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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

advanced spectrally selective low-e double-pane windows and the same type of daylighting control system

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 4 Case Study, The Philip Merrill Environmental Center, Annapolis, Maryland (Office) Building Design Floor Area: 31,000 SF Floors: 2 Footprint: 220 ft. x (1) 2 Floors of open office space Attached pavilion containing: Meeting space Kitchen Staff dining Conference room Shell Windows U-Factor SHGC (2) Type: Double Pane, Low-e, Argon Filled Insulating Glass 0.244 0.41 Wall/Roof Material Effective R-Value Interior Wall plywood, gypsum, SIP foam, and sheathing 28.0 Exterior Wall gypsum and insulated metal framing 9.3 Roof plywood, gypsum, SIP foam, and sheathing 38.0 HVAC 18 ground source heat pumps fin and tube radiators connected to a propane boiler 1 air condtioning unit Lighting Power Densities (W/SF) First Floor: 1.2 Second Floor: 1.6 Conference Room: 1.4 Energy/Power PV System: 4.2 kW thin-film system

3

CX-003257: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination 7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003257: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - Shawnee County Health Agency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: A1, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 07/26/2010 Location(s): Shawnee County, Kansas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. Shawnee County Health Agency, 1615 Southeast 8th Street. Proposes to replace all the windows and exterior glass doors in the Health Agency building with energy efficient, double pane glass, low-e argon filled windows and doors that will reduce the energy consumption in the building conservatively 25% to 35%. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003257.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-004974: Categorical Exclusion Determination

4

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components Shawnee County Health Agency, 1615 SE 8th Street. Proposes to replace all the windows and exterior glass doors in the Health Agency building with energy efficient, double pane glass, low-e argon filled windows and doors that will reduce the energy consumption in the building conservatively 25% to 35% EERE-RW/EECBG EECBG - Shawnee County Health Agency Retrofits Shawnee County Kansas Jul 26, 2010 Print Form for Records Submit to Website Submit via Email Lawrence Wiggins Digitally signed by Lawrence Wiggins DN: cn=Lawrence Wiggins, o=EES, ou, email=Lawrence.Wiggins@hq.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2010.08.02 15:29:04 -04'00' X- A1 - Routine administrative/financial/personnel actions

5

Air Flow Distribution in a Mechanically-Ventilated High-Rise Residential Building* Richard C. Diamond and Helmut E. Feustel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington DC, 1992. SHAPIRO-BARUCH, IAN, "Evaluation. The individual apartments have electric-resistance heaters in each room, and double-pane windows and sliding retrofits. New double-pane, low-e windows replaced the old windows throughout the building. A computerized

Diamond, Richard

6

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Double-pane windows; low-e and spectrally selective window coatings * T-5 lamps in lighting systems with bilevel switching and occupancy-based controls * Energy-efficient...

7

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EVALUATION OF LOW-E STORM WINDOWS By S. Craig Drumheller-performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with bothstandard clear storm windows and no storm windows was

Drumheller, S. Craig

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows Title Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-1940E Year of Publication 2007 Authors S. Craig Drumheller, Christian Kohler, and Stefanie Minen Conference Name Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X International Conference Volume 277 Date Published 12/2007 Conference Location Clearwater Beach, FL Abstract A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homes had traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13% with the clear glass and 21% with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years for the low-e storm windows.

9

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

SciTech Connect

A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

10

Microsoft Word - LBNL Low E Storm-Drumheller.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1940E 1940E Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows S.C. Drumheller NAHB Research Center C. Kohler Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory S. Minen Utilivate Technologies 2007 Presented at the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X International Conference, Clearwater Beach, FL December 2-7, 2007 and published in the Proceedings DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

11

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 1 Case Study, The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio (Education) Building Design Floor Area: Floors: 2 Footprint: 3 Classrooms (1) 1 Conference Room 1 Adminstration Office Auditorium, 100 seats 6 Small Offices Atrium Wastewater Treatment Facility Shell Windows Material: Green Tint Triple Pane Argon Fill Insulating Glass Grey Tint Double Pane Argon Fill Insulating Glass Fenestration(square feet) Window Wall (2) window/wall l Atrium, Triple Pane (3) Building, Double Pane North 1,675 4,372 38% l U-Factor 0.34 U-Factor 0.46 South 2,553 4,498 58% l SHGC 0.26 SHGC 0.46 East 1,084 2,371 46% l West 350 2,512 14% l Overall 6,063 43% l Wall/Roof Main Material R-Value Wall : Face Brink 19 Roof: Steel/Stone Ballast 30 HVAC COP(4) Offices/Classrooms: Individual GSHPs (5) 3.9-4.6

12

Storm Windows (Even with a Low-E Coating!) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storm Windows (Even with a Low-E Coating!) Storm Windows (Even with a Low-E Coating!) Storm Windows (Even with a Low-E Coating!) November 11, 2008 - 3:45pm Addthis John Lippert Earlier I wrote about purchasing energy-efficient windows. Jen followed up with an excellent blog on improving your existing windows, which mentioned low-e films. One fairly well-kept secret-low-emissivity (low-e) storm windows-lies somewhere between these two options. They aren't the simple, low-cost, do-it-yourself option that Jen spoke of. But they are a less expensive option than the replacement windows I wrote about. I'm an avid reader and subscriber to the Environmental Building News newsletter. Alex Wilson, the newsletter founder and Executive Editor, wrote an article entitled "Should I replace my windows?" in the Brattleboro

13

Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation  

SciTech Connect

Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

Cort, Katherine A.

2013-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

14

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Case Study, The Thermal Test Facility, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (Office/Laboratory) Building Design Floor Area: 10,000 SF Floors(1): 2 Aspect Ratio: 1.75 Offices Laboratories Conference Room Mechanical Level Shell Windows Material U-factor SHGC(2) Viewing Windows: Double Pane, Grey Tint, Low-e 0.42 0.44 Clerestory Windows: Double Pane, Clear, Low-e 0.45 0.65 Window Area(SF) North 38 South(3) 1,134 East 56 West 56 Wall/Roof Material Effective R-Value North Wall Concrete Slab/Rigid Polystyrene 5.0 South/East/West Steel Studs/Batt Insulation/Concrete 23.0 Roof: Built-up/Polyisocianurate Covering/Steel Supports 23.0 HVAC VAV air handling unit Hot water supply paralell VAV boxes Direct and Indirect evaporative cooling system Single zone roof top unit(4) Hot Water Coil(4)

15

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

storm and double-pane windows, insulating shutters, caulking and weatherstripping, and active- and passive- solar

Cairns, E.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Case Study, The Visitor Center at Zion National Park, Utah (Service/Retail/Office) Building Design Vistors Center (1): 8,800 SF Comfort Station (2): 2,756 SF Fee Station: 170 SF Shell Windows Type U-Factor SHGC (3) South/East Glass Double Pane Insulating Glass, Low-e, Aluminum Frames, Thermally Broken 0.44 0.44 North/West Glass Double Pane Insulating Glass, Heat Mirror, Aluminum Frames, Thermally Broken 0.37 0.37 Window/Wall Ratio: 28% Wall/Roof Materials Effective R-Value Trombe Walls: Low-iron Patterned Trombe Wall, CMU (4) 2.3 Vistor Center Walls: Wood Siding, Rigid Insulation Board, Gypsum 16.5 Comfort Station Walls: Wood Siding, Rigid Insulation Board, CMU (4) 6.6 Roof: Wood Shingles; Sheathing; Insulated Roof Panels 30.9 HVAC Heating Cooling Trombe Walls Operable Windows Electric Radiant Ceiling Panels

17

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AK AK Project Title ID-TEP-NEZ PERCE TRIBE Location: Tribal NEZ PERCE TRIBE FOA Number: DE-FOA-0000423 Proposed Action or Project Descriptio The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho proposes to conduct building retrofits to the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee (NPTEC)/Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) (1970), Veteran's Memorial Building (1977-78), Pi Nee Waus Community Building (1963), Water Resources Building (1978), and Boy's and Girl's Club (newer facility). Energy efficiency measures proposed on the five buildings would include: the four older buildings would receive vinyl, double-pane, Low-E windows; increased blown-in attic insulation; and

18

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

storm and double-pane windows, insulat- ing shutters, caulking and weatherstripping, fur- nace retrofits, and active and passive solar

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Engineering Laboratory Building 160 Governors Dr. Tel: 413 Fomichev Dr. Charlie Curcija USA-Russia Energy Efficient Window Tests and Simulation Round-Robin - 1) Double glazed b) Low-e coating c) Argon filled For simulations it will be necessary to obtain detailed

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

20

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-E Coatings Low-E Coatings Low-E Center-of-glass values of double pane units with and without low-E coatings. When heat or light energy is absorbed by glass, it is either convected away by moving air or reradiated by the glass surface. The ability of a material to radiate energy is called its emissivity. All materials, including windows, emit (or radiate) heat in the form of long-wave, far-infrared energy depending on their temperature. This emission of radiant heat is one of the important components of heat transfer for a window. Thus reducing the window's emittance can greatly improve its insulating properties. Standard clear glass has an emittance of 0.84 over the long-wave portion of the spectrum, meaning that it emits 84% of the energy possible for an object at its temperature. It also means that 84% of the long-wave

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Thermal performance measurements of sealed insulating glass units with low-E coatings using the MoWiTT (Mobile Window Thermal Test) field-test facility  

SciTech Connect

Using data obtained in a mobile field-test facility, measured performance of clear and low-emissivity double-glazing units is presented for south-facing and north-facing orientations. The changes in U-value and shading coefficient resulting from addition of the low-E coating are found to agree with theoretical expectations for the cold spring test conditions. Accurate nighttime U-values were derived from the data and found to agree with calculations. Expected correlation between U-value and wind speed was not observed in the data; a plausible experimental reason for this is advanced.

Klems, J.; Keller, H.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Window shopping  

SciTech Connect

The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

Best, D.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Tips: Windows | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Windows Windows Tips: Windows June 18, 2012 - 9:43am Addthis Tips: Windows Windows can be one of your home's most attractive features. Windows provide views, daylighting, ventilation, and heat from the sun in the winter. Unfortunately, they can also account for 10% to 25% of your heating bill by letting heat out. During the summer, your air conditioner must work harder to cool hot air from sunny windows. Install ENERGY STAR®-qualified windows and use curtains and shade to give your air conditioner and energy bill a break. If your home has single-pane windows, consider replacing them with double-pane windows with high-performance glass-low-e or spectrally selective coatings. In colder climates, select gas-filled windows with low-e coatings to reduce heat loss. In warmer climates, select windows with

25

Low-E Coating Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

different reflectances). The low cost measuring technique uses an infrared light-emitting diode and phototransistor. The result is displayed by illuminating one of three LEDs...

26

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Demonstrate thermochromic (TC) windows under various conditions to quantify energy usage and energy savings of TC windows versus commercial grade double pane, fixed...

27

Final Report on Work Performed Under Agreement  

SciTech Connect

Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visible light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With its patent-pending low-e technology, EnerLogic® window film has the best insulating performance of any film product available. The insulating power of EnerLogic® window film gives single-pane windows the annual insulating performance of double-pane windows - and gives double-pane windows the annual insulating performance of triple-pane windows.

None

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Test for Modeling Windows in DOE 2.1E for Comparing the Window Library with the Shading Coefficient Method for a Single-Family Residence in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study examines the difference of the window simulation test between the Shading Coefficient (SC) and the Window Library (WL) Methods on DOE 2.1E of the 2000 IECC (International Energy Conservation Code) for single-family residences in Texas. The window simulation tests are performed using single-pane, double-pane, and low-e glass on two standard DOE 2.1E single-family house models: 1) the model which has the R-value for wall, roof and floor according to 2000 IECC (Quick Wall), and 2) the model which has the real wood frame wall and has the same R-value as the first one (Thermal Wall). The analysis showed different results according to the types of the glass, simulation method (Shading Coefficient or Window Library), and types of wall (quick wall and thermal wall). The saving of daily peak heating (kBtu/day) from single-pane to low-e glass on thermal mass and quick wall shows the most variation.

Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

29

Snohomish County PUD No 1 - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling: 30 per unit Insulation: 50% of job cost Double-Pane Windows: 6 - 8 per square foot Duct sealing and insulation: 5 per l.f. Geothermal Heat Pumps: 50% of job cost...

30

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

you must have insulation equivalent to: Ceilings: R-30 Walls: R-12 Floor: R-19 Storm windows or insulated doors Storm windows or double pane windows State size of water heater...

31

Analysis of improved fenestration for code-compliant residential buildings in hot and humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents an analysis of energy efficient residential windows in hot and humid climates. To accomplish this analysis, the use of accurate simulation tools such as DOE-2.1e is required, which incorporates the results from the WINDOW-5.2 simulation program to assess accurate fenestration performance. The thesis also investigates the use of optimal glazing types, which, for future applications, could be specified in the code to reduce annual net energy consumption to zero. Results show that combinations of low-E and double pane, clear-glazed windows, which are optimally shaded according to orientation are the best solution for lowering both annual energy consumption and peak electricity loads. The study also concludes that the method used to model fenestration in the simulation program plays an important role in accurately determining the effectiveness of the glazing option used. In this particular study, the use of the WINDOW-5.2 program is highly recommended especially for high performance windows (i.e., low-E glazing). Finally, a discussion on the incorporation of super high performance windows (i.e., super low-E, ultra low-E and dynamic / switchable glazing) into the IECC code concludes that these types of glazing strategies can reduce annual net energy use of the window to zero. Future work identified by this thesis includes a more extensive examination of the passive solar potential of high performance fenestration, and an examination of the appropriate methods for specifying these properties in future versions of the IECC code. This implies that future specifications for fenestration in the IECC code could aim for zero net annual energy consumption levels from residential fenestration.

