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1

Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health risk due to low-dose ionizing radiation is still debated. Functional...pathways that are induced by ionizing irradiation (IR...transcriptionally regulated by low-dose IR in occupationally...and showed different ranges of accumulated doses...

Paola Silingardi; Elena Morandi; Cinzia Severini; Daniele Quercioli; Monica Vaccari; Wolfango Horn; Maria Concetta Nucci; Vittorio Lodi; Francesco Violante; Sandro Grilli; and Annmaria Colacci

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cell cycle responses to low-dose ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...47, 2006] 5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity...radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than 0.5 Gy...connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia...the low dose radiation range (0-1 Gy). MR4 cells...

Sarah A. Krueger; George D. Wilson; Michael C. Joiner; and Brian Marples

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Authors: B.E. Lehnert, R. Cary, D. Gadbois, and G. Gupta. Institutions: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The scientific literature presents a confusing picture concerning health risks due to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), e.g., <1-10 cGy. Some effects of LDIR such as enhanced rates of cell proliferation and the induction of radioadaptation may be benign under some circumstances. Other evidence suggests LDIR can be hazardous and that a threshold for potentially detrimental responses, e.g., increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), alterations in gene or protein expression profiles, and increased

4

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

5

Low dose ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in  

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ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts David Boothman University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Abstract Recent evidence suggest that the causes of cancer development are not limited to mutations within cancer cells, but also involve in alterations of cancer microenvironment. Senescent cells are irreversibly growth arrested, but remain metabolically active. Senescent cells, especially senescent fibroblasts in the stroma may provide a beneficial environment for tumor growth through secretion of certain factors. Accumulation of senescent cells in the stroma of patients repeatedly exposed to low doses of IR or low dose rates of IR, could be an important factor, causing alteration of the microenvironment that ultimately benefits tumor

6

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

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Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

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...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer. Background and Significance: It is increasingly believed that individuals differ in their genetic susceptibilities to environmental insults for diseases such as cancer. This concern is especially important for the large numbers of individuals receiving low-dose exposures in the nuclear energy

9

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Ionizing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting on the Microenvironment Background: For more than a quarter century the scientific rationale for extrapolating radiation health effects has been underpinned by biophysical target theory. Fundamental to target theory is that the effect (e.g., DNA damage, mutation, cancer) is proportional to dose based on interaction of energy with biological targets, specifically DNA. However, the biology following ionizing radiation is more than just DNA damage, repair, or misrepair. Cellular responses to ionizing radiation can affect phenotype, cell interactions, lineage commitment, differentiation and genomic stability, all of which have been widely documented in cultured cells and many observed in vivo. This class of non-targeted effects induced

10

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview  

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Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Gregory Nelson Loma Linda University Abstract The immune system provides the first line of defense for exposures to environmental hazards. Protective immunity mechanisms using innate or adaptive responses are employed to mitigate acute challenges or amplify the readiness of the system to respond to future challenges. Some stimuli lead to amplified inflammatory reactions such as delayed hypersensitivity which is required for immunity to parasites and can also lead to adverse consequences such as contact dermatitis. Radiation exposure has the potential to aggravate hypersensitivity reactions as well as to suppress protective immunity. Ionizing radiation at high doses has long been recognized as highly effective in destroying cells of the immune system,

11

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

12

Hypothesis regarding a membrane-associated mechanism of biological action due to low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel theory is proposed regarding the action of ionizing radiation in the range of very low doses. The basic premise of the theory presented is that the low-dose effect cannot be explained by direct damage ......

Lazar Kh. Eidus

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

15

Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation  

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While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7mGy/h) and low (3.95mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1?, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of nave T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose ?-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

Suk Chul Shin; Kyung-Mi Lee; Yu Mi Kang; Kwanghee Kim; Cha Soon Kim; Kwang Hee Yang; Young-Woo Jin; Chong Soon Kim; Hee Sun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells.  

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Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells. Munira Kadhim 1 , Stefania Militi 1 , Debbie Bowler 1 , Denise Macdonald 1 and Kevin Prise 2 1 Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, MRC, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RD, UK 2 Gray Cancer Institute ,PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Because the human population is genetically heterogeneous, it is important to understand the role that heterogeneity may play in radiation response. Exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to a suite of changes, including increased mutation rate, delayed reproductive cell death, and delayed chromosomal aberrations, all of which are manifestations of the complex genomic instability (GI) phenotype. Following exposure to either high LET

17

Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

Azzam, Edouard I

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A vy Mouse Autumn Bernal 1,2,3 , Dale Huang 1 , Yue Li 4 , Dana Dolinoy 5 , and Randy Jirtle 1 Department of Radiation Oncology 1 , University Program in Genetics and Genomic 2 , Integrated Toxicology & Environmental Health Program 3 , Department of Community and Family Medicine 4 , Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, Department of Environmental and Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA 4 Background: Humans have evolved and thrived amidst constant low-dose (0-10 cGy) background radiation exposure from natural sources. Currently, however, the frequency of exposures to low doses of radiation is increasing due to man-made sources such as diagnostic imaging and nuclear power. This increased exposure has led to concerns amongst the general public and the government about the

19

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biotinylated nucleotide analogue/ribonucleotide mix. The biotinylated cRNA targets were then...dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. | The effect of low doses of low-linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

PARP-1, PARP-2, and the cellular response to low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is rapidly and directly activated by single-strand breaks and is required for efficient base excision repair. These properties indicate that inhibition of PARP-1 might enhance the cellular response to low doses of radiation. We tested the effect of chemical inhibition of PARP-1 on low-dose clonogenic survival in a number of cell lines and the low-dose radiation response of a PARP-1 knockout murine cell line. Methods and materials Clonogenic cell survival of V79-379A and CHO-K1 hamster fibroblasts, T98G and U373-MG human glioma cells, and 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast PARP-1 knockout cells was measured using a precise flow cytometry-based plating assay. Chemical inhibitors of PARP enzymes were tested for their effect on clonogenic survival after a range of ionizing radiation doses. Results Chemical inhibition of PARP activity induced marked radiosensitization of V79, CHO, and exponentially growing T98G cells in the 0.050.3-Gy range. This effect was not seen in U373 cells or in confluent T98G populations. Low-dose radiosensitization was not apparent in PARP-1 knockout cells. Conclusion Low-dose radiosensitization of actively dividing tumor cells by PARP-1 inhibitors suggests that they may have a role in enhancing the efficacy of ultrafractionated or low-dose-rate radiotherapy regimens. We hypothesize that PARP-2 compensates for the absence of PARP-1 in the knockout cell line.

Anthony Chalmers; Peter Johnston; Mick Woodcock; Michael Joiner; Brian Marples

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...did not use measures of radiation dose that are specific to the subjects we studied but instead relied on estimates of effective doses, which are neither precisely measured nor subject-specific. The effective dose is a calculated estimate designed to provide a sex-averaged dose for a reference subject... Experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked exposure to low-dose, ionizing radiation with the development of solid cancers and leukemia.1 As a result, persons at risk for repeated radiation exposure, such as workers in health care and the nuclear ...

Fazel R.; Krumholz H.M.; Wang Y.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray irradiation at very low doses, between 2 and 5 cGy, stimulated activity of a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in normal human diploid cells. Higher doses of irradiation at more than 1 Gy induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and accumulated p53 protein. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased with doses down to 50 cGy, however, doses of between 2 and 5 cGy phosphorylated ERK1/2 as efficiently as higher doses of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was no longer changed by doses below 50 cGy. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 and histone H2AX at Ser139 was only observed at higher doses of more than 10 cGy of X-rays. We found that the MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, and the specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478, decreased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 proteins induced by 2 cGy or 6 Gy of X-rays. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates ERK1/2 kinases via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and MAP kinaseERK kinase, which mediates various effects of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; Masami Watanabe

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

End group characterization in DNA of thymocytes after low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations into the configuration of the radiation induced strand breaks in the low dose range are presented. DNA sections containing the radiation induced strand breaks were separated from the undamaged s...

Th. Coquerelle; C. Sexauer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

27

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Low Dose Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

29

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshop VI Abstracts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Anderson, Carl Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Averbeck, Dietrich Cellular Responses at Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Azzam, Edouard Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate ?-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism. Bailey, Susan The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability. Balajee, Adayabalam Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Imaging Bioinformatics for Mapping Multidimensional Responses. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Biological Response to Radiation Mediated through the Microenvironment and

33

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

34

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

35

Low Dose Radiation Program: 2010 Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop »» Event Slide Show More than 150 people attended this year's workshop, held April 12-14 at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. Remarks from DOE Dr. Anna Palmisano, Associate Director, Office of Science, Director for Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcomed the meeting participants, thanked Low Dose Radiation Research Program Manager Dr. Noelle Metting for her leadership, and acknowledged the importance of the Low Dose Program to DOE because of its unique focus and important role. She

36

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary glandas a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Ju Han 1 , Sandhya Bhatnagar 1 , Nadire Duru 1 , Zhi Hu 1 , Jian-Hua Mao 1 , Mina Bissell 1 , Joe Gray 1,2 , Gary H. Karpen 1 , Priscilla K. Cooper 1 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 Current affiliation: Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health Science Univ, Portland, OR Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer.

37

EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses. There exists a range of high radiation doses which demonstra- bly increase cancer risks, and a lower dose rangePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J

Brenner, David Jonathan

38

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Bruce E. Lehnert  

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E. Lehnert E. Lehnert Los Alamos National Laboratory Past Project Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Lehnert, B.E., Cary, R., Gadbois, D. and Gupta G. 2001 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. 1999 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. Publications Lehnert, B.E., Radiation bystander effects. U.S.Department of Energy Research News (March 6 issue) Goldberg, Z. and Lehnert, B.E. (2002). Radiation-induced effects in

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Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with low linear energy transfer (LET...Obviously, the challenge of understanding...but the stable integration of viral DNA...activation should be sustainable for a long period...SA. Directed integration of viral DNA...adeno-associated virus DNA integration. Proc Natl...high linear energy transfer ionizing......

Masao S. Sasaki; Akira Tachibana; Shunichi Takeda

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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41

Radiation Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses  

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Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Simon Bouffler Health Protection Agency Abstract Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation. The CBA mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been used extensively for both quantitative and mechanistic studies. Loss of genetic material from chromosome 2 (chr2) is known to be associated with most radiation-induced AMLs. AML develops in CBA mice exposed to X- or γ-radiation, after a mean latency period of 18 months, with a maximal incidence of approximately 25% at 3Gy. A strong candidate AML-suppressor gene located within the commonly deleted region of chr2 has been identified, Sƒpil/PU.1. This gene suffers hemizygous loss and specific

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

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Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

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Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

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Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Glossary  

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Glossary Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z We welcome updates to the glossary. Please send them to Low Dose. A α=β Ratio: A measure of the curvature of the cell survival curve and a measure of the sensitivity of a tissue or tumor to dose fractionation. The dose at which the linear and quadratic components of cell killing are equal. Abscopal Effect: The radiation response in tissue at a distance from the irradiated site invoked by local irradiation. Absorbed Dose Rate: Absorbed dose divided by the time it takes to deliver that dose. High dose rates are usually more damaging to humans and animals than low-dose rates. This is because repair of damage is more efficient when the dose rate is low. Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

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Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: National Laboratories  

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National Laboratories National Laboratories The Low Dose Radiation Program funding encompasses several Scientific Focus Areas (SFAs). The SFAs fund merit-reviewed research at DOE national laboratories. This management approach was created in 2008 by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. PNNL's Low Dose Radiation Research Program Scientific Focus Area Linear and Nonlinear Tissue-Signaling Mechanisms in Response to Low Dose and Low Dose-Rate Radiation This program is funded as a U.S. Department of Energy Scientific Focus Area (SFA), and is an integrated cooperative program to understand low dose radiation effects in a complex model system. Coordinating Multidisciplinary Expertise The SFAs are designed to take advantage of the multidisciplinary,

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

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Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan, Pat Concannon & John H.J. Petrini The goal of this program is to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the NBS1 gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage. It is unclear whether humans heterozygous for the mutations associated with NBS are radiation sensitive and results from cell culture experiments give conflicting results. In collaboration with John Petrini at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City we developed a mouse model of this disorder and are directly testing the hypothesis

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Universities  

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Universities Universities | Duke University | Loma Linda University | Northwestern University | University of Chicago | University of California Davis | Northwestern University University of Chicago University of California Davis Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on NF-κB Signaling Networks and Mitochondria Principal Investigator: Dr. Gayle Woloschak DOE Low Dose Research Program Projects Low dose-low dose rate irradiation leads to long term changes in numbers of mitochondria and mitochondrial genomes - Principal Investigator: Gayle Woloschak, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA NF-κB-mediated pro-survival network in low dose radiation-induced adaptive protection - Principal Investigator: Jian Jian Li, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Davis,

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE / NASA Joint Funded Projects  

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DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects NASA Source Photo Space explorers are subject to exposure to low dose ionizing radiation. Research that helps determine health risks from this exposure is funded by NASA and DOE. Source: NASA DOE's Low Dose Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) jointly fund new research to develop a better scientific basis for understanding risks to humans from exposures to low doses or low fluences of ionizing radiation. Research must focus on elucidating molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in normal radiobiological responses to low dose exposure, and must have the potential to ultimately increase understanding of health outcomes from radiation exposures that are at or near current workplace exposure

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-Dose Dose-Response of  

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Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Dose Rate g-Radiation. Authors: Louise Enns,1 Michael Weinfeld,1 Albert Murtha,1 and Kenneth Bogen2 Institutions: 1Cross Cancer Institute and 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Clinical and environmental exposure to ionizing radiation rarely exceeds 200 cGy. To examine cell proliferation at early times (up to 5 days) post-irradiation, we are utilizing an assay in which single cells encapsulated within ~30- to 70-µm-diameter agarose gel microdrops (GMDs) are exposed and cultured for 4 days at 37°C, then analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Clonogenic proliferation is measured as the fraction of occupied GMDs containing multicellular microcolonies after 4 days in culture. This assay was applied to human A549 lung cells exposed to gamma

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Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

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Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Chaun-Yuan Li  

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Chaun-Yuan Li Chaun-Yuan Li Radiation Biology Research, Duke University Medical Center Funded Projects Molecular Characterization of the Role of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Ionizing, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Roles of Superoxide Dismutage (SOD) in Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Response Yang, Z., Chuang, E., Batinic-Haberle, I., and Li, C.-Y. 2005 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y., Guo, Z., Yang, Z., and Chuang, E. 2003 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y. and Chuang, E. Publications Li, F., Sonveaux, P., Rabbani, Z.N., Liu, S., Yan, B., Huang, Q.,

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Radiation Effects in  

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Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells E.A. Blakely1, M.P. McNamara1, P.Y. Chang1, K.A. Bjornstad1, D. Sudar1, and A.C. Thompson2 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; 2Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Introduction The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. There are few data available on the late radiation effects of exposure in space flight to charged particle beams, the most prevalent of which are protons. Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the responses of both critical and other representative tissues

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

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Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

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Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Institutions  

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Institutions Institutions Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung-Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM USA Contact: Dr. Bobby R. Scott Program Objective Our research focuses on elucidating the biological bases for radiation adaptive responses in the lung and for suppressing lung cancer, and to use the knowledge gained to produce an improved systems-biology-based, risk model for lung cancer induction by low-dose, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation. Research was initiated in October 2009. This research should help foster a new era of low-dose radiation risk/benefit assessment. It will have important implications for possible use of low-dose diagnostic radiation (e.g., X-rays) in cancer therapy. It

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 2003 Molecular Characterization of the  

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Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li,1 Eric Chuang2 Institutions: 1Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore, internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of the  

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Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li, Zhanjun Guo, Zhonghui Yang, and Eric Chuang Institutions: Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Background The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Induction of Genomic Instability in  

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Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays, Authors: K. Rithidech1, E.B. Whorton2, M. Tungjai1, E. Ar-Bab1, S.R. Simon1, M. Tawde3 and C.W. Anderson3. Institutions: 1Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, NY 11794-8691, USA, 2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77550-1047,3Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000. Information on potential health hazards of radiation at doses below or equal to the level traditionally requiring human radiation protection (less than or equal to 10 cGy) is currently lacking. It is therefore important to characterize early and subsequent in vivo biological response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation because such data should provide information that can help determine whether radiation at this dose level

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61

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

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Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? Even low doses (0.1 Gy) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. The first-known oxidative lesion repaired only by nucleotide excision repair found in normal cells is cyclo-dA. This lesion is found in normal cells and thought to be a byproduct of oxidative metabolism. When this lesion occurs, it stimulates repair. If repair is stimulated by low dose radiation, there are some implications for human health. For example, do some individuals exhibit a greater, lower, or no stimulation to certain DNA lesions? If there are population polymorphism that influence DNA repair, then it would be possible to use our assay for screening individuals for repair sensitivity.

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: About  

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About About Background. Extensive research on the health effects of radiation using standard epidemiological and toxicological approaches has been done for decades to characterize responses of populations and individuals to high radiation doses, and to set exposure standards to protect both the public and the workforce. These standards were set using models that extrapolated from the cancers observed following exposure to high doses of radiation to predicted, but not measurable, changes in cancer frequency at low radiation doses. The use of models was necessary because of our inability to detect changes in cancer incidence following low doses of radiation. Historically, the predominant approach has been the Linear-no-Threshold model (see Wikipedia entry) and collective dose concept that assumes each unit of radiation, no

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin  

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Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1 Authors: Jian Jian Li, Kazi M. Ahmed, Ming Fan, Shaozhong Dong, Douglas R. Spitz, and Cheng-Rong Yu Institutions: Division of Molecular Radiobiology, Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gene expression profiles demonstrate that a group of key stress-responsive genes are associated with radiation exposure and may contribute to cellular

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Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

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Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

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Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation  

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Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Denise Munoz 1 , Albert Davalos 1 , Francis Rodier 1 , Misako Kawahara 1 , Judith Campisi 1,2 and Steven Yannone 1,3 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 84-171, Berkeley CA 94720; 2 Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945; 3 Corresponding author Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytologically detectable as large nuclear foci that contain phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), the adaptor protein 53BP1, and several other proteins that participate in the sensing and processing of DNA damage (DNA damage foci). In normal human cells, moderately high IR (0.5-1 Gy) doses cause the rapid appearance of these foci (acute DNA damage foci), which gradually disappear

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Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

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Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Jian Jian Li  

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Jian Jian Li Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University Newly Funded Projects Regulation of NF-kB and Mn SOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshops: NF-kB Mediated Signaling Network in Low Dose X-Ray Induced Adaptive Protection on Mouse and Human Skin Epithelial Cells Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Spitz, and Li, J.J. 2005 Workshops: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1. Li, J.J., Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Dong, S., Spitz, D.R., and Yu, C.-R. 2003 Workshops: Gene Expression Profiles of Human Skin Keratinocytes Exposed to Acute and Chronic Ionizing Radiation Li, J.J., Ozeki, M., Wang, T., Tamae, D., Nelson, D., Wyrobek, A., and

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Molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing  

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mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Xiu Lowe 1 , Xiaochen Lu 2 , Terumi Kohwi- Shigematsu 1 , Brian Davy 1 , Thomas E. Schmid 1 , Sylvia Ahn 1 , Tarlochan Nijjar 1 Matthew A. Coleman 2 , Contact information: ajwyrobek@gmail.com 1 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 2 BioSciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. The objectives of this research are to characterize the genome-wide molecular responses to low-dose ionizing radiation (<10cGy), to identify tissue and cell-type specific differences in pathways responses, and to identify the pivotal molecular pathway responses that control risks to genome integrity and health. This project utilizes mouse in

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Earlier Events  

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Earlier Events Earlier Events 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 April 2000 Ionizing Radiation Science and Protection in the 21st Century, NCRP, April 5-6, Arlington, VA. RADIATION RESEARCH 2000, Association for Radiation Research, April 10-12, Bristol, UK. Florida Chapter of the Health Physics Society Spring 2000 Meeting, Gainesville, FL, April 13-14. 47th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, April 29-May 3, Albuquerque, NM. May 2000 IRPA-10 International Congress 2000, May 14-19, Hiroshima, Japan. IRPA-10 Secretariat, c/o Japan Convention Services, Inc., Nippon Press Center Building, 2-2-1, Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Phone: 81-3-3508-1214. Fax: 81-3-3508-0820. irpa10@convention.jp. 4th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop, May 22-25, Kyoto,

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: William F. Morgan  

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William F. Morgan William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999 Richland, Washington About this Project Projects Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/ Low Dose Rate Radiation Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Computational Modeling of Biochemical  

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Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Radiation to Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Tumor Incidence Authors: Yuchao Maggie Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: Center for Computational Systems Biology CIIT Centers for Health Research Long-Range Goal: To develop an integrated, computational framework for the prediction of low-dose-response to ionizing radiation (IR) in people. Methodology: To provide a flexible framework to evaluate mechanisms of cellular adaptive responses after exposure to IR, three progressively more complicated descriptions of biochemical pathways linking DNA damage with cell-cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis were developed. These descriptions focus on p53-dependent checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, p73-dependent apoptosis, and Chk2-dependent checkpoint arrest,

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

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Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue Constructs Authors: John Ford, Amy Maslowski, Alex Redd and Les Braby Institutions: Texas A&M University, College Station, TX We are developing a model of respiratory tissue using a perfusion culture system. We are using this system to quantify the effects of normal tissue architecture, and the interaction of epithelial cells with other cell types, on radiation-induced bystander effects. Tracheal tissue taken from young adult Fischer 344 rats is imbedded in a growth factor enriched agarose matrix. The chamber is designed to allow growth medium to periodically wash the epithelial surface of the tracheal lumen while maintaining the air-interface that is necessary for the normal

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Program Workshop I Abstracts  

