point and Normal Flow Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morency, Louis-Philippe

    2003-05-01

    In this text, we present two stereo-based head tracking techniques along with a fast 3D model acquisition system. The first tracking technique is a robust implementation of stereo-based head tracking designed for ...

  6. Neural compass or epiphenomenon? Experimental and theoretical investigations into the rodent head direction cell system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Meer, Matthijs

    2007-11-28

    How does the brain convert sensory information into abstract representations that can support complex behaviours? The rodent head-direction (HD) system, whose cell ensembles represent head direction in the horizontal plane, ...

  7. Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations: A Bayesian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations parameter values (hydraulic conductivity in this case) which, in turn, determine flow paths. This work (2009), Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations

  8. Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads and tracer data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads; accepted 25 April 2006; published 10 August 2006. [1] In groundwater, hydraulic heads and solute arrival times depend primarily on the hydraulic conductivity field and hydraulic boundary conditions. The spread

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Head/Disk Interface for Patterned Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthy, Aravind N.; Duwensee, Maik; Talke, Frank E.

    2010-01-01

    ying head slider bearings in magnetic hard disk drives. ASMEfor ?ying head slider bearings in magnetic storage. ASME J.slider Á Magnetic data storage Á Slider air bearing Á Finite

  10. Leakage Rate and Hydraulic Head Change Evaluation through Conduits in Deep Storage Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Jinia

    2015-04-13

    mathematical model for estimating leakage rate by hydraulic head change evaluation through different conduits or leakage pathways coupled with an injection well. The leakage rate is estimated using Darcy’s law by evaluating hydraulic head change between...

  11. Berkeley Lab Shower Locations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura| National2.11DESERT *Berkeley Lab | Shares SHARES

  12. Investigation of the effect of shock, vibration, surface texture and surface pattern on the dynamics of the head disk interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthy, Aravind N.

    2007-01-01

    Corrections for Very Low Spacing at the Head Disk InterfaceS, "Low Stiction/Low Glide Height Head Disk Interface forCorrections for Very Low Spacing at the Head Disk Interface

  13. Head-mounted mobility aid for low vision using scene classification techniques M R Everingham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everingham, Mark

    Head-mounted mobility aid for low vision using scene classification techniques M R Everingham1 , B by over 100% using the system. Keywords: Low Vision, Mobility Aids, Head Mounted Display, Object-network classifier is used to identify objects in images from a head mounted camera so that scene content

  14. Tracking Head Yaw by Interpolation of Template Responses Mario Romero and Aaron Bobick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haro, Antonio

    time large range head yaw given a single non-calibrated monocular grayscale low resolution imageTracking Head Yaw by Interpolation of Template Responses Mario Romero and Aaron Bobick College sequence of the head. The architecture is composed of five parallel template detectors, a Radial Basis

  15. Differences in Head Orientation Behavior for Speakers and Listeners: An Experiment in a Virtual Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    the speaker from the listeners. However, the human speaker identification results were rather low. Head2 Differences in Head Orientation Behavior for Speakers and Listeners: An Experiment in a Virtual good stimulus control. Head orientations were displayed as the only cue for focus attention

  16. Mime: Compact, Low-Power 3D Gesture Sensing for Interaction with Head-Mounted Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek K

    Mime: Compact, Low-Power 3D Gesture Sensing for Interaction with Head-Mounted Displays Andrea Colac of Technology Figure 1: Mime is a compact, low power sensor for 3D gestural control of head mounted displays, a compact, low-power 3D sensor for unen- cumbered free-form, single-handed gestural interaction with head

  17. Simple, Robust and Accurate Head-Pose Tracking Using a Single Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Koren

    low-cost head-pose tracking system developed. Furthermore, our system is robust and re- quiresSimple, Robust and Accurate Head-Pose Tracking Using a Single Camera Simon Meers, Koren Ward of the head in real time is finding increasing application in avionics, virtual reality, augmented reality

  18. Facial Expression Invariant Head Pose Normalization using Gaussian Process Ognjen Rudovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    into a head-pose space defined by a low dimensional manifold attained by means of multi-class LDA. ThenFacial Expression Invariant Head Pose Normalization using Gaussian Process Regression Ognjen for facial- expression-invariant head pose normalization. We address the problem by mapping the locations

  19. Converting Commodity Head-Mounted Displays for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    head-mounted display. Project achieves wide field of view and low latency augmented reality displayConverting Commodity Head-Mounted Displays for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality The Challenge The current market for fully immersive virtual reality head- mounted displays is rapidly expanding, however

  20. Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Hong

    - gravated in head-mounted projection displays in which multiple beam splitting and low retroreflectanceDesign of a polarized head-mounted projection display using ferroelectric liquid 2008 It has been a common problem in optical see-through head-mounted displays that the displayed image

  1. Articulatory features for speech-driven head motion synthesis Atef Ben-Youssef 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    the very low frame-wise correlations they found between the speech and head motion features, it was shownArticulatory features for speech-driven head motion synthesis Atef Ben-Youssef 1 , Hiroshi investigates the use of articulatory features for speech-driven head motion synthesis as opposed to prosody fea

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING 1 Rigid Head Motion in Expressive Speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Zhigang

    animations to effectively mimic human behaviors. In this paper, head motion sequences in expressive facial, IEEE Abstract Rigid head motion is a gesture that conveys important non-verbal information in human head motion and hand movements are combined in a non-trivial manner, as they unfold in natural human

  3. Classifying Facial Gestures in Presence of Head Motion Wei-Kai Liao and Isaac Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    expressions of a moving head. We present a systematic framework to analyze and classify the facial gestures. After estimating the head pose, the human face is modeled by a collection of face's regionsClassifying Facial Gestures in Presence of Head Motion Wei-Kai Liao and Isaac Cohen Institute

  4. In-Your-Face, Yet Unseen? Improving Head-Stabilized Warnings to Reduce Reaction Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    studies in a driving simulator, comparing different warning visualizations in a head-up display (HUD compared to the HUD. Our insights can help others design better head- stabilized notifications. Author, we conducted two studies, comparing equally large HMD (head- stabilized) and HUD (cockpit

  5. Single-channel Head Orientation Estimation Based on Discrimination of Acoustic Transfer Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    of this method has been confirmed by talker localiza- tion and head orientation estimation experiments performed transfer function 1. Introduction For human-human or human-computer interaction, the talker's head on the talker's head orientation. Other approaches focus on the radiation pat- tern of the magnitude for each

  6. USE OF GCLS TO CONTROL LEAKAGE THROUGH GEOMEMBRANE DEFECTS UNDER HIGH HYDRAULIC HEADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    USE OF GCLS TO CONTROL LEAKAGE THROUGH GEOMEMBRANE DEFECTS UNDER HIGH HYDRAULIC HEADS Christine T liners under conditions representative of dams (i.e., high hydraulic heads). Specifically, the objective of interface contact, hydraulic head, and GCL hydration procedures on the leakage rate were considered

  7. A Demonstrated Optical Tracker With Scalable Work Area for Head-Mounted Display Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    A Demonstrated Optical Tracker With Scalable Work Area for Head- Mounted Display Systems Mark Ward Hall University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175 Abstract An optoelectronic head of an optoelectronic head-tracking concept developed at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the concept

  8. Two dedicated software, voxel-based, anthropomorphic (torso and head) phantoms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    1 Two dedicated software, voxel-based, anthropomorphic (torso and head) phantoms. I. George Zubal with isotropic voxel dimensions of 2.5 mms. Secondly, a dedicated head phantom was created by similar processing isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5mm. This dedicated head phantom contains 62 index numbers designating

  9. Augmented saliency model using automatic 3D head pose detection and learned gaze following in natural scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itti, Laurent

    a combination of gaze fol- lowing, head region, and bottom-up saliency maps with a Markov chain composed of head

  10. Analysis of head pose, faces, and eye dynamics in images and videos : a multilevel framework and algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junwen

    2007-01-01

    II.C. Head Pose Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . II.D.V.D.1. Stage 1: “Coarse” Pose Estimation . . . . . . . . . .Chapter V Two Stage Head Pose Estimation: Framework and

  11. Investigation of the effect of shock, vibration, surface texture and surface pattern on the dynamics of the head disk interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthy, Aravind N.

    2007-01-01

    Flying Head Slider Bearings in Magnetic Hard Disk Drives”,Flying Head Slider Bearings in Magnetic Storage”, ASME J.of textured air bearing sliders for magnetic recording

  12. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Clawson, MI); Neal, Timothy L. (Ortonville, MI); Swain, Jeff L. (Flushing, MI); Raimao, Miguel A. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  13. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  14. Constraining the fraction of primary gamma rays at ultra-high energies from the muon data of the Yakutsk extensive-air-shower array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Glushkov; D. S. Gorbunov; I. T. Makarov; M. I. Pravdin; G. I. Rubtsov; I. E. Sleptsov; S. V. Troitsky

    2007-01-09

    By making use of the data on the total signal and on the muon component of the air showers detected by the Yakutsk array, we analyze, in the frameworks of the recently suggested event-by-event approach, how large the fraction of primary gamma-rays at ultra-high energies can be. We derive upper limits on the photon fraction in the integral flux of primary cosmic rays. At the 95% confidence level (CL), these limits are 22% for primary energies E_0>4\\cdot 10^{19}eV and 12% for E_0>2\\cdot 10^{19}eV. Despite the presence of muonless events, the data are consistent with complete absence of photons at least at 95% CL. The sensitivity of the results to systematic uncertainties, in particular to those of the energy determination for non-photon primaries, is discussed.

  15. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for top-quark pair production with up to two jets merged with a parton shower

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Höche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Maierhöfer, Philipp; Pozzorini, Stefano; Schönherr, Marek; Siegert, Frank

    2015-09-01

    We present differential cross sections for the production of top-quark pairs in conjunction with up to two jets, computed at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD and consistently merged with a parton shower in the Sherpa+OpenLoops framework. Top quark decays including spin correlation effects are taken into account at leading order accuracy. The calculation yields a unified description of top-pair plus multi-jet production, and detailed results are presented for various key observables at the Large Hadron Collider. A large improvement with respect to the multi-jet merging approach at leading order is found for the total transverse energy spectrum, which plays amore »prominent role in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model.« less

  16. The 'Sphinx' Head from the Cult Center at Mycenae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehak, Paul

    2005-01-01

    University) passed away on the 5 th of June 2004. This paper has been edited by John Younger, based on a draft that Paul prepared in the early Spring of 2004. 1 Inventory number: NMA 4575. The head is nearly complete (the preserved height is 16... at Mycenae (Immerwahr 1990: 191, MY No. 6, pl. 61). 3 Later examples include the caps of mourning women on some of the painted larnakes from Tanagra (e.g., Demakopoulou 1988: 74–5, no. 5 and colour fig. 10). Thus, the cap is worn almost exclusively...

  17. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  18. Indian Head Park, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13 (Vt. Water Res.:01 -India: Energy ResourcesHead Park,

  19. Bear Head Lake, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas:InformationHead Lake, Minnesota:

  20. Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-EearnstakesLos AlamosPortableNew head of

  1. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  2. Post-Cretaceous faulting at head of Mississippi embayment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.J. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Harrison, R.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Recent mapping in southernmost Illinois and southeastern Missouri has revealed numerous faults that displace Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Units as young as the Pliocene-Pleistocene( ) Mounds Gravel are deformed; some faults possibly displace Quaternary sediments. The faults strike northeast, dip nearly vertically, and exhibit characteristics of dextral strike-slip. Pull-apart grabens occur along right-stepping fault strands, they contain chaotically jumbled blocks of Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks downdropped as much as 800 m relative to wall rocks. Faults at the head of the Mississippi embayment probably originated during Cambrian rifting (Reelfoot rift) and have a long, complex history of reactivation under different stress fields. Some faults are on strike with faults in the New Madrid seismic zone. Kinematics of post-Cretaceous displacements fit the contemporary stress regime of ENE-WSW compression. Similar fault orientations and kinematics, as well as close proximity, suggest a close link between faulting at the head of the embayment and ongoing tectonism in the New Madrid seismic zone.

  3. Head-on collisions of black holes: the particle limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos O. Lousto; Richard H. Price

    1996-09-05

    We compute gravitational radiation waveforms, spectra and energies for a point particle of mass $m_0$ falling from rest at radius $r_0$ into a Schwarzschild hole of mass $M$. This radiation is found to lowest order in $(m_0/M)$ with the use of a Laplace transform. In contrast with numerical relativity results for head-on collisions of equal-mass holes, the radiated energy is found not to be a monotonically increasing function of initial separation; there is a local radiated-energy maximum at $r_0\\approx4.5M$. The present results, along with results for infall from infinity, provide a complete catalog of waveforms and spectra for particle infall. We give a representative sample from that catalog and an interesting observation: Unlike the simple spectra for other head-on collisions (either of particle and hole, or of equal mass holes) the spectra for $\\infty>r_0>\\sim5M$ show a series of evenly spaced bumps. A simple explanation is given for this. Lastly, our energy vs. $r_0$ results are compared with approximation methods used elsewhere, for small and for large initial separation.

  4. Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit 69dhydrogreenhydrodemonstration12.ppt More Documents & Publications Laboratory Demonstration of a New American...

  5. SU-E-J-127: Real-Time Dosimetric Assessment for Adaptive Head...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    METHODS; DEFORMATION; ERRORS; GLANDS; HEAD; IMAGES; NECK; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  6. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Morgantown, VA); Umeno, Marc M. (Woodinville, WA)

    2011-09-13

    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  7. NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

  8. Neutrino Telescope Array Letter of Intent: A Large Array of High Resolution Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov and Fluorescence Detectors for Survey of Air-showers from Cosmic Tau Neutrinos in the PeV-EeV Energy Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Sasaki; George Wei-Shu Hou

    2015-07-22

    This Letter of Intent (LoI) describes the outline and plan for the Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA) project. High-energy neutrinos provide unique and indisputable evidence for hadronic acceleration. Recently, IceCube has reported astronomical neutrino candidates in excess of expectation from atmospheric secondaries, but is limited by the water Cherenkov detection method. A next generation high-energy neutrino telescope should be capable of establishing indisputable evidence for cosmic high-energy neutrinos. It should not only have orders-of-magnitude larger sensitivity, but also enough pointing accuracy to probe known or unknown astronomical objects, without suffering from atmospheric secondaries. The proposed installation is a large array of compound eye stations of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov and fluorescence detectors, with wide field of view and refined observational ability of air showers from cosmic tau neutrinos in the PeV-EeV energy range. This advanced optical complex system is based substantially on the development of All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower detector (Ashra) and applies the tau shower Earth-skimming method to survey PeV-EeV tau neutrinos. It allows wide (30 deg x 360 deg) and deep (~400 Mpc) survey observation for PeV-EeV tau neutrinos assuming the standard GRB neutrino fluence.In addition, it enjoys the pointing accuracy of better than 0.2 deg in essentially background-free conditions. With the advanced imaging of Earth-skimming tau showers in the wide field of view, we aim for clear discovery and identification of astronomical tau neutrino sources, providing inescapable evidence of the astrophysical hadronic model for acceleration and/or propagation of extremely high energy protons in the precisely determined direction.

  9. Design study of an air-Cherenkov telescope for harsh environments with efficient air-shower detection at 100 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffenberg, Jan; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Rädel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schoenen, Sebastian; Schumacher, Johannes; Wiebusch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Telescopes, designed with semi-conductor based photo sensors, have the potential to detect Cherenkov or fluorescence light emitted by cosmic-rays in the atmosphere. Such telescopes promise a high duty cycle and efficiency in remote harsh environments. Given the relatively low costs and robustness of these instruments, this technology could prove interesting especially if deployed in large numbers with existing and future extended cosmic-ray and gamma ray detectors, including the Pierre Auger observatory, HAWC, IceCube and CTA. They may have the potential to enhance the sensitivity of these instruments for the detection of high-energy gamma rays and cosmic-ray air showers. In addition, for neutrino telescopes such a technology could prove to be an efficient cosmic-ray veto on the surface. In this contribution the current motivation, design, and development of a prototype SiPM based air Cherenkov telescope is described. The results of initial sensitivity studies, and the readiness of the system for first tests,...