Mukhopadhyay, Jaya

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coating, and argon?filled cavities.  Exterior Doors: Kevlar reinforced door shell with vacuum?sealed  aerogel 

Al-Beaini, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an equation reflecting energy usage as a function of thea relationship between energy usage and outdoor temperature.determine an estimated energy usage. If this is carried out

Drumheller, S. Craig

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based on the reduced gas usage. No effort was made todaily temperature to gas usage correlation coefficientsthe the gas runtime was directly proportional to the usage.

Drumheller, S. Craig

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Low E Brings High Savings in Newark, Delaware | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

stood near four giant aluminum-framed picture windows in Newark, Delaware's municipal building, the sun streamed through with such intensity that it made staffers sweat from...

36

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASHRAE, 2005 ASHRAE handbook—Fundamentals, Chapter 32.22.Chicago, IL Bin Hours From ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

Drumheller, S. Craig

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Double-Pane/Storm Windows: $500 Programmable Thermostat: $50 per home Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Existing Homes Electric Heat Pumps: $150 - $300 Dual Fuel Heat Pumps: $200 Geothermal Heat Pumps: $1000 Water Heaters: $250 Attic Insulation: $90 - $150 Floor Insulation: $150 Double-Pane/Storm Windows: $50/window Programmable Thermostat: $25/unit

38

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

NIST - Physical and Chemical Properties Division - Technical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... acoustic and microwave resonances in a spherical, argon-filled cavity bounded by a thick, metal shell, enclosed by a high-performance thermostat. ...

40

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Project Title Program or Field Office: AK-TRIBE-HOONAH INDIAN ASSOCIATION Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Location: Tribe AK-TRIBE- HOONAH INDIAN ASSOCIATION AK American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Weatherizing six 1940's era houses (installation of double-pane windows and insulated exterior doors),

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Integrated passive-solar demonstration project. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the study reported were to collect data on a combination of several passive solar heating and cooling systems. A passive solar test structure was constructed and monitored and the demonstration of passive systems designed into the structure was evaluated. Passive solar cooling principles include: shading all mass walls and windows from direct solar gain, maintaining cool attic and ceiling temperatures using solar induced ventilation, maintaining cool mean radiant wall temperatures, recirculating internal air, and using natural cross-ventilation through the conditioned space in spring and fall. Passive solar heating principles include: orientation of windows and sunspaces towards the south, providing double pane south windows, providing a double pane solar sunspace, using night insulation over glazing, extended thermal storage mass, and using a fan-forced rock/earth/air storage system. (LEW)

Garrison, M.L.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Project Title Program or Field Office: AK-TRIBE-HOONAH INDIAN ASSOCIATION Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Location: Tribe AK-TRIBE- HOONAH INDIAN ASSOCIATION AK American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Weatherizing six 1940's era houses (installation of double-pane windows and insulated exterior doors),

43

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

19, 2011 An insulation worker installs argon-filled panels behind the radiators in the LEED Gold-rated New York Power Authority building in White Plains. The unique construction...

46

Study of Heat Loss: Commercial and Residential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is much savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Many structures exhibit such loss. Much can be done to improve or minimize the heat loss in a structure. These include interior and exterior modifications. It has been shown that heat can move by means of convection, conduction, and radiation. Problems with heat loss can be due to moisture, and poor construction techniques. There is a beneficial cost savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Prevention techniques include insulation, caulking, weather stripping, and double pane windows. There are tables available for one to reference and calculate the return on their investment or “payback tim”

Emmett Ientilucci

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

My Energy Audit, Part 2: Windows | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

My Energy Audit, Part 2: Windows My Energy Audit, Part 2: Windows My Energy Audit, Part 2: Windows July 9, 2012 - 1:48pm Addthis Stephanie Price Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Last time I wrote about the heating portion of my energy audit -- now for some other items that were checked. The auditor checked some of the windows, which are double-paned, and showed me cracks between the window frame and the house that should be caulked. She recommended caulking both the inside and outside. That's easy enough for me to do -- at least the inside -- so I got some clear caulking and some gadgets to ensure a smooth finish from the home improvement store (I LOVE gadgets). I'm planning to start with the downstairs windows to perfect my technique, and at one window a week, hopefully I'll be finished

48

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

7 7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half Bathroom 0 | Dishwasher Windows | Color Televisions 3 Area (3) 222 | Ceiling Fans 3 Number (4) 15 | Computer 2 Type Double-Pane | Printer Insulation: Well or Adequate | Note(s): Source(s): 2-Door Top and Bottom Electric Top-Loading Electric 1) This is a weighted-average house that has combined characteristics of the Nation's stock homes. Although the population of homes with

49

Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

Hodges, L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NM-TRIBE-PUEBLO OF POJOAQUE HOUSING CORPORATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NM-TRIBE-PUEBLO OF POJOAQUE HOUSING CORPORATION NM-TRIBE-PUEBLO OF POJOAQUE HOUSING CORPORATION Location: Tribe NM-TRIBE- PUEBLO OF POJOAQUE HOUSING CORPORATION NM American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description The Pueblo of Pojoaque Housing Corporation plans to improve the energy efficiency of six tribal homes located in White Sands Village by removing and replacing inefficient single-pane windows with double- pane, metal-clad wood windows. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21 This action would not: threaten a violation of applicable statutory, regulatory, or permit requirements for environment, safety, and health,

51

CX-002321: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21: Categorical Exclusion Determination 21: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002321: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-Tribe-Yurok Tribe Energy Efficiency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 05/13/2010 Location(s): Klamath, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. The Yurok Tribe of California proposes to conduct energy efficiency retrofits to the Klamath and Weitchpec Tribal Offices based on the results of the energy audits completed in 2006. The Klamath Office energy efficiency building retrofits would include repair/re-weather stripping of exterior doors; installation of operable lovers on passive vents in the attic; replacement of double-pane windows; caulking; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

52

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

components components The proposed activity will involve energy efficiency upgrades to the Tribal Head Start building. Proposed retrofits include window upgrades to double-pane, insulated, tempered glass to conserve electricity for heating and cooling; upgrading the water heater to an on-demand style; upgrading the dishwasher to an Energy Star model; lowering a 12 foot ceiling to 9 feet to conserve energy for heating; replacing toilets and faucets with water-saving models; replacing fluorescent lighting with more energy efficient fixtures and bulbs; and upgrading to programmable thermostats. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants Pueblo of Tesuque Energy Efficiency Retrofits Pueblo of Tesuque New Mexico Dec 7, 2009 Mary Martin Print Form for Records

53

Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades March 15, 2010 - 11:42am Addthis John Lippert There's a lot of talk these days about installing new energy-efficient windows. Thanks to a Federal tax credit of up to $1,500, window advertisements, both print and radio and TV broadcasting, are aplenty. I don't want to knock energy-efficient windows. There are some great window products available. Some even rival the overall performance of walls, that is, if you account for the heat energy that enters the home via sunshine, depending on the climate and orientation. What I would like to talk about here are window shades. My wife and I bought our house 19 years ago. We are only the 2nd owners. The house has double-pane wooden windows made by a major well-known manufacturer. No

54

Can't See the Forest for the Trees | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Can't See the Forest for the Trees Can't See the Forest for the Trees Can't See the Forest for the Trees November 1, 2011 - 7:30am Addthis Stephanie Price Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory One thing I've been putting off doing is an energy assessment. I don't know why - my utility company offers them for FREE! I've done a few things around the house, like putting insulation behind all the light and plug switch plates I can get at and replacing the insulation around the outside doors and under one garage door, closing off rooms that aren't used very often, setting back the programmable thermostat, replacing almost all the indoor lights with CFLs - really basic things like that. Plus, my house was built in 1982, during the last oil crisis/renewable energy drive, so it has double paned windows already

55

CX-004625: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

625: Categorical Exclusion Determination 625: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004625: Categorical Exclusion Determination Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada on behalf of the Wells Band Energy Efficiency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: A1, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 01/07/2010 Location(s): Nevada Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. The Wells Band would perform energy efficiency retrofits at the Administration Office at 1707 Mountain View Drive. Specific retrofits would include: ? Replacement of all lights and ballasts in the building with high performance, energy efficient products; ? Replacement of 14 single-pane windows with Energy Star double-pane windows; and ? Energy efficiency improvements to double-glass doors (remove door, add insulation behind walls, add weather

56

CA-TRIBE-YUROK TRIBE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CA-TRIBE-YUROK TRIBE CA-TRIBE-YUROK TRIBE Location: Tribe CA-TRIBE-YUROK CA TRIBE American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description The Yurok Tribe of California proposes to conduct energy efficiency retrofits to the Klamath and Weitchpec Tribal Offices based on the results of the energy audits completed in 2006. The Klamath Office energy efficiency building retrofits would include repair/re-weatherstripping of exterior doors; installation of operable lovers on passive vents in the attic; replacement of double-pane windows; caulking; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system repair and tuning; installation of check valves in hot water lines; insulation of hot water lines; timer repair; delamping; and occupancy sensors. The Weitchpec Office

57

Updating the Doors and Windows | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Updating the Doors and Windows Updating the Doors and Windows Updating the Doors and Windows August 23, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Stephanie Price Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Since I can't afford to replace my windows like Andrea did recently (I've got a lot more of them for one thing), the next best thing is to be sure the existing ones-- which are double-paned, so that's a help-are well sealed. One of my energy audit recommendations was to caulk the window frames inside and out. My handyman friend Rob and his brother got the outside of the windows caulked (hmm, I have to ask him about the basement windows -- it's kind of tucked away under the entry deck over the dog door.) He said that it looked like some of the edges (the tops of the second floor windows especially) hadn't ever been done and the ones that had, had highly

58

CX-002319: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

19: Categorical Exclusion Determination 19: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002319: Categorical Exclusion Determination New Mexico-Tribe-Pueblo of Pojoaque Housing Corporation CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 05/11/2010 Location(s): Pojoaque, White Sands Village, New Mexico Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. The Pueblo of Pojoaque Housing Corporation plans to improve the energy efficiency of six tribal homes located in White Sands Village by removing and replacing inefficient single-pane windows with double-pane, metal-clad wood windows. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002319.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-002317: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002175: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004625

59

Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades March 15, 2010 - 11:42am Addthis John Lippert There's a lot of talk these days about installing new energy-efficient windows. Thanks to a Federal tax credit of up to $1,500, window advertisements, both print and radio and TV broadcasting, are aplenty. I don't want to knock energy-efficient windows. There are some great window products available. Some even rival the overall performance of walls, that is, if you account for the heat energy that enters the home via sunshine, depending on the climate and orientation. What I would like to talk about here are window shades. My wife and I bought our house 19 years ago. We are only the 2nd owners. The house has double-pane wooden windows made by a major well-known manufacturer. No

60

Solar panel  

SciTech Connect

A solar panel is shown for use as a double panel window structure. It has an outer frame formed by an H-shaped extrusion that has one of its outermost legs shortened, and a pair of generally parallel legs or flanges that are inwardly directed of the frame. The outer surface of these flanges are furnished with a dual pressure-sensitive adhesive tape having a width between 1/4 inch and 1 inch. A pane of transparent material is sealed around its periphery into engagement with the adhesive tape for forming a double pane solar panel. Several modifications are also shown for exerting a mechanical locking force on at least one of the panes.

Sitzler, E.R.; Moore, F.W.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

RECS data show decreased energy consumption per household  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Total United States energy consumption in homes has remained relatively stable for many years as increased energy efficiency has offset the increase in the number and average size of housing units, according to the newly released data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The average household consumed 90 million British thermal units (Btu) in 2009 based on RECS. This continues the downward trend in average residential energy consumption of the last 30 years. Despite increases in the number and the average size of homes plus increased use of electronics, improvements in efficiency for space heating, air conditioning, and major appliances have all led to decreased consumption per household. Newer homes also tend to feature better insulation and other characteristics, such as double-pane windows, that improve the building envelope.

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Berkeley Lab's Gas-filled Insulation Rivals Fiber in Buildings Sector |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Berkeley Lab's Gas-filled Insulation Rivals Fiber in Buildings Berkeley Lab's Gas-filled Insulation Rivals Fiber in Buildings Sector Berkeley Lab's Gas-filled Insulation Rivals Fiber in Buildings Sector October 19, 2011 - 1:10pm Addthis An insulation worker installs argon-filled panels behind the radiators in the LEED Gold-rated New York Power Authority building in White Plains. The unique construction of the gas-filled panels developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California are as effective barriers to heat as its pink fibrous counterparts with less material in less space. | Photo courtesy of FiFoil, Inc. An insulation worker installs argon-filled panels behind the radiators in the LEED Gold-rated New York Power Authority building in White Plains. The unique construction of the gas-filled panels developed at the Lawrence

64

NON-INTRUSIVE SENSOR FOR GAS FILL VERIFICATION OF INSULATED GLASS WINDOWS  

SciTech Connect

A sensor capable of measuring the amount of oxygen (an unwanted component that is only present because of improper filling or seal failure) within an argon-filled insulated glass window has been designed, built and successfully tested. It operates by using the optical absorption of oxygen in the atmospheric A-band centered at 762 nm. Light emitted by an argon-filled surface glow discharge lamp is Zeeman-tuned on and off an oxygen absorption line using an AC-modulated electromagnet. In the presence of oxygen, the change in the measured intensity of the lamp, obtained using standard demodulation techniques, is proportional to the oxygen column density. Measurements using an industry-standard insulated glass window indicate that the sensor can measure the amount of oxygen in a nominally argon-filled IG window (with a window gap of 10 mm) with a precision of 0.50% oxygen using a 16 second integration time. This level of precision is well within the limits required by the IG window manufacturing industry for proper monitoring of newly manufactured window units.