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Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan and John H.J. Petrini Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD Summary: The goal of our application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure based on potential genetic differences that may modulate an individual's sensitivity to low doses of radiation. Abstract: The goal of this application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure. We propose to address specific genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low dose radiation and ask the question do genetic differences exist that make some individuals more sensitive to

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Low dose radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform  

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radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform pre-malignant human breast cells Paul Yaswen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Determine whether low dose radiation exerts persistent epigenetic effects that promote malignancy. Background and Significance: Some persistent carcinogenic effects of radiation may not be traceable to specific DNA sequence alterations and may not be linearly related to dose. Through the biochemical initiation of positive feedback loops, ionization-induced events may have heritable non-linear effects on cellular behavior. Inflammatory responses involving the transcription factor NFκB may be subject to such effects. Increased NFκB activity has been strongly linked to carcinogenesis in a number of published in vitro and in vivo studies (reviewed in [1]). Since radiation

76

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Original Research Program Plan  

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Original Research Program Plan Original Research Program Plan Biological Effects of Low Dose and Dose Rate Radiation Prepared for the Office of Biological and Environmental Research by The Low Dose Radiation Research Program Plan Subcommittee of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. II. Table of Contents Face Page Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Program Outline Low Dose Radiation vs. Endogenous Oxidative Damage - The Same or Different? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Understanding Biological Responses to Radiation And Endogenous Damage Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Thresholds for Low Dose Radiation - Fact or Fiction? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs

77

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Cooperation Between Homologous  

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Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Suppressor Proteins in Minimizing Spontaneous and Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability Authors: Larry H. Thompson, John M. Hinz, Robert S. Tebbs, and N. Alice Yamada Institutions: Biosciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Purpose and experimental approach. This study addresses the genetic basis of spontaneous mutagenesis as a means of understanding the DNA damage-response pathways that maintain chromosome stability. It is our view that knowledge of these processes is fundamental to understanding how low dose ionizing radiation (IR) produces chromosomal rearrangements that lead to carcinogenesis. Endogenous oxidative DNA damage is presumed to be a

79

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Linking Molecular Events to Cellular  

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Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Thomas Weber Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project It currently costs billions of dollars to protect workers and the public from exposure to man-made radiation, despite exposure levels lower than the natural background levels of radiation. If it could be demonstrated that there is no increased cancer risk associated with these low dose exposures, these resources could be directed toward more critical societal issues. Defining low dose radiation cancer risks is limited by our ability to measure and directly correlate relevant cellular and molecular responses occurring at the low radiation dose and dose rate with tumor formation. This deficiency has led to conservative risk assessments based on low dose

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE Lowdose Radiation Program Workshop  

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Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD 21201 2 Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 We have recently installed a low LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure including induced genomic instability and

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81

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Assessing Biological Function of DNA  

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Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Larry H. Thompson Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Why This Project To understand the relative importance of individual DNA repair and DNA-damage response pathways to the recovery of mammalian cells after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). This understanding may lead to better ways of setting limits on human exposure to IR. In spite of the discovery of many mammalian DNA repair genes, our current knowledge of how many of these genes contribute to cellular recovery from IR exposure is quite limited. Project Goals Measure cellular responses at doses in the 5-100 cGy range, which generally cause changes too small to detect in normal, repair-proficient cells Focus on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA oxidative base

82

Molecular Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation  

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Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Colette A. Sacksteder § , DJ Black ‡ , Heather Smallwood § , David G. Camp II † , and Thomas C. Squier § § Cell Biology and Biochemistry; † Biological Sciences Division Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 ‡ School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Kansas City MO 64110 The goal of this research is to identify the molecular mechanisms by which cells adapt to low dose radiation exposure. Previously we have shown a radiation dependent increase of Calmodulin (CaM) in RAW 264.7 macrophages (RAW). Therefore we hypothesize that CaM and associated signaling complexes are sensors of low-dose radiation, resulting in alterations in energy metabolism and gene expression. The ultimate experimental goal

83

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Health Physics  

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Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Investigators Health Physics The March 2011 special issue of Health Physics highlights the Victor Bond Workshop held May 2-5, 2010, in Richland, Wash. The workshop honored the late Dr. Victor (Vic) Bond for his lifetime achievement in the radiation sciences. Dr. Bond's research resulted in numerous influential scientific papers that contributed greatly to the understanding of radiation effects in biological systems. The workshop attracted internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment to discuss issues of low-dose risk. Participants included current and previously funded U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research

84

Co-Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing  

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Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing radiation. Matthew A. Coleman 1 , Anya Krefft 1 , Francesca Pearson 1 , Leif E. Peterson 2 , Jian Jian Li 3 , Xiaowen Xin 1 , Terrence Critchlow 1 , Ilkay Altintas 4 , Bertram Ludaescher 5 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 6 . 1 Biosciences, LLNL, Livermore, CA, 94550, 2 Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics and Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, 3 School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907. 4 San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093. 5 Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. 6 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. 94706. Contact information: coleman16@llnl.gov

85

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs  

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Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs UPDATE: Investigators' Workshop Postponed The annual Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop typically held in April or May has been postponed until next year. Please keep checking the website for updates. 2010 The 2010 DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop was held April 12-14, 2010, at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. See link for investigators' abstracts. 2009 The DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop VIII was held

86

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

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methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

87

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation-and Amifostine-Mediated  

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Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Chromosomal Inversion Responses Pam Sykes Flinders University and Medical Centre Abstract Low dose radiation and the chemical radioprotector amifostine have both been shown to protect cells from the immediate and delayed effects of radiation exposure. They display a number of distinct similarities including their ability to protect cells against radiation-induced DNA damage, radiation-induced cell death and metastases formation. Amifostine, which protects cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation, has a broad range of activities including free radical scavenging, polyamine-like DNA binding, and induction of hypoxia and redox-regulated genes. Amifostine’s ability to protect cells is often

88

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB  

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Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Telomerase Activation. Authors: Natarajan M.,1 Mohan S.,2 Pandeswara, S.L.,1 and Herman T.S.1 Institutions: Departments of 1Radiation Oncology and 2Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas Activation of NF-kB in response to low doses of ionizing radiation was first shown in our laboratory. Although studies have shown that NF-kB plays an important role in anti-apoptotic function, little has been done to understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcome such as enhanced cell survival after low dose low-linear transfer (LET) radiation. Because upregulation of telomerase activity is associated with longevity and allows cells to escape from senescence, we hypothesize

89

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Melvyn Folkard  

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Melvyn Folkard Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute About this Project Currently Funded Projects A Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Technical Abstracts 2005 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investiage Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettiono, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2003 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2002 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino,

90

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Marianne B. Sowa  

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Marianne B. Sowa Marianne B. Sowa PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Funded Projects A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Morphological Changes in a 3D Mammary Model Following Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Radiation Opresko, L.K., Chrisler, W., Emory, K., Arthurs, B., and Sowa, M.B. 2005 Workshops: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Morgan, W.F. and Sowa, M.B. Publications Perrine, K.A., Lamarche, B.L., Hopkins, D.F., Budge, S.E., Opresko, L.K., Wiley, H.S., and Sowa, M.B. (2007). High speed method for in situ

91

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Do Heritable Differences in an  

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Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Differential Sensitivity to Low Dose Radiation Exposure? Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping Enlarge Image Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping identifies two strong candidate genes, Ptprk (Chr 10) and Acp1 (Chr 12) that are linked to genetic variation in the relative abundance of peripheral Th and Tc cells, two cell populations that are sensitive to radiation exposure at low doses. Expression of each gene is significantly altered by exposure to low dose radiation in vivo. Genome-wide scans for the ratio of %CD4+ (Th) to %CD8+ (Tc) lymphocytes were performed using genenetwork.org. The solid horizontal line represents genome-wide significance at P < 0.05, based on 1,000 permutations. LOD indicates logarithm of odds scores.

92

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

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a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? To examine genomic instability and bystander effects as non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals To provides a robust, reliable, highly sensitive assay for detecting delayed events occurring in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental Approach To mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources, a low-LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated. Using a novel green fluorescence gene (GFP) reporter assay, a high through

93

Low dose diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice  

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diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice K Taylor, N Phan, ME Cybulski, L Laframboise, DR Boreham Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON L8S 4K1 The cancer risk associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation has traditionally been extrapolated from effects observed at high doses and high dose rates using a linear no threshold model. Based on this approach, it has been postulated that human exposure to medical imaging involving low doses of x-rays and gamma rays increase an individual's risk of developing cancer throughout their lifetime. Conversely, there is evidence that low doses of gamma radiation increase the latency period of cancer depending upon genotype, cancer type, and the magnitude of

94

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

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Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue John Ford Department of Nuclear Engineering Texas A & M University Why this Project? Using the well-established rat trachea model to test the hypothesis that normal respiratory epithelial cells transmit signals to neighboring cells in response to very low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals By comparing the responses shown by cells in these normal rodent respiratory tissues to those seen for human respiratory epithelial cells in reconstituted tissue constructs, it will be possible to better understand the responds in human respiratory cells in vivo. These studies will characterize responses after exposure to a variety of radiation types and dose distributions. Experimental Approach

95

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

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Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

96

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory,  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program Antone L. Brooks Why This Project? For maximum benefit, state-of-the-art research and new data from the Low Dose Radiation Research Program must be available to other scientists, regulatory agencies, and the public. This project stays abreast of scientific advances in the field, gathers, integrates, and summarizes the research within the program, and disseminates this information to appropriate scientific, regulatory, and public venues. Project Goals Provides a focal point for distribution of information generated in the program, to scientific committees, other governmental and regulatory agencies, and to the public Provides scientific support for the Low Dose Program website

97

United States Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

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History of the History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008 Dr. Antone L. Brooks tbrooks@tricity.wsu.edu September 2012 Review Draft i Contents Preface............................................................................................................................................. v Summary ........................................................................................................................................ vi Acronyms and Initialisms ............................................................................................................. vii Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

98

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: What's New Archive  

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What's New What's New Tony Brooks Chosen As Lauriston S. Taylor Lecturer Congratulations to radiation biologist Dr. Antone "Tony" Brooks, a consultant to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Low Dose Radiation Research Program, on his selection to give the 36th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Brooks is former chief scientist for the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program. His lecture, titled "From the Field to the Laboratory and Back: The What Ifs, Wows, and Who Cares of Radiation Biology," will be a featured presentation at the meeting, which will be held March 12 and 13, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda, Bethesda, Maryland.

99

The Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays,  

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Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, PET, and Gamma-rays Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract The goal of this project was to investigate low dose ionizing radiation effects associated with exposure to diagnostic computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Biological effects were evaluated in wild type and Trp53+/- heterozygous females, following in vivo exposure to diagnostic CT (75kVp, 200µ) or PET (18F-FDG) scans. The short term biological effects following CT or PET scans were evaluated in order to understand biological modification of mechanisms, such as DNA repair processes and apoptosis, that might alter long term cancer risk. Corresponding life-time cancer risk studies are in progress. Short-term

100

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Role of the Number and Spacing of  

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Program Workshop I Program Workshop I November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Role of the Number and Spacing of Electron Tracks on the Consequences of Low Dose Irradiation Leslie A. Braby and J. R. Ford Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, 129 Zachry, College Station, Texas. Summary: Biological mechanisms, which may influence the health risks resulting from very low dose radiation exposures, will be investigated using a collimated beam of electrons to simulate the irradiation patterns occurring with low dose exposures. Abstract: Ionizing radiation produces a variety of free radicals and chemical products that react to produce the same types of oxidative damage in a mammalian cell as produced by the normal metabolic activity of the cell. However, the damage produced by radiation is distributed differently

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Low-Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer  

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Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Bobby R. Scott, Ph.D. and Jennifer D. Di Palma Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE Albuquerque, NM 87108 USA Life on earth evolved in a low-level ionizing radiation environment comprised of terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. Today we all reside in an ionizing radiation environment comprised of both natural background radiation and radiation from human activities (e.g., Chernobyl accident). An evolutionary benefit of the interaction of low-level, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation with mammalian life forms on earth is adapted protection. Adapted protection involves low-dose/dose-rate, low-LET radiation induced high-fidelity DNA repair in cooperation with normal apoptosis (presumed p53

102

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

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Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Authors: Howard L. Liber1 and Jeffrey L. Schwartz2. Institutions: 1Colorado State University and 2University of Washington. Knowledge of the signal and target through which radiation induces genomic instability, which we propose to investigate herein, will allow us to model effects at low doses. Such knowledge will aid in understanding variations in the induction of this genomic instability, both among cells and among individuals. This information could also lead to more sensitive measures of instability that could yield accurate measures of instability induction at low doses. We have developed an in-vitro cell model, in which radiation-induced chromosome instability develops in a two-stage process.

103

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of Survival  

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Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Genomic Instability after Low-LET Low Dose Radiation Exposure Mohan Natarajan University of Texas Health Science Center Why this Project? To understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcomes such as better cell survival after low-LET radiation and to determine whether low dose radiation-induced NF-kB signaling can mediate telomerase activation and thus confer enhanced cell survival of normal aortic endothelial cells. Project Goals To determine whether low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can cause a positive feedback signal initiated by the activation of the NF-kB. To examine one of the mechanisms involving TNF-a as a signaling mediator, which could mediate the bystander effect through the generation

104

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Janet E. Baulch  

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Janet E. Baulch Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Currently Funded Projects Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: DNA damage in acutely irradiated F2 mice with a history of paternal F0 germline irradiation Baulch, J.E. and Raabe, O G. 2002 Workshop Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation, Baulch, J.E., Ph.D. and Raabe, O.G., Ph.D. Publications Kovalchuk, O. and Baulch, J.E. (2008). Epigenetic changes and nontargeted radiation effects - Is there a link? Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 49(1):16-25 Laiakis, E.C., Baulch, J.E., and Morgan, W.F. (2008). Interleukin 8 exhibits a pro-mitogenic and pro-survival role in radiation induced

105

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Wide Expression of LLIR and the  

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Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences David J. Chen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project It is known that changes in gene expression alter biological effects. It is necessary to identify the specific genes that demonstrate altered expression after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and to determine pathways involved in DNA damage recognition, signaling, and repair that are associated with radiation-induced adaptive and bystander effects. Project Goals Identification of genes whose transcription is regulated in response to low levels of ionizing radiation Identification of the genes and communication pathways that control these responses to low dose radiation Identification of the cellular and molecular targets that influence

106

Poly [1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] solutions used as low dose ionizing radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of polymetallayne poly[1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] (Pt-DEBP) in chloroform solution is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses from 0.01 Gy to 1 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. A new band at 420 nm is observed in the emission spectra, in superposition to the emission maximum at 398 nm, linearly dependent on dose. We propose to use the ratio of the emission amplitude bands as the dosimetric parameter. This method proved to be robust, accurate, and can be used as a dosimeter in medical applications.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil); Batagin-Neto, A.; Fernandes, D. M. [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fratoddi, I.; Russo, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

107

Molecular Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans  

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Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans Anders Olsen, Maithili C. Vantipalli, Arnold Kahn, Judith Campisi and Gordon J. Lithgow. Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945 Brief exposure to a mild stress causes induction of stress gene expression leading to enhanced stress responses, improved maintenance and repair and in some cases lifespan increase. This phenomenon is termed hormesis and has been observed in several species. For example, we previously demonstrated that short periods of mild heat stress in early life increase both mean and maximum lifespan of the soil nematode C. elegans. Similar hormetic responses have been described for many other stressors. Here we present data showing that treatment of the nematode with low-doses of ionizing

108

Effects of low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and  

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low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and metabolomics approaches Henghong Li Georgetown University Abstract The objectives of this study are to investigate acute and persistent effects of ionizing radiation and space radiation on immune cell subsets and function. The role(s) for p38 MAP kinase in such radiation responses is being investigated using a genetic approach where an engineered mouse line has had one wt p38α gene replaced with a dominantnegative mutant (p38α+/DN). T cells are one of the most radiosensitive cell types in vivo, and radiation is known to impact CD4 T cell function long term. T cells are normally activated by antigen, which triggers differentiation to specific subsets involving various cytokines. In addition, T cells have a

109

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Biologically Based Analysis of Lung  

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Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Canadian Occupational Cohort with Low-LET Low-dose Radiation Exposure, and Comparison with Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors. Authors: W.D. Hazelton, D. Krewski, S.H. Moolgavkar Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g., initiation with one or more stages,

110

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. Authors: Antone L.Brooks, Richard J. Bull, Lezlie A. Couch. Institutions: Washington State University Tri-Cities The purpose of this project is to provide scientific, technical, and organizational support to optimize the impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. This project will serve as a focal point for collection and dissemination of scientific information from the scientists funded in the Program to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the regulatory agencies, and the public. The project will be responsible for analysis of the scientific information in the broader context of biomedical research and will provide this information to the Office of Biological Research

111

DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Workshop I November 1999  

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program Low Dose Radiation Research Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research David G. Thomassen, Ph.D. Program Coordinator Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-9817 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: david.thomassen@science.doe.gov Arthur Katz, Ph.D. Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-4932 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: arthur.katz@science.doe.gov Marvin E. Frazier, Ph.D. Director, Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road

112

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantification of Repair of  

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Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Diploid Human Cells Authors: David Schild,1 and Larry H. Thompson,2 Institutions: 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and 2BBR Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the biochemical lesions of primary concern in radiation related health effects. Compelling evidence from rodent and chicken model systems indicates that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) plays an essential role for cell viability in the repair of spontaneous DSBs arising during DNA replication and an important role in the repair of IR-induced DSBs. IR-induced DSBs are also repaired by error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Using hTERT-immortalized

113

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Research Program Authors: Antone L. Brooks Institution: Washington State University Tri-Cities Richland, Washington The purpose of this project is to provide a focal point for communication of the research results from the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. The major communication tool provided by this project is a Website at Washington State University. The website is being maintained to provide communication between the scientific advances generated by the research program and scientists both in and outside the program, policy makers, regulators and the public. The website also contains a number of presentations and illustrations that are written so that they will be easy

114

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Role of TNF-α as a Potential  

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Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Human Vascular Cells. Authors: Mohan Natarajan, Sumathy Mohan, Catherine Gibbons, Yan Bo and Munira A. Kadhim Institutions: Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside; Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Medical research Council, Oxford, United Kingdom Identifying reliable and sensitive signaling pathways that are implicated in adverse health effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation would allow us to understand the scientific basis of low dose-induced signaling pathways and their downstream phenotypic expression. This

115

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff - 2003  

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DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV Abstract Title: TGF-β Protects Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Radiation-Induced Centrosome Amplification Authors: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Bahram Parvin, Anna C. Erickson and Rishi Gupta Institutions: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Life Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California In recent studies we have shown that ionizing radiation (IR), a known carcinogen of human and murine mammary gland, compromises human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) polarity and multicellular organization in a manner characteristic of neoplastic progression through a heritable, non-mutational mechanism (1). Thus, when all cells are irradiated with a significant dose (2 Gy), the daughters of irradiated cells lose their

116

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mechanisms of Tissue Response to Low  

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Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project? In the past, the effects of ionizing radiation on humans has been attributed in great part to its ability to damage DNA, which transmits information from cell to cell, and generation to generation. Damaged DNA can lead to cell death or perpetuate the damage to daughter cells and to future generations. In addition to the information contained with the genome (i.e., DNA sequence), information directing cell behavior and tissue function is also stored outside the DNA. The success in cloning sheep from the DNA contained in the nucleus of an adult cell shows how important signals from the outside are in defining how the genome is expressed. This

117

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Robert L. Ullrich  

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Robert L. Ullrich Robert L. Ullrich Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates (NSCOR) Genetic Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability Bailey, S.M., Williams, E.S., and Ullrich, R.L. 2005 Workshop: Dsyfunctional Mammalian Telomeres in DNA-PKcs Deficient Backgrounds Bailey, S.M., Williams, E., Hagelstrom, T., and Ullrich, R.L. 2003 Workshop: Dysfunctional Mammalian Telomeres Join to Double-Strand Breaks Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Williams, E., and Ullrich, R.L. 2002 Workshop: Dysfunctional Telomeres, Radiation-Induced Instability and Tumorigenesis Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Cornforth, M.N., and Ullrich, R.L.

118

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Collateral  

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Collateral Damage Collateral Damage Using targeted irradiation to understand radiation-induced effects in bystander cells chromosomal A typical example of chromosomal instability induction measured by chromosome-type aberrations in primary human lymphocytes at delay time post-irradiation of a fraction of the cell population. Similar types of aberrations were observed in whole irradiated population but were not observed in untreated cells. Munira Kadhim Background: It has long been understood that radiation exposure can influence cellular changes. Studies indicate that even very low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-particle irradiation, such as that from environmental radon, can affect cells. Radiation-induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells and as a

119

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Rainer K. Sachs  

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Rainer K. Sachs Rainer K. Sachs University of California, Berkeley Funded Projects BIO-BASED RISK MODELING 03-20: Modeling the Interrelations Among Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects, Genomic Instability and Cancer Cytogenetic Tests of Radiobiological Models Relating Epidemiologically Measurable Risks to Low-Dose Risks Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop The Bystander Effect in Normal Human 3-D Tissue: Experiments, Models, and Implications Brenner, D., Ponnaiya, B., Shuryak, I., Sachs, R., and Geard, D. Radiation Carcinogenesis Risk as Influenced by Intercellular Interaction Hahnfeldt, P., Hlatky, L., and Sachs, R.K. 2005 Workshop: Modelling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Sachs, R.K., Chan, M., Hlatky, L., and Hahnfeldt, P. 2003 Workshop: Chromosome Spatial Clustering Uncovered Through Radiogenic Aberrations

120

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Regulation of NF-kB and MnSOD in Low  

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NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana Why this Project? To determine if low dose ionizing radiation-induced adaptive responses in skin cells are mediated by activation of signaling networks. Project Goals To evaluate the signaling networks involving transcription factor NF-kB and the mitochondrial antioxidant protein MnSOD. To determine if NF-kB is activated by low dose radiation in vivo. To determine if NF-kB activation is critical in the pathways that produce adaptive responses. Experimental Approach Cells transfected with NF-kB luciferase responder genes will be used to define a dose-response relationship for activation of the NF-kB gene. NF-kB

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121

Epidemiological Studies of Leukemia in Persons Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...low dose range, it is emphasized...possibility of radiation hazards existing at low doses should not...exposed to ionizing radiation...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...