  10. Registration of an on-axis see-through head-mounted display and camera system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peli, Eli

    Registration of an on-axis see-through head- mounted display and camera system Gang Luo Harvard Abstract. An optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) system integrating a miniature camera and a low registration error across a wide range of depth. In reality, a small camera-eye misalignment may

  11. INVOLVEMENT OF THE FGFR4 Arg388 ALLELE IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Axel

    INVOLVEMENT OF THE FGFR4 Arg388 ALLELE IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Sylvia STREIT 1/Arg polymorphism (388) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx and graded into a low, intermediate, or high degree of staining. FGFR4 expression was scored as high in 17

  12. NATURE|Vol 438|8 December 2005 BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS ARISING Head et al.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    NATURE|Vol 438|8 December 2005 BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS ARISING E9 Head et al.1 interpret spectacular of Hellas. They attribute growth of the low-latitude glaciers to snow- fall during periods of increased spin. Head et al.1 identify an accumulation area for the hourglass glacier in an `alcove' above its upper

  13. Head Pose Estimation of Partially Occluded Faces Markus T. Wenzel and Wolfram H. Schiffmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiffmann, Wolfram

    Head Pose Estimation of Partially Occluded Faces Markus T. Wenzel and Wolfram H. Schiffmann.Schiffmann@FernUni-Hagen.de Abstract This paper describes an algorithm which calculates the approximate head pose of partially occluded faces with- out training or manual initialization. The presented ap- proach works on low

  14. THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head ChE enters departmental website (http:// www.che.vt.edu/). Best wishes, Professor and Head The chemical engineering Karim joined the department as an associate profes- sor of chemical engineering. Previously, Karim

  15. Frankie Phua Executive Director and Head of Credit & Country Risk Management Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Frankie Phua Executive Director and Head of Credit & Country Risk Management Division UOB Frankie Phua is the Executive Director and the Global Head of the Credit & Country Risk Management Division (PD, LGD and EAD), economic capital modelling, credit portfolio risk management, counterparty credit

  16. Role of Eye, Head, and Shoulder Geometry in the Planning of Accurate Arm Movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henriques, Denise Y. P.

    Role of Eye, Head, and Shoulder Geometry in the Planning of Accurate Arm Movements D.Y.P. HENRIQUES and shoulder geometry in the planning of accurate arm movements. J Neurophysiol 87: 1677­1685, 2002; 10.1152/jn with the continuous changes in eye, head, and arm positions. This is a geometrically complex process because the eyes

  17. The Rotational Propulsion Characteristics of Scaled-up Helical Microswimmers with different heads and magnetic positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the cut-off frequency. The rotational propulsion characteristics of helical swimmers with a magnetic headThe Rotational Propulsion Characteristics of Scaled-up Helical Microswimmers with different heads and magnetic positioning Tiantian Xu1, Gilgueng Hwang2, Nicolas Andreff3 and St´ephane R´egnier1 Abstract

  18. Running head: GEOTHERMAL POWER PRODUCTION 1 Geothermal Power Production for Emmonak, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheel, David

    Running head: GEOTHERMAL POWER PRODUCTION 1 Geothermal Power Production for Emmonak, Alaska Anthony Bryant Senior Project Alaska Pacific University May 5, 2010 #12;Running head: GEOTHERMAL POWER PRODUCTION January 2009. This paper researches the possibility of using geothermal energy as an alternative energy

  19. Audio-based Head Motion Synthesis for Avatar-based Telepresence Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busso, Carlos

    ]: Three Dimensional Graphics and Realism-Animation, Virtual Reality; I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords Computer Graphics, Facial Animation, Data-driven, Head- thesis technique is presented for avatar-based telepresence systems. First, head motion of a human

  20. Leakage through Liners under High Hydraulic Heads C.T. Weber1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    of this project is to contribute towards the use of geosynthetics in the design of dams and other hydraulic of geomembrane and composite liners for hydraulic systems such as dams involves heads several hundreds largerLeakage through Liners under High Hydraulic Heads C.T. Weber1 and J.G. Zornberg2 1 Civil

  1. Regulation of Biosurfactant Production by Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas fluorescens 5064, the Cause of Broccoli Head Rot Disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Xiaohui

    Broccoli head rot is a destructive disease found in most broccoli production areas. The main pathogen is the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens 5064, which was first isolated from an infected broccoli head ...

  2. Determinants of SNAP Participation: Employing a Structural Vulnerability of Poverty Framework to Examine SNAP Participation Among Low-Income Heads of Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Gina L

    2015-01-01

    Among  Low-­?Income   Heads  of  Households.  Association  Participation Among Low-Income Heads of Households By GinaRecession among elderly low-income heads of households. The

  3. Recruitment of a Head-Turning Synergy by Low-Frequency Activity in the Primate Superior Colliculus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corneil, Brian D.

    Recruitment of a Head-Turning Synergy by Low-Frequency Activity in the Primate Superior Colliculus Rezvani S, Corneil BD. Recruitment of a head-turning synergy by low-frequency activity in the primate causally by SC stimulation, our results are consistent with low-frequency dSC activity recruiting a head

  4. Listener head gestures and verbal feedback expressions in a distraction task Marcin Wlodarczak1, Hendrik Buschmeier2, Zofia Malisz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Nigel

    of narrow, linear head gestures, e.g. low amplitude single nods. More importantly, the tendency of "yesListener head gestures and verbal feedback expressions in a distraction task Marcin Wlodarczak1,skopp}@techfak.uni-bielefeld.de Abstract We report on the functional and timing relations between head movements and the overlapping verbal

  5. Head Tracking for the Oculus Rift Steven M. LaValle1 Anna Yershova1 Max Katsev1 Michael Antonov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaValle, Steven M.

    maintaining human head orientation using low-cost MEMS sensors. We particularly address gyroscope integrationHead Tracking for the Oculus Rift Steven M. LaValle1 Anna Yershova1 Max Katsev1 Michael Antonov tracking head movement in the Oculus Rift Development Kit, which is the most widely used virtual reality

  6. Linear Regression of Eye Velocity on Eye Position and Head Velocity Suggests a Common Oculomotor Neural Integrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tank, David

    . The linear regression method presented here is valid for both fixation and low head velocity VOR dataLinear Regression of Eye Velocity on Eye Position and Head Velocity Suggests a Common Oculomotor Aksay, David W. Tank, and H. S. Seung. Linear regression of eye velocity on eye position and head

  7. Aspects of co-occurring syllables and head nods in spontaneous dialogue Simon Alexanderson, David House, Jonas Beskow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beskow, Jonas

    Aspects of co-occurring syllables and head nods in spontaneous dialogue Simon Alexanderson, David of head nods taken from motion capture data of spontaneous dialogue in Swedish. The head nods were. While the peak rotation of the nod is on average aligned with the stressed syllable, the results show

  8. Neck Muscle Responses to Stimulation of Monkey Superior Colliculus. II. Gaze Shift Initiation and Volitional Head Movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corneil, Brian D.

    evoked by electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus (SC) in head-unrestrained monkeys. Recording volitional head movements and place important new constraints on the interpretation of electrically evoked that the electrically evoked SC drive to the head cannot be considered as a neural replicate of the SC drive during

  9. In vivo evaluation of wearable head impact sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lyndia C; Bui, Kevin; Hammoor, Bradley; Kurt, Mehmet; Hernandez, Fidel; Kuo, Calvin; Camarillo, David B

    2015-01-01

    Human skull accelerations are difficult to measure due to imperfect skull coupling. Some approaches have been validated with dummy or cadaver experiments, but methods to evaluate sensors in vivo are lacking. Here we present a novel method using high speed video to evaluate teeth-mounted (mouthguard), soft tissue-mounted (skin patch), and headgear-mounted (skull cap) sensors during 5-10g sagittal soccer head impacts. Skull coupling is quantified by displacement from an ear-canal reference. Mouthguard displacements were within video measurement error (<1mm), while the skin patch and skull cap displaced up to 4mm and 13mm from the ear-canal reference, respectively. With close skull-coupling, we used the mouthguard as the reference to assess 6-degree-of-freedom skin patch and skull cap measurements. Linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes were over-predicted by both the skin patch (23+/-9g, 2500+/-1200rad/s^2) and the skull cap (74+/-50g, 4300+/-2700rad/s^2). Such over-predictions were largely due to out...

  10. Head-on collisions of dense granular jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellowitz, Jake

    2015-01-01

    When a dense stream of dry, non-cohesive grains hits a fixed target, a collimated sheet is ejected from the impact region, very similar to what happens for a stream of water. In this study, as a continuation of the investigation why such remarkably different incident fluids produce such similar ejecta, we use discrete particle simulations to collide two unequal-width granular jets head-on in two dimensions. In addition to the familiar coherent ejecta, we observe that the impact produces a far less familiar quasi-steady-state corresponding to a uniformly translating free surface and flow field. Upon repeating such impacts with multiple continuum fluid simulations, we show that this translational speed is controlled only by the total energy dissipation rate to the power $1.5$, and is independent of the details of the jet composition. Our findings, together with those from impacts against fixed targets, challenge the principle of scattering in which material composition is inferred from observing the ejecta prod...

  11. Muscles of Head (and Neck, in part) muscles of facial expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houde, Peter

    aponeurotica, platysma, orbiculoaris oris, orbicularis oculi, risorius, depressor angulioris, levator anguli oris,zygomaticus major and minor, nasalis, auricularis, buccinator muscles of orbit 4 rectus musclesMuscles of Head (and Neck, in part) muscles of facial expression occipitofrontalis, galea

  12. Predicting Library of Congress Classifications From Library of Congress Subject Headings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Eibe

    Predicting Library of Congress Classifications From Library of Congress Subject Headings Eibe Frank Gordon W. Paynter Department of Computer Science The INFOMINE Project, Science Library University This paper addresses the problem of automatically assigning a Library of Congress Classification (LCC

  13. Application of the cumulative risk model in predicting school readiness in Head Start children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez-Escobar, Olga Lydia

    2009-05-15

    This study investigates the degree to which the cumulative risk index predicted school readiness in a Head Start population. In general, the reviewed studies indicated the cumulative risk model was efficacious in predicting adverse developmental...

  14. Artificial gravity : changing the intensity of coriolis cross-coupled stimulus with head-angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adenot, Sophie, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Artificial Gravity (AG) created by high-speed rotation is a promising method for preventing the serious deconditioning associated with prolonged exposure to weightlessness. Unfortunately, head-movements in a rotating ...

  15. The Health Component of Head Start: Potential Impacts on Childhood Obesity, Immunizations, and Dental Health 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banda, Tanya Y.

    2010-01-14

    Head Start, an early intervention program administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services, offers children of low-income families comprehensive services in an ...

  16. preference in humans for turning the head to the right, rather than to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    railway stations, beaches and parks) in the United States, Germany and Turkey. The head- turning behaviour, Fakultät für Psychologie, Ruhr- Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany e-mail: onur

  17. Design and Fabrication of cm-scale Tesla Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Vedavalli Gomatam

    2015-01-01

    H. J. D. Williamson, "Low head pico hydro turbine selectionA.4.1 GUI –Interface -1: Low Head and high flow Figure A-2:4 Low-Head or Low-Flow River

  18. Design and Fabrication of cm-scale Tesla Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Vedavalli Gomatam

    2015-01-01

    H. J. D. Williamson, "Low head pico hydro turbine selection4 Low-Head or Low-Flow River124 A.4.1 GUI –Interface -1: Low Head and high

  19. 11th HEAD Meeting March 14, 2010 Big Island, Hawaii ChaMPlane Galactic Bulge Latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11th HEAD Meeting March 1­4, 2010 Big Island, Hawaii ChaMPlane Galactic Bulge Latitude Survey, Hilo, HI 96720 U.S.A. http://hea-www.harvard.edu/ChaMPlane/ Zhao/CfA ChaMPlane 1 #12;11th HEAD Meeting observation "Limiting Window", a low extinction window closest to the SgrA* with Av=3.9. We also completed

  20. This paper was published at the Int. Conf. on Multimodal Interaction, Santa Monica, October 2012 Using Self-Context for Multimodal Detection of Head Nods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odobez, Jean-Marc

    Using Self-Context for Multimodal Detection of Head Nods in Face-to-Face Interactions Laurent Nguyen@idiap.ch ABSTRACT Head nods occur in virtually every face-to-face discussion. As part of the backchannel domain. Detecting head nods in natural interactions is a challenging task as head nods can be sub- tle, both

  1. Head/tail Breaks for Visualization of City Structure and Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massi...

  2. Evaluation of preharvest chemical dessication and module storage of grain sorghum head chop when fed to cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Walter Louis

    1979-01-01

    STORED IN SMALL MODULES 10 CHEMICAL CCMPOSITION OF SORGHUM HEAD CHOP PRIOR TO STORAGE, 1975 11 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SORGHUM HEAD CHOP PRIOR TO STORAGE, 1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s 12 STORAGE QUALITIES OF SORGHUM HEAD CHOP SILAGE STORED... for the purpose of developing an economical, high energy feedstuff to grow ard fatten cattle. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Ensiled Rations. If silages are to successfully compete with other high energy feedstuffs and play an increasing role in cattle feeding...

  3. Strong genetic structure among coral populations within a conservation priority region, the Bird's Head Seascape (Papua, Indonesia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starger, Craig John; Erdmann, Mark van Nydeck; Toha, Abdul Hamid A.; Baker, Andrew Charles; Barber, Paul Henry

    2015-01-01

    Papua prov- ince, Indonesia. Conservation International,Head Seascape (Papua, Indonesia) Craig J. Starger 1,2,3 Mark4 Conservation International, Indonesia Marine Program, Jl.

  4. The BWR lower head response during a large-break LOCA with core damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alammar, M.A. [GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the important issues in severe accident management guidelines development deal with estimating the time to lower head vessel failure after core damage and the time window available for water injection that would prevent vessel failure. These issues are obviously scenario dependent, but bounding estimates are needed. The scenario chosen for this purpose was a design-basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) because it was one of the contributors to the Oyster Creek containment failure frequency. Oyster Creek is a 1930-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)-2. The lower head response models have improved since the Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) vessel investigation project (VIP) results became known, specifically the addition of rapid- and slow-cooling models. These mechanisms were found to have taken place in the TMI-2 lower head during debris cooldown and were important contributors in preventing vessel failure.

  5. Double-stranded DNA organization in bacteriophage heads: An alternative toroid-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hud, N.V.

    1995-10-01

    Studies of the organization of double-stranded DNA within bacteriophage heads during the past four decades have produced a wealth of data. However, despite the presentation of numerous models, the true organization of DNA within phage heads remains unresolved. The observations of toroidal DNA structures in electron micrographs of phage lysates have long been cited as support for the organization of DNA in a spool-like fashion. This particular model, like all other models, has not been found to be consistent with all available data. Recently, the authors proposed that DNA within toroidal condensates produced in vitro is organized in a manner significantly different from that suggested by the spool model. This new toroid model has allowed the development of an alternative model for DNA organization within bacteriophage heads that is consistent with a wide range of biophysical data. Here the authors propose that bacteriophage DNA is packaged in a toroid that is folded into a highly compact structure.

  6. Dynamic structural analysis of a head assembly for a large loop-type LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is presented on the dynamic structural response of the primary vessel's head closure to slug impact loadings generated from a 1000 MJ source term. The reference reactor considered was designed in a loop configuration. The head structure consisted of a deck and a triple rotatable plug assembly. Two designs were considered for the deck structure: a reference design and an alternate design. The reference deck was designed as a single flat annular plate. For the alternate design, the deck plate was reinforced by adding an extender cylinder with a flange and flanged webs between the deck-plate and cylinder. The investigation showed that the reference design cannot maintain containment integrity when subjected to slug loading generated by a 1000 MJ source term. It was determined that the head deformed excessively.

  7. Stability of Single Particle Motion with Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Fischer, W.; Abreu, N.

    2008-05-01

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we proposed a low energy electron beam with a Gaussian transverse profiles to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, with a weak-strong beam-beam interaction model, we investigate the stability of single particle motion in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. Tune footprints, tune diffusion, Lyapunov exponents, and 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation. A tune scan is performed and the possibility of increasing the bunch intensity is studied. The cause of tune footprint foldings is discussed, and the tune diffusion and Lyapunov exponent analysis are compared.

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Head Rotation Amplification on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragan, Eric D [ORNL] [ORNL; Bowman, Doug A [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Scerbo, Siroberto [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Bacim, Felipe [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) systems have been proposed for use in numerous training scenarios, such as room clearing, which require the trainee to maintain spatial awareness. But many VR training systems lack a fully surrounding display, requiring trainees to use a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, thus decreasing spatial awareness. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations, such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the surrounding environment with head movements alone. For example, in a multi-monitor system covering only a 90-degree field of regard, head rotations could be amplified four times to allow the user to see the entire 360-degree surrounding environment. This solution is attractive because it can be used with lower-cost VR systems and does not require virtual turning. However, the effects of amplified head rotations on spatial awareness and training transfer are not well understood. We hypothesized that small amounts of amplification might be tolerable, but that larger amplifications might cause trainees to become disoriented and to have decreased task performance and training transfer. In this paper, we will present our findings from an experiment designed to investigate these hypotheses. The experiment placed users in a virtual warehouse and asked them to move from room to room, counting objects placed around them in space. We varied the amount of amplification applied during these trials, and also varied the type of display used (head-mounted display or CAVE). We measured task performance and spatial awareness. We then assessed training transfer in an assessment environment with a fully surrounding display and no amplification. The results of this study will inform VR training system developers about the potential negative effects of using head rotation amplification and contribute to more effective VR training system design.

  9. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Baraszu, Daniel James (Plymouth, MI); Foulkes, David Mark (Erfstadt, DE); Gomes, Enio Goyannes (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  10. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Earth Pressure on Head Chamber of Shield Machine with FEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouju; Kang Chengang [State Key Laboratory of structural analysis for industrial equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Wei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Shangguan Zichang [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute of Civil Engineering, Dalian Fishery University, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-21

    Model parameters of conditioned soils in head chamber of shield machine are determined based on tree-axial compression tests in laboratory. The loads acting on tunneling face are estimated according to static earth pressure principle. Based on Duncan-Chang nonlinear elastic constitutive model, the earth pressures on head chamber of shield machine are simulated in different aperture ratio cases for rotating cutterhead of shield machine. Relationship between pressure transportation factor and aperture ratio of shield machine is proposed by using aggression analysis.