Andrew Freedman; Paul L. Kebabian; Richard R. Romano; James Woodroffe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Complex Metal Hydrides Complex Metal Hydrides Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina This project develops new complex metal hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The alkali-metal hydrides, alanates, borohydrides, hydrocarbon solvents, metallorganic complexes, nanomaterials, metals and their salts will be acquired, stored and processed in an Argon-filled glovebox due to their sensitivity to air and moisture. The processes include but are not limited to hydride dissolution in organic solvents, impurities filtration, hydrides recrystallization, and hydrides blending with additives (metallorganic complexes, metals and salts), melt processing, and absorption/ desorption for material property testing. B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects

66

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.2 Windows  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 2005 Residential Prime Window Stock (Million Households) Double Pane Census Division New England 5.3 Middle Atlantic 15.0 East North Central 17.3 West North Central 7.7 South Atlantic 21.3 East South Central 6.8 West South Central 12.1 Mountain 7.3 Pacific 16.4 United States 109.2 Selected States New York 7.0 Florida 6.7 Texas 7.6 California 12.0 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Respondents were shown pictures of different types of window glass and were asked "Which picture best describes the type of glass in the windows of your home/apartment?" 2) An additional 1.3 million households not counted here use other types of windows such as triple-pane windows. EIA, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Tables HC 11.5, HC 12.5, HC 13.5, HC 14.5, and HC 15.5, April 2008. 5.1 2.5

67

Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report  

SciTech Connect

Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

Sbar, Neil L.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

Sbar, Neil L.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.2 Windows  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Residential Prime Window Sales, by Glass Type (Million Units) 1980 8.6 34% 0.0 0% 16.6 66% 25.2 100% 1990 4.9 14% 12.0 34% 18.7 53% 35.6 100% 1993 2.8 14% 17.2 84% 0.4 2% 20.4 100% 1995 5.5 12% 37.8 85% 1.3 3% 44.5 100% 1999 4.8 8% 55.2 89% 2.0 3% 62.0 100% 2001 3.9 7% 50.9 90% 1.5 3% 56.3 100% 2003 4.7 7% 55.9 89% 2.2 4% 62.8 100% 2005 4.2 6% 63.8 91% 2.5 3% 70.5 100% 2007 2.7 5% 55.0 93% 1.4 2% 59.1 100% 2009 1.6 4% 36.2 93% 1.2 3% 38.9 100% Note(s): 1) IG = insulated glazing. Source(s): Double Pane Single Pane Sealed IG (1) Other Total AAMA/NWWDA, Study of the U.S. Market for Windows and Doors, 1996, Table 22, p.49; AAMA/WDMA, Study of U.S. and Canadian Market for Windows and Doors, Apr. 2000, Exhibit E.7, p. 55; AAMA/WDMA, Study of the Market for U.S. Doors, Windows and Skylights, Apr. 2004, Exhibit D.4, p. 46; AAMA/WDMA, Study of U.S. Market for Windows, Doors, and Skylights, Apr. 2006, Exhibit D.8 Conventional Window Glass Usage, p. 50; AAMA/WDMA, Study of U.S.

72

Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Investigation of the Relationship between Green Design and Project Delivery Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low-e windows, ground source heat pumps, walk-in cooler heatmaximize daylighting; ground source heat pump system; low-e

Bilec, Melissa M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes  

SciTech Connect

To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Explosive Potential Analysis of AB Process-Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A need arose to define the hazards associated with the operation of a process. The process involved the evolution of a hydrogen gas stream from thermal decomposition of uranium hydride at approximately 400 C into the interior of a purged argon-filled glove box. Specific hazards of interest included the potential reaction severity of the evolved hydrogen with atmospheric oxygen, either downstream in the vent system or inside the box in the event of serious air inleakage. Another hazard might be the energetic reaction of inleaked air with the hot uranium and uranium hydride powder bed, possibly resulting in the dispersion of powders into an air atmosphere and the rapid combustion of the powders. This was approached as a problem in calculational simulation. Given the parameters associated with the process and the properties of the glove box system, certain scenarios were defined and the potential for flammable or detonation reactions estimated. Calculation tools included a comprehensive fluid dynamics code, a spreadsheet, a curve-fitting program, an equation solver, and a thermochemistry software package. Results are reported which suggest that the process can be operated without significant hazard to operators or significant damage to equipment, assuming that operators take account of potential upset scenarios.

Bullock, J.S.; Giles, G.E. jr.; Wendel, M.W.; Sulfredge, C.D.

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

76

Pulse mode readout techniques for use with non-gridded industrial ionization chambers  

SciTech Connect

Highly sensitive readout technique for precision long-term radiation measurements has been developed and tested in the Radiation Control Department at Jefferson Lab. The new electronics design is used to retrieve ionization data in a pulse mode. The dedicated data acquisition system works with M=Audio Audiophile 192 High-Definition 24-bit/192 kHz audio cards, taking data in continuous waveform recording mode. The on-line data processing algorithms extract signals of the ionization events from the data flow and measure the ionization value for each event. Two different ion chambers are evaluated. The first is a Reuter-Stokes Argon-filled (at 25 atm) High Pressure Ionization Chamber (HPIC), commonly used as a detector part in many GE Reuter-Stokes instruments of the RSS series. The second is a VacuTec Model 70181, 5 atm Xenon-filled ionization chamber. Results for both chambers indicate that the techniques allow using industrial ICs for high sensitivity and precision long-term radiation measurements, while at the same time providing information about spectral characteristics of the radiation fields.

Popov, Vladimir E. [JLAB; Degtiarenko, Pavel V. [JLAB

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Perturbations in high-velocity gas flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High velocity explosive products or other low-density gases are often used to accelerate metal plates to high velocities. Perturbations in otherwise uniform flow configurations are sometimes sufficient to cause interactions that can rapidly destroy the integrity of the plates. In this study perturbations were introduced in uniform gas flows of detonated HE products and strongly shocked polyethylene, CH{sub 2}. The primary diagnostics were smear-camera records obtained when these gases impinged on layers of plexiglas separated by small argon-filled gaps. These records show shock-arrival times at various levels and thus determine not only the size of the perturbation but also its strength. Perturbations in HE gases running into H{sub 2} and in CH{sub 2} into H{sub 2} have been studied. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations are in excellent agreement with the experiments, and enable one to study details of the flow not possible from experimental results. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Harvey, W.B.; McQueen, R.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Tips: Windows | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

high-performance glass-low-e or spectrally selective coatings. In colder climates, select gas-filled windows with low-e coatings to reduce heat loss. In warmer climates, select...

79

Market introduction of pyrolytic low  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and overall performance compare to existing low-e? Different tradeoff between U-value and solar transmission New applications (e.g., storm windows) not available to existing low-e...

80

Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell glazing; Aerogel; Low-emissivity coating; Low-e; WindowWindows using aerogels and no low-e coatings can alreadya suspended coating glazing product and an aerogel glazing

Petter Jelle, Bjorn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

82

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Triple Low-E Glazing Triple Low-E Glazing Triple-Glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass This figure illustrates the performance of a window with a very low heat loss rate (low U-factor). In this case there are three glazing layers and two low-E coatings, ½" argon gas or ¼" krypton gas fill between glazings, and low-conductance edge spacers. The middle glazing layer can be glass or suspended plastic film. Some windows use four glazing layers (two glass layers and two suspended plastic films). This product is suited for buildings located in very cold climates. Both Low-E coatings in this product have high solar heat and visible light transmittance, which is ideal for passive solar design. The use of three layers, however, results in lower solar heat gain relative to double glazing with high-solar-gain Low-E.

83

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-E Glazing Low-E Glazing Double-Glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass This figure illustrates the characteristics of a typical double-glazed window with a high-solar gain low-E glass with argon gas fill. These windows are designed to reduce heat loss but admit solar gain. High-solar-gain low-E glass products are best suited for buildings located in heating-dominated climates and are the product of choice for passive solar design projects. High-solar-gain low-E glass is often made with pyrolytic low-E coatings, although sputtered high-solar-gain low-E is also available. Double HSG Low-E Center of Glass Properties Note: These values are for the center of glass only. They should only be used to compare the effect of different glazing types, not to compare total window products. Frame choice can drastically affect performance. These values represent double glazing with a 1/2" air gap.

84

Renewables Portfolio Standard (Connecticut) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Energy, Wind, Natural Gas, Low E Renewables Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs, Renewable Energy...

85

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Houck Low E Brings High Savings in Newark, Delaware Newark, Delaware used an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant to install energy efficient windows and lights. July...

86

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICIPATING IN PROFICIENCY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PT APPLICATION (REV. ... CATEGORY I: HIGH-DOSE, PHOTONS IA General ... E point source ? IIIC Low E point ...

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PA St. Luke's Miners Memorial Hospital Energy Efficiency Project Replacement of window curtain walls at existing St. Luke's Miners Memorial Hospital Building. New low-E...

88

Performance of electronic ballasts and lighting controllers with 34-W fluorescent lamps: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study has measured the performance of energy-saving 34-watt F40, T-12, rapid-start, lite white fluorescent lamps being operated by solid-state ballasts and lighting control equipment. The performances of these lamps are compared with those of 40-watt F40, T-12 rapid-start cool white fluorescent lamp systems studied in the prior phase of this project. With the 34-watt F40 lamps and various solid-state ballasts, system efficacy ranged from 67 to 84 lumens per watt and ballast factor from 0.756 to 0.908. Average system efficacy using the 34-watt lamps exceeded that of systems using 40-watt lamps and the same solid-state ballasts by only 1 percent even though the 34-watt lamps is about 6 percent more efficacious than the 40-watt lamp. This apparent discrepancy is due to increased ballast losses when operating the 34-watt lamps. However, the system efficacy of the 34-watt lamps used with a solid-state ballast exceeded that of a 34-watt, two-lamp system using the standard core-coil ballast by as much as 29 percent. A T-8 fluorescent lamp system with a smaller lamp diameter was also included in the study. Operating this lamp with a solid-state ballast produced a high system efficacy of 90 lumens per watt, a 39 percent improvement over the efficacy of a 40-watt F40 system using the standard core-coil ballast. The use of static controllers with 34-watt F40 lamps can result in excessive flickering (46 percent) and the generation of a second harmonic as high as 96 percent of the fundamental frequency. The dynamic controllers, when used to dim the 34-watt lamps generally cannot be dimmed as low as the 40-watt lamp system without flickering. In general, the 34-watt energy-saving lamps are appropriate as a retrofit to reduce illumination levels. However, for new construction, the 40-watt F40 argon filled lamps cost less, perform better, and provide a more reliable system. 5 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Verderber, R.R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Performance of electronic ballasts and other new lighting equipment: (Phase 2, The 34-watt F40 rapid start T-12 fluorescent lamp): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study has measured the performance of energy-saving 34-watt F40, T-12, rapid-start, lite white fluorescent lamps being operated by solid-state ballasts and lighting control equipment. The performances of these lamp systems are compared with those of 40-watt F40, T-12 rapid-start cool white fluorescent lamp systems studied in the prior phase of this project. With the 34-watt F40 lamps and various solid-state ballasts, system efficacy ranged from 67 to 84 lumens per watt and ballast factor from 0.756 to 0.908. Average system efficacy using the 34-watt lamps exceeded that of systems using 40-watt lamps and the same solid-state ballasts by only 1 percent even though the 34-watt lamps is about 6 percent more efficacious than the 40-watt lamp. This apparent discrepancy is due to increased ballast losses when operating the 34-watt lamps. However, the systems efficacy of the 34-watt lamps used with a solid-state ballast exceeded that of a 34-watt, two-lamp system using the standard core-coil ballast by as much as 29 percent. A T-8 fluorescent lamp system with a smaller lamp diameter was also included in the study. Operating this lamp with a solid-state ballast produced a high system efficacy of 90 lumens per watt, a 39 percent improvement over the efficacy of a 40-watt F40 system using the standard core-coil ballast. The use of static controllers with 34-watt F40 lamps can result in excessive flickering (46 percent) and the generation of a second harmonic as high as 96 percent of the fundamental frequency. The dynamic controllers, when used to dim the 34-watt lamps generally cannot be dimmed as low as the 40-watt lamp system without flickering. In general, the 34-watt energy-saving lamps are appropriate as a retrofit to reduce illumination levels. However, for new construction, the 40-watt F40 argon filled lamps cost less, perform better, and provide a more reliable system. 5 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Windows as Luminaires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Windows with low-e coatings have already captured a 35% market share in the U.S, with sales of 25 million square meters (270 million square feet) per year. Fig. 1 is based on a...

91

Windows and Daylighting Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comfort Research Deposition Process Energy Star Field Verification Gas-Filled Panels Infrared Lab Integrated WindowWall LowE and Solar Control MoWiTT Optical data...