L. H. Hempelmann

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Characterizing Bystander Effects  

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Irradiation. Irradiation. Authors: L.A. Braby and J.R. Ford. Institutions: Texas A&M University. Bystander effects, which are typically seen as in increase in the cellular concentration of specific repair related molecules or as cytogenetic changes which appear to be the consequence of DNA damage, may be a significant factor in the risk of long-term health effects of low doses of radiation. These effects clearly increase the effective size of the target for radiation response, from the diameter of a single cell or cell nucleus to something significantly larger, by bringing additional cells into the process. It is unclear whether this larger target will result in an increase or a decrease in the probability of inducing a change which would be detrimental to the health of the organism, but it clearly reduces the

123

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Mechanisms of Induced  

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Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Robert Ullrich Colorado State University Why This Project A combination of epidemiological, experimental, animal, and cellular molecular data is used in the estimation of tumor risk after low doses of low-LET radiation. Uncertainties are recognized in the interpretation of all these data sets, and recent findings concerning genomic instability in irradiated cells challenge the conventional view that induced DNA damage is expressed during the immediate post-irradiation cell cycle. These data on genomic instability are based largely upon studies of cell cultures the mechanisms involved and implications for tumor formation in living organisms remain unclear. Nevertheless, if induced genomic instability were

124

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparisons of IR and ROS for  

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Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Kathryn D. Held1, Yvonne L. McCarey1, Laurence Tartier1, Elena V. Rusyn1, Giuseppe Schettino2, Melvyn Folkard2, Kevin M. Prise2, and Barry D. Michael2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114; 2Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Accurate evaluation of the risks associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is a major challenge for environmental sciences. Studies on the mechanisms of the actions of low doses of IR are needed to help understand possible risks. IR exerts its effects on cells through production of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) such as ·OH, H2O2 and

125

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

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Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

126

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and ?-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim to uncover protein mediators of the bystander responses using advanced proteomic screening of factors released from irradiated, bystander and unstable cells. Integral to these studies will be an assessment of the role of genetic susceptibility in these responses, using CBA/H and C57BL/6J mice. The relevance of in vivo interactions between stem cells and the stem cell niche will be explored in the future by re-implantation techniques of previously irradiated cells. The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program.

Munira A Kadhim

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - 2010  

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DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low Dose Radiation Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM, DNA damage-responsive kinase; red). (C) Merge of images A and B. (White arrows mark large γ-H2AX foci and coincident γ-H2AX/pATM foci that were positively scored; yellow arrows mark small γ-H2AX foci that lack corresponding pATM foci that were not scored.) Enlarge Image Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM,

128

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Frequencies of Radiation-Induced  

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Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Randomness of Chromosome Territory Locations Relative to One Another. Authors: RK Sachs,§ MN Cornforth,‡ KM Greulich-Bode,* L Hlatky, and DJ Brenner|| Institutions: §Department of Mathematics, University of California, ‡University of Texas Medical Branch, *Department of Skin Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center DFCI, Harvard Medical School, ||Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. Leukemogenesis, and perhaps carcinogenesis in general, often involves specific chromosome translocations. Radiation-induced chromosome translocation frequencies are strongly influenced by how close participating chromosomes are to one another in an interphase cell nucleus. We sought to determine whether chromosomes in human peripheral blood

129

Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the differences in cellular defense mechanisms between low and high doses of low LET radiation and to define the radiation doses where the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair mechanisms tend to shift. This information is critically important to address and advance some of the low dose research program objectives of DOE. The results of this proposed study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation. Further, systematic analysis of the role of PIKK signaling pathways as a function of radiation dose in tissue microenvironment will provide useful mechanistic information for improving the accuracy of radiation risk assessment for low doses. Knowledge of radiation responses in tissue microenvironment is important for the accurate prediction of ionizing radiation risks associated with cancer and tissue degeneration in humans.

Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2  

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DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal F0 Germline Irradiation Authors: J.E. Baulch and O.G. Raabe Institutions: Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA. The main goal of this grant is to evaluate heritable, transgenerational effects of low dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137Cs gamma rays) on Type B spermatogonia in 129SVE mice; wild-type and heterozygous for Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The ATM heterozygotes are carriers for a genetic mutation (AT mutated, ATM) that is thought to predispose both humans and mice to radiation sensitivity. Experiments conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated heritable effects of paternal germline exposure to ionizing radiation in mice using 1.0 Gy of

131

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks D of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radi. Keywords: Low dose risk estimation; Effective dose; Flawed definition; Effective risk 1. INTRODUCTION

Brenner, David Jonathan

132

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Real-time  

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Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 microirradiator Microscope Microscope stage-mounted microirradiation system. (A) Overall system shown mounted on a micromanipulator housed within a heated, humidified, environmental chamber of a microscope. (B) Close-up showing attachment of device to the micromanipulator. (C) Detail showing the bend in the enclosing capillary, which allows positioning of the active surface directly above the target cell. (D) Microirradiator tip in dissecting microscope. (E) Close-up view through microscope optics (scale bar, 10 microns.) Background: Scientists know that mammalian cells begin a nucleoplasmic repair process within seconds after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Real-time imaging of this process could further understanding of the

134

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

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Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Kleiman, N.J. 1 , Smilenov, L.B. 2 , Brenner, D.J. 2 and Hall, E.J. 2 1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health & 2 The Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York 10032 The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of such opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. The

135

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantitative Analysis of Connexin  

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Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Authors: B. Parvin, Q. Yang, R. L. Henshall-Powell and M.H. Barcellos Hoff We are studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the signaling between human mammary epithelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. To do so we use an assay based on the ability of the cells to organize into three-dimensional acini when embedded into an extracellular matrix. Although tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells are nearly indistinguishable when cultured as monolayers, their biological character readily diverge when tissue-specific morphogenesis is analyzed. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane organize into acinar-like structures with

136

Low Dose Radiation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Research Abstracts Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD) Genomic Science DOE Bioenergy Research Centers Radiochemistry & Imaging Instrumentation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Human Subjects Protection Program Structural Biology DOE Joint Genome Institute Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301)

137

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

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...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...of a wide range of diagnoses...volume, and dose of radiotherapy...exposed to ionizing radiation between the...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...

Cynthia Mnard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Communicating the Science of the Low  

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Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Authors: John S. Wassom, Elizabeth T. Owens, Sheryl A. Martin, Amy K. Wolfe, Margaret K. Lyday,* and Susan L. Dimmick** Institutions: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, *Keener Communications, and the **University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine. Summary The project team developed a communications plan based on an explicit communications strategy. The plan presents a set of strategic goals, identifies categories of stakeholders relevant to the program, and suggests methods that can be used to achieve strategic goals and reach targeted stakeholders. Context is key to the communication plan. Providing contextual information about low dose radiation, radiation biology, and Low Dose Radiation

139

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

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...the role of DSB repair in response to low-dose radiation, particularly the range experienced by women from mammograms and other...breast cancer associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Although we specifically designed our questionnaire...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES  

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LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES Daila S. Gridley 1,2 , Asma Rizvi 2 , Xian Luo 1 , Adeola Y. Makinde 2 , Steve Rightnar 1 , Jian Tian 1 , Melba L. Andres 1 , James M. Slater 1 , and Michael J. Pecaut 1,2 Departments of 1 Radiation Medicine and 2 Biochemistry & Microbiology Loma Linda University and Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 USA Health risks due to protracted low dose irradiation remain unclear. This project investigates T helper (Th) lymphocyte function and the cellular milieu in which they reside under conditions of low dose, low- linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure. The Th cells are important because they secrete cytokines essential for generating optimal immune defenses against tumor, virus-infected, and other

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141

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Identification of Mouse Genetic  

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Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Allan Balmain University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA. (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Why this Project? To identify pathways that control genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage and tumor development using novel developments in genomics together with mouse genetics. Project Goals To identify genetic loci that trigger rapid tumor development of mice after radiation. To characterize new genes at these loci that act as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Experimental Approach New candidate-radiation susceptibility genes will be identified using a unique haplotyping approach. Using DNA from radiation-induced lymphoma, changes in the gene copy number can be detected using BAC microarrays. The

142

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from  

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Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Deficiency. Authors: Chantal Courtemanche, Arnold C. Huang, Nicole Kerry, Bernice Ng, and Bruce N. Ames. Institutions: Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California. Our overall goal is to understand and quantify the real effects of low-dose radiation by measuring direct and specific cellular changes. However, since the background dose of radiation to which most individuals are exposed is well below the levels where significant biological effects, such as mutation or tumor induction, are observed, our novel approach is to compare the consequences of radiation to those of specific nutritional deficiencies. By determining which of these two common stresses at physiologically relevant doses leads to a greater amount of DNA damage, we

143

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gregory A. Kimmel  

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Gregory A. Kimmel Gregory A. Kimmel Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Past Project A Novel Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., and Colson, S.D. 2001 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., Metting, N.F., and Colson, S.D 1999 Workshop: A Novel, Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation.

144

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Howard L. Liber  

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Howard L. Liber Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: Delayed genomic instability in human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs y-rays radiation Schwartz, J.L., Jordan, R., Lenarczyk, M. and Liber, H.L. 2002 Workshop: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Liber, H.L. and Schwartz, J.L. Publications Zhang, Y., Zhou, J., Held, K.D., Redmond, R.W., Prise, K.M., and Liber, H.L. (2008). Deficiencies of double-strand break repair factors and effects on mutagenesis in directly [gamma]-irradiated and medium-mediated bystander human lymphoblastoid cells. Radiation Research 169(2):197-206.

145

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Suggested Books and Literature for  

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Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Popular Press News Articles Newspapers is an excellent portal or gateway to newspapers from all 50 states. To find a newspaper of interest, select a state and click Search. For a more specified search, fill in the Title of the newspaper and click Search. The newspapers available from that state are listed alphabetically. Hall, E., Radiation and Life Hall, E.J.Radiobiology for the Radiologist. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2000 Nagai, T.Atomic Bomb Rescue and Relief Report. Nagasaki Association for Hibakushas' Medical Care (NASHIM), Nagasaki, Japan. 2000 Nagataki, S.Nagasaki Symposium on Chernobyl: Update and Future, Proceedings of "Chernobyl Update" 3 June 1994 at the 67th Annual Meeting of

146

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction between Tissue and  

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between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of TGF-ß Depletion on Radiation-Induced p53 Response M.H. Barcellos-Hoff, S.A. Ravani, R.L. Henshall, K.B. Ewan, R.L. Warters,* B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory *University of Utah One of the most widely studied cellular responses to radiation is the activation of the transcription factor, p53, whose abundance and action dictates individual cellular fate decisions regarding proliferation, differentiation and death. A cell's response to damage needs to be rapid. Thus, it is not surprising that the activation of the p53 stress response primarily involves post-translational changes in the p53 protein. Whereas intracellular radiation-induced mediators of p53 stability have been the subject of intense study, little is known about the extracellular factors

147

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling Intercellular Interactions  

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Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Authors: Rainer K Sachs,1 Michael Chan,2 Lynn Hlatky,3 Philip Hahnfeldt3 Institutions: 1Departments of Mathematics and Physics, University of California Berkeley California; 2School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla California; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts Abstract By modulating the microenvironment of malignant or pre-malignant epithelial cells, inhibitory or stimulatory signals from nearby cells, including those in stromal and vascular tissues, can play a key role in carcinogenesis; cancer is ultimately a disease of a whole-cell community, not just of a single cell, clone, or cell lineage. However, current commonly used

148

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations  

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Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Authors: W.E. Wilson, J.H. Miller, D.J. Lynch, R.R. Lewis and M. Batdorf Institutions: Washington State University, Richland, WA, USA Liquid Model Calculations of low-linear-transfer (LET) microdosimetry have been extended to condensed phase by introducing new modules into the PITS code suite. Probability tables for inelastic interactions are constructed using the Dingfelder-GSF model for liquid-water cross-sections. Dingfelder et al. 1 re-evaluated low-energy electron interactions in liquid water in terms of five excitation and five ionization channels, and without assuming any collective interactions (plasmons). We use Dingfelder’s algorithms to calculate differential energy-loss distributions for the ten channels; by

149

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction of Genome and Cellular  

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of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment Mina Bissell Life Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why this Project While normal stoma can delay or prevent tumorigenesis, abnormal stromal components can promote tumor growth. Acquired or inherited mutations that alter stromal cell function can release the context-suppressed malignant cells. Literature spanning more than a century has shown that inflammation associated with tissue wounding can produce tunors. Radiation produces changes in reactive oxygen that are similar to inflammation and may represent a mechanism for radiation-induced damage. Project Goals To determine the underlying role of stromal alterations in controling genomic instability accompanying epithelial-mesenchyumal transformation.

150

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

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Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Why This Project This research will be to investigate the condition known as genomic instability. This can be defined as a state in which genetic alterations, including chromosome aberrations and gene mutations, occur at rates that are much higher than normal. In fact, genomic instability is what allows a normal cell to accumulate the multiple genetic alterations that are required to convert it into a cancer cell. The chromosomes of human cells have structures at their ends called telomeres. Telomeres normally function to prevent chromosomes from fusing together end-to-end. An important

151

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

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Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

152

Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation.  

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Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Weber (PI), Greg J. Newton, Ryan D. Quesenberry, Janani I. Shutthanandan, Nikki Bollinger, Heather E. Engelmann and Lee K. Opresko. Cell Biology and Biochemistry Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354. Previous studies have demonstrated that JB6 cells release cell transforming paracrine factors following exposure to a low dose of radiation (10 cGy). Investigation of secreted proteins by SDS-Page and silver stain led to the identification of a 36 kDa band whose levels were increased in medium from irradiated cells, relative to sham controls. The 36 kDa band was identified as annexin A2 by mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis confirmed a dose-dependent increase in annexin A2 levels associated with medium from

153

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Use of Computational Modeling to  

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Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Bystander Effects Authors: Yuchao “Maggie” Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: CIIT Centers for Health Research, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina A detailed understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced damage at the molecular and cellular levels is needed for accurate assessment of the shape of the dose-response curve for radiationinduced health effects in the intact organism. Computational models can contribute to the improved understanding of mechanisms through integration of data and quantitative evaluation of hypotheses. We propose to develop a novel computational model of bystander effects elicited by oxidative stress and a

154

An integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses  

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integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses G. Huang 1 , Y. Huang 1 , D.H. Nguyen 1 , K. Bjornstad 1 , C. Rosen 1 , P. Chang 2 , R. DelRosario 3 , Do Yup Lee 1 , B. Bowen 1 , W. Reindl 1 , J. Mott 1 , A. Balmain 3 , M.H. Barcellos-Hoff 4 , Joe W Gray 1,5 , Mina Bissell 1 , Gary Karpen 1 , T. Northen 1 , E. A. Blakely 1 , J. H. Mao 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 SRI International, Menlo Park, CA

155

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Control of Repair and Adaptive  

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Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage James E. Haber Brandeis University Why This Project In order to fully understand mechanisms resulting in effects of low dose, whole system rather than cells must be examined. Although not identical to mammalian systems, simple systems usually have many similarities and give direction for further study of more complex systems. We use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system because it is easy to manipulate and its genome is simple and well characterized. Project Goals Examine mechanisms and effects of low dose radiation response for: Genetic recombination mechanisms that lead to genomic instability Genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low-dose radiation The adaptive response

156

Characterization of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Responses after Ionizing Radiation in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Cells  

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...events leading to G, and G2 arrests following ionizing radiation is abnormal in cells from AT patients. p53 protein up- regulation following low doses of ionizing radiation ranges from delayed and reduced to completely absent...

Vikky Yamazaki; Rolf-Dieter Wegner; and Cordula U. Kirchgessner

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation  

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Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,1 and Nancy H. Colburn2 Institutions: 1Molecular Biosciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2Gene Regulation Section, Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute JB6 mouse epidermal cells have been instrumental in defining the molecular mechanisms associated with neoplastic transformation in response to known tumor promoters. JB6 cells exhibit a clonal growth response to oxygen free radicals suggesting this model may also be useful for radiation research. Treatment of JB6 cells with 2 and 20 cGy gamma radiation resulted in a weak, but dose-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth observed

158

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

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Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; 2Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington We have recently installed a low-linear energy transfer (LET) electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma- and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells, leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure,

159

Low Dose Radiation Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens  

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Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Behavioral Symptoms in a 6-OHDA-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Mohan Doss Fox Chase Cancer Center Abstract Background: Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta results in motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Oxidative damage to the nigral dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Our hypothesis is that low dose radiation induces the production of antioxidants in the brain, which could provide protection to the dopaminergic neurons, potentially leading to prevention or stabilization of PD. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine the effect of low dose radiation on the total antioxidant capacity in SN in

160

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

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Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise and Barry D Michael. Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute. We are currently engaged on two projects in the Low-dose Program: "Low dose studies with focused X-rays in cell and tissue models: mechanisms of bystander and genomic instability responses" (DE-FG07-99ER62877) and "Mechanistic modeling of bystander effects: An integrated theoretical and experimental approach" (DE-FG02-02ER63305). Central to both of these studies is a unique micro irradiation facility that uses ultrasoft X-rays focused to a sub micron beam for individual cell and sub cellular targeting. This facility allows us to selectively irradiate individual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

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Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute Why This Project The aim of this project is to determine the effects of low radiation doses using a machine that makes it possible to radiate one cell at a time. Our soft X-ray microprobe can irradiate individual cells, or locations within cells with defined doses and with sub-micron precision. We can use low doses approaching that of a single electron track, which is of relevance to environmental level exposures. Much of our work is concentrating on irradiating specified individual cells within cell populations to identify "bystander responses" where non-radiated cells respond to signals from nearby radiated cells. Higher energy x-rays are being generated to extend

162

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation  

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underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation Munira Kadhim 1 , Sarah Irons 1 , Deborah Bowler 1 , Virginia Serra 1 , Stefania Militi 2 , Kim Chapman 1 1 Genomic Instability Research Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX3 0BP, UK 2 Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RD, UK Radiation-induced responses at the cellular and whole body levels are influenced by genetic predisposition, with implications for environmental and potentially, diagnostic exposures. Currently, the extent to which genetic background play a role in the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved in radiation-induced

163

Risks from ionizing radiation  

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... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell  

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A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low Dose Gamma Radiation in JB6 Cells. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Robert W. Siegel,2 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,3 and Nancy H. Colburn4 Institutions: 1Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 2Protein Function, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 3Statistical and Mathematical Sciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 4Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. The carcinogenic response to radiation is complex and may involve adaptive cellular responses as well as a bystander effect mediated by paracrine or

165

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation  

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Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation Francis A. Cucinotta 1 , Yongfeng Li 2 , Minli Wang 2 , Claudio Carra 2 , Janice Pluth 3 , and Peter O'Neill 4 1 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 U.S.R.A. Division of Life Sciences, Houston TX 3 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 4 Oxford University, Oxford UK Abstract: Modular systems biology (MSB) describes the complexity of biological systems using well defined modules that represent distinct biological response pathways or sub-systems within pathways. We review mathematical concepts from control theory that can be used to identify and construct well defined modules for describing complex biological processes. The DNA damage response and TGFbeta/Smad signaling are two important response pathways following

166

Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E.  

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Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E. J.S. Murley 1 , Y. Kataoka 1 , W.F. Morgan 2 , and D.J. Grdina 1 . The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 1 , The University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD 2 Induced or delayed radioprotection is a novel phenomenon that shares many similarities with the low dose radiation-induced radiobiological phenomenon referred to as the adaptive response. Induced or delayed radioprotection is defined as an enhancement in the radiation resistance of cells at long times following their exposure to non-protein thiols (NPT) such as WR1065, the free thiol form of amifostine. This effect is the result of the induction of a cascade of intracellular

167

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary  

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low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Abstract Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance function (Liu, 2007; Bogdandi et al., 2010). One measure of activated immune cell function is their expression of markers on their cell surface that are

168

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

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Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Estimation of Molecular and Cytogenetic Effects in Mice Exposed to Chronic Low Dose-Rate Gamma-Radiation  

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Molecular and cytogenetic parameters were estimated in male CBA/lac mice exposed to chronic low dose-rate ?-radiation (62 cGy/year) for 40, 80, 120, 210, and 365 days. After 40 days of exposure (6.7 cGy), sple...

A. N. Osipov; A. L. Elakov; P. V. Puchkov

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster  

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Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Larry Toburen East Carolina University Why This Project Modern tools of radiobiology are leading to many new discoveries regarding how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. We can now irradiate single cells and observe responses in adjacent cells. We can also measure clusters of radiation damage produced in DNA. The primary tools available to describe the initial spatial pattern of damage formed by the absorption of ionizing radiation are based on (MC) Monte Carlo simulations of the structure of charged particle tracks. Although many MC codes exist and considerable progress is being made in the incorporation of detailed macromolecular target structures into these codes, much of the interaction

171

Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts:  

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Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism Edouard I. Azzam 1 , Sonia M. de Toledo 1 , Badri N. Pandey 1 , Perumal Venkatachalam 1 , Manuela Buoannano 1 , Zhi Yang 1 , Ling Li 3 , Donna M. Gordon 2 , Roger W. Howell 1 , Debkumar Pain 2 and Douglas R. Spitz 3 1 Department of Radiology, 2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 3 Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA To investigate low dose/low dose-rate effects of low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation, we used γ-irradiated cells adapted to grow in three-dimensional architecture that mimics cell growth in vivo. We determined cellular, molecular and biochemical changes in these

172

Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in  

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Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System Yanrong Su, Jarah Meador and Adayabalam S. Balajee Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) inflicts a wide variety of lesions in the genomic DNA. Among them, DNA double strand break (DSB) is considered to be the critical lesion for most of the deleterious radiation effects including carcinogenesis. Much of our knowledge on induction and repair kinetics of DSB has come from studies in two dimensional cell culture systems. However, the damage signaling and repair responses to DSB in tissue microenvironment are largely unknown. Knowledge of tissue responses to

173

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D.  