  12. In Memory of V.P. Koptev January 12, 2012, died Head of the Laboratory Meson Physics of Condensed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    In Memory of V.P. Koptev January 12, 2012, died Head of the Laboratory Meson Physics of Condensed, he rose from trainee to head a research laboratory. Over the years of employment in PNPI Vladimir synchrocyclotron he was actively involved in creating an experimental basis: setup and measurament of the low

  13. Network Modeling Identifies Molecular Functions Targeted by miR-204 to Suppress Head and Neck Tumor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Mark

    Network Modeling Identifies Molecular Functions Targeted by miR-204 to Suppress Head and Neck Tumor targets predicted by sequence-alignment databases and the relative low accuracy of such predictions which with tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). We further demonstrate

  14. Cool the worker with cold compresses to the head, neck, and face or have the worker wash his or her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    Cool the worker with cold compresses to the head, neck, and face or have the worker wash his or her head, face and neck with cold water. Encourage fre- quent sips of cool water. Workers with signs reflec- Factors that May Cause Heat-related Illness · High temperature and humidity · Low fluid

  15. An Adaptive Finite Element Startegy for Analysis of Air Lubrication in the Head-Disk Interface of a Hard Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    An Adaptive Finite Element Startegy for Analysis of Air Lubrication in the Head-Disk Interface, interface de tête-disque KEYWORDS: air lubrication, finite elements, adaptive mesh, head-disk interface #12). Air lubrication between the rotating disk and the slider is critical to maintain this gap; a delicate

  16. Running head: PHARMACEUTICAL ADVERTISING Of Plight and Providence: Big Pharma and The Effects of Pharmaceutical Advertising on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    Running head: PHARMACEUTICAL ADVERTISING 1 Of Plight and Providence: Big Pharma and The Effects of Pharmaceutical Advertising on U.S. patients with RLS, Insomnia, GERD, and GAD Farley Hamada Advisor: Dr. Keith Murphy University of California, Irvine Spring 2011 #12;Running head: PHARMACEUTICAL ADVERTISING 2

  17. Estimation of Talker's Head Orientation Based on Discrimination of the Shape of Cross-power Spectrum Phase Coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    localization and head orientation estimation experiments performed in a real environ- ment. Index Terms coefficients 1. Introduction For human-human or human-computer interaction, the talker's location on the talker's head orientation. Other approaches focus on the radiation pattern of the magni- tude for each

  18. Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual Environments Trevor J. Dodds1 *, Betty J. Mohler1 , Heinrich H. Bu¨ lthoff1,2 1 Human Perception¨lthoff HH (2011) Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head

  19. Running Head: Hyperspecificity, Autism, and Neural Nets The Basis of Hyperspecificity in Autism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClelland, James L. "Jay"

    1 Running Head: Hyperspecificity, Autism, and Neural Nets The Basis of Hyperspecificity in Autism)-268-5060 (Fax) #12;Hyperspecificity, Autism, and Neural Nets 2 Abstract This article reviews a few key ideas to address one aspect of autism, namely the apparent hyperspecificity that is often seen in autistic children

  20. Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1976 Head and Hand: Rhetorical Resources in British

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapin, Steven

    Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1976 Head and Hand: Rhetorical Resources in British treatments of the process of education tend to be developed on the basis of particular conceptions shall examine these conceptions as they are manifested in a selection of educational writings

  1. MEDIA RELEASE --John Herbert, Head of Digital Technologies, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    MEDIA RELEASE Contacts: --John Herbert, Head of Digital Technologies, J. Willard Marriott Library Maps at the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library. The library has completed digitization Marriott Library, 801-585-9391, walter.jones@utah.edu --Dale Snyder, External Relations Director, J

  2. Running head: IMPLICIT POWER MOTIVATION A Biobehavioral Model of Implicit Power Motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Running head: IMPLICIT POWER MOTIVATION A Biobehavioral Model of Implicit Power Motivation Arousal: Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). A biobehavioral model of implicit power motivation arousal, reward and frustration and psychological explanations of social behavior (pp. 176-196). New York: Guilford. #12;Implicit power motivation 2

  3. Public speaking arouses implicit power motivation 1 Running head: Public speaking arouses implicit power motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Public speaking arouses implicit power motivation 1 Running head: Public speaking arouses implicit power motivation Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation: Oliver.Schultheiss@fau.de #12;Public speaking arouses implicit power motivation 2 Abstract The present

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants Cleo Bertelsmeier · Gloria is that these threats interact, and that a globally warming climate could favour invasive species. In this study we techniques, 3 Global Circu- lation Models and 2 CO2 emission scenarios, we generated world maps with suitable

  5. Use of Regression Equations 1 Running head: Equations from summary data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, John R.

    Use of Regression Equations 1 Running head: Equations from summary data Neuropsychology, in press the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record Using regression equations.crawford@abdn.ac.uk #12;Use of Regression Equations 2 Abstract Regression equations have many useful roles

  6. Quantum Information Processing Theory 1 Running head: QUANTUM INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    Quantum Information Processing Theory 1 Running head: QUANTUM INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY Quantum, IN USA jstruebl@indiana.edu jbusemey@indiana.edu In D. Quinones (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the Sciences provides new conceptual tools for constructing social and behavioral science theories. Theoretical

  7. Running head: Diagenesis of Beacon Sandstone Diagenetic history of Triassic sandstone from the Beacon Supergroup in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Running head: Diagenesis of Beacon Sandstone Diagenetic history of Triassic sandstone from of shallow burial diagenesis, contact diagenesis (temperatures of 200-300ºC), and post-contact diagenesis, on the basis of petrographic and geochemical analyses. Shallow burial diagenesis is characterised by minor

  8. DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE TESTING ONTOLOGY 1 Running head: DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE TESTING ONTOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE TESTING ONTOLOGY 1 Running head: DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE TESTING ONTOLOGY Developing A Software Testing Ontology in UML for A Software Growth Environment of Web-Based Applications;DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE TESTING ONTOLOGY 2 Developing A Software Testing Ontology in UML for A Software Growth

  9. Neural Networks 1 Running Head: NETWORKS AND SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Networks 1 Running Head: NETWORKS AND SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFF Neural Networks Associated@columbia.edu (Y. Stern) #12;Neural Networks 2 Abstract This functional neuroimaging (fMRI) study examined the neural networks (spatial patterns of covarying neural activity) associated with the speed

  10. Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Martin R.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-06-16

    . Budd, G. E. Tardigrades as ‘stem-group arthropods’: the evidence from the Cambrian 167 fauna. Zool. Anz. 240, 265–279 (2001). 168 15. Eriksson, B. J. & Budd, G. E. Onychophoran cephalic nerves and their bearing on our 169 understanding of head...

  11. Simon Fraser University Athletics & Recreation Employment Opportunity Head Instructor -Mountain Madness & Outdoor Adventures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    - Mountain Madness & Outdoor Adventures Position Title: Head Instructor - Mountain Madness & Outdoor camp, Mountain Madness and Outdoor Adventures. Both camps are full day, one week camps; Mountain Madness is for children 8-11 years and Outdoor Adventures is for children 11-14 years. Mountain Madness

  12. Tangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bers, Marina Umaschi

    to help solve human problems. Early childhood education hasn't ignored this; it is common to see young in notions of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), a perspective within early childhood educationTangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Tangible Programming

  13. Modeling of Human Brain Tissues and Head Injuries Induced by Blast and Ballistic Impact 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sahil G

    2013-11-07

    .............................................................................. 162 56 Absence of the fluid cavitation on the coup side in the CSF for a helmet protected head ........................................................................ 163 57 Fluid cavitation damage observed on the coup side in the CSF... to the impact site. Irreversible cavitation damage was also observed. However...

  14. Emotion Regulation as Situated Conceptualizations 1 RUNNING HEAD: EMOTION REGULATION AS SITUATED CONCEPTUALIZATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    Emotion Regulation as Situated Conceptualizations 1 RUNNING HEAD: EMOTION REGULATION AS SITUATED CONCEPTUALIZATIONS TITLE: A psychological construction account of emotion regulation and dysregulation: The role Boston, MA 02115 Phone: 617-373-2044 Fax: 617-373-8714 Email: l.barrett@neu.edu #12;Emotion Regulation

  15. IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, James J.

    IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION How to Bite Your Tongue without Blowing Your Top: Implicit Evaluation of Emotion Regulation Predicts EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 2 Abstract People frequently have to control their emotions to function

  16. Eddies as Offshore Foraging Grounds for Melon-headed Whales (Peponocephala electra)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Eddies as Offshore Foraging Grounds for Melon- headed Whales (Peponocephala electra) Phoebe, NOAA 5School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks and Alaska SeaLife Center eddies occur frequently in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands ­ Formed and sustained by easterly trade winds

  17. Identifying the Addressee in Human-Human-Robot Interactions based on Head Pose and Speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Tanja

    Identifying the Addressee in Human-Human-Robot Interactions based on Head Pose and Speech Michael In this work we investigate the power of acoustic and visual cues, and their combination, to identify the addressee in a human-human-robot interaction. Based on eighteen audio- visual recordings of two human beings

  18. Dangers of Unilateral Forgiveness 1 Running head: DANGERS OF UNILATERAL FORGIVENESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reber, Paul J.

    Dangers of Unilateral Forgiveness 1 Running head: DANGERS OF UNILATERAL FORGIVENESS On the Dangers Northwestern University Word Count: 5096 #12;Dangers of Unilateral Forgiveness 2 On the Dangers of Resolving forgiveness helps victims preserve a relationship #12;Dangers of Unilateral Forgiveness 3 that is likely

  19. THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head Working of the Virginia Tech Department of Chemical Engineering, It is my pleasure to pres- ent to you this latest edition. As a student, she helped establish the Alpha Omega Epsilon sorority at Virginia Tech for female engineering

  20. THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head A year at Kentucky. Thank you, John, for your years of service to the chemical engineering family at Virginia Tech with every- one's support. Chemical engineering continues to be a popular major. Our graduating class

  1. THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT Of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT Of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head faculty of chemical engineering Dear Alumni and Friends of the Virginia Tech Depart- ment of Chemical Engineer- ing for early 2014. #12;The VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2 CONNECTION ford joins advisory

  2. THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    THE VIRGINIA TECH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Greetings from the Department Head of Chemical Engineer- ing: Greetings from Blacks- burg. I hope this latest edition of the ChE Connection finds. Chemical engineering continues to be a popular major. Our graduating class in spring 2014 numbered 96. We

  3. The trans-Himalayan ights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Graham

    | high altitude | satellite tracking | vertebrate migration | climbing ight Mountains and high plateaus). However, bar-headed geese have adapted in a variety of ways for living and ying at high altitudes (4, 5 stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the after- noon, thus

  4. January 12, 2005Washington University Teaching Center Two Heads are Better than One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    January 12, 2005Washington University Teaching Center Two Heads are Better than One: Using Peer, 2005Washington University Teaching Center Outline Peer editing? Objectives of peer editing Mechanics assessment of peer editing #12;January 12, 2005Washington University Teaching Center Peer Editing? Peer

  5. Page 1 of 33 3 STYLE HEADING NUMBER FOR CHP. (USED FOR FIG. NUMBERING)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    Page 1 of 33 3 STYLE HEADING NUMBER FOR CHP. (USED FOR FIG. NUMBERING) ACCOUNTING FOR GROUND MOTION intensities considered in the original building design. For modern buildings in the western United States for this spectral shape effect is through selection of a set of ground motions that is specific to the building

  6. It's not simple which is why the University of Houston is facing the challenge head on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasser, Adrian

    -45, hosts the University's cutting edge energy research and academic programs. The energy crisis is our kind of crisis. UH ENERGY #12;UH.EdU/EnERgy Marathon Oil Schlumberger Technology Vinson & ElkinsIt's not simple ­ which is why the University of Houston is facing the challenge head on. UH Energy

  7. Highway 280 North or South Take the Sand Hill Road exit, head east

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    Highway 280 North or South · Take the Sand Hill Road exit, head east · Turn right on Stock Farm for "all" below From Bayshore US Highway 101 NorthFrom Bayshore US Highway 101 North or South · Take · Turn left on Stock Farm Road LKSC ParkingTurn left on Stock Farm Road · Make the next lefthand turn

  8. An Energy Efficient Wireless Communication Mechanism for Sensor Node Cluster Heads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    An Energy Efficient Wireless Communication Mechanism for Sensor Node Cluster Heads Edoardo Regini mechanism to achieve significant energy savings in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks such as HPWREN the backbone. The routing is done by battery-powered nodes using license free radios such as 802

  9. Risk Assessment 1 Running Head: PREDICTION ISSUES IN SEX OFFENDER RISK ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grove, William M.

    Risk Assessment 1 Running Head: PREDICTION ISSUES IN SEX OFFENDER RISK ASSESSMENT Prediction Issues and the Role of Incremental Validity in Sex Offender Risk Assessment Martin D. Lloyd University of Minnesota #12;Risk Assessment 2 Abstract We review issues of prediction and discuss their relevance

  10. Letter and word priming 1 Running head: Letter and word priming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Jeff

    Letter and word priming 1 Running head: Letter and word priming Orthographic, phonological, and articulatory contributions to masked letter and word priming Jeffrey S. Bowers Rice University Gabriella Vigliocco University of Wisconsin-Madison Richard Haan University of Arizona #12;Letter and word priming 2

  11. Word and psuedoword priming 1 Running head: Word and pseudoword priming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Jeff

    Word and psuedoword priming 1 Running head: Word and pseudoword priming Different perceptual codes support priming for words and pseudowords: Was Morton right all along? Jeffrey S. Bowers Rice University #12;Word and psuedoword priming 2 Abstract A perceptual identification task was used to assess priming

  12. Student Award Competition Finite Element EEG and MEG Simulations for Realistic Head Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhukov, Leonid

    than would be possible using linear elements alone. [1] D.S. Burnett. Finite Element Analysis: FromStudent Award Competition Finite Element EEG and MEG Simulations for Realistic Head Models be approximated by a technique such as the finite element method [1]. Most applications of the finite element

  13. Digital library as a controversy Running head: DIGITAL LIBRARY AS A CONTROVERSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Digital library as a controversy Running head: DIGITAL LIBRARY AS A CONTROVERSY Digital library nouvelle 1 hal-00718385,version1-16Jul2012 Author manuscript, published in "Digital library as a controversy: Gallica vs Google, Dubrovnik : Croatia (2009)" #12;Digital library as a controversy Abstract

  14. Objective extraction of channel heads from high resolution topographic data1 Fiona J. Clubb*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    ,48 mitigation of pollution, prediction of ecosystem functioning and landscape evolution.49 Channel Andrews, St Andrews,10 United Kingdom KY16 9AL11 *Corresponding Author (email: F.Clubb@ed.ac.uk)12 Key from a number of different localities.15 We present a new method of predicting channel heads which

  15. Analytical modeling of saturated zone head response to evapotranspiration and river-stage fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    : Evapotranspiration Unconfined aquifer Phreatophyte Hydraulic conductivity s u m m a r y We investigate the response. These solutions are fitted to observed groundwater head fluctuations recorded in observation wells at the Boise of the ET flux, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, specific storage and specific yield are obtained

  16. Classifying Facial Gestures in Presence of Head Motion Wei-Kai Liao and Isaac Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Issac

    -computer interaction. Besides, it has many other potential applications, such as virtual reality and facial animation. After estimating the head pose, the human face is modeled by a collection of face's regions vector machine. Our experiments show that this approach could classify human expressions in interactive

  17. A Polarized Head-Mounted Projective Display and Chunyu Gao2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Hong

    projection system in [6]. Rolland has been developing an OLED-based (organic light emitting display in a head- mounted projective display (HMPD) due to the fact that light passes through the beamsplitter a custom-designed ultra-light projection system with a 52-degree field of view (FOV) [5, 6]. Hua recently

  18. Observation of the 'head-tail' effect in nuclear recoils of low-energy neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Dujmic; H. Tomita; M. Lewandowska; S. Ahlen; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; R. Lanza; J. Monroe; A. Roccaro; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; R. Vanderspek; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

    2007-10-09

    Directional detection of dark matter can provide unambiguous observation of dark matter interactions even in the presence of background. This article presents an experimental method to measure the direction tag ("head-tail") of the dark matter wind by detecting the scintillation light created by the elastic nuclear recoils in the scattering of dark matter particles with the detector material. The technique is demonstrated by tagging the direction of the nuclear recoils created in the scattering of low-energy neutrons with CF4 in a low-pressure time-projection chamber that is developed by the DMTPC collaboration. The measurement of the decreasing ionization rate along the recoil trajectory provides the direction tag of the incoming neutrons, and proves that the "head-tail" effect can be observed.