92

Making the Market Right for Environmentally Sound Energy-Efficient Technologies: U.S. Buildings Sector Successes that Might Work in Developing Countries and Eastern Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10) 1. Equivalent offshore platforms(ll) g. Annual CO2the production of 30 offshore oil platforms. Although low-E5 BkWhlyear. (11) One offshore oil platform = 10,000 bod. To

Gadgil, A.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh*, Howdy Goudey, Joe Huang, Christian Kohler, and Robin Mitchell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be achieved with three layers of glass, two low-e coatings and a low-conductivity gas fill. Vacuum units and aerogel are other alternatives under R&D. Spacer and frame effects can be expected to degrade

94

Field Evaluation of Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Windows Evaluation of Windows Last Updated: 10/20/2009 Various tools can be used to evaluate windows in the field. Unless a new window still has the NFRC label attached to it, it is nearly impossible to determine by sight what the thermal and optical performance of a window is. These tools can provide information, such as low-e coating, gap width and gas fill, that can be used to approximate the performance of a window. Solar gain and Low-e detector This device can be used to determine if a low-e coating is present in the window, what type of coating it is, and where it is located. The type of low-e coating will indicate the amount of solar gain that is admitted through the coating. Readings can be "low", "medium" or "high". The device will also indicate on which glass surface the low-e coating is in relation to the position of the device. Limitations: Only works on glass of 1/8" (3 mm) or thinner. Cost: around $350 from EDTM.com

95

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.2 Windows  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

8 8 Typical Thermal Performance of Residential Windows, by Type Single-Glazed Clear Single-Glazed with Bronze Tint Double-Glazed Clear Double-Glazed with grey/Bronze Tint Double-Glazed with High Performance Tint Double-Glazed with High-Solar Gain Low-e Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Double-Glazed with Moderate-Solar Gain Low-e Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Double-Glazed with Low-Solar Gain Low-e (1) Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Triple-Glazed (2) with High-Solar Gain Low-e Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas (3) Triple-Glazed (2) with Low-Solar Gain Low-e (1) Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas (3) Note(s): Source(s): The Efficient Windows Collaborative (http://www.efficientwindows.org) 0.14 0.33 0.56 1) Spectrally selective. 2) Includes double glazing with suspended film. 3) Center of glass properties, does not include frame or installation

96

Highly Insulating Window Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Window Technology Window Technology Temperature differentials across a window, particularly with cold exterior environments in residential buildings, can lead to significant energy losses. Currently available low-emissivity coatings, gas-fills, and insulating frames provide significant energy savings over typical single or double glazed products. The EWC website provides information on how double glazed low-e gas-filled windows work as well as information on commercially available superwindows (three layer, multiple low-e coatings, high performance gas-fills). The next generation of highly insulating window systems will benefit from incremental improvements being made to current components (i.e. more insulating spacers and frame materials/designs, low-e coatings with improved performance properties). LBNL uses its experimental facilities and software tools to collaborate with window and glass industry representatives to better understand the impacts of new components on overall product performance.

97

Measured winter performance of storm windows  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

Klems, Joseph H.

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

GCHP Results in Net-Zero Energy Residence in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Water Heater · Lighting Fixtures: LED · Solar Photo-voltaic System: 5.94kW · Home Energy (Q value) · Low-e Windows: · Natural Ventilation System: Ducted · Domestic Hot Water: Instantaneous · Advanced Ambient Light Sensor Control · Lithium Battery Storage System · Solar Thermal Heat Collector: 4m2

99

Rapid field testing of low-emittance coated glazings for product verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes prospects for developing a test device suitable for field verification of the types of low-emittance (low-e) coatings present on high-performance window products. Test devices are currently available that can simply detect the presence of low-e coatings and that can measure other important characteristics of high-performance windows, such as the thickness of glazing layers or the gap in dual glazings. However, no devices have yet been developed that can measure gas concentrations or distinguish among types of coatings. This paper presents two optical methods for verification of low-e coatings. The first method uses a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer to characterize spectral reflectances from 650 to 1,100 nm for selected surfaces within an insulated glazing unit (IGU). The second method uses an infrared-light-emitting diode and a phototransistor to evaluate the aggregate normal reflectance of an IGU at 940 nm. Both methods measure reflectance in the near (solar) infrared spectrum and are useful for distinguishing between regular and spectrally selective low-e coatings. The infrared-diode/phototransistor method appears promising for use in a low-cost, hand-held field test device.

Griffith, Brent; Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Turler, Daniel; Arasteh, Dariush

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

WHAT DO BUILDING SCIENCE AND ARCHITECTURE HAVE IN COMMON?*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: the effects of research on practice" in Proceedings of the 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, vol. 6 p 89, Washington DC the way it looks. Consequently, enormous west-facing windows continue to show up in all their studio" wag the "design dog." Myth #7. Low-e windows look just like regular windows. I confess--this one

Diamond, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Effects of low-emissivity glazings on energy use patterns in nonresidential daylighted buildings  

SciTech Connect

Fenestration is the most significant envelope design determinant of energy use in nonresidential buildings. This paper presents our assessment of energy use effects of low-emissivity (low-E) versus conventional glazings for a range of window-to-wall ratios in a daylighted office building, in representative hot and cold climates. Low-E glazings transmit ''cooler'' daylight than their conventional counterparts because, for a given visible transmittance, they reflect a much larger fraction of incident solar infrared radiation. We thus use the ratio of visible transmittance to shading coefficient, which we define as K/sub e/, to compare the effect of representative glazing characteristics on component and total-building energy use, peak electrical demand, and required cooling equipment sizes. It is concluded that insulated glazings with low-E coatings can provide lighting and cooling energy savings in both hot and cold climates. The most dramatic lighting, cooling, and total electricity energy savings are achieved for increases of K/sub e/ within the range of 0.5 to 1.0; higher K/sub e/s provide diminishing savings. The increased R-value of low-E insulated glass units provides significant benefits in cold climates and is not a liability in hot climates. Low-E glazings also help increase the mean radiant temperature of interior environments in winter and reduce it in summer, and provide greater architectural design freedom without adverse energy consequences. Further, the higher first costs of these glazings may be more than offset by savings from smaller cooling equipment, energy and peak-demand cost savings, long-term financial gains from better rentals, and increased productivity due to improved occupant comfort.

Sweitzer, G.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer, Kr 3/11/05 11:40 18.10 17.80 18.13 17.44 17.82 right 7 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer top angled toward cold side, Kr 17.80 13.74 16.90 14.44 15.77 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

103

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer, Kr 3/15/05 13:40 18.08 17.75 17.91 16.84 17.43 right 8 triple/quad, 2 sputtered low-e layers, 2 layer teflon center insert clinging in center, Kr 18.26 17.58 18.05 17.23 17.67 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

104

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Performance: Visible Transmittance (VT) Measuring Performance: Visible Transmittance (VT) How to maximize daylight? Historically, only clear glass was used to maximize the amount of light entering through a window. Especially in cooling-dominated climate, this desirable daylight also came with undesirable solar heat gain. With the advancement of high-performance glazing systems, it is possible for low-E coatings to reject the solar heat gain while allowing the visible light to pass through the glass. The type of low-E coating that is appropriate for your specific house depends on location, orientation, window area, and shading strategies. The visible transmittance (VT) is an optical property that indicates the fraction of visible light transmitted through the window. This is separate from the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), since many modern windows

105

Building Technologies Office: High Performance Windows Volume Purchase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Windows Volume Purchase High Performance Windows Volume Purchase DOE's Building Technologies Office (BTO) is coordinating a volume purchase of high performance windows, and low-e storm windows, to expand the market of these high efficiency products. Price is the principal barrier to more widespread market commercialization. The aim of this volume purchase initiative is to work with industry and potential buyers to make highly insulated windows more affordable. Announcement EPA Most Efficient Program for window technology to launched in January 2013. Program Highlights Features Image of person signing document. Volume Purchase RFP Arrow Image of a question mark. Frequently Asked Questions Arrow Image of low-e storm window with two orange-yellow arrows hitting the window and reflecting back inside. Building Envelope and Windows R&D Program Blog Arrow

106

High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

Arasteh, D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The national energy requirements of residential windows in the U.S.: Today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an end-use analysis of the national energy requirements of US residential window technologies. The authors estimate that the current US stock of 19 billion square feet of residential windows is responsible for 1.7 quadrillion BTUs (or quads) per year of energy use--1.3 quads of heating and 0.4 quads of cooling energy--which represents about 2% of total US energy consumption. They show that national energy use due to windows could be reduced by 25% by the year 2010 through accelerated adoption of currently available, advanced window technologies such as low-e and solar control low-e coatings, vinyl and wood frames, and superwindows. The authors evaluate the economics of the technologies regionally, considering both climatic and energy price variations, and find that the technologies would be cost effective for most consumers.

Frost, K.; Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Yazdanian, M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components The proposed energy efficiency retrofits include two individual activities to be funded under EECBG: * Activity #1 includes installation of Thermastar Low-E windows on the proposed Spokane Tribe Child Development Center. * Activity #2 includes installation of ambient light sensors in the proposed Spokane Tribe Child Development Center. The Spokane Tribe Child Development Center has already been designed with the "Add Alternate" construction bid options to include Thermastar Low-E windows and ambient light sensors, but the Tribe did not have the funds to include these options. The EECBG funds will now allow these "Add Alternate" options to be incorporated into the Child Development Center.

109

Program on Technology Innovation: Development of Flexible Electrochromic Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Even with today's energy-efficient low-emissivity (low-E) coatings, more than 4 quads of energy are lost through windows each year, costing building owners over 40 billion. Electrochromic windows that allow active control of transmitted light and solar heating offer a pathway to improved window performance that maintains optimal occupant comfort while minimizing the energy footprint. This report reviews the benefits of electrochromic window technology to help meet these goals and the opportunity for new ...

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume 1: solar thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An assessment of thermoelectrics for solar energy conversion is given. There is significant potential for solar thermoelectrics in solar technologies where collector costs are low; e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and solar ponds. Reports of two studies by manufacturers assessing the cost of thermoelectric generators in large scale production are included in the appendix and several new concepts thermoelectric systems are presented. (WHK)

Jayadev, T. S.; Henderson, J.; Finegold, J.; Benson, D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

Sammells, A.F.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drawings Drawings specimen number made by description layer 1 layer 2 layer 3 gas gap (in) spacer height (in) overall thickness (in) glass (mm) center layer (mm) gap (mm) calc. thick (mm) 1 Alpen 9/16" double with two pyrolytic low-e coatings, Ar 0.125" pyro none 0.125" pyro Ar 0.563 0.563 0.81 3.18 none 14.29 20.6 4 Alpen low-e suspended film with two pyrolytic low-e coatings 0.125" pyro TC88 0.125" pyro Kr 0.344 2 X 0.344 0.94 3.18 0.10 8.73 23.8 6 LBL parallel acrylic center layer in grooved spacer 0.118" card170 0.06" acrylic 0.118" card170 Kr 0.375 0.813 1.05 3 1.60 9.53 26.6 7 LBL angled acrylic center layer in groved spacer 0.118" card170 0.06" acrylic 0.118" card170 Kr variable 0.813 1.05 3 1.60 variable 26.6

113

Burbank Water and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Burbank Water and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Products purchased from a Burbank retailer are typically awarded higher rebates than those purchased outside Burbank. Inside Burbank: Ceiling Fans: $25 (maximum three) Clothes Washer: $50 Dishwasher: $35 Refrigerator/Freezer: $75 Room A/C: $35 Low E Windows/Doors: $2.00/sq ft

114

Energy Efficient Triple IG Automation EEE (Triple-E)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GED Integrated Solutions collaborated with US window and door manufactures to investigate, design and verify technical and cost feasibility for producing high performance, high volume, low material and labor cost window, utilizing a modified window design containing a triple insulating glass unit (IGU). This window design approach when combined with a high volume IGU manufacturing system, can produce R5 rated windows for an approximate additional consumer cost of only $4 per square foot when compared to conventional Low-E argon dual pane IG windows, resulting in a verify practical, reliable and affordable high performance window for public use.

McGlinchy, Timothy B

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CA-City-Montebello CA-City-Montebello Location: City Montebello CA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Development of an energy efficiency and conservation strategy (completed); and 2) implementation of the City of Montebello Energy Project including: (a) retrofit of the Police Department Building (1991) - addition of a "cool roof" system, replacement of the cooling tower; (b) retrofit of the City Hall (1962) - replacement of exterior window glazing with Low-E glazing; (c) implement the Green Campaign outreach

116

Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Map Site Map Home Publications Software Facilities Links Staff Glazing Materials Chromogenics LowE and Spectrally Selective Deposition Processes Characterization New Materials Advanced Systems Superwindows Integrated Window Systems Gas-Filled Panels Window Properties Infrared Laboratory and Traversing System MoWiTT Window+5 Development Therm Development Film Coefficients Condensation Resistance Comfort Models Field Measurements LBNL Role in NFRC Optics Database Daylighting IEA Task 21 Lightshelves/Lightpipes Tools for Daylighting Prediction Demonstrations Daylighting Controls Residential Performance Energy Star ResFen Development ECW Demonstrations Annual Energy Rating Field Tests and Monitoring Projects

117

Are You Ready Phase Two? Pricing Changes and Commercial Products Added to DOE High-Performance Windows Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article, for publication in Door and Window Manufacturer magazine, describes DOE's High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program, WVPP, and how PNNL, which manages the program for DOE, is assisting DOE in the transition to the next phase (Phase II), which begins in May. While the foundation of the program will remain relatively unchanged, PNNL is employing several new strategies to continue the momentum built during the program's first full year of implementation. The program helps buyers and manufacturers to develop a market for highly insulating windows and low-E storm windows at affordable prices and thereby overcome the principal barrier of cost.