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Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D. Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D. University of New York at Stony Brook Currently Funded Projects Induction of Genomic Instability In vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs Gamma Rays Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: No Evidence for In Vivo Induction of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells Collected from Mice Exposed to Low-Dose 137CS γ Rays Rithidech, K.N., Loetchutinat, C., Honikel, L., and Whorton, E.B. 2005 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability in Vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs γ rays. Rithidech, K.N., Leotchutinat, C., Honikel, L., Simon, S.R. and Whorton, E.B. 2003 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays Rithidech. K., Whorton, E.B., Tungjai, M., Ar-Bab, E., Simon, S.R. Tawde, M. and Anderson, C.W. 2002 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability In vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs gamma rays.

174

Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Ionizing radiation and atherosclerosis: Current knowledge and future challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evaluation of the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation has always been a focus of debate and investigation within the scientific community. During the last decade, epidemiological studies provided evidence that an excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be associated with moderate and low dose radiation. The precise quantification of CVD risk in the low-dose radiation range (dose below which there is no risk. A limited number of studies with imaging surrogate endpoints and cardiovascular biomarkers in asymptomatic patients revealed early signs of cardiovascular alterations, even at a low dose. Invitro studies have shown that several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations of coagulation and platelet activity may have a relevant role in radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. Exposure to high-dose data in experimental models accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, predisposing to the formation of an inflammatory, thrombotic plaque phenotype, especially in animals that are genetically predisposed to this disease. On the contrary, low dose exposure produced both protective and detrimental effects, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may influence radiation-induced atherosclerosis. However, only very limited and specific information can be obtained from cell cultures and animal models. Planned studies of radiation-exposed cohorts need to be conducted to explore biological mechanisms of low-dose radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Further investigations with functional imaging to assess vascular function and cardiovascular biomarkers have great potential for providing new insights into low-dose radiation cardiovascular risk, especially in occupational exposure and modern medicine.

Andrea Borghini; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo; Eugenio Picano; Maria Grazia Andreassi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About this Project About this Project Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation Damage Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Low-LET Bystander Effects in Cells In Vitro Are Significantly Less Than Published For High-LET Radiation Blakely, E.A., Thompson, A.C., Chang, P., Schwarz, R.I., Bjornstad, K., Rosen, C., Wisnewski, C., and Mocherla, D. 2005 Workshop: X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., Sudar, D., Romano, R., and Parvin, B. 2003 Workshop: 12.5 keV X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., and Sudar, D. 2001 Workshop:

177

The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced Chornobyl in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low?dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea?pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low?dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

Weller, Richard E.; Skrypnyk, Artem; Zavgorodniy, Andriy; Stegniy, Borys; Gerilovych, Anton; Kutsan, Oleksandr; Pozmogova, Svitlana; Sapko, Svitlana

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a ??Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence domestic radon risks?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593± 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence that bystander radon risk estimation. eVects can be induced by high-LET radiation even Conclusions : Bystander e of inverse dose-rate eVects by high- exposed to low doses of low-LET radiation (SawantLET radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Genetic profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose radiation David Rocke University of California Davis Abstract Previous study from our laboratory has identified pathways associated with low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in vivo that is consistent across individuals. Furthermore, gene expression patterns have revealed genetic variation between individuals, which may play a role in individual sensitivity to LDIR. The aim is to evaluate microRNA and mRNA expression patterns in lymphoblast cell lines that exhibit sensitivity to radiation. Human lymphoblastoid cell lines were screened for low dose radiation sensitivity by apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and colony forming assay. Cells were irradiated with 5cGy and 10cGy and analyzed at multiple time

183

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Authors: E. A. Blakely1, R. I. Schwarz1, A. C. Thompson2, K. A. Bjornstad1, P. Y. Chang1,3 C.J. Rosen1, and D. Sudar1 Institutions: Divisions of 1Life Sciences and 2Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. and 3SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. We are using a novel x-ray Microprobe Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL to investigate bystander effects of low doses in well characterized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human skin fibroblasts (HSF). The ALS facility is capable of producing a beam of 12.5 keV x-rays with a focussed spot size of __m_ and a wide range of doses and dose-rates. Unlike normal x-ray sources, this beam has a very small background of either low-

184

The Circadian Rhythm, A Continuous Transcription-Translation Feedback Loop, Contributes to Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Radioadaptive Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Circadian Rhythm, A Continuous Transcription-Translation Feedback Loop, Contributes to Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Radioadaptive Response Aris Alexandrou and Jian Jian Li Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, 95817 The initiation of the circadian rhythm field occurred when the Takahashi group defined a mutation in the mouse gene "Clock" and cloned the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) in the mid- 1990's (1-3). Currently more than a dozen clock genes have been identified (3-4). Disruptions in the circadian rhythm via changes in environmental conditions, such as, diet, temperature, and night/day hours lead to the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases, such as, cancer, diabetes mellitus,

185

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott, V. Gonzales, M. Makvandi, N. Kikendall, A. Monier, E. Maloy, C. Rietz, B. Scott and J. Wilder. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance

186

Ionizing Radiation Injury (South Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation applies to employers that have more than one employee who engages in activities which involve the presence of ionizing radiation. Employers with less than three employees can...

187

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute, PO BO Box100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK The Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has pioneered the use of X-ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro-irradiating individual cells and sub-cellular targets. Our prototype X-ray microprobe was developed alongside our existing charged-particle microbeam to address problems specific to low LET radiations, or where very precise targeting accuracy and dose delivery are required. This facility was optimised for focusing 278 eV CK X-rays; however there are a number of reasons for extending the

188

Low dose radiation effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells Charles L. Limoli, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine 92697-2695 Multipotent neural cells (both stem cells and their precursor cell progeny) retain their capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout the mammalian lifespan. High numbers of these cells are located within the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular (SVZ) zone adjacent to the lateral ventricles, where they produce cells that can migrate away and differentiate into neurons (neurogenesis) and glia (gliogenesis). The realization that the brain contains such cells has sparked intense interest and speculation regarding their potential function. While significant data

189

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutes: Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK For over a decade, the Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has been actively engaged in the development and use of micro-irradiation techniques applied to radiobiological research. Our initial investigations made use of a charged-particle microbeam capable of irradiating individual cells with collimated energetic protons or 3He ions. By the end of the 1990's, a second facility had been constructed, which uses diffractive X-ray optics to focus ultrasoft X-rays to a sub-micron spot. The X-ray microprobe was

190

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Real-time Study of Signal Transduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Bystander Effects Using Single Nanoparticle Optics and Single Living Cell Imaging Authors: Prakash D. Nallathamby, X. Nancy Xu, Mohan Natarajan Institutions: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia and Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas The mechanisms of bystander effects remain largely unknown. Bystander responses are thought to depend on activation of cellular communication processes. Recent studies have speculated that several crucial signal transduction pathways could play a major role in bystander effects. These crucial signal transduction pathways are controlled by a coordinated

191

Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the media. Impressions of the sites tend to be negative. Most respondents feel that overall their community would be better off without the site. However, when asked about the economic future of their community after cleanup and closure of the site, only 31-43% thought that it will be better, 47-56% thought their local economy will be about the same.

C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

2002-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

193

Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street ?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street ? Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street ? Irene Chiolo, Sylvain Costes and Gary H. Karpen. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA Goal: We are trying to understand the impact of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation on epigenetic mechanisms, chromatin organization and functional responses, and how these processes affect the response to low-dose radiation. Background/Significance: Genomic instability (GI) is one of the hallmarks of cancer that contributes to genetic diversity and has been associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) (1,2). Radiobiology dogma has focused on DNA as the likely target for GI effects of radiation, but until fairly recently, without incorporating roles for chromatin.

194

Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street? Chromatin Regulation and Low Dose Irradiation: A Two-Way Street? Irene Chiolo Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Abstract Goal: We are trying to understand the impact of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation on epigenetic mechanisms, chromatin organization and functional responses, and how these processes affect the response to low-dose radiation. Background/Significance: Genomic instability (GI) is one of the hallmarks of cancer that contributes to genetic diversity and has been associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) (1,2). Radiobiology dogma has focused on DNA as the likely target for GI effects of radiation, but until fairly recently, without incorporating roles for chromatin. Eukaryotic genomes contain two major chromatin domains: heterochromatin and

195

Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

John Leslie Redpath

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Ultraviolet B Radiation on DNA Damage and Repair in Mouse Skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of mammalian skin to solar UVB. We analyzed DNA...significantly less repair capacity than rapidly dividing...the loss of this repair capacity could partially contribute...in excision-repair capacity, and potentiation of...low-dose exposure to solar UVB may result in a significant...

David L. Mitchell; Rdiger Greinert; Frank R. de Gruijl; Kees L. H. Guikers; Eckhard W. Breitbart; Michelle Byrom; Michelle M. Gallmeier; Megan G. Lowery; and Beate Volkmer

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Identified through High Throughput ChIP-Seq Analysis Carl Anderson Brookhaven National Laboratory Abstract The major consequence of human exposures to ionizing radiation (IR) is considered to be an increased incidence of cancer (Brenner et al., 2003). Exposure of cells to 1 Gy of IR produces approximately 40 double-stranded breaks, 1000 single-stranded breaks, and 1000 damaged bases per genome equivalent (Pandita and Richardson, 2009); however, most direct DNA damage is rapidly repaired. Exposure to IR also induces epigenetic changes including both increases and decreases in DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic changes can both initiate cancer and

198

Device for detecting ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon.

Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling Peter O'Neill University of Oxford Abstract The ATM and TGFbeta signal transduction pathways are essential to cellular and tissue control responses to ionizing radiation (IR) and aberrant modifications to these pathways are extensive in cancer. We hypothesize that the ATM and TGFbeta signaling pathways are fully induced at high doses of acute low-LET radiation, whereas only partially induced at low doses. As a consequence of partial stimulation of these pathways important questions arise not only on the validity of the linear no-threshold assumption used in radiation regulations, but also on our ability to extrapolate experimental and human epidemiology data from high to low doses. The

200

Low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell phenotype of A/J mice  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell phenotype of A/J mice. V. Gonzales, K. Gott, M. Makvandi, N. Kikendall, A. Monier, E. Maloy, C. Rietz, B. Scott and J. Wilder. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM. Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response, presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al. 2009) and may lead to cancer suppression (Nowosielska et al. 2006). One of the mechanisms by which it might do so is by altering the cytokines produced after carcinogen and/or radiation exposure. Alternatively, LDR may activate

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

6 - Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chapter summarizes the industrial applications of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation finds use in a variety of industrial applications such as wire and cable insulation, tire manufacturing, production of polymeric foams, heat-shrinkable films and tubings, curing of coatings, adhesives and composites, printing, and other technological development. It provides extensive information on EB process in wire and cable and tire technology. The chapter also provides discussion on EB process in the manufacture of polyolefin foams and heat-shrinkable materials. Detailed discussion on cross-linked PE pipes (PEX) including methods for production, irradiation, and its advantages, is presented. Other applications for ionizing radiation include sterilization of medical devices, hydrogels, radiation curing of polymeric composites, production of fluoroadditives, radiation-cured flexography, coatings, adhesives, paints, and printing inks. Keywords Ionizing radiation; tire manufacturing; wire and cable insulations; printing inks; polyolefin foams; heat-shrinkable materials; cross-linked PE pipes (PEX); hydrogels; flexography

Jiri George Drobny

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Identification of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin Feng Yang, Katrina M. Waters, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Lye-Meng Markillie, Rachel M. Wirgau, Shawna M. Hengel, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, and David L. Stenoien. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Our focus has been on identifying the early events that occur after low dose ionizing radiation exposure that precede and often regulate downstream events such as altered transcription, protein secretion and epigenetic regulation. Phosphorylation is one of the earliest detectible events that occurs following radiation exposure and plays important roles in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. Very robust

203

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......studies of radiation workers, such as the Rocketdyne(149), Mayak(150, 151) and National...occupational studies is not known. Rocketdyne study-other studies of radiation workers...in the 15-country study include the Rocketdyne study(149). By itself, this study......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Re-examination of the Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis, and a trial for the public to comprehend the reality of the low-dose effects of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

People have imprinted knowledge of the LNT hypothesis. Use of the terms LNT hypothesis, ALARA, or stochastic effect, etc. clouds the understanding of people about the real effects of very low doses of radiation. In this paper, the scientific basis of the LNT hypothesis is re-examined. A denial of the presence of a threshold means that individuals have no protection from even very small doses or dose rates of radiation in the body. As the human population is heterogeneous, a linear dose-response curve is obtained, as even whole majorities have a threshold. Current results from radiation epidemiological studies and experimental studies from cells and animals were reported by experts from USA, Canada and Japan at the Radition Effects Association (REA) symposium in March 2005 in Tokyo. The findings did not support the LNT hypothesis, but the importance of biological reactions and factors involving radiation-carcinogenesis. Even a few antinuclear audiences started to think about the presence of a body-defence mechanism against radiation. Necessary information on radiation-carcinogenesis is summarised in several figures for better comprehensions by the public.

Junko Matsubara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

O'Neil, Peter

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reaction exon analyses of HPRT-mutations induced by radon and radon progeny. Radiat. Res. (1994) 137:371-379...from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract This research is focused on assessing the radiation risk associated with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It has been suggested that low dose medical imaging, such as PET scans, carry an added biological risk because they expose the patient to ionizing radiation. PET scanning is an increasingly used nuclear medicine procedure that requires the administration of isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG, E=250 keV β and 511 keV γ) and results in an effective dose to the patient ranging from 7-22 mSv. The radiation induced DNA damage associated with a PET scan was studied in 7-9 week old female wild type Trp53 +/+ mice. Mice were given a PET scan with 18F-FDG and the biological response was assessed in bone marrow using

208

Detoxification of Salmonella typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...the visible range. After radiation, the general...radiation doses through 20...

Joseph J. Previte; Y. Chang; H. M. El-Bisi

1967-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Low Dose IR Creates an Oncogenic Microenvironment by Inducing Premature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Introduction Much of the work addressing ionizing radiation-induced cellular response has been carried out mainly with the traditional cell culture technique involving only one cell type, how cellular response to IR is influenced by the tissue microenvironment remains elusive. By use of a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system to model critical interactions of different cell types with their neighbors and with their environment, we recently showed that low-dose IR-induced extracellular signaling via the tissue environment affects profoundly cellular responses. This proposal aims at determining the response of mammary epithelial cells in a tissue-like setting.

Yuan, Zhi-Min [Harvard School of Public Health

2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

The effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on the male rats? reproductive system and spermatogenic cell apoptosis exposed to low-dose ionizing irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lycium barbarum, a Solanaceous defoliated shrubbery, has been used as a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main bioactive component of Lycium barbarum. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioresistant effect of LBP on the damage of male rats reproductive system and spermatogenic cells caused by low-dose 60Co-? irradiation. Materials and methods: Male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups and treated with irradiation and/or LBP: normal control group, irradiation control group 1, irradiation control group 2, irradiation control group 3, LBP + irradiation group 1, LBP + irradiation group 2, and LBP + irradiation group 3. Results: It is found that mating function and testis organ coefficient in LBP + irradiation groups were significantly better than that of the corresponding irradiation control groups. LBP significantly up-regulates the expression of Bcl-2 while down-regulating the expression of Bax. And LBP also plays an important role in prevention mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. In addition, LBP can significantly reduce spermatogenic cells apoptosis. Conclusion: LBP has obvious protective effect on the male rats reproductive function and spermatogenic dysfunction induced by irradiation.

Qiong Luo; Jingjing Li; Xiaoyan Cui; Jun Yan; Qihan Zhao; Chunyan Xiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ionizing Radiation Activates the Nrf2 Antioxidant Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Scientific). Results Ionizing radiation does not activate ARE-reporter...determine if exposure to varying doses of ionizing radiation would activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The radiation dose range was extended below that used...

J. Tyson McDonald; Kwanghee Kim; Andrew J. Norris; Erina Vlashi; Tiffany M. Phillips; Chann Lagadec; Lorenza Della Donna; Josephine Ratikan; Heather Szelag; Lynn Hlatky; and William H. McBride

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function  

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In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function Edouard Azzam New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center Abstract Mitochondria consume about 90% of the body’s oxygen and are the richest source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They play an integral part in signaling events that occur in response to oxidizing agents, including ionizing radiation. To gain insight into radiation-induced effects on mitochondria, we investigated the in vivo effects of low dose γ-rays on mitochondrial protein import, aconitase activity and modulation of antioxidants in tissues of whole body-irradiated mice. Mitochondrial protein import is a fundamental mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis, and the TCA cycle in the mitochondrial matrix is a central pathway of oxidative

213

Low Dose Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation Joe Gray Priscilla Cooper Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The radiation Adaptive Response (adaptation, or AR) is a well documented, although evidently highly variable, protective phenomenon in which exposures to low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation result in reduced deleterious effects of subsequent higher exposures. Protection has been reported against a variety of biologically important endpoints, but its variability as a function of cell and tissue type and its genetic control are not well understood. The adaptive response is predicted to result in a non-linear dose response for cancer risk in the low dose range. However, the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown, and such information is

214

Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Low dose irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of tissue aging Lingling Ding Georgia Health Sciences University Abstract There is considerable overlap between cellular and molecular changes that occur in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and those that occur during aging. Both processes are characterized by accumulation of persistent DNA damage (“wear and tear” on the genome), persistent oxidative stress, and depletion of stem/progenitor cells, leading to loss of repair and regenerative capacity. Here we test a hypothesis that exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation accelerates normal, aging-related tissue changes. The work was performed using a small, genetically tractable vertebrate model organism, the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Medaka have a

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed radiation dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

know Summary: . Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing...

217

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...format from the National Center for Biotechnology Information...most peoples lives by industrial exposures and medical...California Davis Cancer Center, UCDHS. The authors...implications for risk assessment in both therapeutic...California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, 95817...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Degradation of Solid Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation P. Alexander A. Charlesby...inversely proportional to the radiation dose (plus a small quantity of...of measuring high-energy radiation doses in the range of about 1 million rontgens...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ionizing Radiation Induces Delayed Hyperrecombination in Mammalian Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...instability is critical to radiation risk assessment and for determining...the many delayed effects of radiation, chromosomal instability is...detrimental effects over a range of doses of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, a rapid and...

Lei Huang; Suzanne Grim; Leslie E. Smith; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; Olga G. Goloubeva; William F. Morgan

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Microsoft PowerPoint - Low Dose Update Metting 6 Dec 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low Dose DOE's Low Dose Low Dose DOE's Low Dose R di ti R h R di ti R h Radiation Research Radiation Research Program Program g g NF Metting, Sc.D., Program Manager Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Meeting Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Meeting L'Enfant Plaza Hotel L'Enfant Plaza Hotel 6 December 2012 Office of Science Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE's Low Dose Program: DOE s Low Dose Program: Is unique within the U.S. government in focusing on low dose biological research aimed at informing current and future g g national radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace * DOE focuses on worker and public safety from very low dose x- and p y y gamma-ray exposures encountered in energy production and environmental cleanup In contrast: In contrast: * NASA focuses on astronaut safety from high energy particulate radiation

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221

22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction to basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Discusses natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, ...

Coderre, Jeffrey A.

222

PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE PROTON EFFECTS ON CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION AFTER WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION Asma Rizvi 2 , George Coutrakon 1 , James M. Slater 1 , Michael J. Pecaut 1,2 and Daila S. Gridley 1,2 Departments. of 1 Radiation Medicine and 2 Biochemistry & Microbiology Loma Linda University & Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 Astronauts are exposed to low dose/low dose rate radiation (LDR) and may also be acutely irradiated during a solar particle event (SPE). The biological effects of LDR alone and when combined with a solar particle event, are not yet clearly understood. Previous studies have shown that irradiation can have adverse effects on T cells. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced as a result of radiation can alter or damage the

223

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly woven into the fabric of high-dose System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology Volume 113 Number 2 March.g., radiochromic dosimetry). From the NMI's perspective, the broad absorbed- dose range of the alanine system

224

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on...the effects of high doses of ionizing radiation (IR). The repair...IR resistance. A range of modern screening...survive increasing doses of ionizing radiation in comparison to...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

Evaluation of Three Somatic Genetic Biomarkers as Indicators of Low Dose Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident I. M. Jones J. D. Tucker R. G. Langlois...radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. | The goals of this study were to assess......

I. M. Jones; J. D. Tucker; R. G. Langlois; M. L. Mendelsohn; P. Pleshanov; D. O. Nelson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

9.01 - Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and try to show how the different interaction probabilities will influence the transport of ionizing radiation through matter. This knowledge is important in different aspects of medical applications of radiation. It has an impact in designing an optimal treatment gantry, in the choice of radiation quality, and of course when determining the absorbed dose distribution in the body. It is also important in diagnostic radiology when optimizing the image quality. Knowledge of the interaction of radiation with matter is also fundamental for understanding the biological effect of radiation and its variation with ionization density. The focus will not be on the basic physics and deriving the different cross sections but on the impact of these cross sections on imaging and therapy in medical physics applications. Ionizing radiation is normally divided into charged particles (previously called directly ionizing radiation) such as leptons, ?-particles, protons and other light ions, and uncharged particles (previously called indirectly ionizing radiation) such as photons (x-rays or ?-rays) and neutrons. This chapter will concentrate on radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, and the main part will be dedicated to electrons and photons with energies up to around 50MeV and light ions with energies up to 900MeV per nucleon. The presentation is divided into two main sections, charged particles and photons.