  19. Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-31

    This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control sump pH and fiberglass insulation is prevalent, relatively high concentrations of soluble aluminum can be expected. Tests in which the dissolved aluminum (Al) resulted from aluminum nitrate additions were used to investigate potential chemical effects that may lead to high head loss. Dissolved Al concentrations of 100 ppm were shown to lead to large pressure drops for the screen area to sump volume ratio and fiber debris bed studied. No chemical effects on head loss were observed in sodium tetraborate buffered solutions even for environments with high ratios of submerged Al area to sump volume. However, in tests with much higher concentrations of dissolved Al than expected in plants, large pressure drops did occur. Interaction with NUKON/Cal-Sil debris mixtures produced much lower head losses than observed in corresponding tests with TSP, although tests were not performed over the full range of Cal-Sil that might be of interest.

  20. LOCA analyses for nuclear steam supply systems with upper head injection. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, R.K.; Bartel, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The term Upper Head Injection describes a relatively new addition to a nuclear reactor's emergency cooling system. With this feature, water is delivered directly to the top of the reactor vessel during a loss-of-coolant accident, in addition to the later injection of coolant into the primary operating loops. Established computer programs, with various modifications to models for heat transfer and two-phase flow, were used to analyze a transient following a large break in one of the main coolant loops of a reactor equipped with upper head injection. The flow and heat transfer modifications combined to yield fuel cladding temperatures during blowdown which were as much as 440K (800/sup 0/F) lower than were obtained with standard versions of the codes (for best estimate calculations). The calculations also showed the need for more uniformity of applications of heat transfer models in the computer programs employed.

  1. MD Simulation for Head-on Collision of Liquid Nanodroplets Obeying Modified L-J Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    This project models and studies the `head-on' collision of liquid helium nanodroplets within a vacuum, using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. Programs written in MATLAB and C are utilized in tandem to facilitate computer experimentation that achieves this goal. The most expensive computation, that of collision simulation, is handled by a HPC cluster `ALICE' at the University of Leicester. Colliding droplets are modelled as roughly spherical collections of points, cut from a simple cubic lattice, obeying a modified Lennard-Jones potential, with average velocities initialized to ensure a `head-on' collision. These point-sets are then allowed to collide within a cuboid region, designed to take advantage of the observed angular distribution of post-collision fragmentation (favoring a plane orthogonal to `collision axis'). To implement the developed theoretical model, an existing C script by D. C. Rapaport, for modelling a homogeneous liquid state, is edited by the author to fit the given, highly heteroge...

  2. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  3. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Supplement 19, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Subject Headings And Treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Martha L.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Shaw, Judith H.; Kirby, Margie D.; Edwards, Shirley J.

    1974-01-01

    HUMPHREY SHAW, Zoologist MARGIE D. KIRBY, Technical Information Specialist SHIRLEY J. EDWARDS, Technical Information Specialist ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY INSTITUTE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Issued March 1974 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE... AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY Supplement 19, ftirt 6 PARASITE-SUBJECT CATALOGUE SUBJECT HEADINGS AND TREATMENT By MARTHA L. WALKER, JANE D. RAYBURN, JUDITH H. SHAW, MARGIE D. KIRBY, and SHIRLET J. EDWARDS Abnormalities. See Anomalies. Abortion Archer, J. F...

  5. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  6. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  7. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part I. chemically generated precipitates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the current program was to evaluate the properties of chemical precipitates proposed by industry that have been used in sump strainer head loss testing. Specific precipitates that were evaluated included aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) and sodium aluminum silicate (SAS) prepared according to the procedures in WCAP-16530-NP, along with precipitates formed from injecting chemicals into the test loop according to the procedure used by one sump strainer test vendor for U.S. pressurized water reactors. The settling rates of the surrogate precipitates are strongly dependent on their particle size and are reasonably consistent with those expected from Stokes Law or colloid aggregation models. Head loss tests showed that AlOOH and SAS surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across a perforated pump inlet strainer that has an accumulated fibrous debris bed. The characteristics of aluminum hydroxide precipitate using sodium aluminate were dependent on whether it was formed in high-purity or ordinary tap water and whether excess silicate was present or not.

  8. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Many complex sensor network applications require deploying a large number of inexpensive and small sensors in a vast geographical region to achieve quality through quantity. Hierarchical clustering is generally considered as an efficient and scalable way to facilitate the management and operation of such large-scale networks and minimize the total energy consumption for prolonged lifetime. Judicious selection of cluster heads for data integration and communication is critical to the success of applications based on hierarchical sensor networks organized as layered clusters. We investigate the problem of selecting sensor nodes in a predeployed sensor network to be the cluster headsmore »to minimize the total energy needed for data gathering. We rigorously derive an analytical formula to optimize the number of cluster heads in sensor networks under uniform node distribution, and propose a Distance-based Crowdedness Clustering algorithm to determine the cluster heads in sensor networks under general node distribution. The results from an extensive set of experiments on a large number of simulated sensor networks illustrate the performance superiority of the proposed solution over the clustering schemes based on k -means algorithm. « less

  9. Of Boys and girls and Bumps on the Head (414th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biegon, Anat

    2006-04-19

    If you are a young man driving your wife and her parents, be very careful. If you are involved in a serious car accident, you and your mother-in-law are most likely to survive. This 'warning' is one conclusion of Anat Biegon's upcoming 414th Brookhaven Lecture, entitled 'Of Boys and Girls and Bumps on the Head.' Joanna Fowler of the Chemistry Department, Director of BNL's Translational Neuroimaging Center, will introduce the lecturer. Biegon, a senior medical scientist in the Medical Department, will detail how research has refined scientists view of gender differences in the prevalence and outcome of diseases affecting the brain. Although it has been well documented that gender affects the prevalence of disorders such as depression and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, recent head injury trials suggest that both age and sex affect the likelihood and degree of recovery from injuries to the brain. While girls are more likely to die following a traumatic brain injury than boys, that result is reversed after the age of 50, when men die twice as often. Although it has been well documented that gender affects the prevalence of disorders such as depression and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, recent head injury trials suggest that both age and sex affect the likelihood and degree of recovery from injuries to the brain. While girls are more likely to die following a traumatic brain injury than boys, that result is reversed after the age of 50, when men die twice as often.

  10. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-cost flexural bearing based 3D printing tool head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Aaron Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design, characterization and optimization of a low-cost additive rapid-prototyping tool head for a technology known as Fused Filament Fabrication for use in an educational curriculum. Building a ...

  11. Characterisation of individual airborne particles by using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) at Mace Head, Ireland, 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C S; Kinnersley, Robert P; Harrison, Roy M; Donovan, Robert J; Heal, Mathew R

    2004-01-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was deployed at Mace Head (Ireland) during August 2002. The measurements provide qualitative chemical composition and size distribution (0.3–3 ?m) information for single ...

  12. Computational evaluation of a novel approach to process planning for circuit card assembly on dual head placement machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Nilanjan Dutta

    2006-04-12

    Dual head placement machines are commonly used in industry for placing components on circuit cards with great speed and accuracy. This thesis evaluates a novel approach for prescribing process plans for circuit card assembly ...

  13. Effects of head-up tilt on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and regional cardiac output distribution in aging rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Michael Wiechmann

    2006-04-12

    Many senescent individuals demonstrate an inability to regulate mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to standing or head-up tilt; however, whether this aging effect is the result of depressed cardiac function or an inability to reduce peripheral...

  14. Rapidly re-computable EEG (electroencephalography) forward models for realistic head shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermer, J. J.; Mosher, J. C.; Baillet, S.; Leahy, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Solution of the EEG source localization (inverse) problem utilizing model-based methods typically requires a significant number of forward model evaluations. For subspace based inverse methods like MUSIC [6], the total number of forward model evaluations can often approach an order of 10{sup 3} or 10{sup 4}. Techniques based on least-squares minimization may require significantly more evaluations. The observed set of measurements over an M-sensor array is often expressed as a linear forward spatio-temporal model of the form: F = GQ + N (1) where the observed forward field F (M-sensors x N-time samples) can be expressed in terms of the forward model G, a set of dipole moment(s) Q (3xP-dipoles x N-time samples) and additive noise N. Because of their simplicity, ease of computation, and relatively good accuracy, multi-layer spherical models [7] (or fast approximations described in [1], [7]) have traditionally been the 'forward model of choice' for approximating the human head. However, approximation of the human head via a spherical model does have several key drawbacks. By its very shape, the use of a spherical model distorts the true distribution of passive currents in the skull cavity. Spherical models also require that the sensor positions be projected onto the fitted sphere (Fig. 1), resulting in a distortion of the true sensor-dipole spatial geometry (and ultimately the computed surface potential). The use of a single 'best-fitted' sphere has the added drawback of incomplete coverage of the inner skull region, often ignoring areas such as the frontal cortex. In practice, this problem is typically countered by fitting additional sphere(s) to those region(s) not covered by the primary sphere. The use of these additional spheres results in added complication to the forward model. Using high-resolution spatial information obtained via X-ray CT or MR imaging, a realistic head model can be formed by tessellating the head into a set of contiguous regions (typically the scalp, outer skull, and inner skull surfaces). Since accurate in vivo determination of internal conductivities is currently not currently possible, the head is typically assumed to consist of a set of contiguous isotropic regions, each with constant conductivity.

  15. Heading 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    willingly give and accept constructive feedback and coaching. On-going Dialogue I have good interpersonal skills. I am a good listener. I seek to find out information through...

  16. Heading 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSCGrid-based29HaiWhy Is ItHarry1-1642 Unlimited

  17. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  18. Inhibition of Hsp27 Radiosensitizes Head-and-Neck Cancer by Modulating Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttmann, David M.; Hart, Lori; Du, Kevin; Seletsky, Andrew; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and ?H2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Results: Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cell lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. Conclusions: These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.

  19. The repairs on the joint head dam on the Salt River in Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Luther Rudolph

    1916-01-01

    on the Salt River. This structure impounds the flood waters of the Salt and holds them in a reservoir to be used as needed in the valley below. The next structure un­ dertaken was on the site of the old Granite Reef Dam. This new work is of concrete..., leaving the Joint Head Dam h igh and dry. The government rebuilt this dam of concrete, as shown. It further built dykes of earth over the arroyas south of the river which formed the high level river bed. A p rofile of these washed-out por­ tions...

  20. Determination of selected trace elements in human head hair by neutron activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courson, Leonard Austin

    1981-01-01

    ) Leonard Austin Courson, B. S. , Auburn University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. Richard D. Neff Trace element determination utilizing neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been shown to be a powerful tool in the 1nvesti gati on of human head hair...- culate a probab1lity that two different hair samples are of common origin. By sampling 299 members of the population of the Central Texas area and uti li z1 ng NAA to determine the concentrations of the short lived activation products, such a data base...

  1. Head Loss Through Fibrous Debris Bed with Different Types of Perforated Strainers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulsattar, Suhaeb S

    2014-05-03

    than the randomly generated debris bed on the sump strainer of the NPP. The U.S. NRC began their analysis in 1996 in order to predict and estimate the loss of the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) by establishing GSI-191. In 1995, NUREG/CR-6224....0964 ft3 (0.00273 m3). The density of the NUKON debris particle was specified to be equal to 2.88 g/cm3 in the (NURE/CR- 6224), however, it was specified to be 2.5 g/cm3 according to the NUKON insulation Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)[10...

  2. Head of the Harbor, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent| Open EnergyCapital JumpHead

  3. Head Erosion with Emittance Growth in PWFA (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) |different scalesTHEScalejitter-freenucleiHead

  4. Optimization of UAV Heading for the Ground-to-Air Uplink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a collection of single-antenna ground nodes communicating with a multi-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a multiple-access ground-to-air wireless communications link. The UAV uses beamforming to mitigate the inter-user interference and achieve spatial division multiple access (SDMA). First, we consider a simple scenario with two static ground nodes and analytically investigate the effect of the UAV heading on the system sum rate. We then study a more general setting with multiple mobile ground-based terminals, and develop an algorithm for dynamically adjusting the UAV heading in order to maximize a lower bound on the ergodic sum rate of the uplink channel, using a Kalman filter to track the positions of the mobile ground nodes. Fairness among the users can be guaranteed through weighting the bound for each user's ergodic rate with a factor inversely proportional to their average data rate. For the common scenario where a high $K$-factor channel exists between the ground node...

  5. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  6. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  8. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA); Ballas, Gary J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  9. Observations of supra-arcade fans: instabilities at the head of reconnection jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Schmit, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2014-11-20

    Supra-arcade fans are bright, irregular regions of emission that develop during eruptive flares above flare arcades. The underlying flare arcades are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection along a current sheet in the corona. At the same time, theory predicts plasma jets from the reconnection sites which are extremely difficult to observe directly because of their low densities. It has been suggested that the dark supra-arcade downflows (SADs) seen falling through supra-arcade fans may be low-density jet plasma. The head of a low-density jet directed toward higher-density plasma would be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, and lead to the development of rapidly growing low- and high-density fingers along the interface. Using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 Å images, we show details of SADs seen from three different orientations with respect to the flare arcade and current sheet, and highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations suggests that SADs are the result of secondary instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type in the exhaust of reconnection jets.

  10. SU-E-T-603: Analysis of Optical Tracked Head Inter-Fraction Movements Within Masks to Access Intracranial Immobilization Techniques in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsi, W; Zeidan, O

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a quantitative methodology utilizing an optical tracking system for monitoring head inter-fraction movements within brain masks to assess the effectiveness of two intracranial immobilization techniques. Methods and Materials: A 3-point-tracking method was developed to measure the mask location for a treatment field at each fraction. Measured displacement of mask location to its location at first fraction is equivalent to the head movement within the mask. Head movements for each of treatment fields were measured over about 10 fractions at each patient for seven patients; five treated in supine and two treated in prone. The Q-fix Base-of-Skull head frame was used in supine while the CIVCO uni-frame baseplate was used in prone. Displacements of recoded couch position of each field post imaging at each fraction were extracted for those seven patients. Standard deviation (S.D.) of head movements and couch displacements was scored for statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was within 1.0 mm by phantom measurements. Patterns of head movement and couch displacement were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone. In superior-inferior direction, mean value of scored standard deviations over seven patients were 1.6 mm and 3.4 mm for the head movement and the couch displacement, respectively. The result indicated that the head movement combined with a loose fixation between the mask-to-head frame results large couch displacements for each patient, and also large variation between patients. However, the head movement is the main cause for the couch displacement with similar magnitude of around 1.0 mm in anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Conclusions: Optical-tracking methodology independently quantifying head movements could improve immobilization devices by correctly acting on causes for head motions within mask. A confidence in the quality of intracranial immobilization techniques could be more efficient by eliminating the need for frequent imaging.

  11. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  12. Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.-J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.

    2009-01-12

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  13. Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer,W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J. -P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H. -J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.

    2008-11-24

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. To reduce the head-on beam-beam effect electron lenses were proposed for both RIDC and the LHC. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  14. Head-on collisions of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2011-03-15

    We simulate head-on collisions from rest at large separation of binary white dwarf-neutron stars (WDNSs) in full general relativity. Our study serves as a prelude to our analysis of the circular binary WDNS problem. We focus on compact binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass that a cold-degenerate star can support, and our goal is to determine the fate of such systems. A fully general relativistic hydrodynamic computation of a realistic WDNS head-on collision is prohibitive due to the large range of dynamical time scales and length scales involved. For this reason, we construct an equation of state (EOS) which captures the main physical features of neutron stars (NSs) while, at the same time, scales down the size of white dwarfs (WDs). We call these scaled-down WD models 'pseudo-WDs (pWDs)'. Using pWDs, we can study these systems via a sequence of simulations where the size of the pWD gradually increases toward the realistic case. We perform two sets of simulations; One set studies the effects of the NS mass on the final outcome, when the pWD is kept fixed. The other set studies the effect of the pWD compaction on the final outcome, when the pWD mass and the NS are kept fixed. All simulations show that after the collision, 14%-18% of the initial total rest mass escapes to infinity. All remnant masses still exceed the maximum rest mass that our cold EOS can support (1.92M{sub {center_dot}}), but no case leads to prompt collapse to a black hole. This outcome arises because the final configurations are hot. All cases settle into spherical, quasiequilibrium configurations consisting of a cold NS core surrounded by a hot mantle, resembling Thorne-Zytkow objects. Extrapolating our results to realistic WD compactions, we predict that the likely outcome of a head-on collision of a realistic, massive WDNS system will be the formation of a quasiequilibrium Thorne-Zytkow-like object.

  15. Postradiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, James D.; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on postradiation {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with head-and-neck cancer who received pretreatment and posttreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub 2.0}-MTV{sub 4.0}; where MTV{sub 2.0} refers to the volume above a standardized uptake value threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Multiple postradiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome; however, the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV{sub 2.0}. An increase in MTV{sub 2.0} of 21cm{sup 3} (difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]= 2.5, p = 0.0001) and death (HR = 2.0, p = 0.003). In patients with nonnasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 34), MTV{sub 2.0} <18 cm{sup 3} and MTV{sub 2.0} {>=}18 cm{sup 3} yielded 2-year disease-free survival rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p = 0.006) and 2-year overall survival rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p = 0.009). There was no correlation between MTV{sub 2.0} and disease-free survival or overall survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 13). On multivariate analysis, only postradiation MTV{sub 2.0} was predictive of disease-free survival (HR = 2.47, p = 0.0001) and overall survival (HR = 1.98, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Postradiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification and will be valuable in the future with risk-adapted therapies.