Mapes, Terry S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 5/4/05 21:29 18.57 17.93 17.92 17.66 16.52 17.13 right 18 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated glass center layer in traditional broken spacer, Kr 18.54 18.38 17.67 17.81 16.85 17.37 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

119

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 23 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 1/16" acrylic with gap at top only, Kr 6/28/06 23:48 18.39 17.74 17.53 17.48 16.45 17.00 right 22 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 1/8" folded edge polycarbonate center layer, Kr 18.40 17.74 16.71 17.56 16.09 16.88 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

120

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 4/29/05 16:09 18.54 17.98 17.98 17.85 16.77 17.34 right 17 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer with 1/16" perimeter gap, Kr 18.88 16.14 16.08 17.71 14.41 16.15 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 4/14/05 17:22 18.51 17.42 17.76 17.67 16.61 17.18 right 15 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, dense sun screen center layer, Kr 19.33 17.07 13.77 18.00 14.20 16.26 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

122

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 1/31/06 16:22 17.15 15.06 16.46 15.32 13.91 14.68 right 22 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 1/8" folded edge polycarbonate center layer, Kr 18.53 17.87 16.90 17.71 16.41 17.11 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

123

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer, Kr 3/24/05 12:40 17.51 17.52 17.63 16.30 17.03 right 9 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 72% open insect screen center layer, Kr 17.12 13.05 17.65 13.84 15.91 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average 1.12 0.00 0.39 4.47 21.36 20.68 21.02 20.8

124

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 5/25/05 16:15 18.47 17.37 17.87 17.40 16.11 16.82 right 20 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, folded Lexan center layer, Kr 18.63 17.24 16.06 17.51 15.64 16.67 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

125

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 23 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 1/16" acrylic with gap at bottom only, Kr 9/22/06 9:42 18.28 18.07 17.38 17.66 16.79 17.27 right 22 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, 1/8" folded edge polycarbonate center layer, Kr 18.34 17.70 16.83 17.57 16.28 16.98 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average

126

HiR Thermal Testing Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 position specimen # specimen description (test conditions: cold side -18°C, warm side 21°C) date + time 100 mm from head TC center of glass TC 100 mm from sill TC upper IR line average lower IR line average complete IR line average left 6 triple, 2 sputtered low-e glass layers, uncoated acrylic center layer in grooved spacer (rebuilt), Kr 5/20/05 18:05 18.33 16.96 17.89 17.27 16.04 16.71 right 19 double, 1 sputtered low-e glass layer, 3/8" gap, Kr 15.73 15.53 14.97 14.51 13.65 14.13 - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - - Back to Summary - delta T line average delta T 100mm from head delta T center of glass delta T 100mm from sill ambient high ambient low ambient average six surface average 2.59 2.60 1.43 2.92 21.54 20.61 21.08 20.85

127

Advanced Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimal gap width for double and triple glazing systems Optimal gap width for double and triple glazing systems Glazing systems in the US are commonly designed with a 1/2 " (12.7 mm) gap. The optimal gap width depends on many factors, such as gas fill (air, argon, krypton), the use of Low-e coatings, the environmental conditions (temperature difference across the window), and the calculation standard used. NFRC standard conditions are -18 C (-0.4 F) outside, and 21 C (69.8 F) inside. The calculation standard used in the US is based on the ISO 15099 standard. European standard conditions are 0 C (32 F) outside, and 20 C (68 F) inside. The calculation standard is based on the EN 673 standard. A number of common glazing configurations both with and without Low-e coatings, and with a variety of gas fills were evaluated using both the North American NFRC standard and the European EN 673 standard. All results were calculated using WINDOW 6.3 from LBNL. All IGU's (Insulated Glazing Units) have a standard height of 1 meter.

128

High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

Arasteh, Dariush

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

A superwindow field demonstration program in northwest Montana  

SciTech Connect

Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low-conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degree}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based on this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Advanced Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Insulating Windows Windows in the United States use approximately 2 quads a year in heating energy, approximately one third of all building space heating energy used and approximately 2% of total US energy consumption. Heating is the largest single end use attributed to windows. Even if all existing windows were replaced with todayÂ’s ENERGY STAR low-e products (U values < 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F), windows related heating would still be over 1 Quad. Because heating loads are strongly tied to conductive losses, technologies which lead to lower window U-factors are the key to reducing heating energy. In the long term a 0.1 Btu/hr-ft2-F window is targeted as a product, which will meet the requirements of zero-energy homes. Dynamic control of solar gains will further reduce heating needs by allowing winter

133

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Case Study, The Cambria Department of Environmental Protection Office Building, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania (Office) Building Design Floor Area: Floors: 2 Open office space (1) File storage area Two small labratories Conference rooms Break room Storage areas Two mechanical rooms Telecom room Shell Windows Material: Triple Pane, low-e with Aluminum Frames and Wood Frames Triple Pane Triple Pane Aluminum Frames Wood Frames U-Factor 0.24 U-Factor 0.26 Wall/Roof Primary Material R-Value Wall : Insulating Concrete Forms 27.0 Roof: Decking and Insulation 33.0 HVAC Total Capacities(thousand Btu/hr) 12 Ground Source Heat Pumps 644 (2) 12 Auxiliary Electric Resistance Heaters 382 (3) Lighting Power Densities(W/SF) Open Office Area: 0.75 Office Area Task Lighting(4): 0.5 Energy/Power PV System: 18.2 kW grid-tie system (5)

134

UNDP Readiness for Climate Finance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » UNDP Readiness for Climate Finance Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: UNDP Readiness for Climate Finance Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sector: Climate Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, Finance, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Guide/manual, Publications Website: www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/environment-energy/low_e Cost: Free Language: English The paper presents a framework for understanding what it means to be "ready" to use climate finance in a transformative way at the national level. In the context of the financial challenges posed by climate change,

135

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Date Date Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date September 3, 2014 CX-011089: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-cost, Highly Transparent Flexible Low-e Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 09/03/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office November 22, 2013 CX-010734: Categorical Exclusion Determination Covington District Culvert Replacements CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 07/22/2013 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration November 19, 2013 CX-010735: Categorical Exclusion Determination Grand Coulee-Bell No.5 Dead End Insulator Replacement Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 07/19/2013 Location(s): Washington, Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

136

Microsoft Word - 25A2284 Continued  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

There is potential for electrochromic (EC) windows to dramatically reduce building energy use through active control of light and solar heat There is potential for electrochromic (EC) windows to dramatically reduce building energy use through active control of light and solar heat transmission. U.S. buildings today accounts for 40% of all primary energy used and 38% of carbon dioxide emission in the United States. Energy use associated with windows alone represents 4 quads existing window installations were converted to low-E glass. New actively controlled smart windows could dramatically reduce energy lost through windows by reducing heating and cooling loads and minimize overhead lighting use. Unlike other building components, windows theoretically can be energy neutral or even net contributors to the energy balance. EC are the most promising of the three primary types of smart glass: EC, suspended particle displays (SPD), and liquid crystal

137

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass Glass Vacuum-insulated Glass Vacuum-insulated glazing units are made up of 2 panes of glass with a very small air space. The air space contains spacers which help maintain the separation between the panes. Most of the emerging glass technologies are available or nearly on the market. These include insulation-filled and evacuated glazings to improve heat transfer by lowering U-factors. Evacuated Windows The most thermally efficient gas fill would be no gas at all-a vacuum. The window industry is pursuing the development of vacuum-insulated glass (VIG) for use in window units in which the space between the panes is evacuated. If the vacuum pressure is low enough, there would be no conductive or convective heat exchange between the panes of glass, thus lowering the U-factor. A vacuum glazing must have a good low-E coating to

138

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Colorado | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Colorado Colorado Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Colorado Location Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued for actions in Colorado. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 3, 2014 CX-011089: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-cost, Highly Transparent Flexible Low-e Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 09/03/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office September 16, 2013 CX-010957: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 16, 2013 CX-010956: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide

139

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Standards Performance Standards Even the expert eye cannot easily tell an efficient window from a conventional window. That is why energy ratings, endorsement programs and consumer incentives play an important role in creating awareness for window energy efficiency among consumers, builders, architects and performance standard programs. Learn about NFRC certification and labeling Learn about ENERGY STAR® for windows, doors and skylights High Performance Windows and Low-E Storm Windows Volume Purchase Program Utility and State Incentives for energy efficiency improvements Building Codes Most locations have building energy codes that mandate minimum performance levels for windows, doors, and skylights. The builder, contractor or homeowner must adhere to the code requirements, which typically cover

140

High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For Light For Light Commercial Buyers to someone by E-mail Share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on Facebook Tweet about High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on Twitter Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on Google Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on Delicious Rank High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on Digg Find More places to share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: For Light Commercial Buyers on AddThis.com... Home About For Builders For Residential Buyers For Light Commercial Buyers For Manufacturers For Utilities Information Resources For Light Commercial Buyers Significant energy savings from low-E window technology are possible in the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The High Performance Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program The High Performance Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) is coordinating a volume purchase program intended to overcome cost and awareness barriers to the wider adoption of highly-insulating windows and low-E storm windows. These products include windows meeting a number of specifications including a U-factor of 0.22 or less as well as storm windows with low-emissivity glass. Buyer groups with a potential interest in purchasing these products in volume will learn about their availability and cost through the program's product listings. Over 50 manufacturers proposed products for the first round of these listings, for which submittals were due by February 19, 2010. DOE does not purchase any products through this project, nor does DOE

142

Microsoft Word - 25A2284 Continued  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

There is potential for electrochromic (EC) windows to dramatically reduce building energy use through active control of light and solar heat There is potential for electrochromic (EC) windows to dramatically reduce building energy use through active control of light and solar heat transmission. U.S. buildings today accounts for 40% of all primary energy used and 38% of carbon dioxide emission in the United States. Energy use associated with windows alone represents 4 quads existing window installations were converted to low-E glass. New actively controlled smart windows could dramatically reduce energy lost through windows by reducing heating and cooling loads and minimize overhead lighting use. Unlike other building components, windows theoretically can be energy neutral or even net contributors to the energy balance. EC are the most promising of the three primary types of smart glass: EC, suspended particle displays (SPD), and liquid crystal

143

High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Windows The Windows Volume Purchase RFP to someone by E-mail Share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on Facebook Tweet about High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on Twitter Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on Google Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on Delicious Rank High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on Digg Find More places to share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: The Windows Volume Purchase RFP on AddThis.com... Home About FAQs Low-E Storm Windows Request for Proposal Contacts For Builders For Residential Buyers For Light Commercial Buyers For Manufacturers

144

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9, 2006 9, 2006 An Invitation to Contribute to the Development of a Best Practices Manual Based on Experience Gained from the Project * A pragmatic and viable option for reducing GHG emissions * A technology allowing the world to move towards an energy economy with zero net emissions from fossil energy use * Particularly feasible where significant geological storage capacity is in close proximity to large volume emitters with relatively high purity CO 2 or capture costs are low * e.g. Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) What tools do we need to make this happen on a large scale? Alberta & Saskatchewan contain a large part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin Why geologically store CO

145

Austin Energy - Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Austin Energy - Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Austin Energy - Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Austin Energy - Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate $200,000 Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Split System Air Conditioning: $200 - $550 Packaged Unit Air Conditioning: $300 - $500 Split System Heat Pumps: $250 - $600 Packaged Unit Heat Pumps: $350 - $550 Solar Screens/Solar Film: $1.00 - $1.25/sq. ft. Low E Window Replacement: $2.00/sq. ft.

146

CX-001760: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

60: Categorical Exclusion Determination 60: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001760: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-Montebello Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy Project CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 04/20/2010 Location(s): Montebello City, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant for: 1) Development of an energy efficiency and conservation strategy (completed); and 2) implementation of the City of Montebello Energy Project including: (a) retrofit of the Police Department Building (1991) ? addition of a ?cool roof? system, replacement of the cooling tower; (b) retrofit of the City Hall (1962) ? replacement of exterior window glazing with Low-E (low-emissivity) glazing; (c) implement the Green Campaign outreach

147

Analysis and Research on the Thermal Properties of Energy-efficient Building Glass: A Case Study in PVB Laminated Glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new kind of PVB-laminated glass is introduced as an energy-efficient building glass. Based on tests and calculations of the shading coefficients of flat glass, LOW-E coated glass and PVB-laminated glass with different thickness, their effects on room base temperature and cooling load of the residential buildings in the hot-summer-warm-winter zone are simulated and analyzed. Compared with flat glass, the PVB laminated glass shields 44 percent of the solar radiation from entering the room and reduces 40 percent of the shading coefficient. At the same time, 28 percent of the cooling load, 21 percent of installed capacity and 8.6 percent of full-load operation time can be saved.

Chen, Z.; Meng, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Development of a high current H{sup -} source for ESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the European Spallation Source (ESS), a volume source based on the HIEFS (high efficiency source) is being developed. The source will be optimized to produce high current densities in pulsed operation. A pulse generator delivering 1 to 1.5 ms pulses was installed. Furthermore, cesium was supplied to the plasma generator from an external oven. The cesium injection was optimized for a low e/H{sup -} ratio and a high current. We obtained a current density of 70 mA/cm{sup 2}. This way, with an aperture radius of 4.25 mm, an H{sup -} current of 40 mA was extracted at an extraction voltage of 22 kV. After a description of the source and the experimental setup, measurements of the beam current density and the e/H{sup -} ratio will be presented in this paper.

Maaser, A.; Beller, P.; Klein, H.; Volk, K.; Weber, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt Robert-Mayer-Str. 2-4, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

1998-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

149

Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers  

SciTech Connect

Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sustainability Assessment of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Final Report, Revised April 2002  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Robert E. Johnson State (REJ) Office building is a 5-story, 303,389 square foot office building for state legislative support staff, including Legislative House Committees, Legislative Council, State Auditor, the Legislative Reference Library, the Senate Print Shop, and the Sunset Commission. Overall, the building is divided into three sections with divisions created by a ground-level breezeway and vehicular access area, which are covered by the upper floors above these areas. The building’s northern facade is approximately 14 degrees west of north, exposing it to direct sunlight during the late afternoon hours in the winter. It is also important to note that the building contains over 50% glazing in the façade consisting of two types of energy efficient, low-E glazing. Deciduous trees shade a large portion of the south façade up to the 3rd level.