B. Nilsson; A. Brahme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Health The Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation are the Arkansas state laws made in accordance the federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission Rules. Any contractor with the US DOE or US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is exempt from the state laws. This set of rules and regulations basically restates the federal policy to ensure that Arkansas is in compliance with the federal standards governing nuclear energy. Specifically the State rules are equivalent to Nuclear Regulatory

228

Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 ???????????????¢???????????????????????????????? 14 May 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a complete summary of the work undertaken and results obtained under US Department of Energy grant DF-FG02-05 ER 63947, Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses. There is ample epidemiological evidence indicating that ionizing radiation is carcinogenic in the higher dose range. This evidence, however, weakens and carries increasing uncertainties at doses below 100-200 mSv. At these low dose levels the form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancer cannot be determined reliably or directly from studies of human populations. Therefore animal, cellular and other experimental systems must be employed to provide supporting evidence on which to base judgements of risk at low doses. Currently in radiological protection a linear non-threshold (LNT) extrapolation of risk estimates derived from human epidemiological studies is used to estimate risks in the dose range of interest for protection purposes. Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation (eg UNSCEAR 2006; IARC 2000). Good animal models of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are available including strains such as CBA, RFM and SJL (eg Major and Mole 1978; Ullrich et al 1976; Resnitzky et al 1985). Early mechanistic studies using cytogenetic methods in these mouse models established that the majority of radiation-induced AMLs carried substantial interstitial deletions in one copy of chromosome (chr) 2 (eg Hayata et al 1983; Trakhtenbrot et al 1988; Breckon et al 1991; Rithidech et al 1993; Bouffler et al 1996). Chr2 aberrations are known to occur in bone marrow cells as early as 24 hours after in vivo irradiation (Bouffler et al 1997). Subsequent molecular mapping studies defined a distinct region of chr2 that is commonly lost in AMLs (Clark et al 1996; Silver et al 1999). Further, more detailed, analysis identified point mutations at a specific region of the Sfpi1/PU.1 haemopoietic transcription factor gene which lies in the commonly deleted region of chr2 (Cook et al 2004; Suraweera et al 2005). These lines of evidence strongly implicate the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene as a tumour suppressor gene, dysregulation of which leads to myeloid leukaemia. The main focus of this project was to utilize the CBA mouse model of radiation leukaemogenesis to explore mechanisms of low dose and low dose-rate leukaemogenesis. A series of mechanistic investigations were undertaken, the central aim of which was to identify the events that convert normal cells into myeloid leukaemia cells and explore the dose-response relationships for these. Much of the work centred on the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene and its role in leukaemogenesis. Specific studies considered the dose-response and time-course relationships for loss of the gene, the functional consequences of Sfpi1/PU.1 loss and mutation on transcriptional programmes and developing an in vivo reporter gene system for radiation-induced alterations to PU.1 expression. Additional work sought further genetic changes associated with radiation-induced AMLs and a better characterization of the cell of origin or 'target cell' for radiation-induced AML. All the information gathered is of potential use in developing biologically realistic mathematical models for low dose cancer risk projection.

Simon Bouffler

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

229

Biological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in extrapolating radiation risk estimates from epidemi- ologically accessible doses down to very low doses where) and for assessing the risk from a low-dose exposure to a carcinogen such as ionizing radiation, where only a smallBiological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away Oleg V

230

Toxicity of Pasteurella tularensis Killed by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to 106 r of y-radiation. When injected...suspension. Lethal doses of newly prepared...by exposure to ionizing radia- tion induced...to 106 r of y-radiation from a 60Co source at a dose rate of approximately...only in a limited range of dilutions...

Marshall E. Landay; George G. Wright; James D. Pulliam; Milton J. Finegold

1968-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng University of California Abstract Radiation-induced oxidative stress can impact the physiologic function of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells by activating redox-sensitive signaling cascades that can alter radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the nature, magnitude and duration of the specific reactive species involved, features that dictate in large part whether radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to the organism. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-20 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days to weeks. These redox changes can

232

Enhanced Sensitivity of the RET Proto-Oncogene to Ionizing Radiation In vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the RET sensitivity to ionizing radiation exposure, and to elucidate...were first exposed to ionizing radiation, electrophoresed in...Table 1 Table 1. Range of tail moment in non...for comet Radiation dose Cell line Range of tail...

Claudia Bu Volpato; Minerva Martnez-Alfaro; Raffaella Corvi; Coralie Gabus; Sylvie Sauvaigo; Pietro Ferrari; Elena Bonora; Alessandro De Grandi; and Giovanni Romeo

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

235

Physical and biological properties of U.S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the UV range, radiation treatment...pattern. Dose-related...effects of the ionizing radiation...milligram-per-milliliter range) (13...in the UV range, we found...ioniz- ing radiation. Regarding...effective, dose- dependent...EXPOSED TO IONIZING RADIATION...

G Csako; R J Elin; H D Hochstein; C M Tsai

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose ?-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

Eric Y. Chuang

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

238

The Inactivation of $\\alpha$-Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations J. A. V. Butler...studied over a range of concentrations...where D is the dose required to cause...air over a wide range of concentrations...by varying the dose rate of the electron...over a very wide range. An enhanced...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Sensitivity of aflatoxin b1 to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...activity with respective doses of 2.5, 5, 10...irradiation aflatoxin B1 dose of: in upper layediteionre...in foodstuffs may range from levels of 0...with an irradiation dose of10 kGy (the maximum...its sensitivity to ionizing radiation. When aflatoxin...

P J Van Dyck; P Tobback; M Feyes; H van de Voorde

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ti3+ production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy. P irradiation of Ti4+ ions in aluminoborosilicate glasses have been studied by EPR spectroscopy at 20 K of the Ti3+ ion EPR spectra has shown three different Ti3+ environment attributed to one [VI] Ti3+ and two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Preservation of food by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999). A low-dose spiral chest CT differs from a full-dose conventional chest CT scan primarily in the amount of radiation emitted during CT scans. Chest CT, in general, requires less radiation exposure than other CT procedures because the air-filled tissues of the lungs are not as dense as the tissues of other organs (i.e., less x-ray radiation is needed to penetrate the lung). Radiation dose can be further reduced with lung cancer screening due to the

243

Cytogenetic characterization of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in Cobalt-60 irradiated human lymphoblastoid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The dose-effect relationships of cells exposed to ionizing radiation are frequently described by linear quadratic (LQ) models over an extended dose range. However, many mammalian cell lines, when acutely irradiated in G2 at doses ?0.3Gy, show hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) as measured by reduced clonogenic cell survival, thereby indicating greater cell lethality than is predicted by extrapolation from high-dose responses. We therefore hypothesized that the cytogenetic response in G2 cells to low doses would also be steeper than predicted by LQ extrapolation from high doses. We tested our hypothesis by exposing four normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines to 0400cGy of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay was used to determine the frequencies of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. To characterize the dependence of the cytogenetic damage on dose, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare the responses in the low- (HRS) and high-dose response regions. Our data indicate that the slope of the response for all four cell lines at ?20cGy during G2 is greater than predicted by an LQ extrapolation from the high-dose responses for both micronuclei and bridges. These results suggest that the biological consequences of low-dose exposures could be underestimated and may not provide accurate risk assessments following such exposures.

Gnanada S. Joshi; Michael C. Joiner; James D. Tucker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dou, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation Edmond Jolivet 1 Corresponding...Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan The mechanisms by which...temperature and/or ionizing radiation. The hyperthermophilic...Matsunaga thanks the Japan Society for the Promotion...resistant to ionizing radiation? Trends Microbiol...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Ionizing Radiation-induced, Mitochondria-dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the therapeutic dose range stimulates a...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...

J. Kevin Leach; Glenn Van Tuyle; Peck-Sun Lin; Rupert Schmidt-Ullrich; and Ross B. Mikkelsen

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS Ricardo for the automated identification and classification of tracks of ionizing radiation during space missions. The tracks of ionizing radiation are mea- sured by the hybrid semiconductor Medipix2 pixel de- tector system

Vilalta, Ricardo

248

Ionizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ionizing radiation, total dose, dark current, STI, hardening by design, RHDB 1. INTRODUCTION IonizingIonizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process Vincent Goiffona a large dynamic range. This can significantly impact the radiation hardness of "in-pixel" devices which

Mailhes, Corinne

249

Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordinary matter (ionization). If this is the case, radiation is called ionizing. It is known that ionizing radiation can be far more harmful to living beings than non-ionizing radiation. In this dissertation, we are concerned with ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring ionizing radiation in the form of radioactivity is a most natural phenomenon. Almost everything is radioactive: there is radiation emerging from the soil, it is in the air, and the whole planet is constantly undergoing streams of energetic cosmic radiation. Sinc...

Fabry, Thomas

250

Searching Effective Parameters for Low-Dose CT Reconstruction by Ant Colony Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Eric Papenhausen and Klaus Mueller Abstract-- Low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) has been gaining. To cope with the limited data collected at 30% of standard radiation, low-dose CT reconstruction algorithms generally require several iterations of forward projection, back-projection and regularization

Mueller, Klaus

251

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

Farman, A.G. (University of Louisville School of Dentistry, KY (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

PP2A regulates ionizing radiationinduced apoptosis through Ser46 phosphorylation of p53  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Articles PP2A regulates ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through Ser46...virginia.edu 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and 2 Center for Cell...and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan). Radiation Treatment Cell cultures were irradiated...

Jun Mi; Elzbieta Bolesta; David L. Brautigan; and James M. Larner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Calicivirus Inactivation by Nonionizing (253.7-Nanometer-Wavelength [UV]) and Ionizing (Gamma) Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7-nm-wavelength [UV]) radiation, inactivation by ionizing (gamma) radiation was studied as a process...constituents on inactivation by radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Viruses...Shoji Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was propagated in MDCK...

Ana Maria de Roda Husman; Paul Bijkerk; Willemijn Lodder; Harold van den Berg; Walter Pribil; Alexander Cabaj; Peter Gehringer; Regina Sommer; Erwin Duizer

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends on genotype, tissue compartment, exposure regimen, and sampling times Joe Gray & Andrew Wyrobek Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The objectives of this research are to characterize the early and persistent low-dose and adaptive response (AR) damage surveillance networks in mammary glands of radiation sensitive and resistant strains of mice to identify the molecular signatures/mechanisms associated with nonlinear modifications of risk for mammary gland cancer. Our approach uses low-dose exposure regimens that have been reported to induce mammary gland cancer in sensitive strains to determine whether low-dose induced pathways are differentially expressed in epithelial or stromal cells and to determine

256

Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

Karl, Jr., Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary...changes from radiation contribute strongly to carcinogenic potential. Densely ionizing...radiation chimera in which mice were exposed to densely ionizing 350 MeV/amu Si-particles...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

ATM Requirement in Gene Expression Responses to Ionizing Radiation in Human Lymphoblasts and Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...St. Charles, MO) software program. A two-dimensional...analysis was done using software and methods as described...ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation...toxicology, and drug safety evaluation. Cancer...exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 2000...

Cynthia L. Innes; Alexandra N. Heinloth; Kristina G. Flores; Stella O. Sieber; Paula B. Deming; Pierre R. Bushel; William K. Kaufmann; and Richard S. Paules

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and after radiation and was in good...performed at a sublethal dose of 2,000 Gy to...our preliminary estimation reveals that 0...been observed for radiation-resistant Chroococcidiopsis...caused by ionizing radiation. | The mechanisms...furiosus, survive high doses of ionizing gamma...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical ionizing radiation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Perturbations and level splittings 8-3 Ionization and the Saha equation 2. Textbook Radiative processes... the following chapters: Chapter 1 Basic concepts 1-1 Radiative flux and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Retinal Degeneration and Ionizing Radiation Hypersensitivity in a Mouse Model for Cockayne Syndrome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitive to a single dose of ionizing radiation at doses up to 10 Gy. In marked...least within the age range investigated, the...photoreceptor cells for ionizing radiation. This finding underscores...experiment (cumulative dose, 35 kJ/m2). The...

Theo G. M. F. Gorgels; Ingrid van der Pluijm; Renata M. C. Brandt; George A. Garinis; Harry van Steeg; Gerard van den Aardweg; Gerard H. Jansen; Jan M. Ruijter; Arthur A. B. Bergen; Dirk van Norren; Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers; Gijsbertus T. J. van der Horst

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Chromosome translocations and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline pilot biomarker study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline...are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer...bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy from personal...SD; 46.7 5.3, range 37-55 vs. 45.8...

Lee Yong; Alice Sigurdson; Elizabeth Ward; Martha Waters; Elizabeth Whelan; Martin Petersen; Elaine Ron; Marilyn Ramsey; Parveen Bhatti; and James Tucker

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Use of the Tetrazolium Assay in Measuring the Response of Human Tumor Cells to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiation dose rate was...demonstrated a range of absorbance...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION with 1 mg...with graded doses of irradiation...each with a range of seeded...MGHU1 0 5 10 DOSE (Gy) RT112...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION 150000 FF...

Patricia Price and Trevor J. McMillan

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Quantitative estimation of UV light dose concomitant to irradiation with ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple mathematical model for biological estimation of UV light dose concomitant to ionizing radiation was suggested. This approach was applied to determine the dependency of equivalent UV light dose accompanied by 100Gy of ionizing radiation on energy of sparsely ionizing radiation and on volume of the exposed cell suspension. It was revealed that the relative excitation contribution to the total lethal effect and the value of UV dose was greatly increased with an increase in energy of ionizing radiation and volume of irradiated suspensions. It is concluded that these observations are in agreement with the supposition that ?erenkov emission is responsible for the production of UV light damage and the phenomenon of photoreactivation observed after ionizing exposure of bacterial and yeast cells hypersensitive to UV light. A possible synergistic interaction of the damages produced by ionizations and excitations as well as a probable participation of UV component of ionizing radiation in the mechanism of hormesis and adaptive response observed after ionizing radiation exposure is discussed.

Vladislav G. Petin; Ivan I. Morozov; Jin Kyu Kim; Maria A. Semkina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Technical Reports Ultra-low Dose Lung CT Perfusion Regularized by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­regularized reconstruction (PSRR) method was proposed to reduce radiation dose and applied to lung perfusion studies. Normal and ultra-low-dose lung computed tomographic perfusion studies were compared in terms of the estimation in radiation dose is achievable using PSRR without compromising quantitative computed tomographic measurements

Virginia Tech

266

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Paclitaxel (Taxol) and Docetaxel (Taxotere) in HeLa and SQ20B Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drawn from survival to radiation alone. Therefore...large decrease of the radiation susceptibility among...fraction over the whole range of radiation doses investigated. Interestingly...1844 TAXOIDS AND IONIZING RADIATION 70 TAX or...

Christophe Hennequin; Nicole Giocanti; and Vincent Favaudon

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanchebreakdown time (10200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range 3 ? mm > ? > 10.6 ? ? m are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW 10 ? ? s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO 2 laser with 30 MW 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO 2 laser could have a longer range > 100 ? m .

Victor L. Granatstein; Gregory S. Nusinovich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Transcriptome Analysis Applied to Survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation (IR) dose that yields 20...its response to UV radiation (254 nm), which...sensitivity to IR. Ionizing radiation (IR) is potentially...damage caused by given doses of IR for different...similar, although the range of IR resistance...

Xiaoyun Qiu; Michael J. Daly; Alexander Vasilenko; Marina V. Omelchenko; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Liyou Wu; Jizhong Zhou; George W. Sundin; James M. Tiedje

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

IONIZING RADIATION RISKS TO SATELLITE POWER SYSTEMS (SPS) WORKERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer EstimationDose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer A general hypothesis for estimationof the total dose. Estimation of Space Radiation Induced

Lyman, J.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Telomerase-Dependent Oncolytic Adenovirus Sensitizes Human Cancer Cells to Ionizing Radiation via Inhibition of DNA Repair Machinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surgical resection, radiation, and cytotoxic...the threshold for radiation-induced tumor cell death; the safety and efficacy of...1-3). Ionizing radiation primarily targets...with the CalcuSyn software (BioSoft), and...

Shinji Kuroda; Toshiya Fujiwara; Yasuhiro Shirakawa; Yasumoto Yamasaki; Shuya Yano; Futoshi Uno; Hiroshi Tazawa; Yuuri Hashimoto; Yuichi Watanabe; Kazuhiro Noma; Yasuo Urata; Shunsuke Kagawa; and Toshiyoshi Fujiwara

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Custom Device for Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation of Biological Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the structural material is efficient to absorb most of the cosmic-ray energy and reduce the interior dose rate to below 1.2 mGy per day. However, the biological effects of prolonged exposure to low-dose radiation are not well understood. The purpose...

Bi, Ruoming

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

p53-Mediated Regulation of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Cells Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to increasing doses of IR at 24 h posttransfection...cellular response to ionizing radiation in which p53-mediated...IR at 12 Gy, a dose that induced maximal...the 1- to 4-Gy range does not effectively...because a high radiation dose is used and the...

Jin Xu; Gilbert F. Morris

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Inactivation of 14-3-3? Influences Telomere Behavior and Ionizing Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...per dish was chosen to ensure that about 50 colonies would survive a particular radiation dose treatment. Cells were exposed to ionizing radiation in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy at room temperature using a 137Cs ray at a dose rate of 1.1 Gy...

Sonu Dhar; Jeremy A. Squire; M. Prakash Hande; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

MMTF DISCOVERY OF GIANT IONIZATION CONES IN MR 2251-178: IMPLICATIONS FOR QUASAR RADIATIVE FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the discovery of giant ionization cones in the 140 kpc nebula around quasar MR 2251-178 based on deep [O III] {lambda}5007/H{beta} and [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} flux ratio maps obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter on the Baade-Magellan 6.5 m Telescope. These cones are aligned with the weak double-lobed radio source observed on smaller scale (<30 kpc). They have an opening angle {approx}120 Degree-Sign {+-} 10 Degree-Sign and subtend {approx}65%-90% of 4{pi} sr, where the uncertainty takes into account possible projection effects. The material in the outer ionization cones is matter-bounded, indicating that all ionizing photons emitted through the cones escape from the system. The quasar ionizing flux is {approx}2-3 times fainter outside of these cones, despite the largely symmetric geometry of the nebula in [O III]. Overall, adding up the contributions from both inside and outside the cones, we find that {approx}65%-95% of the quasar ionizing radiation makes its way out of the system. These results emphasize the need for line ratio maps to quantify the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from quasars and the importance of quasar radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium.

Kreimeyer, Kory; Veilleux, Sylvain, E-mail: kory@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

278

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Low-dose Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar Particle Event Protons Daila Gridley Loma Linda University and Medical Center Abstract Purpose: Astronauts on missions are exposed to low-dose/low-dose (LDR) radiation and could receive high doses during solar particle events (SPE). This study investigated T cell function in response to LDR radiation and simulated SPE (sSPE) protons, alone and in combination. Materials and methods: C57BL/6 mice received LDR γ-radiation (57Co) to a total dose of 0.01 Gray (Gy) at 0.0179 cGy/h, either with or without subsequent exposure to 1.7 Gy simulated SPE (sSPE) protons delivered over 36 h. On days 4 and 21 post-exposure, three functional pathways were studied using negatively isolated/anti-CD3 activated splenic CD4+ T cells:

280

Directed Evolution of Ionizing Radiation Resistance in Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...repeated. The dose of radiation administered was adjusted...day at 37C, with the dose increasing as radioresistance...source until the desired dose was achieved. Irradiated...Genomic DNA from the radiation-sensitive E. coli...reads, respectively. Estimation of the level of sequencing...

Dennis R. Harris; Steve V. Pollock; Elizabeth A. Wood; Reece J. Goiffon; Audrey J. Klingele; Eric L. Cabot; Wendy Schackwitz; Joel Martin; Julie Eggington; Timothy J. Durfee; Christina M. Middle; Jason E. Norton; Michael C. Popelars; Hao Li; Sarit A. Klugman; Lindsay L. Hamilton; Lukas B. Bane; Len A. Pennacchio; Thomas J. Albert; Nicole T. Perna; Michael M. Cox; John R. Battista

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and UNSCEAR 1988 in Radiation Risk Assessment - Lifetime Total Cancer Mortality Risk Estimates at Low Doses and Low Dose Rates for Low-LET Radiation, Committee on Interagency...

282

The Preference for Error-Free or Error-Prone Postreplication Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exposed to Low-Dose Methyl Methanesulfonate Is Cell Cycle Dependent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cells with extremely low doses of MMS (from 0.001...genes). While low-dose X rays have been a mainstay...measures (47 - 49), estimations of the cancer risk associated...significantly higher doses (i.e., nuclear accident...malignancy related to radiation exposure from medical...

Dongqing Huang; Brian D. Piening; Amanda G. Paulovich

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

Altered Telomere Nuclear Matrix Interactions and Nucleosomal Periodicity in Ataxia Telangiectasia Cells before and after Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mean P/mean S Mean () Range () Mean () Range () RKO 71 67-75 29 25-33...significant. Influence of ionizing radiation on telomere-nuclear matrix...cells were treated with a dose of 5 Gy of ionizing radiation, and proportions of S...