  16. Clinical experience transitioning from IMRT to VMAT for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studenski, Matthew T.; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Siglin, Joshua; Cognetti, David; Curry, Joseph; Tuluc, Madalina; Harrison, Amy S.

    2013-07-01

    To quantify clinical differences for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in terms of dosimetric endpoints and planning and delivery time, twenty head and neck cancer patients have been considered for VMAT using Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan delivered via an Elekta linear accelerator. Differences in planning time between IMRT and VMAT were estimated accounting for both optimization and calculation. The average delivery time per patient was obtained retrospectively using the record and verify software. For the dosimetric comparison, all contoured organs at risk (OARs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were evaluated. Of the 20 cases considered, 14 had VMAT plans approved. Six VMAT plans were rejected due to unacceptable dose to OARs. In terms of optimization time, there was minimal difference between the two modalities. The dose calculation time was significantly longer for VMAT, 4 minutes per 358 degree arc versus 2 minutes for an entire IMRT plan. The overall delivery time was reduced by 9.2 ± 3.9 minutes for VMAT (51.4 ± 15.6%). For the dosimetric comparison of the 14 clinically acceptable plans, there was almost no statistical difference between the VMAT and IMRT. There was also a reduction in monitor units of approximately 32% from IMRT to VMAT with both modalities demonstrating comparable quality assurance results. VMAT provides comparable coverage of target volumes while sparing OARs for the majority of head and neck cases. In cases where high dose modulation was required for OARs, a clinically acceptable plan was only achievable with IMRT. Due to the long calculation times, VMAT plans can cause delays during planning but marked improvements in delivery time reduce patient treatment times and the risk of intra-fraction motion.

  17. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  18. College Grads, Young Moms, Big Bucks, State Reps and Racial Composition: Evaluating the Impact of Social, Political and Economic Factors on State-Level Head Start Uptake Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Angela N

    2013-04-11

    The Head Start Program aims to equip pre-school age children from low-income families with the social, academic and emotional development that is essential upon entry to Kindergarten. While much research and debate exists about whether or not Head...

  19. Simulations of Octupole Compensation of head-tail instability at the Tevatron M. Xiao and T. Sen, FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Large Hadron Collider Program

    Simulations of Octupole Compensation of head-tail instability at the Tevatron M. Xiao and T. Sen in the Tevatron depends sensitively on chromaticities. Too low chromaticities can make the beam unstable due to the weak head-tail instability. One way to compensate this effect is to introduce octupoles to create

  20. Testosterone and prolactin in two songbirds that differ in paternal care: the blue-headed vireo and the red-eyed vireo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterson, Ellen D.

    ) and prolactin (PRL). Concentrations of plasma T and PRL were compared in breeding Blue-headed Vireos (Vireo incubation, respectively. In male Blue-headed Vireos, plasma T remained low from prenesting to fledgling stages; whereas in male Red-eyed Vireos, plasma T was highest during prenesting and progressively

  1. Career Break Record of Contact Days Staff on a career break may, by agreement with their Head of School/Unit, undertake a number of days'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    with their Head of School/Unit, undertake a number of days' paid work during their career break ("contact days"). The type of work undertaken is a matter of agreement between the member of staff and the Head of School/Unit: _________________________________________________________________ Staff ID/NI Number/ Date of Birth:_________________________________________ School/Unit

  2. [To be printed on the headed notepaper of the Administering Organisation or its Technology Transfer Group (if an independent organisation) or the Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    [To be printed on the headed notepaper of the Administering Organisation or its Technology Transfer of Signature:___________________________ [Signed by Head Technology Transfer Office (TTO) or Group on behalf of Administering Organisation or its Technology Transfer Group if independent or if the University does not have

  3. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS FOR SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES, KOKO HEAD, OAHU, 1956-69, AND SEA-SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARMONIC FUNCTIONS FOR SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES, KOKO HEAD, OAHU, 1956-69, AND SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES, CHRISTMAS ISLAND, 1954-69 GUNTHER It SECKEL' AND MARIAN Y. Y. YONG' ABSTRACT Harmonic functions, with daily sampling, are on average 0.07° C. Harmonic analysis spanning the entire sampling duration shows

  4. Scanning of Scenes in Autism and Schizophrenia 1 Running Head: SCANNING OF SCENES IN AUTISM AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    Scanning of Scenes in Autism and Schizophrenia 1 Running Head: SCANNING OF SCENES IN AUTISM AND SCHIZOPHRENIA Orienting to Social Stimuli Differentiates Social Cognitive Impairment in Autism and Schizophrenia: (919) 966-7080 #12;Scanning of Scenes in Autism and Schizophrenia 2 Abstract Context. Both autism

  5. Head of Technical Services The University of Arkansas Libraries are seeking a highly experienced and nationally engaged individual to lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    Head of Technical Services The University of Arkansas Libraries are seeking a highly experienced and nationally engaged individual to lead the Technical Services Department. The position is responsible for oversight of acquisition, processing, and accessibility of materials for the Libraries' collections

  6. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part II. precipitates by in-situ aluminum alloy corrosion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahn, C.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01

    Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH)3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH){sub 3} when intermetallic particles are present.

  7. Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    1 Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 2 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3 4 Seth H. Petersona , Max A. Moritzb , Marco E. Moraisc , Philip E for Fire Research & Outreach, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management,10 UC Berkeley, CA

  8. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 5, JUNE 2012 993 Optimization of UAV Heading for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 5, JUNE 2012 993 Optimization of UAV-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a multiple-access ground-to-air communi- cations link. The UAV uses of the UAV's heading on the system sum rate. We then study a more general setting with multiple mobile ground

  9. Running head: PLSCA FOR BEHAVIORALAND GENETIC DATA 1 Partial Least Squares-Correspondence Analysis: A framework to simultaneously analyze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdi, Hervé

    : A framework to simultaneously analyze behavioral and genetic data Derek Beaton* School of Behavioral and BrainRunning head: PLSCA FOR BEHAVIORALAND GENETIC DATA 1 Partial Least Squares-Correspondence Analysis Sciences The University of Texas at Dallas MS: GR4.1 800 West Campbell Rd. Richardson, TX 75080 USA Joseph

  10. Analytical and semi-analytical solutions of horizontal well capture times under no-ow and constant-head boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    for oil and gas production in the past decade [15,21]. Extensive studies on pressure anal- ysis-head. The third scenario is recovery from a low-permeability layer bounded above and below by much higher developed analytical solutions of the transient and steady-state gas pressure and the steady-state stream

  11. Submitted to and accepted for the Expert Systems in Production and Operations Management Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina, 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina, 1990 TEST+: The Extension of an Application Shell For Turbine a unique and powerful solution to the diagnosis of turbine generators. #12;2 1 Introduction As a variety+ in the turbine-generator domain. Features of this domain motivated a particular set of system requirements

  12. SmartColor: Real-Time Color Correction and Contrast for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -through head-mounted displays (OHMD) perceive color as a blend of the display color and the background. Color-blending correction aims at mitigating color blending by producing an alternative color which, when blended present SmartColor, a middleware for color management of user- interface components in OHMD. Smart

  13. RUNNING HEAD: THE FOSSIL CALIBRATION DATABASE Title: The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    1 RUNNING HEAD: THE FOSSIL CALIBRATION DATABASE Title: The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Street NW, Washington, DC, 20059, USA; 19 Centre of Evolutionary and Ecological Studies, Marine Evolution continually lest they become obsolete. Here, we announce the Fossil Calibration Database (http

  14. Seeing the whole elephant in the room: a holistic approach to ebooks Pamela Jacobs, Head (Acting), Information Resources & Collections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    ), Information Resources & Collections Robin Bergart, User Experience Librarian University of Guelph Introduction the various aspects of the ebook ecosystem and to place these in a framework to help guide decision making, Liaison, Information Literacy and User Experience Design: Pam Jacobs ­ Acting Head, Information Resources

  15. Laboratory life-fertility table assessment and field biology of millet head miner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Niger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou Kadi Kadi, Hame

    1999-01-01

    and developmental rate. More millet head miners survived better when fed Bio-Serv® than any of the millet-based diets. Fed Bio-Serv® diet, survival from eggs to adults was greatest (5.4%) at 30C?. Developmental times from eggs to adults were longest (51.1-55.4 d...

  16. What You See Is What You Touch: Visualizing Touch Screen Interaction in the Head-Up Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the position of the user's hand in relation to it, within the car's head-up display (HUD). In an initial study is visualized in the HUD. In this paper, we present the "What You See Is What You Touch" (WYSIWYT) technique

  17. Examining the Effects of Conformal Terrain Features in Advanced Head-Up Displays on Flight Performance and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    and EVS imagery in an advanced head-up display (HUD) during a simulated landing approach under instrument meteorological conditions. Videos of the landing with various HUD configurations were presented to eight pilots with a superimposed tracking task. The independent variables included four HUD feature configurations (baseline [no

  18. RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Wayne

    RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in Applied Cognitive Research Brian D. Ehret Wayne D. Gray George Mason University with complexity: Developing and using a scaled world in applied cognitive research. Human Factors, 42(1), 8

  19. Central auditory neurons display flexible feature recombination1 Running head: Flexible logic of central auditory neurons3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentner, Timothy

    these operations in individual neurons, violating the fixed neuron-to-38 computation mapping posited in the state but are generic, the flexible neuron-to-computation mapping43 demonstrated in this study in the auditory system1 Central auditory neurons display flexible feature recombination1 functions2 Running head

  20. Mach-like Angular Correlations Arise Only From the Head Zone of AdS/CFT String Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorge Noronha; Miklos Gyulassy

    2008-06-26

    We show that Mach-like azimuthal correlations of associated hadrons in the wake of heavy quark jets modeled in the AdS/CFT string drag picture originate only from the near-quark ``Head'' region. The contributions from the far zones lead only to a yield peaked in the opposite direction with respect to the trigger jet.

  1. Absolute distance perception during in-depth head movement: calibrating optic flow with extra-retinal information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fah, Cheong Loong

    Absolute distance perception during in-depth head movement: calibrating optic flow with extra-retinal Processing and Application Laboratory (IPAL-CNRS), KDRL, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Singapore 119613 d reserved. Keywords: Self-motion; Object-motion; Absolute distance perception; Optic flow; Extra-retinal cue

  2. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabeza, Roberto

    Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto:peggy.st.jacques@duke.edu #12;Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 2 Abstract Emotional processes are enhanced

  3. Tumor delineation using PET in head and neck cancers: Threshold contouring and lesion volumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Eric C.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Hanlon, Lorraine; Alessio, Adam; Rajendran, Joseph; Schwartz, David L.; Phillips, Mark [University of Washington, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) and Puget Sound Veterans Administration, 18801 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); University of Washington, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 and School of Physics, University College Dublin (Ireland); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 and Puget Sound Veterans Administration, 1880 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); University of Washington, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Tumor boundary delineation using positron emission tomography (PET) is a promising tool for radiation therapy applications. In this study we quantify the uncertainties in tumor boundary delineation as a function of the reconstruction method, smoothing, and lesion size in head and neck cancer patients using FDG-PET images and evaluate the dosimetric impact on radiotherapy plans. FDG-PET images were acquired for eight patients with a GE Advance PET scanner. In addition, a 20 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with six FDG-filled spheres with volumes of 1.2 to 26.5 cm{sup 3} was imaged. PET emission scans were reconstructed with the OSEM and FBP algorithms with different smoothing parameters. PET-based tumor regions were delineated using an automatic contouring function set at progressively higher threshold contour levels and the resulting volumes were calculated. CT-based tumor volumes were also contoured by a physician on coregistered PET/CT patient images. The intensity value of the threshold contour level that returns 100% of the actual volume, I{sub V100}, was measured. We generated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for an example head and neck patient, treating 66 Gy to CT-based gross disease and 54 Gy to nodal regions at risk, followed by a boost to the FDG-PET-based tumor. The volumes of PET-based tumors are a sensitive function of threshold contour level for all patients and phantom datasets. A 5% change in threshold contour level can translate into a 200% increase in volume. Phantom data indicate that I{sub V100} can be set as a fraction, f, of the maximum measured uptake. Fractional threshold values in the cylindrical water phantom range from 0.23 to 0.51. Both the fractional threshold and the threshold-volume curve are dependent on lesion size, with lesions smaller than approximately 5 cm{sup 3} displaying a more pronounced sensitivity and larger fractional threshold values. The threshold-volume curves and fractional threshold values also depend on the reconstruction algorithm and smoothing filter with more smoothing requiring a higher fractional threshold contour level. The threshold contour level affects the tumor size, and therefore the ultimate boost dose that is achievable with IMRT. In an example head and neck IMRT plan, the D95 of the planning target volume decreased from 7770 to 7230 cGy for 42% vs 55% contour threshold levels. PET-based tumor volumes are strongly affected by the choice of threshold level. This can have a significant dosimetric impact. The appropriate threshold level depends on lesion size and image reconstruction parameters. These effects should be carefully considered when using PET contour and/or volume information for radiotherapy applications.

  4. Benchmarking assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 for the low flow and natural circulation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.P. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Taylor, B.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3 code was assessed against experimental thermal hydraulics data for a 12.5 foot test section comprised of two vertical concentric tubes with water flowing upward in the tubes. The inner tubewas stainless steel and uniformly heated. ne outer tube was transparent polycarbonate (lexan) and unheated. The experimental procedure incorporated a test matrix of 24 tests to address single- and two-phase flow, forced and natural circulation flow and heated and unheated fluid. The tests were conducted at system pressures of 14.7 and 17.0 psia. Nine of the tests representing the full range of test conditions were analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3. RELAP5/MOD3 analysis of the tests yielded general agreement with experiment with regard to the prediction of forced flow and natural circulation trends. However, a number of deficiencies were observed in the RELAP5/MOD3 treatment and these, along with recommendations for their resolution, are described in the paper.

  5. Benchmarking assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 for the low flow and natural circulation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, B.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3 code was assessed against experimental thermal hydraulics data for a 12.5 foot test section comprised of two vertical concentric tubes with water flowing upward in the tubes. The inner tubewas stainless steel and uniformly heated. ne outer tube was transparent polycarbonate (lexan) and unheated. The experimental procedure incorporated a test matrix of 24 tests to address single- and two-phase flow, forced and natural circulation flow and heated and unheated fluid. The tests were conducted at system pressures of 14.7 and 17.0 psia. Nine of the tests representing the full range of test conditions were analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3. RELAP5/MOD3 analysis of the tests yielded general agreement with experiment with regard to the prediction of forced flow and natural circulation trends. However, a number of deficiencies were observed in the RELAP5/MOD3 treatment and these, along with recommendations for their resolution, are described in the paper.

  6. Wind power application for low flow irrigation from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer of West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molla, Saiful Islam

    1997-01-01

    Attempts were made to reduce the cost of energy for irrigation in West Texas. To do this two wind turbines of 10 kW size were installed in Garden City and Stiles, Texas to pump water. The turbines were installed on 30 m towers. The pumping water...

  7. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Alan Edward

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

  8. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  9. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  10. New formalism for QCD parton showers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseke, Stefan; Stephens, Phil; Webber, Bryan R

    light quark we define as in sect. 5.1 qi = ?ipa + ?in+ q?i (5.32) – 22 – for i = a, c, g, where q?a = 0, q?c = ?k?, q?g = k?, and n is as in eq. (5.3). Then the ?i’s and ?i’s are given by eqs. (5.7) with the substitution b ? a. The light antiquark... generator. Keywords: QCD, Jets, Heavy Quark Physics. Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. New variables for parton branching 3 2.1 Final-state quark branching 3 2.1.1 Kinematics 3 2.1.2 Running coupling 3 2.1.3 Evolution variable 4 2.1.4 Branching probability 4 2.2...

  11. On-Site Oxy-Lance Size Reduction of South Texas Project Reactor Vessel Heads - 12324

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posivak, Edward [WMG, inc. (United States); Keeney, Gilbert; Wheeler, Dean [Shaw Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of mildly radioactive large components has been accomplished at other operating plants. On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of more radioactive components like Reactor Vessel Heads had previously been limited to decommissioning projects. Building on past decommissioning and site experience, subcontractors for South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) developed an innovative integrated system to control smoke, radioactive contamination, worker dose, and worker safety. STP's innovative, easy to use CEDM containment that provided oxy lance access, smoke control, and spatter/contamination control was the key to successful segmentation for cost-effective and ALARA packaging and transport for disposal. Relative to CEDM milling, STP oxy-lance segmentation saved approximately 40 person- REM accrued during 9,000 hours logged into the radiological controlled area (RCA) during more than 3,800 separate entries. Furthermore there were no personnel contamination events or respiratory uptakes of radioactive material during the course of the entire project. (authors)

  12. Weak-strong simulation on head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Fischer, W.; McIntosh, E.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Montag, C.