Sylvester, K. E.; Song, S.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Performance of High-Performance Glazing in IECC Compliant Building Simulation Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current specifications for glazing in the 2000 IECC code adopted by Texas imply the use of low-E glazing. However, the trends in the development of highperformance glazing technology indicate that windows have the potential to provide net positive energy benefits making it inevitable for future versions of the IECC to incorporate high-performance glazing. This study examines the performance of a number of such glazing options when incorporated in the IECC compliant residential building. The results show that in some cases the resultant energy consumption obtained from installing high-performance windows was lower than the energy consumption of a base-case windowless house (Approximately 6% total energy savings, and 40% heating).

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Microscopic Approach to Analyze Solar-Sail Space-Environment Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-sun space-environment effects on metallic thin films solar sails as well as hollow-body sails with inflation fill gas are considered. Analysis of interaction of the solar radiation with the solar sail materials is presented. This analysis evaluates worst-case solar radiation effects during solar-radiation-pressure acceleration. The dependence of the thickness of solar sail on temperature and on wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum of solar radiation is investigated. Physical processes of the interaction of photons, electrons, protons and helium nuclei with sail material atoms and nuclei, and inflation fill gas molecules are analyzed. Calculations utilized conservative assumptions with the highest values for the available cross sections for interactions of solar photons, electrons and protons with atoms, nuclei and hydrogen molecules. It is shown that for high-energy photons, electrons and protons the beryllium sail is mostly transparent. Sail material will be partially ionized by solar UV and low-e...

Kezerashvili, Roman Ya

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Onsets and spectra of impulsive solar energetic electron events observed near the Earth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impulsive solar energetic electrons are often observed in the interplanetary space near the Earth and have an attractive diagnostic potential for poorly understood solar flare acceleration processes. We investigate the transport of solar flare energetic electrons in the heliospheric plasma to understand the role of transport to the observed onset and spectral properties of the impulsive solar electron events. The propagation of energetic electrons in solar wind plasma is simulated from the acceleration region at the Sun to the Earth, taking into account self-consistent generation and absorption of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves, effects of non-uniform plasma, collisions and Landau damping. The simulations suggest that the beam-driven plasma turbulence and the effects of solar wind density inhomogeneity play a crucial role and lead to the appearance of a) spectral break for a single power-law injected electron spectrum, with the spectrum flatter below the break, b) apparent early onset of low-e...

Kontar, E P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components Window Retrofit Activity #1: This project proposes to retrofit 6 existing non-energy efficient windows for the county courthouse annex. The existing windows currently do not hold their thermal properties any longer, and the seals have failed to prevent sweating, mold, and leak. The project will replace the existing windows with Dark Bronze Anodized Class 2 TiAC36 heat reflective low-E glass, Argon gas filled windows. These windows will be project out bottom windows with charcoal wire screens inside. All windows will have drip caps and trim coils installed. The project layout is as follows: 6 openings- configuration to be fixed single hung windows.

155

I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers Dariush Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, and Christian Kohler Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m 2 -K (0.10 Btu/h-ft 2 -°F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have

156

Microsoft PowerPoint - HiR Project Summary.ppt [Read-Only]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Window Energy Use Window Energy Use * Residential Heating Energy Use of Windows is about 2 Quads / year * Total energy consumption in US is about 100 Quads / year * All Energy Star windows, still 1 Quad * Goal: Zero Energy Windows Performance Goals Heating Climates: - static high solar, hi-R (U=0.1 Btu/h-ft2-F) can meet ZEH goals - dynamic solar gain (.6low-e Ar double, high gain low-e Ar double

157

Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional. insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. We used the DOE2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. Our results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, we were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. The results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations. These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, the authors were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

Lampert, C.M. [ed.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector  

SciTech Connect

Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

David A. King, CHP, PMP

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A percentage of insulating glass (IG) units break each year due to thermally induced perimeter stresses. The glass industry has known about this problem for many years and an ASTM standard has recently been developed for the design of monolithic glass plates for thermal stresses induced by solar irradiance. It is believed that a similar standard can be developed for IG units if a proper understanding of IG thermal stresses can be developed. The objective of this research is to improve understandings of IG thermal stresses and compare the IG thermal stresses with those that develop in monolithic glass plates given similar environmental conditions. The major difference between the analysis of a monolithic glass plate and an IG unit is energy exchange due to conduction, natural convection, and long wave radiation through the gas space cavity. In IG units, conduction, natural convection, and long wave radiation combine in a nonlinear fashion that frequently requires iterative numerical analyses for determining thermal stresses in certain situations. To simplify the gas space energy exchange, a numerical propagation procedure was developed. The numerical propagation procedure combines the nonlinear effects of conduction, natural convection, and long wave radiation into a single value. Use of this single value closely approximates the nonlinear nature of the gas space energy exchange and simplifies the numerical analysis. The numerical propagation procedure was then coupled with finite element analysis to estimate thermal stresses for both monolithic glass plates and IG units. It is shown that the maximum thermal stresses that develop in IG units increase linearly with input solar irradiance during the transient phase. It is shown that an initial preload stress develops under equilibrium conditions due to the thermal bridge effects of the spacer. It is shown that IG units develop larger thermal stresses than monolithic glass plates under similar environmental conditions. Finally, it is shown that the use of low-e coatings increase IG thermal stresses and that the location of low-e coating as well as environmental conditions affect which glass plate develops larger thermal stresses.

Klam, Jeremy Wayne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.2 Windows  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

7 7 Nonresidential Window Stock and Sales, by Glass Type Existing U.S. Stock Vision Area of New Windows (Million Square Feet) Type (% of buildings) 1995 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Single Pane 56 57 48 56 60 48 Insulating Glass (1) 294 415 373 407 476 389 Total 350 472 421 463 536 437 Clear 36% 49% 43% 44% 38% 33% Tinted 40% 24% 17% 15% 11% 10% Reflective 7% 8% 6% 4% 3% 3% Low-e 17% 19% 34% 37% 48% 54% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): (2) 1) Includes double- and triple-pane sealed units and stock glazing with storm windows. 2) Included as part of the Tinted category. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures: Consumption and Expenditures Tables, June 2006, Table B1 for stock data; AAMA/NWWDA, 1996 Study of the U.S. Market for Windows and Doors, Table 27, p. 60 for 1995 usage values; 2003 AAMA/WDMA Study of the U.S. Market

165

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 Case Study, The Solaire, New York, New York (Apartments/Multi-Family) Building Design Floor Area: 357,000 SF Units: 293 Maximum Occupancy: 700 Floors: 27 Site Size: 0.38 Acres Typical Occupancy(1): 578 Black-Water Treatment Facility (2) Shell Windows Material: Double Glazed, Low-e, Thermal Breaks with Insulated Spacers Operable Windows Fixed Windows Visual Transminttance 0.68 0.68 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 0.35 0.35 U-Factor 0.47 0.41 Wall/Roof Material R-Value Exterior Walls: Insulated brick and concrete block 8.4 Roof: Roof top garden(green roof) 22.7 HVAC Two direct-fired natural gas absorption chillers 4-Pipe fan-coil units in individual aparments Power/Energy(3) PV System(4): 1,300 SF (76 custom panels) of west facing PV rated for 11 kW . These panels are integrated into the building facade.

166

UV-Photoassisted Etching of GaN in KOH  

SciTech Connect

The etch rate of GaN under W-assisted photoelectrochemical conditions in KOH solutions is found to be a strong function of illumination intensity, solution molarity, sample bias and material doping level. At low e-h pair generation rates, grain boundaries are selectively etched, while at higher illumination intensities etch rates for unintentionally doped (n - 3x 10^12Gcm-3) GaN are 2 1000 .min-l. The etching is diffusion limited under our conditions with an activation energy of - 0.8kCal.mol-1. The etched surfaces are rough, but retain their stoichiometry. PEC etching is found to selectively reveal grain boundaries in GaN under low light illumination conditions. At high lamp powers the rates increase with sample temperature and the application of bias to the PEC cell, while they go through a maximum with KOH solution molarity. The etching is diffusion-limited, producing rough surface morphologies that are suitable in a limited number of device fabrication steps. The surfaces however appear to remain relatively close to their stoichiometric composition.

Abernathy, C.R.; Auh, K.H.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren F.; Shul, R.J.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Advanced Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glazing Systems Glazing Systems Using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers Windows in the United States use aproximately 2 quads a year in heating energy, approximately one third of all building space heating energy used and the largest single end use attributed to windows. Even if all existing windows were replaced with todayÂ’s ENERGY STAR low-e products (U values < 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F), windows related heating would still be over 1 Quad. Because heating loads are strongly tied to conductive losses, technologies which lead to lower window U-factors are the key to reducing heating energy. A 0.1 Btu/hr-ft2-F window is targeted as a product, which will meet the requirements of zero-energy homes. Dynamic control of solar gains will further reduce heating needs by allowing winter solar heat gains to be effectively utilized while limiting cooling season gains. Significant cooling load savings can also be expected from lower U-factor windows in certain climates and from dynamic windows in all climates.

168

Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

169

Integrated window systems: An advanced energy-efficient residential fenestration product  

SciTech Connect

The last several years have produced a wide variety of new window products aimed at reducing the energy impacts associated with residential windows. Improvements have focused on reducing the rate at which heat flows through the total window product by conduction/convection and thermal radiation (quantified by the U-factor) as well as in controlling solar heat gain (measured by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Shading Coefficient (SC)). Significant improvements in window performance have been made with low-E coated glazings, gas fills in multiple pane windows and with changes in spacer and frame materials and designs. These improvements have been changes to existing design concepts. They have pushed the limits of the individual features and revealed weaknesses. The next generation of windows will have to incorporate new materials and ideas, like recessed night insulation, seasonal sun shades and structural window frames, into the design, manufacturing and construction process, to produce an integrated window system that will be an energy and comfort asset.

Arasteh, D.; Griffith, B.; LaBerge, P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) System Studies for Electrical Utility at Wisconsin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-layer low aspect ratio rippled and non-rippled solenoids mounted in surface trenches are described for superconductive magnetic energy storage utility applications. Open pool cooling in superfluid helium provides extended time cryogenic stability. Axial structure also functions as a protective heat absorbing secondary during emergency discharge. The cost of the conductor, trench, dewar, struts, radial structure, plus others are proportional to E^ 2/3 where E= stored energy; the cost of the axial structure is approximately E; and the cost of refrigeration is a constant plus an E^2/3 term. Costs scale approximately from E^0.58 (low E) to E^0.71 (100 - 3000 MWh) to E ^0.78 (3000 to 10,000 MWh). The cost of the ac-dc conversion system is about $60/kW. The electrical usage is best for load-leveling units that charge 8 h at night and discharge 15 h during the daytime. 98% storage efficiency and rapid power reversal are the two primary benefits of SMES. The potential impact of high Tc oxide superconductors is a 10%-20% cost reduction for large SMES units (above 3000 MWh). The operational storage efficiency of smaller units would improve to better than 95% for E > 10 MWh.

Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalem, M. K.; Huang, X.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The role of market research in the commercialization of technology  

SciTech Connect

The objectiv eof this report is to provide information on available empirical work that describes criteria used by the residential consumer market in selectign energy and energy-related products. This market is important to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Services (OBCS), which sponsors the developement of many energy-conserving technologies ultimately used by the residential consumer. In this report, the consumer decision-making process is described, and case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of conducting systematic market research in the early stages of the technology-development process. Consumer decision making is examined through a discussion of the steps of the decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase decision. Post-purchase behavior and its implications to the OBCS and to commercial marketing research are also discussed. The four case studies that are presented in this report illustrate the importance of market research in building energy loss, lighting, water heating, and refrigeration: (1) low-emissivity (low-E) windows; (2) long life light bulbs; (3) heat pump water heaters; and (4) energy efficient refrigerator-freezer.

Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Evaluation of Lightshelf Daylighting Systems for Office Buildings in Hot Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents part of an on-going research project in the College of Architecture at Texas A&M University. This research investigates how lightshelf daylighting delivery systems can manipulate sunlight and daylight both in terms of their light and heat by shading view apertures below the shelf to reduce solar heat gain and glare and by reflecting light deep into the space through the daylight aperture above the shelf. It also investigates how to provide view with good interior lighting in terms of light levels, distribution, and glare. Evaluation of these systems are based on two different experiments. The first uses scale-models for daylighting evaluation. Methodology of the research is presented as well as results and evaluation for part of the first experiment. The second experiment will use computer program simulations for energy evaluation that include reducing lighting and cooling loads and shaving peak loads, especially, when used with selective low-e glazing for office buildings in hot climates.

Abdulmohsen, A.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source  

SciTech Connect

To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E< 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target[1]. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

The role of market research in the commercialization of technology  

SciTech Connect

The objectiv eof this report is to provide information on available empirical work that describes criteria used by the residential consumer market in selectign energy and energy-related products. This market is important to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Services (OBCS), which sponsors the developement of many energy-conserving technologies ultimately used by the residential consumer. In this report, the consumer decision-making process is described, and case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of conducting systematic market research in the early stages of the technology-development process. Consumer decision making is examined through a discussion of the steps of the decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase decision. Post-purchase behavior and its implications to the OBCS and to commercial marketing research are also discussed. The four case studies that are presented in this report illustrate the importance of market research in building energy loss, lighting, water heating, and refrigeration: (1) low-emissivity (low-E) windows; (2) long life light bulbs; (3) heat pump water heaters; and (4) energy efficient refrigerator-freezer.

Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion  

SciTech Connect

Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?

Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie; Kohler, Christian

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Effectiveness of External Window Attachments Based on Daylight Utilization and Cooling Load Reduction for Small Office Buildings in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study explored the effectiveness of selected external shading devices and glazing treatments used to minimize the total annual energy consumption in small office buildings in hot humid climates. The external shading devices included a permanent horizontal overhang and a light shelf. The selected types of glazing included clear, reflective, tinted, low-emissivity coating, and heat-mirror glass. One concern about using external window attachments is that while reducing the solar heat gains, they also reduce the amount of the daylight needed to supplement interior lighting. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore which strategy would give a balance between solar heat gain reduction and daylight utilization and result in the most energy savings in the building. Computer simulations using an hourly energy calculation model were conducted to predict the building's total energy consumption using each strategy. The economics of each strategy were analyzed with lifecycle costing techniques using the present value technique. Results show that properly designed overhangs that shade clear glazing are slightly more cost-effective than specialized low-e glazing systems. These results are unique for hot humid climates where winter heating is not an issue. On the contrary, when used in cold climates, external shading devices tend to increase the building's energy consumption.

Soebarto, V. I.; Degelman, L. O.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Overpotential-Dependent Phase Transformation Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective in battery development for higher storage energy density is the design of compounds that can accommodate maximum changes in ion concentration over useful electrochemical windows. Not surprisingly, many storage compounds undergo phase transitions in situ, including production of metastable phases. Unique to this environment is the frequent application of electrical over- and underpotentials, which are the electrical analogs to undercooling and superheating. Surprisingly, overpotential effects on phase stability and transformation mechanisms have not been studied in detail. Here we use synchrotron X-ray diffraction performed in situ during potentiostatic and galvanostatic cycling, combined with phase-field modeling, to reveal a remarkable dependence of phase transition pathway on overpotential in the model olivine Li{sub 1-x}FePO{sub 4}. For a sample of particle size {approx}113 nm, at both low (e.g., 75 mV) overpotentials a crystal-to-crystal olivine transformation dominates, whereas at intermediate overpotentials a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition is preferred. As particle sizes decrease to the nanoscale, amorphization is further emphasized. Implications for battery use and design are considered.

Y Kao; M Tang; N Meethong; J Bai; W Carter; Y Chiang

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

A BAYESIAN MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS OF THE M-{sigma} RELATION  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of selection biases in the M{sub bh}-{sigma} relation using Monte Carlo simulations including the sphere of influence resolution selection bias and a selection bias in the velocity dispersion distribution. We find that the sphere of influence selection bias has a significant effect on the measured slope of the M{sub bh}-{sigma} relation, modeled as {beta}{sub intrinsic} = -4.69 + 2.22{beta}{sub measured}, where the measured slope is shallower than the model slope in the parameter range of {beta} > 4, with larger corrections for steeper model slopes. Therefore, when the sphere of influence is used as a criterion to exclude unreliable measurements, it also introduces a selection bias that needs to be modeled to restore the intrinsic slope of the relation. We find that the selection effect due to the velocity dispersion distribution of the sample, which might not follow the overall distribution of the population, is not important for slopes of {beta} {approx} 4-6 of a logarithmically linear M{sub bh}-{sigma} relation, which could impact some studies that measure low (e.g., {beta} < 4) slopes. Combining the selection biases in velocity dispersions and the sphere of influence cut, we find that the uncertainty of the slope is larger than the value without modeling these effects and estimate an intrinsic slope of {beta} = 5.28{sup +0.84}{sub -0.55}.

Morabito, Leah K.; Dai Xinyu, E-mail: morabito@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: dai@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

OBSERVATIONS OF ISOTROPIC INTERSTELLAR PICK-UP IONS AT 11 AND 17 AU FROM NEW HORIZONS  

SciTech Connect

We report new observations by the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on the New Horizons spacecraft of an energy-per-charge (E/q) spectrum of interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs) from an unprecedented heliocentric distance of 17 AU. This E/q spectrum is fit well by an isotropic PUI distribution function combined with the detailed response of the SWAP instrument. In contrast to earlier work, we are also able to fit an isotropic PUI model to an E/q spectrum measured by SWAP at 11.3 AU by explicitly including two additional effects. These are (1) the E/q-dependent geometric factor of SWAP, which increases with decreasing E/q owing to effects associated with the post-acceleration of particles exiting the electrostatic analyzer portion of the instrument; and (2) a solar wind distribution, the model spectrum of which contributes significantly to the low-E/q part of the overall model owing, presumably, to secondary particles produced within the instrument.

Randol, B. M.; McComas, D. J. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Elliott, H. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Gosling, J. T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: brentrandol@gmail.com [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Transformation of the hadronic and subhadronic substances under extreme conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very dense and/or hot hadronic substance (e.g. the one with energy density greatly exceeding that of a normal nucleus) transforms itself into a subhadronic substance which obeys macroscopic classical physics, in particular suffers phase transitions. The most popular Single Phase Transition Model (SPTM) assumes that the new phase is the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) consisting of deconfined, chiral symmetric, pointlike "current" quarks q and gluons g of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This paper is devoted to another, Double Phase Transition Model (DPTM) according to which hadronic substance (H) and QGP transform one into another via an intermediate phase consisting of deconfined constituent massive quarks Q which for brevity sake we call also equivalently valons (Q, valonic phase) with broken chiral symmetry (plus pions as Goldstone particles). I. e. we consider the phase transformation chain H-Q-QGP instead of usually assumed H-QGP. The phase transition H-Q is the Hagedorn one and corresponds to the Hagedorn temperature. Connection with the relativistic heavy ion collision is discussed. H-Q transformation may take place even at low (e.g. Dubna) energies.

E. L. Feinberg

1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-e double-pane argon-filled" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed Title Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6496E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Thanachareonkit, Anothai, Eleanor S. Lee, and Andrew McNeil Conference Name Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Annual Conference 2013 Date Published 10/2013 Conference Location Huntington Beach, California Keywords building energy efficiency., daylighting, microstructure film, prismatic film, windows Abstract Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-to-wall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare= probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort.

184

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early-Market Electrochromic Windows Early-Market Electrochromic Windows Title A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-59950 Year of Publication 2006 Authors Lee, Eleanor S., Stephen E. Selkowitz, Robert D. Clear, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Joseph H. Klems, Luis L. Fernandes, Gregory J. Ward, Vorapat Inkarojrit, and Mehry Yazdanian Call Number LBNL-59950 Abstract Switchable variable-tint electrochromic windows preserve the view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains and can reduce energy use and peak demand. To provide designers objective information on the risks and benefits of this technology, this study offers data from simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area electrochromic windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. The study characterized the prototypes in terms of transmittance range, coloring uniformity, switching speed, and control accuracy. It also integrated the windows with a daylighting control system and then used sensors and algorithms to balance energy efficiency and visual comfort, demonstrating the importance of intelligent design and control strategies to provide the best performance. Compared to an efficient low-e window with the same daylighting control system, the electrochromic window showed annual peak cooling load reductions from control of solar heat gains of 19-26% and lighting energy use savings of 48-67% when controlled for visual comfort. Subjects strongly preferred the electrochromic window over the reference window, with preferences related to perceived reductions in glare, reflections on the computer monitor, and window luminance. The EC windows provide provided the benefit of greater access to view year-round. Though not definitive, findings can be of great value to building professionals.

185

Webinars from the Building Technologies Program, DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The mission of the Building Technologies Program is to develop technologies, techniques, and tools for making residential and commercial buildings more energy efficient, productive, and affordable. This involves research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities in partnership with industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories. The portfolio of activities includes improving the energy efficiency of building components and equipment and their effective integration using whole-building system design techniques. It also involves the development of building energy codes and equipment standards as well as the integration of renewable energy systems into building design and operation [http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/vision.html]. The Building Technologies Program periodically offers webinars that are free and open to the public, but in order to see and hear these programs in real time, you must register in advance. The archive of past webinars, however, allows you to watch past webinars without registration and at your leisure. A sampling of past titles includes: 1) ENERGY STAR Pilot Verification Testing Program; 2) Cost-Effective Triple Pane (R-5) and Low-e Storm Windows; 3) U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Buildings - Benefits and Applications; 4) Calculating Energy Savings of Cool Roofs; 5) Getting to Net Zero Energy through a Performance-Based Design/Build Process; 6) Designing High-Performance Buildings with EnergyPlus; 7) DOE Stakeholder Call: Activities and Programs Relating to Energy Efficiency Retrofits in Residential Buildings; 8) Greensburg, Kansas, and Beyond; 9) Greensburg – America’s Model Green Community in Their Own Words. If these are topics that interest you, go to BTP’s Webinar page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/webinars.html to access links to Building Energy Codes Webcasts, the Retailer Energy Alliance 2008 Supplier Summit Webinar, and the EnergySmart Schools Webinars.

186

The Window Market in Texas: Opportunities for Energy Savings and Demand Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of high performance windows represents a promising opportunity to reduce energy consumption and summer electrical demand in homes and commercial buildings in Texas and neighboring states. While low-e glass coatings and other energy efficiency features have become standard features in windows in states with building energy codes, their sales in the Texas market remain limited. This paper presents findings from a pilot energy efficiency program sponsored by American Electric Power Company (AEP). The Texas Window Initiative (TWI) has conducted over 160 on-site training sessions for hardware store sales personnel and builders across the AEP service areas in Texas over the past two years. Companion promotional activities have also been completed. The past one and a half years have witnessed a very significant increase in the market penetration of energy efficient windows in the AEP service area; from about 2.5% of total window sales in early 2000 to roughly 25% (according to preliminary data) by the end of 2001.1 Some of this increase is attributable to TWI's activities, although other factors may be responsible for a portion of this increase as well. The market for windows in Texas is described. TWI's approach to promoting energy efficient windows is reviewed. Initial impact estimates from TWI's activities are presented. The technical potential for energy savings and utility peak demand reduction from the installation of energy efficient windows in Texas is presented. The paper also provides some speculation on how the window market might be impacted by the adoption of building energy codes in Texas.

Zarnikau, J.; Campbell, L.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Communication: Rovibrationally selected absolute total cross sections for the reaction H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000; N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+)}+ D{sub 2}: Observation of the rotational enhancement effect  

SciTech Connect

By employing the newly established vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) double quadrupole-double octopole ion guide apparatus, we have measured the rovibrationally selected absolute total cross sections of the ion-molecule reaction H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000; N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+)}+ D{sub 2}{yields} H{sub 2}DO{sup +}+ D in the center-of-mass collision energy (E{sub cm}) range of 0.05-10.00 eV. The pulsing scheme used for the generation of PFI-PIs has made possible the preparation of reactant H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000) ions in single N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+} rotational levels with high kinetic energy resolutions. The absolute total cross sections observed in different N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+} levels with rotational energies in the range of 0-200 cm{sup -1} were found to exhibit a significant rotational enhancement on the reactivity for the titled reaction. In contrast, the measured cross sections reveal a decreasing trend with increasing E{sub cm}, indicating that the rotational enhancement observed is not a total energy effect, but a dynamical effect. Furthermore, the rotational enhancement is found to be more pronounced as E{sub cm} is decreased. This experiment provided evidence that the coupling of the core rotational angular momentum with the orbital angular momentum could play a role in chemical reactivity, particularly at low E{sub cm}.

Xu Yuntao; Xiong Bo; Chang, Yih Chung; Ng, C. Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

188

Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

pO{sub 2} Fluctuation Pattern and Cycling Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Melanoma Xenografts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Blood perfusion in tumors is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in local fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) and tissue regions showing cycling hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether the pO{sub 2} fluctuation pattern and the extent of cycling hypoxia differ between tumor types showing high (e.g., cervical carcinoma xenograft) and low (e.g., melanoma xenograft) fractions of connective tissue-associated blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Two cervical carcinoma lines (CK-160 and TS-415) and two melanoma lines (A-07 and R-18) transplanted into BALB/c nu/nu mice were included in the study. Tissue pO{sub 2} was measured simultaneously in two positions in each tumor by using a two-channel OxyLite fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device. The extent of acute and chronic hypoxia was assessed by combining a radiobiological and a pimonidazole-based immunohistochemical assay of tumor hypoxia. Results: The proportion of tumor regions showing pO{sub 2} fluctuations, the pO{sub 2} fluctuation frequency in these regions, and the relative amplitude of the pO{sub 2} fluctuations were significantly higher in the melanoma xenografts than in the cervical carcinoma xenografts. Cervical carcinoma and melanoma xenografts did not differ significantly in the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells or the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells. However, the ratio between fraction of acutely hypoxic cells and fraction of chronically hypoxic cells was significantly higher in melanoma than in cervical carcinoma xenografts. Conclusions: Temporal heterogeneity in blood flow and tissue pO{sub 2} in tumors may depend on tumor histology. Connective tissue surrounding microvessels may stabilize blood flow and pO{sub 2} and, thus, protect tumor tissue from cycling hypoxia.