Lubomir B. Smilenov; Sonu Dhar; Tej K. Pandita

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...charged particle species from protons through uranium at varying energies of up to tens of GeV/amu (7). Estimating the cancer risk...cancer than sparsely ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal is considered to...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

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...ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal...epithelial cells were positive for K18 (green).Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI...positive either for K18 or K14 (n = 20, green; D), K14+18 type with K14 and K18...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; and Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The effects of diet and ionizing radiation on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cancer, by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating proliferation in colonocytes. Diets contained a combination of fish oil or corn oil and either pectin or cellulose. We exposed 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 1 Gy ionizing radiation (1 GeV Fe) 10 d prior...

Mann, John Clifford

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ionizing Radiation as an Initiator: Effects of Proliferation and Promotion Time on Tumor Incidence in Mice  

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...portion of the dose-response curve these two doses reside, we cannot accu rately say that the...cell carcinomas did not appear to depend on dose. A wider range of doses of ionizing radiation needs to be studied. A representative basal...

Deborah Jaffe and G. Tim Bowden

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

The Escape of Ionizing Photons from OB Associations in Disk Galaxies Radiation Transfer Through Superbubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By solving the time-dependent radiation transfer problem of stellar radiation through evolving superbubbles within a smoothly varying H I distribution, we have estimated the fraction of ionizing photons emitted by OB associations that escapes the H I disk of our Galaxy. We considered a coeval star-formation history and a Gaussian star-formation history with a time spread sigma_t = 2 Myr. We find that the shells of the expanding superbubbles quickly trap or attenuate the ionizing flux, such that most of the escaping radiation escapes shortly after the formation of the superbubble. Superbubbles of large associations can blowout of the H I disk and form dynamic chimneys, which allow the ionizing radiation directly to escape the H I disk. However, blowout occurs when the ionizing photon luminosity has dropped well below the association's maximum luminosity. For the coeval star-formation history, the fraction of photons that escape each side of the disk in the solar vicinity is f_esc approx 6% (the total fraction ...

Dove, J B; Ferrara, A; Dove, James B.; Ferrara, Andrea

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

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...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on a single mechanism...metabolism (2). This listing does not include a few gene products...from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 does not restore radioresistance...genetics: a laboratory manual and handbook for Escherichia coli and related...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced prior for Patlak model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimation of BBBP map with the prior regularized Patlak model. Evaluation with the simulated low-dose-brain barrier permeability; Patlak model; radiation dose reduction 1. Introduction As the first leading cause), let alone the prolong protocol for BBBP assessment. While ef- fective radiation dose reduction in PCT

Chen, Tsuhan

291

Low dose and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model. and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model. Sally A. Amundson and Alexandre Mezentsev Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Radiological Research, New York, NY 10032 Significant structural abnormalities develop within several days of exposure of the 3-dimensional normal human skin tissue model EPI-200 (MatTek) to high or low doses of low LET radiation. Disruption of the basal layer occurs following high radiation doses, and premature cornification is evident after both high and low dose exposures. In bystander tissue that is near irradiated portions of the tissue, but is not itself irradiated, we also observe premature cornification, increased apoptosis and micronucleus formation. Changes in global gene expression also occur

292

Low dose and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model  

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and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model Sally A. Amundson Columbia University Medical Center Abstract Significant structural abnormalities develop within several days of exposure of the 3-dimensional normal human skin tissue model EPI-200 (MatTek) to high or low doses of low LET radiation. Disruption of the basal layer occurs following high radiation doses, and premature cornification is evident after both high and low dose exposures. In bystander tissue that is near irradiated portions of the tissue, but is not itself irradiated, we also observe premature cornification, increased apoptosis and micronucleus formation. Changes in global gene expression also occur in both directly irradiated and bystander EPI-200 tissue. Although the unfolding over time

293

Extreme resistance of bdelloid rotifers to ionizing radiation  

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...of IR or high-energy electrons required...that the measured efficiency of IR...where the decreased efficiency of repair is more...dilatata are free-swimming and may easily be...geothermalis: The pool of extreme radiation...International Atomic Energy Agency Final Research...

Eugene Gladyshev; Matthew Meselson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Roles of the Major, Small, Acid-Soluble Spore Proteins and Spore-Specific and Universal DNA Repair Mechanisms in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ionizing Radiation from X Rays and High-Energy Charged-Particle Bombardment  

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...mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation are thought to be the result...of DNA damage caused by given doses of ionizing radiation for different bacteria are very similar, although the range of ionizing-radiation resistance...

Ralf Moeller; Peter Setlow; Gerda Horneck; Thomas Berger; Gnther Reitz; Petra Rettberg; Aidan J. Doherty; Ryuichi Okayasu; Wayne L. Nicholson

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Funded Project Descriptions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-Ray Dose Effects in the Lens Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Principal Investigator: Lee Goldstein, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor in Psychiatry, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, & Biomedical Engineering, Boston University’s School Medicine, College of Engineering, and Photonics Center. Boston, Ma. The project includes a new DOE FWP (~$400 K over 3 years) to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Eleanor Blakely as Project Leader. The work includes a subcontract to support the collaboration of Polly Chang of SRI, International, Menlo Park, CA. and is scheduled to begin as early as August 2009. This proposal was submitted in response to the joint DOE/NASA

296

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mating-Type Regulation of  

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Mating-Type Regulation of Non-homologous End Joining in Mating-Type Regulation of Non-homologous End Joining in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Authors: Maria Valencia,* Marc Bentele,^ Moreshwar B. Vaze,* Gernot Herrmann, Ellayhu Kraus, Sang Eun Lee, Primo Schar,^ and James E. Haber* Institutions: *Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, Brandeis University ^Institute of Medical Radiobiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, broken DNA ends can be ligated, either in a precise or an error-prone manner by a process known as Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). Several proteins have been identified that play a role in NHEJ: the yKu70/80 heterodimer, DNA ligase IV and its associated protein Lif1/Xrcc4, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, as well as the silencing proteins Sir 2, 3, 4. Recent studies suggest that SIR genes may

297

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Energetics of Clustered  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Molecular Energetics of Clustered Damage Sites Molecular Energetics of Clustered Damage Sites Authors and Institutions: Principal Investigator: Dr. Michel Dupuis (PNNL) Co-investigators: Professor John H. Miller (WSU Tri-Cities), Professor Robert D. Stewart (Purdue University), Dr. Maciej S. Gutowski (PNNL), Dr. Eric J. Ackerman (PNNL); Collaborators: Mr. Matt Hernst (WSU Tri-Cities), Dr. Vladimir A. Semenenko (Purdue University), Mr. Maciej Haranczyk (Gdansk University , Poland), Mr. Rafal A. Bachorz (Poznan University, Poland), and Ms. Iwona Dabkowska (Gdansk University, Poland). Project: The goal of this project is to provide critical information to help characterize clustered damage sites relative to singly damaged sites with respect to their susceptibility to DNA repair. The premise is that differences in base pairing rules and mutagenic properties of singly and

298

Polyamide woven fabrics with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride as 2D ionizing radiation dosimeters  

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The development of flat woven fabric-based ionizing radiation 2D dosimeters is reported in this work. Polyamide fabric was surface modified with radiation-sensitive 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT). These samples responded to gamma radiation of 60Co through a colour change: red and blue for TTC and NBT, respectively. The tinge intensity was observed to depend on the absorbed dose, which allowed for the reflectance of light (R) measurements and calculation of the calibration parameters: dose range, quasi-linear range, threshold dose and sensitivity. Oxygen was shown to be an important factor determining the dose response of the samples. For this reason, a range of additional modifications to the TTC- and NBT-polyamide fabric was proposed which lead to a decrease in the threshold dose and increase in the sensitivity to irradiation of the samples. For instance, a dosimeter made of polyamide fabric modified with 10g/dm3 TTC, 0.5mol/dm3 tert-butyl alcohol, 7.5% gelatine hydrogel at pH 10 (vacuum packed) showed the lowest dose threshold (50Gy), dose range up to 2.8kGy and the highest sensitivity to irradiation (?0.0396%/Gy) among the compositions studied. In consequence, this dosimeter was examined in terms of response to inhomogeneous irradiation from a 192Ir brachytherapy radiation source. The relative dose distribution profiles across the source's longitudinal axis were calculated. This showed potential of the textile dosimeters for 2D dose distribution measurements; however, further modifications towards improvement of the dosimeter's low dose response can be considered.

M. Kozicki; E. S?siadek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

UNSCEAR Report 2000: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

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Since its inception in 1955 the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has periodically undertaken a broad review of the sources and the effects of ionising radiation. This latest report is in two concurrently published separate volumes. Volumes I and II provide updated reviews of sources and effects of ionising radiation respectively. A considerable amount of new material supports the review of sources. The review of biological effects takes on board various contemporary issues raised by the `linear-no-threshold' controversy. Particular emphasis has been given to the evaluation of exposures and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. As usual the report has an extended summary (17 pages) backed up by a number of technical annexes (A-J). The annexes have a wealth of basic data, extensive tables and voluminous reference lists. The two volumes are available separately from the United Nations and cost 60 per volume. They are also available from the Stationery Office, but only as a two volume set. If you are interested only in `sources' then you should be aware that the source-related aspects of the Chernobyl accident are largely covered in volume II on effects. Annex A of volume I provides a description of the methodologies used for the assessment of doses from natural, man-made environmental, medical and occupational radiation exposures, which are presented in subsequent annexes B, C, D and E respectively. The components of natural radiation (cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, inhalation and ingestion) have been evaluated and added to provide an estimate of the global average exposure. Since there are wide distributions of exposures from each source, the consequent effective doses combine in various ways at each location, depending on the specific concentration of radionuclides in the environment and in the body, the latitude and altitude of the location, and many other factors. The total annual global per caput effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv. A typical range of individual doses is considered to be 1-10 mSv. In any large population about 65% would be expected to have annual effective doses between 1 and 3 mSv, about 25% of the population would have annual effective doses less than 1 mSv and 10% would have annual effective doses greater than 3 mSv. The main man-made contribution to the environmental exposure of the world's population has come from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere that occurred mainly between 1945-1980. Since the previous UNSCEAR review of this topic in 1982 new information, previously classified, has become available on the numbers and yields of nuclear tests. An updated listing of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at each of the test sites is included in this report. Although the total explosive yields of each test have been divulged, the fission and fusion yields are still mostly suppressed. Some general assumptions have been made to allow the evaluation of fission and fusion yields of each test in order to estimate the amounts of radionuclides produced in the explosions. The estimated total of fission yields of individual tests is in agreement with the global deposition of the main fission radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs, as determined by worldwide monitoring networks. It has been calculated that the world average annual effective dose reached a peak of 150 ?Sv in 1963 and has since decreased to about 5 ?Sv in 2000, from residual radionuclides in the environment, mainly of 14C, 90Sr and 137Cs. The contribution to man-made exposures from the generation of electrical energy by nuclear power reactors has been estimated using a collective (100 year truncated) dose of 6 man-Sv per GW year. Assuming the present annual generation of 250 GW years continues, the truncated collective dose per year of practice is 1500 man-Sv to the world population, giving an estimated maximum per caput dose of less than 0.2 ?Sv per year. UNSCEAR has assessed the exposures from medical radiation procedures based on information obtaine

Monty Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose  

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New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose and Adaptive Response Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract We present preliminary results on a new computational method for systems biology of adaptive response and low dose effect from transcript and phenotypic data. The underlying concept is that a small subset of genes is triggered for each treatment condition or a phenotypic index. The concept of a small subset of genes translates to the sparsity constraint, which is applied computationally. The main advantage of this technique over traditional statistical methods is (i) direct application of sparsity, (ii) incorporating multi-class and multidimensional phenotypic profiles in one framework, and (iii) hypothesizing interaction networks simultaneously. Our

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301

Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Lung-Cancer Screening with Low-Dose Computed Tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...but complications of invasive testing were not. Across all three rounds of screening, 39% of the participants in the low-dose CT group had at least one positive result; more than 95% of these findings were falsely positive. Most patients with positive screening-test results required follow-up imaging... A large randomized trial showed that low-dose CT screening reduced the risk of lung-cancer death by 20% among long-time smokers. Recent guidelines support consideration of screening but with attention to the possibility of false positive results and associated risks.

Gould M.K.

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

303

Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGF? pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGF? signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGF? and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental approaches to apply to these problems using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to detail changes at low dose/dose-rate in order to understand individual cell responses, and will establish our mathematical models based on the experimental findings resulting from changes in DNA repair, apoptosis and proliferation.

O'Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effects of ionizing radiation on the response of certain photosensitive seeds to red light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and molecular oxygen. Studies of phosphate metabolism (Surrey and Gordon, 1962) and phosphorylation (Gordon and Surrey, 1961) indicate that energy transfer through phosphate esterification plays an important role and may be the key enzymatic reaction in red... spectrum promoting the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Smithsonian Inst. Pubis. Misc. Collections 96: 1-8 ~ 11. Gordon, S. A. , and K. Surrey. 1961. Phosphorylation and red-spectrum photomorphogenesis. ~n Effects of ionizing radiations...

Richardson, Billy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

305

Cumulative exposure to medical sources of ionizing radiation in the first year after pediatric heart transplantation  

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Background Pediatric heart transplant recipients undergo a variety of radiologic tests with the attendant risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. We sought to quantify and describe the cumulative exposure to all forms of medical radiation during the first year after pediatric heart transplantation and identify factors associated with higher exposure. Methods Pediatric patients who received a heart transplant between January 2009 and May 2012 with follow-up at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they survived through 1 year and the first coronary angiography. All medical testing using ionizing radiation performed during follow-up was compiled, and exposures were converted to effective dose (mSv). Results Included were 31 patients who underwent heart transplantation at a median age of 13.6 years (range, 0.318.3 years). The median number of radiologic tests performed was 38 (range, 18154), including 8 catheterizations (range, 212), and 28 X-ray images (range, 11135). Median cumulative effective dose was 53.5 mSv (range, 10.6153.5 mSv), of which 91% (range, 34%98%) derived from catheterizations, 31% (range, 8%89%) of the exposure occurred during the transplant admission, 59% (range, 11%88%) during planned follow-up, and 3% (0%56%) during unplanned follow-up. Older age at transplant was a risk factor for increased exposure (p = 0.006). When adjusted for age, a trend toward increased exposure was shown for congenital heart disease as the indication for transplant (p = 0.08), pre-sensitization (p = 0.12), and positive crossmatch (p = 0.09). Conclusions Pediatric heart transplant patients are exposed to significant amounts of ionizing radiation during the first post-transplant year, most during scheduled catheterization. As survival improves, considering the long-term risks associated with these levels of exposure is important.

Alicia McDonnell; Tacy E. Downing; Xiaowei Zhu; Rachel Ryan; Joseph W. Rossano; Andrew C. Glatz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Polymorphisms in Apoptosis- and Proliferation-Related Genes, Ionizing Radiation Exposure, and Risk of Breast Cancer among U.S. Radiologic Technologists  

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...radiation and breast cancer dose-response relationship...controls and quantified radiation breast doses in the low-to-moderate range. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers...Breast Cancer|SNPs|Ionizing radiation|Interaction|Radiobiological...

Alice J. Sigurdson; Parveen Bhatti; Michele M. Doody; Michael Hauptmann; Laura Bowen; Steven L. Simon; Robert M. Weinstock; Martha S. Linet; Marvin Rosenstein; Marilyn Stovall; Bruce H. Alexander; Dale L. Preston; Jeffrey P. Struewing; and Preetha Rajaraman

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Low-dose Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+ Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+ Treg Cells and Other Leukocytes Daila Gridley Loma Linda University and Medical Center Abstract Purpose: Radiation is a major factor in the spaceflight environment that can compromise immune defense mechanisms. Astronauts on missions are continuously exposed to lowdose/ low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation and may receive relatively high doses during a solar particle event (SPE) that consists primarily of protons. However, there are very few reports in which LDR photons were combined with protons. The goal of this study was to determine whether exposure to LDR γ-rays would modulate the effect of proton radiation mimicking an SPE. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1.7 Gy simulated SPE

308

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on...Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne...Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan c University of Florida, Proton...different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Gnther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

309

Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of Transforming Growth Factor ? In vitro from Irradiated Xenografts and during Palliative Treatment of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Preclinical Pharmacology Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of...linear function of the radiation dose over the range 0-10 Gy with r2 0...20: 91-5, 2000. Ionizing radiation causes a dose-dependent release of...

Michael Hagan; Adly Yacoub; and Paul Dent

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples for radiation exposure has...different types of ionizing radiation: X rays...mum, and a range of 301 mm in...mum, and a range of 99 mm in...dosimetry, and dose calculations...the dose of ionizing radiation killing 90...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Gnther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jrgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Abstract #2302: NVP-BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3 Kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) potently enhances the effects of ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. Benjamin...effects of ionizing radiation in vitro...BEZ235 at doses of 50 nM...radiation dose range from 0-8...NVP-BEZ235 doses of 1microM...damage after radiation.-H2AX...effect of ionizing radiation in a range of epithelial...

Benjamin Solomon; Anthony Natoli; Jim Hagekyriakou; Carleen Cullinane; and Grant McArthur

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Human Heterochromatin Protein 1 Isoforms HP1Hs? and HP1Hs? Interfere with hTERT-Telomere Interactions and Correlate with Changes in Cell Growth and Response to Ionizing Radiation  

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...subsequently exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The...a particular dose of radiation. The cells...to IR in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy...treatment. Dose response curves...treated with ionizing radiation while growing...

Girdhar G. Sharma; Kyu-kye Hwang; Raj K. Pandita; Arun Gupta; Sonu Dhar; Julie Parenteau; Manjula Agarwal; Howard J. Worman; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Theory of Multiphoton Multielectron Ionization of Xenon under Strong 93-eV Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theoretical interpretation of recent experimental results on multiphoton multiple ionization of xenon by soft-x-ray radiation of photon energy ?93??eV and intensity up to 1016??W/cm2 [A.?A Sorokin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213002 (2007)]. The data are interpreted within multiphoton perturbation theory, taking into account the spatiotemporal distribution of the radiation. Multiphoton cross sections have been obtained through a technique of scaling, with occasional adjustment to the data, provided the two prove to be compatible. Whatever discrepancies between theory and experiment persist can be reasonably attributed to some uncertainty in the experimental conditions and possibly to the value of some cross sections, without, however, any evidence for nonperturbative behavior.

M. G. Makris; P. Lambropoulos; A. Miheli?

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 4501000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Roles of TNFα Signaling and NFκB in Thiol- and Low Dose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Roles of TNFα Signaling and NFκB in Thiol- and Low Dose Radiation-Induced Roles of TNFα Signaling and NFκB in Thiol- and Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses Jeffrey S. Murley The University of Chicago Abstract To better investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling processes and nuclear transcription factor κB (NFκB) activation on the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) mediated adaptive responses, we employed a two by two experimental matrix that includes the use of both wild type C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and 2 (TNFR1-R2-) knockout mice, and ras/c-myc transfected wild type and TNFR1-R2- knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). MEF were immortalized in order to facilitate their use in our mouse models to test the role of normal or TNFR1-R2- stromal cells and tissues on their responses to thiol

318

Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

319

Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...micronucleus formation, mutation induction and single-strand break...generated using a function generator and power amplifier connected...Assuming the same level of DSB induction, we conclude that the difference...low-dose radiation To assess the induction of 53BP1 foci after low-dose...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ionizing Radiation Damage to the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cell survival Dose (krad) % Recovery...it is in the range of sedimentation...that direct, radiation-induced cross-linking...during repair of ionizing radiation damage (3...is within the range ofsedimentation...biologically significant dose range. Unfortu...

Kevin M. Ulmer; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Anthony J. Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ionizing radiation damage to the folded chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: sedimentation properties of irradiated nucleoids and chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation listed in Table 2 were calculated...4, 5). For this reason, doses of ionizing radiation in excess of 10 krads were used...the biologically significant dose range of less than 10 krads suggested...

K M Ulmer; R F Gomez; A J Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Enhancement of Antitumor Activity of Ionizing Radiation by Combined Treatment with the Selective Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Table 1 Effect of ionizing radiation or of ZD1839 treatment on the...were calculated by performing dose-response experiments. Cancer cells were exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation (range, 10-250 cGy) or to different...

Cataldo Bianco; Giampaolo Tortora; Roberto Bianco; Roberta Caputo; Bianca Maria Veneziani; Rosa Caputo; Vincenzo Damiano; Teresa Troiani; Gabriella Fontanini; David Raben; Stefano Pepe; A. Raffaele Bianco; and Fortunato Ciardiello

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTIAL IONIZATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.

Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

Nitric Acid Deposition following an Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Event is below Critical Loads for Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitric acid rainout is one of the effects of an astrophysical ionizing radiation event. The predicted values of nitrate rainout from previous work for a typical gamma ray burst (GRB) within our galaxy serve as an extreme example and are shown to be below critical loads of eutrophication and acidification for ecoregions in Europe and the US.

Melott, Ben Neuenswander Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Excitational energy transfer enhancing ionization and spatial-temporal evolution of air breakdown with UV laser radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with UV laser radiation Jason S. Hummelta and John E. Scharer Department of Electrical and Computer of oxygen has on the ionization of nitrogen in laser air breakdown. Plasma is created by focusing a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using an 18 cm focal length lens, producing a cylindrical 540 m wide spot

Scharer, John E.

326

KUB5/HERA: a dual acting protein that suppresses genomic instability and promotes DNA repair after low dose IR exposure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

KUB5/HERA: a dual acting protein that suppresses genomic instability and KUB5/HERA: a dual acting protein that suppresses genomic instability and promotes DNA repair after low dose IR exposure Julio C. Morales 1 , Amy Rommel 1 , Konstantin Leskov 2 , Walter M. Hittelman 3 , David A. Boothman 1# 1 Simmons Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. 2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. 3 Department of Experimental Therapeutics, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. # To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: David.Boothman@utsouthwestern.edu Eukaryotic cells can respond to DNA double strand breaks created by low doses of IR by activating homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end- joining (NHEJ) pathways to repair DNA. A yeast two-hybrid screen using Ku70 as

327

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation on Earth...the acute doses to which...damage of ionizing radiation but rather...from a wide range of environments...showing the range of morphological...to various doses of gamma ionizing radiation Dose (kGy...