    2009-05-04

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams collide in the two interaction points IP6 and IP8. To further increase the bunch intensity above 2 x 10{sup 11} or further reduce the transverse emittance in polarized proton operation, there will not be enough tune space between the current working area [2/3, 7/10] to hold the beam-beam generated tune spread. We proposed a low energy DC electron beam (e-lens) with similar Gaussian transverse profiles to collide with the proton beam at IP10. Early studies have shown that e-lens does reduce the proton-proton beam-beam tune spread. In this article, we carried out numerical simulation to investigate the effects of the head-on beam-beam effect on the proton's colliding beam lifetime and emittance growth. The preliminary results including scans of compensation strength, phase advances between IP8 and IP10, electron beam transverse sizes are presented. In these studies, the particle loss in the multi-particle simulation is used for the comparison between different conditions.

  13. Thermal modeling of head disk interface system in heat assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vemuri, Sesha Hari; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S., E-mail: mj3a@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Min Kim, Hyung [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07

    A thorough understanding of the temperature profiles introduced by the heat assisted magnetic recording is required to maintain the hotspot at the desired location on the disk with minimal heat damage to other components. Here, we implement a transient mesoscale modeling methodology termed lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for phonons (which are primary carriers of energy) in the thermal modeling of the head disk interface (HDI) components, namely, carbon overcoat (COC). The LBM can provide more accurate results compared to conventional Fourier methodology by capturing the nanoscale phenomena due to ballistic heat transfer. We examine the in-plane and out-of-plane heat transfer in the COC via analyzing the temperature profiles with a continuously focused and pulsed laser beam on a moving disk. Larger in-plane hotspot widening is observed in continuously focused laser beam compared to a pulsed laser. A pulsed laser surface develops steeper temperature gradients compared to continuous hotspot. Furthermore, out-of-plane heat transfer from the COC to the media is enhanced with a continuous laser beam then a pulsed laser, while the temperature takes around 140 fs to reach the bottom surface of the COC. Our study can lead to a realistic thermal model describing novel HDI material design criteria for the next generation of hard disk drives with ultra high recording densities.

  14. Efficacy and Toxicity of Peritumoral Delivery of Nanoconjugated Cisplatin in an In Vivo Murine Model of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2013-04-01

    , Simis YJ, Verkaik RS, et al. Hearing loss due to concurrent daily low- dose cisplatin chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Ra- diother Oncol. 2008;89(1):38-43. 13. Conley BA. Treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: what lessons... Efficacy and Toxicity of Peritumoral Delivery of Nanoconjugated Cisplatin in an In Vivo Murine Model of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stephanie M. Cohen, MD, MS; Nick Rockefeller, BS; Ridhwi Mukerji, MD; Dianne Durham, PhD; M. Laird Forrest, Ph...

  15. Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Prasanta Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-10-15

    The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically.

  16. Read/write head having a GMR sensor biased by permanent magnets located between the GMR and the pole shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Samuel W. (San Carlos, CA); Rottmayer, Robert Earl (Fremont, CA); Carey, Matthew J. (San Jose, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A compact read/write head having a biased giant magnetoresistive sensor. Permanent magnet films are placed adjacent to the giant magnetoresistive sensor operating in the current-perpendicular-to the-plane (Cpp) mode and spaced with respect to the sensor by conducting films. These permanent magnet films provide a magnetic bias. The bias field is substantial and fairly uniform across sensor height. Biasing of the giant magnetoresistive sensor provides distinguishable response to the rising and falling edges of a recorded pulse on an adjacent recording medium, improves the linearity of the response, and helps to reduce noise. This read/write head is much simpler to fabricate and pattern and provides an enhanced uniformity of the bias field throughout the sensor.

  17. A comparison of techniques for simulating set-up error and uncertainty in head and neck IMRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploquin, Nicolas; Kay, Ian; Rangel-Baltazar, Alejandra; Lau, Harold; Dunscombe, Peter [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Physics, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Physics, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Physics, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Physics, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada) and University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    We have compared four computational methods for quantifying the effect of set-up error and uncertainty on delivered doses to targets and organs at risk in the intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment of head and neck cancer. These four methods were direct simulation, simple convolution, plus two modified convolution approaches. Discrepancies of up to 20% in the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) between direct simulation and simple convolution were estimated for the relatively superficial parotid gland at a systematic set-up error of 6 mm standard deviation and a random uncertainty of 2 mm standard deviation. Truncated convolution agreed with direct simulation to within 6% for all situations studied. However, of the four methods, only direct simulation can quantify the range of outcomes (EUD) associated with a finite number of courses and fractions. Our results are particularly relevant to the design of dose escalation studies in head and neck cancer.

  18. The effect of head-on beam-beam compensation on the stochastic boundaries and particle diffusion in RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    To compensate the effects from the head-on beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), an electron lens (elens) is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. We used an extended version of SixTrack for multiparticle beam-beam simulation in order to study the effect of the e-lens on the stochastic boundary and also on diffusion. The stochastic boundary was analyzed using Lyapunov exponents and the diffusion was characterized as the increase in the rms spread of the action. For both studies the simulations were performed with and without the e-lens and with full and partial compensation. Using the simulated values of the diffusion an attempt to calculate the emittance growth rate is presented.

  19. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high flows. There were zero days when the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery Chinook catch in 2003 was partially due to differences in flow between years because there was a 5.9% increase in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. The decrease in hatchery steelhead catch may be partially due to a 13% decrease in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2003 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook was probably caused by age 0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age 0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age 1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. For wild Chinook salmon there was a 1.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.7-fold and a 1.9-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2003 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 14-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 8.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.4-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and

  20. Operational head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. As of this date the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  1. Report on a randomized trial comparing two forms of immobilization of the head for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bednarz, Greg; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Downes, Beverly; Bogner, Joachim; Hyslop, Terry; Galvin, James; Evans, James; Curran, Walter Jr.; Andrews, David

    2009-01-15

    Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires accurate and reproducible immobilization of the patient's head. This randomized study compared the efficacy of two commonly used forms of immobilization used for SRT. Two routinely used methods of immobilization, which differ in their approach to reproduce the head position from day to day, are the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) frame and the BrainLab thermoplastic mask. The GTC frame fixates on the patient's upper dentition and thus is in direct mechanical contact with the cranium. The BrainLab mask is a two-part masking system custom fitted to the front and back of the patient's head. After patients signed an IRB-approved informed consent form, eligible patients were randomized to either GTC frame or mask for their course of SRT. Patients were treated as per standard procedure; however, prior to each treatment a set of digital kilovolt images (ExacTrac, BrainLabAB, Germany) was taken. These images were fused with reference digitally reconstructed radiographs obtained from treatment planning CT to yield lateral, longitudinal, and vertical deviations of isocenter and head rotations about respective axes. The primary end point of the study was to compare the two systems with respect to mean and standard deviations using the distance to isocenter measure. A total of 84 patients were enrolled (69 patients evaluable with detailed positioning data). A mixed-effect linear regression and two-tiled t test were used to compare the distance measure for both the systems. There was a statistically significant (p<0.001) difference between mean distances for these systems, suggesting that the GTC frame was more accurate. The mean 3D displacement and standard deviations were 3.17+1.95 mm for mask and 2.00+1.04 mm for frame. Both immobilization techniques were highly effective, but the GTC frame was more accurate. To optimize the accuracy of SRT, daily kilovolt image guidance is recommended with either immobilization system.

  2. CD147 and AGR2 expression promote cellular proliferation and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeny, Larissa; Liu, Zhiyong; Bush, Benjamin D.; Hartman, Yolanda; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2012-08-15

    The signaling pathways facilitating metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells are not fully understood. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein known to induce cell migration and invasion. AGR2 is a secreted peptide also known to promote cell metastasis. Here we describe their importance in the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells (FADU and OSC-19) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 decreased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 expression decreased primary tumor growth as well as regional and distant metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated AGR2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explored the relationship between AGR2 and CD147 for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AGR2 and CD147 appear to co-localize in head and squamous cell carcinoma samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 reduced migration and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 decreased metastasis in vivo.

  3. Impact of Concomitant Chemotherapy on Outcomes of Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shlok; Kong, Weidong; Booth, Christopher M.; Mackillop, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials have shown that the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of concomitant chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) in routine practice. Methods and Materials: This was a population-based cohort study. Electronic records of treatment from all provincial cancer centers were linked to a population--based cancer registry to describe the adoption of C-CRT for head-and-neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada. The study population was then divided into pre- and postadoption cohorts, and their outcomes were compared. Results: Between 1992 and 2008, 18,867 patients had diagnoses of head-and-neck cancer in Ontario, of whom 7866 (41.7%) were treated with primary RT. The proportion of primary RT cases that received C-CRT increased from 2.2% in the preadoption cohort (1992-1998) to 39.3% in the postadoption cohort (2003-2008). Five-year survival among all primary RT cases increased from 43.6% in the preadoption cohort to 51.8% in the postadoption cohort (P<.001). Over the same period, treatment-related hospital admissions increased significantly, but there was no significant increase in treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: C-CRT was widely adopted in Ontario after 2003, and its adoption was temporally associated with an improvement in survival.

  4. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal, is 156 ft long and bottoms at a depth of 106 ft bgs. The shallow perched water seen at LAWS-01 (at 80 ft) was not encountered. A scalloped PVC shield was installed to keep the hole open while permitting flexible liners to contact the borehole wall. It was initially instrumented with a color-reactive liner to locate water-producing fractures. That was later replaced by an absorbent liner to collect water from the vadose zone. The third hole (LAWS-03), drilled at an angle of 34{sup o} from horizontal, initially had a length of 136 ft and bottomed at a depth of 76 ft bgs. However, the PVC shield rotated during installation such that scallops were at the top and rock debris repeatedly fell in, preventing liner insertion. While pulling the scalloped PVC to replace it with a perforated PVC shield that did not require orientation, the scalloped PVC broke and only 85 ft was recovered. The hole was blocked at that position and could not be drilled out with the equipment available. Thus, LAWS-03 was completed at a length of 85 ft and a depth of 40 ft bgs. An absorbent liner was installed at the outset in preparation for the 2002 summer monsoon season. The entire monitoring site is enclosed inside a locked, 8-ft-high chainlink fence for security. The liners used in the angled boreholes carry electrical wire pairs to detect soil-moisture changes. Surface-water data are provided by stream gages above and below the weir site. Depth of ponding behind the weir is provided by a gage installed just behind the structure.

  5. A dosimetric comparison of proton and photon therapy in unresectable cancers of the head of pancreas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Reid F.; Zhai, Huifang; Both, Stefan; Metz, James M.; Plastaras, John P.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Mayekar, Sonal U.; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Uncontrolled local growth is the cause of death in ?30% of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancers. The addition of standard-dose radiotherapy to gemcitabine has been shown to confer a modest survival benefit in this population. Radiation dose escalation with three-dimensional planning is not feasible, but high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to improve local control. Still, dose-escalation remains limited by gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study, the authors investigate the potential use of double scattering (DS) and pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy in limiting dose to critical organs at risk. Methods: The authors compared DS, PBS, and IMRT plans in 13 patients with unresectable cancer of the pancreatic head, paying particular attention to duodenum, small intestine, stomach, liver, kidney, and cord constraints in addition to target volume coverage. All plans were calculated to 5500 cGy in 25 fractions with equivalent constraints and normalized to prescription dose. All statistics were by two-tailed paired t-test. Results: Both DS and PBS decreased stomach, duodenum, and small bowel dose in low-dose regions compared to IMRT (p < 0.01). However, protons yielded increased doses in the mid to high dose regions (e.g., 23.6–53.8 and 34.9–52.4 Gy for duodenum using DS and PBS, respectively; p < 0.05). Protons also increased generalized equivalent uniform dose to duodenum and stomach, however these differences were small (<5% and 10%, respectively; p < 0.01). Doses to other organs-at-risk were within institutional constraints and placed no obvious limitations on treatment planning. Conclusions: Proton therapy does not appear to reduce OAR volumes receiving high dose. Protons are able to reduce the treated volume receiving low-intermediate doses, however the clinical significance of this remains to be determined in future investigations.

  6. SU-E-T-460: Comparison of Proton and IMRT Planning for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontenla, S; Zhou, Y; Kowalski, A; Mah, D; Leven, T; Cahlon, O; Lee, N; Hunt, M; Mechalakos, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study comparing proton and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer Methods: This study consists of six H and N cancer patients that underwent proton as well as IMRT planning. Patients analyzed had unilateral target volumes, one had prior RT. 3D-conformal proton therapy (3D-CPT) plans with multiple field uniform scanning were generated for delivery on the inclined beam line. IMRT was planned using fixed field sliding window. Final plan evaluations were performed by a radiation oncologist and a physicist. Metrics for comparison included tumor coverage, organ sparing with respect to spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, submandibulars, oral cavity, larynx, brachial plexus, cochleas, normal brain tissue, and skin using relevant indices for these structures. Dose volume histograms were generated as well as a qualitative comparison of isodose distributions between the two modalities. Planning and treatment delivery times were compared. Results: Results showed that IMRT plans offered better conformality in the high dose region as demonstrated by the conformality index for each plan. Ipsilateral cochlea, submandibular gland, and skin doses were lower with IMRT than proton therapy. There was significant sparing of larynx, oral cavity, and brainstem with proton therapy compared to IMRT. This translated into direct patient benefit with no evidence of hoarseness, mucositis, or nausea. Contralateral parotid and submandibular glands were equally spared. IMRT had shorter planning/parts fabrication and treatment times which needs to be taken into account when deciding modality. Conclusion: Sparing of clinically significant normal tissue structures such as oral cavity and larynx for unilateral H and N cancers was seen with 3D-CPT versus IMRT. However, this is at the expense of less conformality at the high dose region and higher skin dose. Future studies are needed with full gantry systems and pencil beam scanning as these deliveries would be expected to further improve conformality and normal tissue sparing.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

  8. The Journal of Neuroscience, February 1990, fO(2): 420-435 Head-Direction Cells Recorded from the Postsubiculum in Freely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    /computer system monitored cell discharge while simultaneously tracking the position of 2 colored light emitting diodes (LEDs) secured to the animal's head. The animal's location was calculated from the position of one

  9. An examination of the viability of Title VII as a mechanism to compel racial diversity among the composition of head coaches at NCAA football bowl subdivision institutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatfield, Lance Carlos

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the legal strategy of utilizing Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to compel change to the racial composition of head coaches at NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision institutions. ...

  10. Experiments on Corium Dispersion after Lower Head Failure at Moderate Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLANCHAT,THOMAS K.; GARGALLO,M.; JACOBS,G.; MEYER,L.; WILHELM,D.

    1999-09-21

    Concerning the mitigation of high pressure core melt scenarios, the design objective for future PWRS is to transfer high pressure core melt to low pressure core melt sequences, by means of pressure relief valves at the primary circuit, with such a discharge capacity to limit the pressure in the reactor coolant system to less than 20 bar. Studies have shown that in late in-vessel reflooding scenarios there may be a time window where the pressure is indeed in this range, at the moment of the reactor vessel rupture. It has to be verified that large quantities of corium released from the vessel after failure at pressures <20 bar cannot be carried out of the reactor pit, because the melt collecting and cooling concept of future PWRs would be rendered useless. Existing experiments investigated the melt dispersal phenomena in the context of the DCH resolution for existing power plants in the USA, most of them having cavities with large instrument tunnels leading into subcompartments. For such designs, breaches with small cross sections at high vessel failure pressures had been studied. However, some present and future European PWRs have an annular cavity design without a large pathway out of the cavity other than through the narrow annular gap between the RPV and the cavity wall. Therefore, an experimental program was launched, focusing on the annular cavity design and low pressure vessel failure. The first part of the program comprises two experiments which were performed with thermite melt steam and a prototypic atmosphere in the containment in a scale 1:10. The initial pressure in the RPV-model was 11 and 15 bars, and the breach was a hole at the center of the lower head with a scaled diameter of 100 cm and 40 cm, respectively. The main results were: 78% of melt mass were ejected out of the cavity with the large hole and 21% with the small hole; the maximum pressures in the model containment were 6 bar and 4 bar, respectively. In the second part of the experimental program a detailed investigation of geometry effects is being carried out. The test facility DISCO-C has been built for performing dispersion experiments with cold simulant materials in a 1/18 scale. The fluids are water or bismuth alloy instead of melt, and nitrogen or helium instead of steam.

  11. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Hall, William H.; Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  12. Improved Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marsano, Joseph; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To compare differences in dosimetric, clinical, and quality-of-life endpoints among a cohort of patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 51 patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (47%) were treated using CRT, and 27 (53%) were treated using IMRT. The proportions of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy were 54% and 63%, respectively. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and disease-specific survival for the entire patient population were 86%, 89%, and84%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to radiation therapy technique (p > 0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that the use of IMRT resulted in significant improvements with respect to mean dose and V30 to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. In addition, mean doses to the ipsilateral inner and middle ear structures were significantly reduced with IMRT (p < 0.05 for all). The incidence of severe xerostomia in the late setting was 58% and 11% among patients treated by CRT and IMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentages of patients who were G-tube dependent at 6 months after treatment were 42% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT results in significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio among patients treated by radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.