Ellingsen, Christine; Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit [Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology Group, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Rofstad, Einar K., E-mail: einar.k.rofstad@rr-research.no [Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology Group, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities Title Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5304E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Jelle, Bjørn Petter, Andrew Hynd, Arlid Gustavsen, Dariush K. Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, and Robert Hart Journal Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Volume 96 Start Page 1 Pagination 1-28 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords Fenestration, Low-e, Multilayer glazing, Smart window, Solar cell glazing, Vacuum glazing Abstract Fenestration of today is continuously being developed into the fenestration of tomorrow, hence offering a steadily increase of daylight and solar energy utilization and control, and at the same time providing a necessary climate screen with a satisfactory thermal comfort. Within this work a state of the art market review of the best performing fenestration products has been carried out, along with an overview of possible future research opportunities for the fenestration industry. The focus of the market review was low thermal transmittance (U-value). The lowest centre of glass Ug-values found was 0.28 W/(m2K) and 0.30 W/(m2K), which was from a suspended coating glazing product and an aerogel glazing product, respectively. However, the majority of high performance products found were triple glazed. The lowest frame U-value was 0.61 W/(m2K). Vacuum glazing, smart windows, solar cell glazing, window frames, self cleaning glazing, low-emissivity coatings and spacers were also reviewed, thus also representing possibilities for controlling and harvesting the solar radiation energy. Currently, vacuum glazing, new spacer materials and solutions, electrochromic windows and aerogel glazing seem to have the largest potential for improving the thermal performance and daylight and solar properties in fenestration products. Aerogel glazing has the lowest potential U-values, ~ 0.1 W/(m2K), but requires further work to improve the visible transmittance. Electrochromic vaccum glazing and evacuated aerogel glazing are two vacuum related solutions which have a large potential. There may also be opportunities for completely new material innovations which could revolutionize the fenestration industry.

191

Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose-volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3-21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9-29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3-24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose-volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast-conserving surgery to decrease the radiation dose to the heart.

Tan Wenyong [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu Dong [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Xue Chenbin [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu Jiaozhen; Li Beihui [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Chen Zhengwang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Hu Desheng [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Wang Xionghong, E-mail: tanwyym@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

Barney, Gary S. (Richland, WA); Brownell, Lloyd E. (Richland, WA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synthesis and cure characterization of high temperature polymers for aerospace applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The E-beam curable BMI resin systems and phenylethynyl terminated AFR-PEPA-4 oligomer together with an imide model compound N-phenyl-[4-(phenylethynyl) phthalimide] were synthesized and characterized. E-beam exposure cannot propagate the polymerization of BMI system until the temperature goes up to 100oC. However, a small amount of oligomers may be generated from solid-state cure reaction under low E-beam intensity radiation. Higher intensity E-beam at 40 kGy per pass can give above 75% reaction conversion of BMI with thermal cure mechanism involved. NVP is a good reactive diluent for BMI resin. The cure extents of BMI/NVP increase with the increase of the dosage and applied dosage per pass. The reaction rate is much higher at the beginning of the E-beam cure and slows down after 2 dose passes due to diffusion control. Free radical initiator dicumyl peroxide can accelerate the reaction rate at the beginning of E-beam cure reaction but doesn�t affect final cure conversion very much. According to the results from FT-IR, 200 kGy total dosage E- beam exposure at 10 kGy per pass can give 70% reaction conversion of BMI/NVP with the temperature rise no more than 50oC. The product has a Tg of 180oC. The predicted ultimate Tg of cured AFR-PEPA-4 polyimide is found to be 437.2oC by simulation of DSC Tg as a function of cure. The activation energy of thermal cure reaction of AFR-PEPA-4 oligomer is 142.6 ± 10.0 kJ/mol with the kinetic order of 1 when the reaction conversion is less than 80%. The kinetics analysis of the thermal cure of N-phenyl-[4-(phenylethynyl) phthalimide] was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the absorbance of the phenylethynyl triple bond and conjugated bonds. The thermal crosslinking of N-phenyl-[4-(phenylethynyl) phthalimide] through phenylethynyl addition reaction has a reaction order of 0.95 and an activation energy of 173.5 ± 8.2 kJ/mol. The conjugated bond addition reactions have a lower reaction order of 0.94 and lower activation energy (102.7 ± 15.9 kJ/mol). The cure reaction of N-phenyl-[4-(phenylethynyl) phthalimide] can be described as a fast first-order reaction stage followed by a slow second stage that is kinetically controlled by diffusion.

Li, Yuntao

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

On The Origin Of High Energy Correlations in Gamma-ray Bursts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and co-moving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame Epk and Eiso for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an astrophysical population can act to produce an artificially strong correlation between observed properties.

Kocevski, Daniel

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

195

ON THE ORIGIN OF HIGH-ENERGY CORRELATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's (GRB's) {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and comoving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low-luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low-luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an astrophysical population can act to produce an artificially strong correlation between observed properties.

Kocevski, Daniel [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Energy and visual comfort performance of electrochromic windowswith overhangs  

SciTech Connect

DOE-2 building energy simulations were conducted to determine if there were practical architectural and control strategy solutions that would enable electrochromic (EC) windows to significantly improve visual comfort without eroding energy-efficiency benefits. EC windows were combined with overhangs since opaque overhangs provide protection from direct sun which EC windows are unable to do alone. The window wall was divided into an upper and lower aperture so that various combinations of overhang position and control strategies could be considered. The overhang was positioned either at the top of the upper window aperture or between the upper and lower apertures. Overhang depth was varied. EC control strategies were fully bleached at all times, modulated based on incident vertical solar radiation limits, or modulated to meet the design work plane illuminance with daylight. The EC performance was compared to a state-of-the-art spectrally selective low-e window with the same divided window wall, window size, and overhang as the EC configuration. The reference window was also combined with an interior shade which was manually deployed to control glare and direct sun. Both systems had the same daylighting control system to dim the electric lighting. Results were given for south-facing private offices in a typical commercial building. In hot and cold climates such as Houston and Chicago, EC windows with overhangs can significantly reduce the average annual daylight glare index (DGI) and deliver significant annual energy use savings if the window area is large. Total primary annual energy use was increased by 2-5% for moderate-area windows in either climate but decreased by 10% in Chicago and 5% in Houston for large-area windows. Peak electric demand can be reduced by 7-8% for moderate-area windows and by 14-16% for large-area windows in either climate. Energy and peak demand reductions can be significantly greater if the reference case does not have exterior shading or state-of-the-art glass.

Lee, E.S.; Tavil, A.

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

197

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further decreasing the amount of unconditioned air that enters the office building. The HVAC system has an Energy Efficiency Rating 29% greater than required. No CFC based refrigerants were used in the HVAC system, thus reducing the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. In addition, interior light fixtures employ the latest energy-efficient lamp and ballast technology. Interior lighting throughout the building is operated by sensors that will automatically turn off lights inside a room when the room is unoccupied. The electrical traction elevators use less energy than typical elevators, and they are made of 95% recycled material. Further, locally manufactured products were used throughout, minimizing the amount of energy required to construct this building. The primary objective was to construct a 30,000 square foot medical office building on the Jackson Park Hospital campus that would comply with newly adopted City of Chicago green building codes focusing on protecting the environment and conserving energy and resources. The energy saving systems demonstrate a state of the-art whole-building approach to energy efficient design and construction. The energy efficiency and green aspects of the building contribute to the community by emphasizing the environmental and economic benefits of conserving resources. The building highlights the integration of Chicago's new green building codes into a poor, inner city neighborhood project and it is designed to attract medical providers and physicians to a medically underserved area.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ultra-Thin, Energy Efficient Facades- A Contradiction in Terms?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the European Union about 40 percent of the energy is consumed in buildings. In Germany roughly a quarter of the primary energy demand is used for the heating of buildings. A detailed analysis reveals that more than 90 percent of this energy can be related to old buildings, which were constructed before 1977. Reducing the heat losses through façades and using transparent or translucent façade elements to profit from solar heat gains are some of the first measures to improve energy efficiency of buildings. With the use of state-of-the-art insulation materials, thermal heat losses via the façade could be sufficiently reduced to provide an excellent insulation standard. However in some cases, lack of space or aesthetic needs, do not allow for sufficiently thick insulation layers. Within the last decade vacuum insulation panels (VIP) were developed, whose thermal conductivity values are 5 to 10 times lower (e.g. 0.002 to 0.008 W/(m×K) at ambient conditions) than those reported for standard insulation materials. Thus a 2 cm thick VIP could replace a 20 cm of standard insulation material, e.g. polystyrene foam, with no changes to the thermal performance. Nowadays VIPs are commercially available and used more and more for the insulation of buildings, especially if space for insulation is expensive or not sufficiently available or a slim architecture is preferred. Right now an innovative evacuated double glazing (VIG) is being developed which provides an U-value below 0.5 W/(m²×K) for a system thickness of only 9 mm. The low weight of such a glazing reduces the mechanical requirements in comparison to a standard triple glazing and thus allows for the use of thin, highly insulating frames. With these slim opaque and transparent insulation elements (VIP, VIG) ultra-thin and aesthetic façade construction can be realized. However, reducing the construction mass of building walls also leads to a loss of thermal capacity and therefore more regulation measures are needed to keep a comfortable living climate within such a building. It is expected that in future multifunctional façade elements will further improve the thermal performance of buildings. One example is the switchable insulation, where the thermal conductivity can be electrically switched from 0.002 W/(m×K) to 0.16 W/(m×K) within minutes. Future research work is dedicated to the application of textiles in architecture. Such textiles can be functionalized by using low-e coatings to reduce radiative heat transfer or by adding phase-change- materials (PCM) to enhance the thermal capacity of the textile based, low-weight constructions. The combination of such textiles with vacuum insulation panels to improve the insulation properties or with flexible photovoltaic cells to generate electricity is another key aspect of textile architecture. This research work was supported in the past by the Bavarian Ministry for Economics, Information, Traffic and Technology and is actually supported by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

Ebert, H. P.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further decreasing the amount of unconditioned air that enters the office building. The HVAC system has an Energy Efficiency Rating 29% greater than required. No CFC based refrigerants were used in the HVAC system, thus reducing the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. In addition, interior light fixtures employ the latest energy-efficient lamp and ballast technology. Interior lighting throughout the building is operated by sensors that will automatically turn off lights inside a room when the room is unoccupied. The electrical traction elevators use less energy than typical elevators, and they are made of 95% recycled material. Further, locally manufactured products were used throughout, minimizing the amount of energy required to construct this building. The primary objective was to construct a 30,000 square foot medical office building on the Jackson Park Hospital campus that would comply with newly adopted City of Chicago green building codes focusing on protecting the environment and conserving energy and resources. The energy saving systems demonstrate a state of the-art whole-building approach to energy efficient design and construction. The energy efficiency and green aspects of the building contribute to the community by emphasizing the environmental and economic benefits of conserving resources. The building highlights the integration of Chicago's new green building codes into a poor, inner city neighborhood project and it is designed to attract medical providers and physicians to a medically underserved area.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The information for many of the surveys is collected face-to-face or electronically; however, all of the DOE surveys are conducted via telephone interviews. Most of the surveys concentrated on a specific population group, while the DOE surveys addressed five different populations (general public, students, government agencies, end users, and safety and codes officials). No survey (except the DOE survey) conducted since 2003 surveyed students knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cells. Although several surveys have solicited opinions of users (e.g., passengers of fuel-cell vehicles), no surveys were conducted of end users (industrial users needing large power supplies, commercial users needing uninterrupted power, or transportation businesses). While the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has surveyed its membership concerning standards, the population of safety and codes officials has not been surveyed. The greatest impact and importance of the DOE surveys is that five distinct population groups are surveyed for both knowledge and opinions on hydrogen and fuel cells. Knowledge levels can be computed for each population group and can be compared across the populations and across time. Opinions can be compared with knowledge levels. A baseline of knowledge levels was derived using the results of the 2004 surveys; this baseline will be compared with the results of the knowledge evaluation for the surveys of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The DOE knowledge and opinion surveys are unique in coverage and purpose. It must be noted, however, that response rates for telephone surveys have decreased dramatically over time. Developments in survey methodology research will have to be followed over the next few years so that necessary adjustments are made in the 20112012 DOE hydrogen survey design, to account for cell-phone-only individuals as well as other changes in telephone usage demographics.

Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while satisfying constraints such as durability, cost, user acceptance, size limits, and environmental safety concerns. The energy efficient daylighting window will consist of a translucent and resilient aerogel panel sandwiched between glass panes in double glazed windows. Compared to the best windows available today, the double glazed translucent windows with 1/2-inch aerogel inserts will have a U-value of 1.2 W/m{sup 2} K (0.211 BTU/ft{sup 2} h F) without any coating or low conductivity fill gases. These windows will be more effective than the windows with an Energy Star rating of U-2 W/m{sup 2} K and could be made even more efficient by using low-e coated glass glazings and inert gas fills. This report summarizes the work accomplished on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41950. During this project, Aspen Aerogels made transparent and translucent aerogels from TMOS and TEOS. We characterized the transparency of the aerogels, reinforced the transparent aerogels with fibers and prepared large translucent aerogel panels and blankets. We also conducted an initial market study for energy efficient translucent windows. A lab-scale process was developed that could be scaled-up to manufacture blankets of these translucent aerogels. The large blankets prepared were used to fabricate prototype translucent windows and skylights. The primary goal of this project was to develop transparent, resilient, hydrophobic silica aerogels that have low thermal conductivities (R-10/inch) to be used to produce aerogel insulated double-glazing windows with a U value of 0.6 W/m{sup 2}K. To meet this objective we developed a process and equipment to produce blankets of translucent, hydrophobic aerogel. We focused on silica, organically-modified silica aerogels (Ormosils), and fiber reinforced silica aerogels due to the appreciable expertise in silica sol-gel processing available with the personnel at Aspen Aerogels, and also due to the quantity of knowledge available in the scientific literature. The project was conducted in three budget periods, herein called BP1, BP2 and BP3.

Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z