Fred A. Rainey; Keren Ray; Margarida Ferreira; Bridget Z. Gatz; M. Fernanda Nobre; Danielle Bagaley; Brian A. Rash; Mie-Jung Park; Ashlee M. Earl; Nicole C. Shank; Alanna M. Small; Margaret C. Henk; John R. Battista; Peter Kmpfer; Milton S. da Costa

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjacent low-dose fields Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data by Penalized Weighted Least... properties of calibrated low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) projection data, it is clearly seen that the data... information for an...

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates multiple low-dose Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data by Penalized Weighted Least... properties of calibrated low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) projection data, it is clearly seen that the data... information for an...

330

No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137Cs γ rays:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rithidech et al, 2006 1 Rithidech et al, 2006 1 No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137 Cs γ rays: Kanokporn Noy Rithidech 1 , Chatchanok Loetchutinat 1 , Louise Honikel 1 , and Elbert B. Whorton 2 1 Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 2 Molecular Epidemiology Research Program, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77555-1153 Assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy) is still a challenging public health issue. It is therefore important to improve our understanding of potential induction of genomic instability in vivo by this low-dose range because it has been widely suggested that elevation of genomic instability also elevates cancer

331

European Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Project RISC-RAD Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations Laure Sabatier 1 , L.H.F Mullenders 2 , Mike Atkinson 3 , Simon Bouffler 4 , Herwig Paretzke 5 1 Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, CEA, 18 route du panorama BP6 92265 Fontenay-aux- Roses, France 2 LUMC, Department of Toxicogenetics, Postal Zone S-4-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3 GSF- Institute of Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Germany 4 HPA Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, UK 5 GSF- Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, D-85764 Germany In radiological protection, the risks of inducing stochastic health effects (largely cancer) by a

332

Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

333

Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong [Department of Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ionizing-Radiation Resistance in the Desiccation-Tolerant CyanobacteriumChroococcidiopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...differences between radiation-resistant and radiation-susceptible microorganisms...after exposure to high doses of X rays ranging...cultures used for radiation experiments were 3-month-old...Goleta, Calif.). Estimation of survival. To determine...

Daniela Billi; E. Imre Friedmann; Kurt G. Hofer; Maria Grilli Caiola; Roseli Ocampo-Friedmann

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999).

337

The Reproductive Effects in Rats after Chronic Oral Exposure to Low-dose Depleted Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Oral Exposure to Low-dose Depleted Uranium Yuhui Hao Rong Li * Yanbing...study evaluated the effects of depleted uranium (DU) on reproduction in rats...effects were obvious in F1 rats. Depleted uranium|Ingestion|Reproductive effects......

Yuhui Hao; Rong Li; Yanbing Leng; Jiong Ren; Jing Liu; Guoping Ai; Hui Xu; Yongping Su; Tianmin Cheng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Effects of Mn and Fe Levels on Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance and Effects of Mn2+, Other Divalent Cations, Orthophosphate, and Dipicolinic Acid on Protein Resistance to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro display...response to dose, with increasing...doses of gamma radiation increase...within a narrow range of Mn concentrations...from gamma ray doses (15 kGy...resistance to ionizing radiation, desiccation...

Amanda C. Granger; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Michael J. Daly; Peter Setlow

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

A study Assessing the Genotoxicity in Rats after Chronic Oral Exposure to a Low Dose of Depleted Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Oral Exposure to a Low Dose of Depleted Uranium Yuhui Hao Rong Li * Yanbing...by chronic oral exposure to depleted uranium (DU). Materials and methods...exposure to a low dose of DU. Depleted uranium|Ingestion|Genotoxicity......

Yuhui Hao; Rong Li; Yanbing Leng; Jiong Ren; Jing Liu; Guoping Ai; Hui Xu; Yongping Su; Tianmin Cheng

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Session Abstracts Treatment Radiation Therapy CTRC-AACR San...breast-conserving therapy in Japan: comparison of the treatment...Mitsumori 1 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied...Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2 Department of Radiology...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Zebrafish as a Biosensor? Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Amifostine on Embryonic Viability and Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental Health and Radiation Safety at the University...LabSpectrum v2.0.1 software (Scanalytics...and exposed to radiation at 4 hpf. Immediately...minutes before radiation exposure. For...Molecular Imaging Software, version 4.0...

Geoffrey A. Geiger; Sharon E. Parker; Andrew P. Beothy; Jennifer A. Tucker; Mary C. Mullins; and Gary D. Kao

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation treatment plans provided serum...long-established gold standard biomarker of radiation...Institutional Review Board-approved...using visual data mining techniques showed...exposure, gold standard lymphocyte assays...through visual data mining activities that...radiation treatment plans provided serum...

Cynthia Mnard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates ionizing radiation-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

silica optical Summary: measurements and the so-called radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured in dBm. TSL measurements have been... measurements. Connections between...

345

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (RM) (Italy); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Faber, S. M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: vanzella@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

HIV-1 Tat depresses DNA-PK{sub CS} expression and DNA repair, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose There is accumulating evidence that cancer patients with human immmunodeficiency virus-1/acquired immunodeficency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS) have more severe tissue reactions and often develop cutaneous toxic effects when subjected to radiotherapy. Here we explored the effects of the HIV-1 Tat protein on cellular responses to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials Two Tat-expressing cell lines, TT2 and TE671-Tat, were derived from human rhabdomyosarcoma cells by transfecting with the HIV-1 tat gene. Radiosensitivity was determined using colony-forming ability. Gene expression was assessed by cDNA microarray and immunohybridization. The Comet assay and {gamma}-H2AX foci were use to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The radiosensitivity of TT2 and TE671-Tat cells was significantly increased as compared with parental TE671 cells or the control TE671-pCI cells. Tat also increased proliferation activity. The comet assay and {gamma}H2AX foci detection revealed a decreased capacity to repair radiation-induced DNA DSBs in Tat-expressing cells. Microarray assay demonstrated that the DNA repair gene DNA-PKcs, and cell cycle-related genes Cdc20, Cdc25C, KIF2C and CTS1 were downregulated in Tat-expressing cells. Depression of DNA-PKcs in Tat-expressing cells was further confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-hybridization analysis. Tat-expressing cells exhibited a prolonged S phase arrest after 4 Gy {gamma}-irradiation, and a noticeable delay in the initiation and elimination of radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest as compared with parental cells. In addition, the G{sub 2}/M arrest was incomplete in TT2 cells. Moreover, HIV-1 Tat resulted in a constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 protein. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation via depressing DNA repair and dysregulating cell cycle checkpoints. These observations provide new insight into the increased tissue reactions of AIDS cancer patients to radiotherapy.

Sun Yi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Huang Yuechen [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Xu Qinzhi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang Huiping [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Bai Bei [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Sui Jianli [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhou Pingkun [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: zhoupk@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A DSM-based 2.0 System for Human Intervention Planning and Scheduling in Facilities Emitting Ionizing Radiations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To efficiently and safely plan, schedule and control its interventions in underground facilities, which are subject to ionizing radiations, CERN is currently developing a collaborative Web-based system. A similar project for maintenance management is also under way. On top of presenting their key requirements, this paper shows how the implementation of DSM can enhance a so-called Web 2.0 or collaborative dimension by bringing an intuitive and fair way of taking the dependencies between several activities into account. It is also discussed that the incoherencies brought in DSM by collaborative use (for instance regarding the time intervals) can be addressed by enlarging the binary DSM span of dependencies to ones of the Allens interval algebra or at least a subset of its dependencies.

Baudin, M; De Jonghe, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Ionization chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

Walenta, Albert H. (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

Boschini, M J; Gervasi, M; Giani, S; Grandi, D; Ivantchenko, V; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

EGFR Nuclear Translocation Modulates DNA Repair following Cisplatin and Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...results suggest that nuclear expression of EGFR plays...the mechanisms by which nuclear expression modulates...C2259/A9994). The costs of publication of this...DNA-PK kinase assay. The graph shows the percentage...radiation-induced EGFR nuclear import by C225 (cetuximab...

Gianmaria Liccardi; John A. Hartley; and Daniel Hochhauser

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a multi-scale simulation of early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl ($^\\bullet$OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with the ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of $^\\bullet$OH-radicals extracted from the ionization track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-$^\\bullet$OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 \\AA. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA base and backbone damages that collectively propagate ...

Abolfath, Ramin M; Chen, Zhe J; Nath, Ravinder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Low LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse Randy Jirtle Duke University Medical Center Abstract Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation significantly alters the epigenome in somatic cells and gametes (Filkowski and others, 2009), yet it has not been determined if epigenomic modifications occur below 10 cGy. Epigenetic dysregulation during early development is mechanistically linked to the pathogenesis of adult-onset diseases (Jirtle and Skinner, 2007). Thus, we sought to determine whether low doses of ionizing radiation during early gestation affect susceptibility to adult-onset diseases by deregulating the establishment of DNA methylation patterns. Agouti viable yellow (Avy) mice were used to test this novel postulate because they are

355

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: U.S. Department of Energy -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Publications Search Publications Year of Publication: Any 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1981 1980 1979 1978 1973 1970 1968 1956 Source: Select a Source... Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 27th Annual CNS Conference and 30th CNS/CAN Student Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Accounts of Chemical Research Acta Histochemica Acta Med. Nagasaki Advances in Medical Physics 2006 Advances in Space Research AJR, American J. of Roentgenology American Assoc. for Cancer Research American J. of Clinical Nutrition American J. of Epidemiology American J. of Human Genetics American J. of Pathology American Journal of Industrial Medicine American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology American Scientist

356

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Checkpoint Responses and Repair of a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Checkpoint Responses and Repair of a Broken Chromosome in Budding Checkpoint Responses and Repair of a Broken Chromosome in Budding Yeast. Authors: André Walther, Mreshwar B. Vaze, Anna Malkova, Grzegorz Ira, Xuan Wang, Jung-Ae Kim, Neal Sugawara, James E. Haber Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts We have studied how yeast cells respond to the creation of a single double-strand break (DSB) by using a site-specific endonuclease to create one (or more) DSBs. In collaboration with R. Schroff, M. Licheten and W. Bonner (NIH) we have shown that a single DSB rapidly becomes associated with histone H2AX-phosphorylation (y-H2AX) covering a distance of about 25 kb on either side of the DSB. The drop-off in phosphorylation is not attributable to specific boundary sequences. y-H2AX can be phosphorylated by either ATR (Mec1) or ATM (Tel1) protein kinases. A mutation that removes

357

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Risk of Cancer Induction Due to  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Risk of Cancer Induction Due to Routine Mammographic Screening Featured Project Description David J. Brenner, Steve Marino, and Charles Geard, Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York Summary: To obtain realistic and credible risk estimates for breast-cancer mortality due to clinical mammographic imaging examinations. Abstract: The aim of this work is to obtain realistic and credible risk estimates for breast-cancer mortality due to clinical mammographic imaging examinations. Given the increasing emphasis on clinical mammographic screening for breast cancer, it is of societal importance to provide realistic risk estimates with realistic confidence bounds for breast cancer

358

Low dose radiation interations with the transformation growth factor (TGF)-beta pathway  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-beta inactivation and compared the results to the TGF-beta response post x-ray irradiation. It was found that a TGF-beta response could be measured in the perfused tracheal tissue, for x-ray and Fe particle irradiations, despite the high autofluorescent background...

Maslowski, Amy Jesse

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Community Surveys Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones ...

Mertz, C K; Johnson, S; MacGregor, D G; Satterfield, T

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to establish a dose response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions were an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then Subsequently published. The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies.

J. Leslie Redpath, Ph.D.

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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361

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in aluminoborosilicate glasses under ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses were prepared by melting in air at high temperature ({approx}1500 {sup o}C). It was shown by luminescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements that both Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} ions can exist simultaneously in the glass matrix studied after glass synthesis as well as after exposure to ionizing radiation. Increase of total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration leads to the increase of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence intensity while the luminescence intensity of Eu{sup 2+} ions tends to decrease. In contrast the EPR indicates that the amount of Eu{sup 2+} ions in the glass increases with total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The difference in the results of the two spectroscopies is explained in terms of energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} leading to an Eu{sup 2+} luminescence quenching. Irradiation results in the increase of reduced Eu{sup 2+} quantity detected by EPR measurements. It was shown that Eu{sup 2+} ions are located in both high (g {approx} 4.6) and low symmetry ('U' spectrum) sites in the structure of aluminoborosilicate glasses. The increase of Eu{sup 2+} content by the increase of the irradiation dose manifests the strong reduction process Eu{sup 3+} {yields} Eu{sup 2+}.

Malchukova, E., E-mail: genia@poly.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Boizot, B. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Its Repair in Human Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DNA damage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured mammalian cells including human cells was studied. In the first phase of these studies, a cell culture laboratory was established. Necessary equipment including an incubator, a sterile laminar flow hood and several centrifuges was purchased. We have successfully grown several cell lines such as murine hybridoma cells, V79 cells and human K562 leukemia cells. This was followed by the establishment of a methodology for the isolation of chromatin from cells. This was a very important step, because a routine and successful isolation of chromatin was a prerequisite for the success of the further studies in this project, the aim of which was the measurement of DNA darnage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured cells. Chromatin isolation was accomplished using a slightly modified procedure of the one described by Mee & Adelstein (1981). For identification and quantitation of DNA damage in cells, analysis of chromatin was preferred over the analysis of "naked DNA" for the following reasons: i. DNA may not be extracted efficiently from nucleoprotein in exposed cells, due to formation of DNA-protein cross-links, ii. the extractability of DNA is well known to decrease with increasing doses of radiation, iii. portions of DNA may not be extracted due to fragmentation, iv. unextracted DNA may contain a significant portion of damaged DNA bases and DNA-protein cross-links. The technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which was used in the present project, permits the identification and quantitation of modified DNA bases in chromatin in the presence of proteins without the necessity of first isolating DNA from chromatin. This has been demonstrated previously by the results from our laboratory and by the results obtained during the course of the present project. The quality of isolated chromatin was tested by measurement of its content of DNA, proteins, and RNA, by analysis of its protein components using gel electrophoresis, and by absorption spectral analysis. GeneraUy, the RNA content was <5% of the amount of DNA, and the ratio of the amount of protein to that of DNA was =1. 8-2 (w/w). Having developed a suitable methodology for routine isolation of chromatin from mammalian cells, studies of DNA damage in chromatin in vitro and in cultured human cells were pursued.

Dizdaroglu, Miral

1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents...rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After...isolation & purification radiation effects DNA Damage Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Genes radiation effects...

M A Papathanasiou; N C Kerr; J H Robbins; O W McBride; I Alamo Jr; S F Barrett; I D Hickson; A J Fornace Jr

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Regulatory T-Cell Responses to Low-Dose Interleukin-2 in HCV-Induced Vasculitis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ended in July 2010. It was approved by the hospital's institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The study was performed in accordance with the protocol and the statistical analysis plan (both available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org). All... This phase 1phase 2a study of the use of low-dose interleukin-2 to treat vasculitis associated with HCV infection suggests the presence of a therapeutic effect that is mediated by an increase in regulatory T cells.

Saadoun D.; Rosenzwajg M.; Joly F.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Estimate of Secondary Cancers in the Era of High-Speed CT Scanning: Projections From the Medicare Population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the distribution and amount of ionizing radiation delivered by CT scans in the modern era of high-speed CT and to estimate cancer risk in the elderly, the patient group most frequently imaged using CT scanning. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Medicare claims spanning 8 years (1998-2005) to assess CT use. The data were analyzed in two 4-year cohorts, 1998 to 2001 (n = 5,267,230) and 2002 to 2005 (n = 5,555,345). The number and types of CT scans each patient received over the 4-year periods were analyzed to determine the percentage of patients exposed to threshold radiation of 50 to 100 mSv (defined as low) and >100 mSv (defined as high). The National Research Council's Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models were used to estimate the number of radiation-induced cancers. Results CT scans of the head were the most common examinations in both Medicare cohorts, but abdominal imaging delivered the greatest proportion (43% in the first cohort and 40% in the second cohort) of radiation. In the 1998 to 2001 cohort, 42% of Medicare patients underwent CT scans, with 2.2% and 0.5% receiving radiation doses in the low and high ranges, respectively. In the 2002 to 2005 cohort, 50% of Medicare patients received CT scans, with 4.2% and 1.2% receiving doses in the low and high ranges. In the two populations, 1,659 (0.03%) and 2,185 (0.04%) cancers related to ionizing radiation were estimated, respectively. Conclusions Although radiation doses have been increasing along with the increasing reliance on CT scans for diagnosis and therapy, using conservative estimates with worst-case scenario methodology, the authors found that the risk for secondary cancers is low in older adults, the group subjected to the most frequent CT scanning. Trends showing increasing use, however, underscore the importance of monitoring CT utilization and its consequences.

Aabed B. Meer; Pat A. Basu; Laurence C. Baker; Scott W. Atlas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Toxic effects of low doses of Bisphenol-A on human placental cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Humans are exposed daily to a great number of xenobiotics and their metabolites present as pollutants. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is extensively used in a broad range of products including baby bottles, food-storage containers, medical equipment, and consumer electronics. Thus, BPA is the most common monomer for polycarbonates intended for food contact. Levels of this industrial product are found in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, placental tissue, umbilical cord blood, and maternal urine. In this study, we investigated toxic effects of BPA concentrations close to levels found in serum of pregnant women on human cytotrophoblasts (CTB). These cells were isolated from fresh placentas and exposed to BPA for 24 h. Our results showed that very low doses of BPA induce apoptosis (2 to 3 times) as assessed using M30 antibody immunofluorescent detection, and necrosis (1.3 to 1.7 times) as assessed through the cytosolic Adenylate Kinase (AK) activity after cell membrane damage. We also showed that BPA increased significantly the tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression and protein excretion as measured by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA luminescent test, respectively. Moreover, we observed that induction of AK activation and TNF-alpha gene expression require lower levels of BPA than apoptosis or TNF-alpha protein excretion. Our findings suggest that exposure of placental cells to low doses of BPA may cause detrimental effects, leading in vivo to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and pregnancy loss.

Benachour, Nora [Laboratory of Research in Reproductive and Gestational Health, Quebec (Canada); Aris, Aziz, E-mail: aziz.aris@usherbrooke.c [Laboratory of Research in Reproductive and Gestational Health, Quebec (Canada); Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology, University of Sherbrooke Hospital Centre, Quebec (Canada)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Modulating radiation induced TGFβ and ATM signaling in the DNA damage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modulating radiation induced TGFβ and ATM signaling in the DNA damage Modulating radiation induced TGFβ and ATM signaling in the DNA damage response Jennifer A. Anderson Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology Abstract Both the ATM and TGFβ signal transduction pathways are essential for cellular and tissue control responses to ionizing radiation and aberrant modifications to these pathways are extensive in cancer. We hypothesize that the ATM and TGFβ signaling pathways are fully induced at high doses of acute low-LET radiation, whereas only partially induced at low doses. Numerous studies have linked the p38 MAPK signaling pathway with the ATM DNA damage response, and others have shown that TGFβ stimulation results in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Our aim is to perturb potential crosstalk between ATM, TGFβ and p38 MAPK at the DNA damage level and

369

RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 397401 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for risk estimation for low-dose radiation. 2001 by Radiation Research Society INTRODUCTION It has been to low doses of particles, biological effects occur in a larger proportion of cells than are estimated397 RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 397­401 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00 2001 by Radiation Research Society

370

Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tim H.-M., E-mail: Tim.Huang@osumc.ed [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Revisiting Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a highly effective treatment for mycosis fungoides (MF). The standard course consists of 30 to 36 Gy delivered over an 8- to 10-week period. This regimen is time intensive and associated with significant treatment-related toxicities including erythema, desquamation, anhydrosis, alopecia, and xerosis. The aim of this study was to identify a lower dose alternative while retaining a favorable efficacy profile. Methods and Materials: One hundred two MF patients were identified who had been treated with an initial course of low-dose TSEBT (5-<30 Gy) between 1958 and 1995. Patients had a T stage classification of T2 (generalized patch/plaque, n = 51), T3 (tumor, n = 29), and T4 (erythrodermic, n = 22). Those with extracutaneous disease were excluded. Results: Overall response (OR) rates (>50% improvement) were 90% among patients with T2 to T4 disease receiving 5 to <10 Gy (n = 19). In comparison, OR rates between the 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy subgroups were 98% and 97%, respectively. There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (PFS) in T2 and T3 patients when stratified by dose group, and PFS in each was comparable to that of the standard dose. Conclusions: OR rates associated with low-dose TSEBT in the ranges of 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy are comparable to that of the standard dose ({>=} 30 Gy). Efficacy measures including OS, PFS, and RFS are also favorable. Given that the efficacy profile is similar between 10 and <20 Gy and 20 and <30 Gy, the utility of TSEBT within the lower dose range of 10 to <20 Gy merits further investigation, especially in the context of combined modality treatment.

Harrison, Cameron, E-mail: cameronh@stanford.edu [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Young, James; Navi, Daniel [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Riaz, Nadeem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Lingala, Bharathi; Kim, Youn [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Marianne B. Sowa, Claere von Neubeck, R. Joe Robinson, Paula M. Koehler, Norman J. Karin, Xihai Wang, Katrina M. Waters and Harish Shankaran Ionizing radiation exposure triggers a cell signaling program which includes proliferation, the DNA damage response, and tissue remodeling. The activated signaling pathways lead to the induction of both protective effects as well as adverse consequences. A fundamental question is whether signaling cascades initiated by low doses are fundamentally different than those initiated by high doses. To address this question we have applied a systems biology approach to examine the radiation induced temporal responses of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model. Using microarray-

373

Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.