  13. SU-E-T-08: A Convolution Model for Head Scatter Fluence in the Intensity Modulated Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, M; Mo, X; Chen, Y; Parnell, D; Key, S; Olivera, G; Galmarini, W; Lu, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To efficiently calculate the head scatter fluence for an arbitrary intensity-modulated field with any source distribution using the source occlusion model. Method: The source occlusion model with focal and extra focal radiation (Jaffray et al, 1993) can be used to account for LINAC head scatter. In the model, the fluence map of any field shape at any point can be calculated via integration of the source distribution within the visible range, as confined by each segment, using the detector eye's view. A 2D integration would be required for each segment and each fluence plane point, which is time-consuming, as an intensity-modulated field contains typically tens to hundreds of segments. In this work, we prove that the superposition of the segmental integrations is equivalent to a simple convolution regardless of what the source distribution is. In fact, for each point, the detector eye's view of the field shape can be represented as a function with the origin defined at the point's pinhole reflection through the center of the collimator plane. We were thus able to reduce hundreds of source plane integration to one convolution. We calculated the fluence map for various 3D and IMRT beams and various extra-focal source distributions using both the segmental integration approach and the convolution approach and compared the computation time and fluence map results of both approaches. Results: The fluence maps calculated using the convolution approach were the same as those calculated using the segmental approach, except for rounding errors (<0.1%). While it took considerably longer time to calculate all segmental integrations, the fluence map calculation using the convolution approach took only ?1/3 of the time for typical IMRT fields with ?100 segments. Conclusions: The convolution approach for head scatter fluence calculation is fast and accurate and can be used to enhance the online process.

  14. A Phase II trial of subcutaneous amifostine and radiation therapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne, Pramila Rani . E-mail: rani.anne@mail.tju.edu; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Brizel, David M.; Morrison, William H.; Irwin, David H.; Chougule, Prakash B.; Estopinal, Noel C.; Berson, Anthony; Curran, Walter J.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Intravenous amifostine 200 mg/m{sup 2} reduces xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients. This Phase II study evaluated subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine in a similar patient population. Patients and Methods: Patients received amifostine 500 mg, administered as two 250-mg s.c. injections 60 min before once-daily radiation for head-and-neck cancer (50-70 Gy in 5-7 weeks). The primary endpoint was the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia. Results: Fifty-four patients received s.c. amifostine and radiotherapy. The incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia was 56% (95% CI, 43-69%) and the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 late xerostomia at 1 year was 45% (95% CI, 29-61%). The incidence of acute xerostomia was lower than reported previously with no amifostine in a controlled study; rates of acute xerostomia were similar between s.c. and i.v. amifostine in the two studies. The rate of late xerostomia with s.c. amifostine was intermediate between rates for i.v. amifostine and no amifostine, and not statistically significantly different from either historical control. Grades 1-2 nausea and emesis were the most common amifostine-related adverse events. Grade 3 amifostine-related adverse events reported by >1 patient included: dehydration (11%); rash (6%); and weight decrease, mucositis, dyspnea, and allergic reaction (each 4%). Seven patients (13%) had serious cutaneous adverse events outside the injection site. One-year rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 78%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Subcutaneous amifostine provides a well-tolerated yet simpler alternative to i.v. amifostine for reducing acute xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients.

  15. Enteral Feeding During Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience Using a Reactive Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clavel, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.clavel@umontreal.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Fortin, Bernard; Despres, Philippe; Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Khaouam, Nader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Charpentier, Danielle [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Belair, Manon [Department of Radiology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The optimal method for providing enteral nutrition to patients with head-and-neck cancer is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our reactive policy, which consists of the installation of a nasogastric (NG) feeding tube only when required by the patient's nutritional status. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with Stage III and IV head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy between January 2003 and December 2006 were reviewed. The overall and disease-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: The present study included 253 patients, and the median follow-up was 33 months. At 3 years, the estimated overall survival and disease-free survival rate was 82.8% and 77.8%, respectively, for the whole population. No survival difference was observed when the patients were compared according to the presence and absence of a NG tube or stratified by weight loss quartile. The mean weight loss during treatment for all patients was 10.4%. The proportion of patients requiring a NG tube was 49.8%, and the NG tube remained in place for a median duration of 40 days. No major complications were associated with NG tube installation. Only 3% of the patients were still dependent on enteral feeding at 6 months. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of a reactive NG tube with an interdisciplinary team approach is a safe and effective method to manage malnutrition in patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  16. The Residual Setup Errors of Different IGRT Alignment Procedures for Head and Neck IMRT and the Resulting Dosimetric Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graff, Pierre [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States) [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Radiation-Oncology, Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Doctoral School BioSE (EA4360), Nancy (France); Kirby, Neil [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States) [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S. [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Lambert, Louise [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States) [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Radiation-Oncology, Montreal University Centre, Montreal (Canada); Pouliot, Jean, E-mail: jpouliot@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. Results: The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Conclusions: Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid option.

  17. A Phase 1 Study of Everolimus + Weekly Cisplatin + Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy Y.; Sherman, Eric; Ho, Alan L.; Rao, Shyam; Heguy, Adriana; Shen, Ronglai; Korte, Susan; Lisa, Donna; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Haque, Sofia; Katabi, Nora; Pfister, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Elevated expression of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in histologically cancer-free margins of resected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and has been associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. Preclinically, inhibition of mTORC1 with everolimus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin and radiation. Methods and Materials: This was single-institution phase 1 study to establish the maximum tolerated dose of daily everolimus given with fixed dose cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2} weekly × 6) and concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced head-and-neck cancer. The study had a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Results: Tumor primary sites were oral cavity (4), salivary gland (4), oropharynx (2), nasopharynx (1), scalp (1), and neck node with occult primary (1). In 4 of 4 cases in which resected HNSCC surgical pathology specimens were available for immunohistochemistry, elevated expression of eIF4E was observed in the cancer-free margins. The most common grade ?3 treatment-related adverse event was lymphopenia (92%), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mucositis (n=2) and failure to thrive (n=1). With a median follow up of 19.4 months, 2 patients have experienced recurrent disease. The maximum tolerated dose was everolimus 5 mg/day. Conclusions: Head-and-neck cancer patients tolerated everolimus at therapeutic doses (5 mg/day) given with weekly cisplatin and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The regimen merits further evaluation, especially among patients who are status post resection of HNSCCs that harbor mTORC1-mediated activation of eIF4E in histologically negative surgical margins.

  18. Effect of microtubule-associated protein tau in dynamics of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sparacino; M. G. Farías; P. W. Lamberti

    2013-02-11

    Intracellular transport based on molecular motors and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of cells. Filamentary tracks of the cells are abundantly decorated with non-motile microtubule-associated proteins, such as tau. Motivated by experiments on kinesin-tau interactions [Dixit et al. Science 319, 1086 (2008)] we developed a stochastic model of interacting single-headed motor proteins KIF1A that also takes into account the interactions between motor proteins and tau molecules. Our model reproduce experimental observations and predicts significant effects of tau on bound time and run length which suggest an important role of tau in regulation of kinesin-based transport.

  19. First measurement of the Head-Tail directional nuclear recoil signature at energies relevant to WIMP dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Burgos; E. Daw; J. Forbes; C. Ghag; M. Gold; C. Hagemann; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. B. Lawson; D. Loomba; P. Majewski; D. Muna; A. StJ. Murphy; G. G. Nicklin; S. M. Paling; A. Petkov; S. J. S. Plank; M. Robinson; N. Sanghi; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; J. Turk; E. Tziaferi

    2008-09-10

    We present first evidence for the so-called Head-Tail asymmetry signature of neutron-induced nuclear recoil tracks at energies down to 1.5 keV/amu using the 1m^3 DRIFT-IIc dark matter detector. This regime is appropriate for recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMPs) but one where the differential ionization is poorly understood. We show that the distribution of recoil energies and directions induced here by Cf-252 neutrons matches well that expected from massive WIMPs. The results open a powerful new means of searching for a galactic signature from WIMPs.

  20. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.; (IIT); (Vermont); (Duke)

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  1. Particle-in-cell simulation of the head-on collision between two ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, Ling-yu; Yang, Lei E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn

    2014-08-15

    The head-on collision of two ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions has been studied by using the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method and one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. Then the phase lags of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) obtained from the two approaches have been compared and discussed. It has been found that: if the amplitudes of both the colliding IASWs are small enough, the phase lags obtained from PLK method are in good agreement with those obtained from PIC simulation. As the amplitudes of IASWs increase, the phase lags from PIC simulation become smaller than the analytical ones from PLK method. Besides, the PIC simulation shows the phase lag of an IASW involved in collision depends not only on the characteristics of the wave it collides with but also on itself, which disagrees with the prediction of the PLK method. Finally, the application scopes of the PLK method in studying both the single IASW and the head-on collisions of IASWs have been studied and discussed, and the latter turns out to be more strict.

  2. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  3. Davis Water Consumption Efficiency Link, Phung, Purewal, Purewal, Salmon ESM 121 Water Science and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Davis Water Consumption Efficiency Link, Phung, Purewal, Purewal, Salmon ESM 121 Water Science and Management Water Consumption Efficiency of Toilets & Shower Heads in Davis: Old Davis Purewal, Kiernan Salmon Abstract The efficiency of household water consumption varies with the age

  4. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-05-15

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.

  5. Theoretical study of head-on collision of dust acoustic solitary waves in a strongly coupled complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhi@ipr.res.in; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of two counter propagating dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) undergoing a head-on collision, in the presence of strong coupling between micron sized charged dust particles in a complex plasma. A coupled set of nonlinear dynamical equations describing the evolution of the two DASWs using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation technique is derived. The nature and extent of post collision phase-shifts of these solitary waves are studied over a wide range of dusty plasma parameters in a strongly and a weakly coupled medium. We find a significant change in the nature and amount of phase delay in the strongly coupled regime as compared to a weakly coupled regime. The phase shift is seen to change its sign beyond a threshold value of compressibility of the medium for a given set of dusty plasma parameters.

  6. Reduced 30% scanning time 3D multiplexer integrated circuit applied to large array format 20KHZ frequency inkjet print heads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, J -C

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of the number and array density of nozzles within an inkjet head chip is one of the keys to raise the printing speed and printing resolutions. However, traditional 2D architecture of driving circuits can not meet the requirement for high scanning speed and low data accessing points when nozzle numbers greater than 1000. This paper proposes a novel architecture of high-selection-speed three-dimensional data registration for inkjet applications. With the configuration of three-dimensional data registration, the number of data accessing points as well as the scanning lines can be greatly reduced for large array inkjet printheads with nozzles numbering more than 1000. This IC (Integrated Circuit) architecture involves three-dimensional multiplexing with the provision of a gating transistor for each ink firing resistor, where ink firing resistors are triggered only by the selection of their associated gating transistors. Three signals: selection (S), address (A), and power supply (P), are employed toge...

  7. Evaluating the Role of Prophylactic Gastrostomy Tube Placement Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Lau, Derick H.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Stuart, Kerri; Newman, Kathleen; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan M.D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prophylactic gastrostomy tube (GT) placement on acute and long-term outcome for patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty consecutive patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV head and neck cancer to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 64-74 Gy). The most common primary site was the oropharynx (66 patients). Sixty-seven patients (56%) were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Seventy patients (58%) received prophylactic GT placement at the discretion of the physician before initiation of chemoradiotherapy. Results: Prophylactic GT placement significantly reduced weight loss during radiation therapy from 43 pounds (range, 0 to 76 pounds) to 19 pounds (range, 0 to 51 pounds), which corresponded to a net change of -14% (range, 0% to -30%) and -8% (range, +1% to -22%) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). However, the proportion of patients who were GT-dependent at 6- and 12-months after treatment was 41% and 21%, respectively, compared with 8% and 0%, respectively, for those with and without prophylactic GT (p < 0.001). Additionally, prophylactic GT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late esophageal stricture compared with those who did not have prophylactic GT (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although prophylactic GT placement was effective at preventing acute weight loss and the need for intravenous hydration, it was also associated with significantly higher rates of late esophageal toxicity. The benefits of this strategy must be balanced with the risks.

  8. Prospective Evaluation to Establish a Dose Response for Clinical Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Head-and-Neck Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, Samir Lehmann, Joerg; Coleman, Matthew A.; Vaughan, Andrew; Yang, Claus Chunli; Enepekides, Danny; Farwell, Gregory; Purdy, James A.; Laredo, Grace; Nolan, Kerry A.S.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: We conducted a clinical study to correlate oral cavity dose with clinical mucositis, perform in vivo dosimetry, and determine the feasibility of obtaining buccal mucosal cell samples in patients undergoing head-and-neck radiation therapy. The main objective is to establish a quantitative dose response for clinical oral mucositis. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively studied. Four points were chosen in separate quadrants of the oral cavity. Calculated dose distributions were generated by using AcQPlan and Eclipse treatment planning systems. MOSFET dosimeters were used to measure dose at each sampled point. Each patient underwent buccal sampling for future RNA analysis before and after the first radiation treatment at the four selected points. Clinical and functional mucositis were assessed weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, Version 3. Results: Maximum and average doses for sampled sites ranged from 7.4-62.3 and 3.0-54.3 Gy, respectively. A cumulative point dose of 39.1 Gy resulted in mucositis for 3 weeks or longer. Mild severity (Grade {<=} 1) and short duration ({<=}1 week) of mucositis were found at cumulative point doses less than 32 Gy. Polymerase chain reaction consistently was able to detect basal levels of two known radiation responsive genes. Conclusions: In our sample, cumulative doses to the oral cavity of less than 32 Gy were associated with minimal acute mucositis. A dose greater than 39 Gy was associated with longer duration of mucositis. Our technique for sampling buccal mucosa yielded sufficient cells for RNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction.

  9. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  10. Impact of Adding Concomitant Chemotherapy to Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Advanced Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuyts, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: sandra.nuyts@uzleuven.be; Dirix, Piet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Clement, Paul M.J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Poorten, Vincent Vander; Delaere, Pierre [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Schoenaers, Joseph [Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Hermans, Robert [Department of Radiology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaert, Walter van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut, University Hospitals Leuven, campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) schedule combined with concomitant chemotherapy (Cx) in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a total of 90 patients with locoregionally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent irradiation according to a hybrid fractionation schedule consisting of 20 fractions of 2 Gy (once daily) followed by 20 fractions of 1.6 Gy (twice daily) to a total dose of 72 Gy. Concomitant Cx (cisplatinum 100 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered at the start of Weeks 1 and 4. Treatment outcome and toxicity were retrospectively compared with a previous patient group (n = 73) treated with the same schedule, but without concomitant Cx, between 2001 and 2004. Results: The locoregional control (LRC) rate was 70% after 2 years. Two-year overall and 2-year disease-free survival rates were 74% and 60%, respectively. In comparison with the RT-only group, an improvement of 15% in both LRC (p = 0.03) and overall survival (p = 0.09) was observed. All patients were treated to full radiation dose according to protocol, although the Cx schedule had to be adjusted in 12 patients. No acute Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was seen, but incidences of Grade 3 acute mucositis (74.5% vs. 50.7%; p = 0.002) and dysphagia (82.2% vs. 47.9%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the chemoradiotherapy group compared with patients treated with RT alone. Conclusion: With this chemoradiotherapy regimen, excellent LRC and survival rates were achieved, with acceptable acute toxicity.

  11. SU-E-T-593: Clinical Evaluation of Direct Aperture Optimization in Head/Neck and Prostate IMRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosini, M; GALAL, M; Emam, I; Kamal, G; Algohary, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the planning and dosimetric advantages of direct aperture optimization (DAO) over beam-let optimization in IMRT treatment of head and neck (H/N) and prostate cancers. Methods: Five Head and Neck as well as five prostate patients were planned using the beamlet optimizer in Elekta-Xio ver 4.6 IMRT treatment planning system. Based on our experience in beamlet IMRT optimization, PTVs in H/N plans were prescribed to 70 Gy delivered by 7 fields. While prostate PTVs were prescribed to 76 Gy with 9 fields. In all plans, fields were set to be equally spaced. All cases were re-planed using Direct Aperture optimizer in Prowess Panther ver 5.01 IMRT planning system at same configurations and dose constraints. Plans were evaluated according to ICRU criteria, number of segments, number of monitor units and planning time. Results: For H/N plans, the near maximum dose (D2) and the dose that covers 95% D95 of PTV has improved by 4% in DAO. For organs at risk (OAR), DAO reduced the volume covered by 30% (V30) in spinal cord, right parotid, and left parotid by 60%, 54%, and 53% respectively. This considerable dosimetric quality improvement achieved using 25% less planning time and lower number of segments and monitor units by 46% and 51% respectively. In DAO prostate plans, Both D2 and D95 for the PTV were improved by only 2%. The V30 of the right femur, left femur and bladder were improved by 35%, 15% and 3% respectively. On the contrary, the rectum V30 got even worse by 9%. However, number of monitor units, and number of segments decreased by 20% and 25% respectively. Moreover the planning time reduced significantly too. Conclusion: DAO introduces considerable advantages over the beamlet optimization in regards to organs at risk sparing. However, no significant improvement occurred in most studied PTVs.

  12. SU-E-J-137: Incorporating Tumor Regression Into Robust Plan Optimization for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, P; Hu, J; Tyagi, N; Mageras, G; Lee, N; Hunt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust planning paradigm which incorporates a tumor regression model into the optimization process to ensure tumor coverage in head and neck radiotherapy. Methods: Simulation and weekly MR images were acquired for a group of head and neck patients to characterize tumor regression during radiotherapy. For each patient, the tumor and parotid glands were segmented on the MR images and the weekly changes were formulated with an affine transformation, where morphological shrinkage and positional changes are modeled by a scaling factor, and centroid shifts, respectively. The tumor and parotid contours were also transferred to the planning CT via rigid registration. To perform the robust planning, weekly predicted PTV and parotid structures were created by transforming the corresponding simulation structures according to the weekly affine transformation matrix averaged over patients other than him/herself. Next, robust PTV and parotid structures were generated as the union of the simulation and weekly prediction contours. In the subsequent robust optimization process, attainment of the clinical dose objectives was required for the robust PTV and parotids, as well as other organs at risk (OAR). The resulting robust plans were evaluated by looking at the weekly and total accumulated dose to the actual weekly PTV and parotid structures. The robust plan was compared with the original plan based on the planning CT to determine its potential clinical benefit. Results: For four patients, the average weekly change to tumor volume and position was ?4% and 1.2 mm laterally-posteriorly. Due to these temporal changes, the robust plans resulted in an accumulated PTV D95 that was, on average, 2.7 Gy higher than the plan created from the planning CT. OAR doses were similar. Conclusion: Integration of a tumor regression model into target delineation and plan robust optimization is feasible and may yield improved tumor coverage. Part of this research is supported by Varian Medical System.

  13. Percutaneous Palliation of Pancreatic Head Cancer: Randomized Comparison of ePTFE/FEP-Covered Versus Uncovered Nitinol Biliary Stents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com [Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fanelli, Fabrizio ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Orgera, Gianluigi [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Tsetis, Dimitrios [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology (Greece); Mouzas, Ioannis [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Gastroenterology (Greece); Bezzi, Mario ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Kouroumalis, Elias [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Gastroenterology (Greece); Pasariello, Roberto ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Hatzidakis, Adam [Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/fluorinated-ethylene-propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered stents with that of uncovered nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer. Eighty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Bare nitinol stents were used in half of the patients, and ePTFE/FEP-covered stents were used in the remaining patients. Patency, survival, complications, and mean cost were calculated in both groups. Mean patency was 166.0 {+-} 13.11 days for the bare-stent group and 234.0 {+-} 20.87 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.007). Primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 77.5, 69.8, and 69.8% for the bare-stent group and 97.5, 92.2, and 87.6% for the covered-stent group, respectively. Mean secondary patency was 123.7 {+-} 22.5 days for the bare-stent group and 130.3 {+-} 21.4 days for the covered-stent group. Tumour ingrowth occurred exclusively in the bare-stent group in 27.5% of cases (p = 0.002). Median survival was 203.2 {+-} 11.8 days for the bare-stent group and 247.0 {+-} 20 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.06). Complications and mean cost were similar in both groups. Regarding primary patency and ingrowth rate, ePTFE/FEP-covered stents have shown to be significantly superior to bare nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer and pose comparable cost and complications. Use of a covered stent does not significantly influence overall survival rate; nevertheless, the covered endoprosthesis seems to offer result in fewer reinterventions and better quality of patient life.

  14. SU-E-T-149: Electron Beam Profile Differences Between Elekta MLCi2 and Elekta Agility Treatment Heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C; Hatcher, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To report and investigate observed differences in electron beam profiles at various energies/applicators between Elekta MLCi2 and Agility treatment head on Elekta Infinity LINAC Methods: When we upgraded from MLCi2 to Agility on one of our Elekta Infinity LINAC's, electron beam PDDs and profiles were acquired for comparison purpose. All clinical electron energies (6/9/12/15/12/18 MeV) and electron applicators (6/10/14/20/25 square) were included in measurement. PDDs were acquired at 100 SSD in water (PTW MP3 water tank) with a plane-parallel ion chamber (PTW Roos). X and Y Profiles were acquired using IC Profiler (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at 1cm and maximum PDD depths (water equivalent). Results: All PDD curves match very well between MLCi2 and Agility treatment head. However, some significant differences on electron profiles were found. On Agility, even after increasing the default auto-tracking offset values for backup diaphragms in Y and MLC in X by 2.8 cm (the maximum allowed change is 3.0 cm), electron profiles still have rounder shoulders comparing to corresponding MLCi2 profiles. This difference is significantly more pronounced at larger applicators (20 and 25 square), for all electron energies. Conclusion: The significant design change between MLCi2 and Agility beam limiting device seems to affect exit electron beam profiles. In IEC1217 X direction, the main change on Agility is the removal of the original MLCi2 X backup diaphragms and replacing it with MLC leaves; In Y direction, the main change is the radius and materials on Y backup diaphragms.

  15. Joint probabilistic pedestrian head and body orientation estimation Fabian Flohr1,2, Madalin Dumitru-Guzu1,3, Julian F. P. Kooij1,2 and Dariu M. Gavrila1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrila, Dariu M.

    Joint probabilistic pedestrian head and body orientation estimation Fabian Flohr1,2, Madalin for the joint probabilistic estimation of pedestrian head and body orientation in the context of intelligent involve 37 pedestrian tracks obtained from an external stereo vision-based pedestrian detector

  16. Running head: EFFECTS OF ORBICULARIS ORIS AND JAW POSTURE ON LIP SHAPE A Biomechanical Modeling Study of the Effects of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle and Jaw Posture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payan, Yohan

    Study of the Effects of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle and Jaw Posture on Lip Shape Ian StavnessaRunning head: EFFECTS OF ORBICULARIS ORIS AND JAW POSTURE ON LIP SHAPE A Biomechanical Modeling@gmail.com #12;EFFECTS OF ORBICULARIS ORIS AND JAW POSTURE ON LIP SHAPE 2 Abstract Purpose: We used

  17. Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) Frank Elefsen, Centre Manager, Ph.D., and Sten Frandsen, Head of Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) Frank Elefsen, Centre Manager, Ph.D., and Sten Frandsen, Head and an improved environment. 1 Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) A. Background In line with the growing global technology is receiving a great deal of attention. Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to replace

  18. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  19. Comparison of Repositioning Accuracy of Two Commercially Available Immobilization Systems for Treatment of Head-and-Neck Tumors Using Simulation Computed Tomography Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotondo, Ronny L. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sultanem, Khalil [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: ksultane@roc.jgh.mcgill.ca; Lavoie, Isabelle; Skelly, Julie; Raymond, Luc [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the setup accuracy, comfort level, and setup time of two immobilization systems used in head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between February 2004 and January 2005, 21 patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors were assigned to one of two immobilization devices: a standard thermoplastic head-and-shoulder mask fixed to a carbon fiber base (Type S) or a thermoplastic head mask fixed to the Accufix cantilever board equipped with the shoulder depression system. All patients underwent planning computed tomography (CT) followed by repeated control CT under simulation conditions during the course of therapy. The CT images were subsequently co-registered and setup accuracy was examined by recording displacement in the three cartesian planes at six anatomic landmarks and calculating the three-dimensional vector errors. In addition, the setup time and comfort of the two systems were compared. Results: A total of 64 CT data sets were analyzed. No difference was found in the cartesian total displacement errors or total vector displacement errors between the two populations at any landmark considered. A trend was noted toward a smaller mean systemic error for the upper landmarks favoring the Accufix system. No difference was noted in the setup time or comfort level between the two systems. Conclusion: No significant difference in the three-dimensional setup accuracy was identified between the two immobilization systems compared. The data from this study reassure us that our technique provides accurate patient immobilization, allowing us to limit our planning target volume to <4 mm when treating head-and-neck tumors.

  20. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi; Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

  1. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jetsa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-05-01

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions [A. L. Moser & S. C. Hsu, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2014)]. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease inmore »the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.« less

  2. A Space Weather Information Service Based Upon Remote and In-Situ Measurements of Coronal Mass Ejections Heading for Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Birgit; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather (SW) forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CM...

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless shock formation via head-on merging of two laboratory supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Hsu, S. C.

    2013-08-15

    We describe numerical simulations, using the particle-in-cell (PIC) and hybrid-PIC code lsp[T. P. Hughes et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 110401 (1999)], of the head-on merging of two laboratory supersonic plasma jets. The goals of these experiments are to form and study astrophysically relevant collisionless shocks in the laboratory. Using the plasma jet initial conditions (density ?10{sup 14}–10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}, temperature ? few eV, and propagation speed ?20–150 km/s), large-scale simulations of jet propagation demonstrate that interactions between the two jets are essentially collisionless at the merge region. In highly resolved one- and two-dimensional simulations, we show that collisionless shocks are generated by the merging jets when immersed in applied magnetic fields (B?0.1–1 T). At expected plasma jet speeds of up to 150 km/s, our simulations do not give rise to unmagnetized collisionless shocks, which require much higher velocities. The orientation of the magnetic field and the axial and transverse density gradients of the jets have a strong effect on the nature of the interaction. We compare some of our simulation results with those of previously published PIC simulation studies of collisionless shock formation.

  4. Practical Considerations in the Re-Irradiation of Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer: Who, Why, How, and How Much?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Despite progress in surgical and reconstructive techniques, as well as advances in radiotherapy delivery methods, a significant proportion of patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer develop locoregional recurrence. These patients are also at high risk of developing new second primary cancers of the head and neck. Because of the heterogeneity of this population with respect to disease-related and patient-related factors, such as previous treatment, tumor recurrence site, disease extent, and performance status, the optimal treatment of locoregionally recurrent or second primary cancers of the head and neck remains to be defined. Although surgical resection typically constitutes the mainstay of treatment, effective salvage therapy is often precluded by anatomic inaccessibility and the risk of perioperative complications. Although chemotherapy alone has traditionally been considered an alternative to surgery, the response rates have been poor, with nearly all patients dying of disease progression within months. Similarly, salvage therapy using re-irradiation has historically been avoided because of concerns regarding toxicity. Although the results of more recent studies using contemporary treatment techniques and conformal delivery methods have been somewhat more promising, the role of re-irradiation after previous full-course radiotherapy is still considered investigational by many. Numerous questions remain unanswered, and practical guidelines for clinical decision-making are sparse.

  5. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockton, Nigel, E-mail: nigel.brockton@albertahealthservices.c [Department of Population Health Research, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dort, Joseph [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Brar, Sony [Department of Population Health Research, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Doll, Corinne [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  6. Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Moughan, Jennifer; Farach, Andrew; University of Texas Health Science Center Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth; Galvin, James; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Cooper, Jay S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is common in long-term survivors. Age is the most significant factor, but hypopharyngeal dose also was associated.

  7. Phase I Trial Using the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib and Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Malignancies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubicek, Gregory J.; Axelrod, Rita S.; Machtay, Mitchell; Ahn, Peter H.; Anne, Pramila R.; Fogh, Shannon; Cognetti, David; Myers, Thomas J.; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Advanced head-and-neck cancer (HNC) remains a difficult disease to cure. Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib have the potential to improve survival over chemoradiotherapy alone. This Phase I dose-escalation study examined the potential of bortezomib in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy and concurrent radiation in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent HNC. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received cisplatin once weekly at 30 mg/m{sup 2} per week and bortezomib along with concurrent radiation. Bortezomib was given on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 weeks, with an initial starting dose of 0.7 mg/m{sup 2} and escalation levels of 1.0 and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2}. Dose escalation was performed only after assessment to rule out any dose-limiting toxicity. Results: We enrolled 27 patients with HNC, including 17 patients with recurrent disease who had received prior irradiation. Patients received bortezomib dose levels of 0.7 mg/m{sup 2} (7 patients), 1.0 mg/m{sup 2} (10 patients), and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2} (10 patients). No Grade 5 toxicities, 3 Grade 4 toxicities (all hematologic and considered dose-limiting toxicities), and 39 Grade 3 toxicities (in 20 patients) were observed. With a median follow-up of 7.4 months, the overall median survival was 24.7 months (48.4 months for advanced HNC patients and 15.4 months for recurrent HNC patients). Conclusion: Bortezomib in combination with radiation therapy and cisplatin chemotherapy is safe in the treatment of HNC with a bortezomib maximum tolerated dose of 1.0 mg/m{sup 2} in patients previously treated for HNC and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2} in radiation-naive patients.

  8. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  9. SU-E-T-206: Improving Radiotherapy Toxicity Based On Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Daniel D; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, KSC; Parashar, Bhupesh; Chang, Jenghwa [Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study is to build the estimator of toxicity using artificial neural network (ANN) for head and neck cancer patients Materials/Methods: An ANN can combine variables into a predictive model during training and considered all possible correlations of variables. We constructed an ANN based on the data from 73 patients with advanced H and N cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy at our institution. For the toxicity estimator we defined input data including age, sex, site, stage, pathology, status of chemo, technique of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), length of treatment, dose of EBRT, status of post operation, length of follow-up, the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis. These data were digitized based on the significance and fed to the ANN as input nodes. We used 20 hidden nodes (for the 13 input nodes) to take care of the correlations of input nodes. For training ANN, we divided data into three subsets such as training set, validation set and test set. Finally, we built the estimator for the toxicity from ANN output. Results: We used 13 input variables including the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis and 20 hidden nodes for correlations. 59 patients for training set, 7 patients for validation set and 7 patients for test set and fed the inputs to Matlab neural network fitting tool. We trained the data within 15% of errors of outcome. In the end we have the toxicity estimation with 74% of accuracy. Conclusion: We proved in principle that ANN can be a very useful tool for predicting the RT outcomes for high risk H and N patients. Currently we are improving the results using cross validation.

  10. Blazing trails: Microquasars as head-tail sources and the seeding of magnetized plasma into the ISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Heinz; H. J. Grimm; R. A. Sunyaev; R. P. Fender

    2008-08-14

    We discuss the dynamics of microquasar jets in the interstellar medium, with specific focus on the effects of the X-ray binaries' space velocity with respect to the local Galactic standard of rest. We argue that, during late stages in the evolution of large scale radio nebulae around microquasars, the ram pressure of the interstellar medium due to the microquasar's space velocity becomes important and that microquasars with high velocities form the Galactic equivalent of extragalactic head-tail sources, i.e., that they leave behind trails of stripped radio plasma. Because of their higher space velocities, low-mass X-ray binaries are more likely to leave trails than high-mass X-ray binaries. We show that the volume of radio plasma released by microquasars over the history of the Galaxy is comparable to the disk volume and argue that a fraction of a few percent of the radio plasma left behind by the X-ray binary is likely mixed with the neutral phases of the ISM before the plasma is removed from the disk by buoyancy. Because the formation of microquasars is an unavoidable by-product of star formation, and because they can travel far from their birth places, their activity likely has important consequences for the evolution of magnetic fields in forming galaxies. We show that radio emission from the plasma inside the trail should be detectable at low frequencies. We suggest that LMXBs with high detected proper motions like XTE J1118+480 will be the best candidates for such a search.

  11. Groundwater flow to the coastal ocean Ann E. Mulligan and Matthew A. Charette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high hydraulic head to areas of low hydraulic head terrain, such as karst. In addition to typically low flow rates, groundwater discharge is temporally is driven by differences in energy ­ water flows from high energy areas to low energy. The energy content

  12. from the Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sally Goeke

    2009-07-14

    now to build on this experience. Mathematics Learning Technologies ..... the founding of the scholarly journals Eco- nomic Theory and Annals of Finance, and.

  13. Click to add heading

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with High-Performance Concrete for Accelerated Construction of Nuclear Concrete Structures Primary Objective Reduce field construction times and fabrication costs of...

  14. Click to add heading

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (ACI 349) - most common lateral load resisting members in nuclear structures (pressure vessels not in scope) 4 * Aim to reduce complexities in rebar to improve construction quality...

  15. Peter Reiners Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    . Alumni support for SEES Units (.25 FTE) Technical Support David Steinke Senior Staff Engineer 1. Repair/design with other support) 1. Repair/design/construct research equipment 2. Install infrastructure in labs 3. Upkeep electronics shop, wood shop 4. Upkeep field gear and storage 5. Process surplus and inventory 6. General labor

  16. Heads and Tails 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    in the time window for his contact; after that, he was going to concede defeat and yield to temptation. Someone sitting down beside him; his own glance measuring, before professionalism kicked in and he looked at this man as something beyond a convenient... cursed his inability to keep his own mouth shut?in more ways that one, given what he?d just done. ?I guess it?s too late to ask if you want to?? ?Wipe your mouth.? Shit. Shit, shit, shit. Mulder pulled the hem of his T-shirt up, wiped his mouth...

  17. from the Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sally Goeke

    2010-06-30

    Faculty research is well funded by the National Science. Foundation, other ... Provided scientific programming on weather satellite program at Missile and Space. Division of General .... Canada. The $50,000 fellowship is awarded for a two-year period. Mayboroda .... Edray has devoted much time and energy to working.

  18. from the Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sally Goeke

    2009-07-14

    modifications in the graduate student Ph.D. qualifying exam system .... take effect for the fall 2011 incoming class and will apply ... to associate professor; Aaron Yip to full professor. ...... multi-scale approaches to (elastic) wave-equation model-.

  19. HEAD OF CONTRACTING ACTIVITY

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMatFermiGuido DeHoratiis -PDF version of the

  20. Click to add heading

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energyof the Clean EnergyLocalDepartmentDay