Wu, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Schrimpf, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Quality of Life of Oral Cancer Patients After Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the quality of life (QOL) of oral cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (LDR-BT) alone. Methods and Materials: Between June 2005 and July 2006, a total of 56 patients with oral cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. QOL was assessed by means of the core questionnaire and head and neck questionnaire module of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 [QLQ-C30] and QLQ Head and Neck 35 [H and N35]). The questionnaires were distributed to the patients before the start of treatment and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the start of LDR-BT. Results: It was possible to analyze the results for 20 of the initial 56 patients because they did not experience metastasis or recurrence during this study. No functions or symptoms asked about in the QLQ-C30 deteriorated during the first year. The emotional function score steadily and significantly increased. No symptoms in the QLQ-H and N35 significantly deteriorated. The scores for pain, trouble with social eating, and weight loss on the QLQ-H and N35 steadily and significantly decreased. Age, gender, and LDR-BT source had no effect on the change in QOL during the first year, but T-stage significantly affected the change in global health status, tumor site affected the changes in swallowing, sensory problems, sticky saliva, and complications affected the changes in pain, swallowing, and mouth opening. Conclusions: QOL of oral cancer patients treated with LDR-BT is high. However, tumor stage, tumor site, and complications affected the changes in a few functions and symptoms during the first year.

Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: ryoshimu@ncc.go.jp; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Miura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ayukawa, Fumio; Hayashi, Keiji; Toda, Kazuma [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Human Endometrium Following Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Contraceptive Intrauterine Systems (LNG-IUS-12) 13.5mg  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To study the effect of low-dose levonorgestrel contraceptive intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS-12) on endometrial morphology and ultrastructure...

Minghan Chai; Shili Su; Baihua Dong

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to 137cesium in the Goinia (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro doseresponse curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X2+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to 137cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation.

Marjori L. Camparoto; Adriana T. Ramalho; Adayapalam T. Natarajan; Maria P. Curado; Elza T. Sakamoto-Hojo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fundamental Carcinogenic Processes and Their Implications for Low Dose Risk Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...only provide insight into the fundamental mechanisms regulating radioresponse...results indicate that radiation does modify gene expression but does so primarily via post-transcriptional...not only contribute to the fundamental understanding of cellular radioresponse...

K. S. Crump; D. G. Hoel; C. H. Langley; and R. Peto

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ultra Low-Dose IL-2 for GVHD Prophylaxis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Mediates Expansion of Regulatory T Cells without Diminishing Antiviral and Antileukemic Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...after alloSCT. We found that ultra-low doses of IL-2 (100...ZP, et alA phase I study of ultra low dose interleukin-2 and...21. Gottlieb DJ , Brenner MK, Heslop HE, Bianchi AC, Bello-Fernandez...Heslop HE, Bello C Brenner MK.IL-2 infusion abrogates humoral...

Alana A. Kennedy-Nasser; Stephanie Ku; Paul Castillo-Caro; Yasmin Hazrat; Meng-Fen Wu; Hao Liu; Jos Melenhorst; A. John Barrett; Sawa Ito; Aaron Foster; Barbara Savoldo; Eric Yvon; George Carrum; Carlos A. Ramos; Robert A. Krance; Kathryn Leung; Helen E. Heslop; Malcolm K. Brenner; and Catherine M. Bollard

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

[Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair in human cells]. Progress report, [April 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The excision of radiation-induced lesions in DNA by a DNA repair enzyme complex, namely the UvrABC nuclease complex, has been investigated. Irradiated DNA was treated with the enzyme complex. DNA fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. The results showed that a number pyrimidine- and purine-derived lesions in DNA were excised by the UvrABC nuclease complex and that the enzyme complex does not act on radiation-induced DNA lesions as a glycosylase. This means that it does not excise individual base products, but it excises oligomers containing these lesions. A number of pyrimidine-derived lesions that were no substrates for other DNA repair enzymes investigated in our laboratory were substrates for the UvrABC nuclease complex.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

PM2 DNA, Forms I and I: a quantitative comparison of strand breakage induced by ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr R. D. Neff A quantitative comparison of strand breakage production rates, induced by 250 kvP X-rays, was examined for PM2 DNA, Form I and Form I . Assay of the irrad. iated DNA samples was 0 accomplished by tube gel... AND METHODS DNA Preparation Radiation Protocol Azarose 1 Buffer ~garose Gels Tube Gel Electrophoresis Spectrofluorometry with Electronic Quantif'ication RESULTS DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 VITA ~Pa e ~ 22 22 24...

Myers, Peter Hall

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Fast local Reconstruction algorithm by selective backprojection for Low-Dose in Dental Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the lifetime risk of cancer, which become a major clinical concern. The backprojection-filtration (BPF) algorithm could reduce radiation dose by reconstructing images from truncated data in a short scan. In dental CT, it could reduce radiation dose for the teeth by using the projection acquired in a short scan, and could avoid irradiation to other part by using truncated projection. However, the limit of integration for backprojection varies per PI-line, resulting in low calculation efficiency and poor parallel performance. Recently, a tent BPF (T-BPF) has been proposed to improve calculation efficiency by rearranging projection. However, the memory-consuming data rebinning process is included. Accordingly, the chose-BPF (C-BPF) algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, the derivative of projection is backprojected to the points whose x coordinate is less than that of the source focal spot to obtain the differentiated backprojection...

Bin, Yan; Yu, Han; Feng, Zhang; Chao, Wang Xian; Lei, Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Patterns of cell division, DNA base compositions, and fine structures of some radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria found in food.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...29. Thornley, M. J. 1963. Radiation resistance among bac- VOL...Glauert. 1968. Fine structure and radiation resistance in Acinetobacter studies...Maxcy. 1971. Impact of low doses of gamma radiation and storage of the microflora...

S W Sanders; R B Maxcy

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Repair-dependent cell radiation survival and transformation: an integrated theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The repair-dependent model of cell radiation survival is extended to include radiation-induced transformations. The probability of transformation is presumed to scale with the number of potentially lethal damages that are repaired in a surviving cell or the interactions of such damages. The theory predicts that at doses corresponding to high survival, the transformation frequency is the sum of simple polynomial functions of dose; linear, quadratic, etc, essentially as described in widely used linear-quadratic expressions. At high doses, corresponding to low survival, the ratio of transformed to surviving cells asymptotically approaches an upper limit. The low dose fundamental- and high dose plateau domains are separated by a downwardly concave transition region. Published transformation data for mammalian cells show the high-dose plateaus predicted by the repair-dependent model for both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. For the neoplastic transformation experiments that were analyzed, the data can be fit with only the repair-dependent quadratic function. At low doses, the transformation frequency is strictly quadratic, but becomes sigmodial over a wider range of doses. Inclusion of data from the transition region in a traditional linear-quadratic analysis of neoplastic transformation frequency data can exaggerate the magnitude of, or create the appearance of, a linear component. Quantitative analysis of survival and transformation data shows good agreement for ultraviolet radiation; the shapes of the transformation components can be predicted from survival data. For ionizing radiations, both neutrons and x-rays, survival data overestimate the transforming ability for low to moderate doses. The presumed cause of this difference is that, unlike UV photons, a single x-ray or neutron may generate more than one lethal damage in a cell, so the distribution of such damages in the population is not accurately described by Poisson statistics. However, the complete sigmodial dose-response data for neoplastic transformations can be fit using the repair-dependent functions with all parameters determined only from transformation frequency data.

John C Sutherland

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......genome-wide scan, there are now plans to expand this search genome...scientific support of future regulatory and policy actions. Specific...scientific support of future regulatory and policy actions. FUNDING...More information on this review can be found at www.epri......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Estimation of radiation exposure in low-dose multislice computed tomography of the heart and comparison with a calculation program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multidetector technology in combination with decreasing rotation times and high-performance X-ray tubes brings CT back in the ring of non-invasive cardiac imaging. The price we have to pay for this seems to be a ...

C. Hohl; G. Mhlenbruch; J. E. Wildberger; C. Leidecker; C. S߅

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 05Gy 60Co ?-rays in vitro, and doseeffect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the doseeffect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that doseeffect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two doseeffect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR.

Qing-Jie Liu; Xue Lu; Xiao-Tao Zhao; Jiang-Bin Feng; Yu-Min L; En-Hai Jiang; Shu-Lan Zhang; De-Qing Chen; Ting-Zhen Jia; Li Liang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted laser ionization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of a high power pulsed far-infrared laser. Furthermore, impurity ionization with terahertz radiation can... of ionization capture processes due to the Poole-Frenkel...

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - activities involving ionizing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics 62 Magnetic field effect on tunnel ionization of deep impurities by terahertz radiation S.D. Ganichev1 Summary: Magnetic field effect on tunnel ionization of...

389

Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

Kaothekar, Sachin [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India); Soni, Ghanshyam D. [Government Girls Degree College, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chhajlani, Rajendra K. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Colour and lipid oxidation changes in dry-cured loins from free-range reared and intensively reared pigs as affected by ionizing radiation dose level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of irradiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured loin slices from pigs fed on concentrate (CON) or free-range reared (FRG) was studied in relation to colour changes, TBA-RS and hexanal content. Both, ionizing radiation and type of loin had a significant effect on the instrumental colour parameters of the samples. Irradiation resulted in significantly higher a*-values in both sets of loins, indicating a redder colour. Numerically calculated total colour difference (?E) changes were significantly less intense in CON vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices than in FRG samples and changed significantly at 10 kGy dose levels in both types of samples. TBA-RS numbers were significantly affected by irradiation dose and type of loin and increased linearly with dose in both types of slices. Increments in TBA-RS numbers in FRG loin slices was dose-dependent and was closely related to the type of dry-cured loin. Irradiation of dry-cured loin slices significantly increased hexanal contents in both groups of loins and the increases were dose-dependent and greater in FRG samples than in CON samples. Differences in the characteristics of the raw material and initial lipid oxidation level could play an important role in the irradiation-induced changes in vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices.

A. Carrasco; R. Trrega; M.R. Ramrez; F.J. Mingoarranz; R. Cava

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

On The Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Arising From Star-Forming Galaxies At Redshift z ~ 3-4 : Looking For Analogs Of "Stellar Reionizers"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the spatially-resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z~3.7 identified using ultra-deep imaging below the Lyman limit (1-sigma limit of ~30 AB in a 2" diameter aperture). In 18 candidates, out of a sample of 19 with flux detected at >3-sigma level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the LBG by up to 1.5". We fit the SED of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f_esc) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these fi...

Vanzella, Eros; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Cristiani, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Nonino, Mario; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey; Faber, S M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Newman, Jeffrey; Siana, Brian D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Quantitative evaluation of light scattering intensities of the crystalline lens for radiation related minimal change in interventional radiologists: a cross-sectional pilot study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Medical Physics and Radiation Safety, Boston University...evaluate low-dose X-ray radiation effects on the eye by...hours and scattered radiation exposure during working...performed using commercial software (JMP 7.01J). Statistical......

Toshi Abe; Shigeru Furui; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuo Sakamoto; Shigeru Suzuki; Tatsuya Ishitake; Kinuyo Terasaki; Hiroshi Kohtake; Alexander M. Norbash; Richard H. Behrman; Naofumi Hayabuchi

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia Universitys Kellogg Center in New York City on March 1517, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (15). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and non-targeted responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

Brenner, David J.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cell Cycle Disturbances and Mitotic Catastrophes in HeLa Hep2 Cells following 2.5 to 10 Gy of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...death (2-5). Radiation is known to exert...molecules involved in this radiation-induced cellular safety machinery is p53...different doses of radiation at the molecular and...using the CellQuest software program, setting...

David Eriksson; Per-Olov Lfroth; Lennart Johansson; Katrine hlstrm Riklund; and Torgny Stigbrand

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Measurements of photon ionizing radiation fields in the reactor room of the 4th power-generating unit of the chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiation examination of the reactor room of the damaged fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was performed. The most strongly radiating surfaces...

A. G. Volkovich; V. N. Potapov; S. V. Smirnov; L. I. Urutskoev

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

398

Theoretical study of ionization profiles of molecular clouds near supernova remnants: Tracing the hadronic origin of GeV gamma radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: Since a few years, signatures of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds have been detected in gamma rays. Whether these gamma rays are generated by cosmic ray electrons or by cosmic ray protons is usually not known. The detection of hadronic ionization signatures in spatial coincidence with gamma ray signatures can help to unambiguously identify supernova remnants as sources of cosmic ray protons. Methods: In order to calculate hadronic signatures from cosmic ray-induced ionization for an examination of the origin of the observed gamma rays, the transport equation for cosmic ray protons propagating in a molecular cloud, including the relevant momentum loss processes, is solved analytically and the proton flux at any position in the cloud is determined. Results: Since the solution of the transport equation is obtained for arbitrary source functions, it can be used for a variety of supernova remnants. The corresponding theoretical ionization rate, as a function of the penetration depth, is...

Schuppan, Florian; Tjus, Julia Becker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

400

Radiation and Health Thormod Henriksen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radioactivity from reactor accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. These subjects were interest is the effect of small radiation doses, given at a low dose rate. These studies are of importance for environmental problems as well as within cancer treatment. The group have close cooperations with professor

Johansen, Tom Henning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Low-dose responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in single living human cells measured by synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-dose responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in single living human cells measured, and reproductive defects in animals1-6 and humans.7-14 Among this family of pollutants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

402

Stochastic modeling of the cell killing effect for low- and high-LET radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

length distribution, with deterministic RMR models. For low LET radiation and at high dose rates the stochastic survival results agree well with the deterministic survival results. Also the stochastic model allows for non-linearity at low doses due...

Partouche, Julien

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

403

Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng, E-mail: shimengy@asu.edu [School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

404

Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 10 ?6 to 3 10?2 C kg ?1 s?1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

406

Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

407

Thiothymidine plus low-dose UVA kills hyperproliferative human skin cells independently of their human papilloma virus status  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...further (1-3). Solar radiation is the major...development of the basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC...fraction of incident solar UVA (wavelengths...1:1,000) from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. Secondary...

Olivier Reelfs; Yao-Zhong Xu; Andrew Massey; Peter Karran; and Alan Storey

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Photo-Electric Ionization of Caesium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of photo-electric ionization in gases.The current from a filament, normally limited by space change, is increased by the presence of positive ions. As shown by Kingdon this effect may be greatly magnified if a small cathode is practically enclosed by the anode so that the ions are imprisoned. This method was used for the detection of photo-electric ionization. Besides possessing extreme sensitivity it is unaffected by photo-electric emission from the electrodes.Photo-electric effect in caesium vapor.The change in thermionic current with the unresolved radiation from a mercury arc was measured as functions of the applied voltage, filament temperature, and vapor pressure. Then the photo-electric effect as a function of wave-length was studied using a monochromatic illuminator to disperse light from the arc or a Mazda lamp. The ionization per unit flux was found to increase with increasing wave-length to a sharp maximum at the limit 1s=3184A of the principal series, as is required by the Bohr theory. For longer wave-lengths the ionization decreased to about 10 percent at 3400A. Photo-excitation. The simple theory does not admit of ionization by wave-lengths greater than 3184A but the data are in qualitative agreement with the hypothesis that such radiation produces excited atoms which upon collision with other atoms acquire sufficient additional energy to become ionized. Hence, unlike an x-ray limit, the photo-ionization effect for a valence electron is not sharply discontinuous at the true threshold for direct ionization.Photo-ionization photometer and intensitometer. A tube of the type described, with suitable gases for the range of wave-length involved, may be used as a photometer or may be calibrated to measure intensity of radiation directly.

Paul D. Foote and F. L. Mohler

1925-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

Peimel-Stuglik, Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Whole-Body Low-Dose Computed Tomography and Advanced Imaging Techniques for Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...myeloma and very often dictates the decision to start treatment. Conventional radiography...the skeleton at doses of radiation similar to those used for conventional planar radiography...whole-body X-ray (WBXR), potentially leading to restaging and changes in therapy. MRI and...

Matthew J. Pianko; Evangelos Terpos; G. David Roodman; Chaitanya R. Divgi; Sonja Zweegman; Jens Hillengass; Suzanne Lentzsch

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low-dose Gamma-rays and Simulated Solar Particle Event Protons Modify Splenocyte Gene and Cytokine Expression Patterns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to factors during flight, but instead due to the stress of landing followed by efforts to regain homeostasis. Two different methods...adaptive response studied in go human lymphocytes using the comet assay. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 42: 91101. 31. Wolff S (1998......

Asma Rizvi; Michael J. Pecaut; Daila S. Gridley

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Release of Inorganic Phosphate from Irradiated Yeast: Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Radioprotective Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...represent range ofvaluesfrom...but with dose plotted on...effect of ionizing radiation (27...

Hillel S. Levinson; Esther B. Garber

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose the actual target and radiation dose effect and can contribute to our current understanding in radiation risk provide the best estimate of cancer risk over the dose range from 20 to 250 cGy. The cancer risk at doses

414

RADIATION RESEARCH 145,501-507 (1996) 0033-7587196 $5.00  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

range of most interest for risk estimation for low-dose radiation (-900-1,450 m), predictions Biological Evidence for a Significant Neutron Dose to Survivors of the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb. Radiat. Res-bomb survivor cohorts in radiation risk estimation, dosimetry for the sur- vivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Brenner, David Jonathan

415

Parg deficiency confers radio-sensitization through enhanced cell death in mouse ES cells exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells were more sensitive to ?-irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} ES cells. Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. Parg{sup ?/?} cells showed defects in DSB repair after carbon-ion irradiation. PAR accumulation was enhanced after carbon-ion irradiation compared to ?-irradiation. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) is the main enzyme involved in poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. Here, the effects of Parg deficiency on sensitivity to low and high linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation were investigated in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mouse Parg{sup ?/?} and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deficient (Parp-1{sup ?/?}) ES cells were used and responses to low and high LET radiation were assessed by clonogenic survival and biochemical and biological analysis methods. Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to ?-irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. Transient accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) was enhanced in Parg{sup ?/?} cells. Augmented levels of phosphorylated H2AX (?-H2AX) from early phase were observed in Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was similar in wild-type and Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells and apoptotic cell death process was mainly observed in the both genotypes. These results suggested that the enhanced sensitivity of Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells to ?-irradiation involved defective repair of DNA double strand breaks. The effects of Parg and Parp-1 deficiency on the ES cell response to carbon-ion irradiation (LET13 and 70 keV/?m) and Fe-ion irradiation (200 keV/?m) were also examined. Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to LET 70 keV/?m carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. Enhanced apoptotic cell death also accompanied augmented levels of ?-H2AX in a biphasic manner peaked at 1 and 24 h. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was not different between wild-type and Parg{sup ?/?} cells. The augmented level of poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was noted after carbon-ion irradiation compared to ?-irradiation even in the wild-type cells. An enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was further observed in Parg{sup ?/?} cells. Both Parg{sup ?/?} cells and Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells did not show sensitization to Fe-ion irradiation. Parg deficiency sensitizes mouse ES cells to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation through the effects on DNA double strand break repair responses and enhanced cell death.

Shirai, Hidenori; Fujimori, Hiroaki [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Gunji, Akemi [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hirai, Takahisa [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Poetsch, Anna R. [ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Harada, Hiromi [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoko [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)] [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Masutani, Mitsuko, E-mail: mmasutan@ncc.go.jp [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

Strong-field high-frequency approximation to the multiphoton ionization of hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strong-field multiphoton ionization of atoms is considered and a theoretical approach dealing nonperturbatively with the radiation field formulated. The general computational...

Trombetta, F; Basile, S; Ferrante, G

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

418

Clinical implementation of a digital tomosynthesis-based seed reconstruction algorithm for intraoperative postimplant dose evaluation in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The low dose rate brachytherapy procedure would benefit from an intraoperative postimplant dosimetry verification technique to identify possible suboptimal dose coverage and suggest a potential reimplantation. The main objective of this project is to develop an efficient, operator-free, intraoperative seed detection technique using the imaging modalities available in a low dose rate brachytherapy treatment room. Methods: This intraoperative detection allows a complete dosimetry calculation that can be performed right after an I-125 prostate seed implantation, while the patient is still under anesthesia. To accomplish this, a digital tomosynthesis-based algorithm was developed. This automatic filtered reconstruction of the 3D volume requires seven projections acquired over a total angle of 60 deg. with an isocentric imaging system. Results: A phantom study was performed to validate the technique that was used in a retrospective clinical study involving 23 patients. In the patient study, the automatic tomosynthesis-based reconstruction yielded seed detection rates of 96.7% and 2.6% false positives. The seed localization error obtained with a phantom study is 0.4{+-}0.4 mm. The average time needed for reconstruction is below 1 min. The reconstruction algorithm also provides the seed orientation with an uncertainty of 10 deg. {+-}8 deg. The seed detection algorithm presented here is reliable and was efficiently used in the clinic. Conclusions: When combined with an appropriate coregistration technique to identify the organs in the seed coordinate system, this algorithm will offer new possibilities for a next generation of clinical brachytherapy systems.

Brunet-Benkhoucha, Malik; Verhaegen, Frank; Lassalle, Stephanie; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Reniers, Brigitte; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel; Carrier, Jean-Francois [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and CRCHUM, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

receptor inhibition by memantine. Cell Death Differ. 11, 18-receptor and its antagonist memantine (59). Genetic studies

Lowe, Xiu R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA 5.0). GO analyses wasdistribution (p ? 0.001). The IPA knowledge base includesgenes were also analyzed in IPA 5.0 for pathway enrichments

Lowe, Xiu R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimation of the carcinogenic of low-dose, low-LET radiationradiation uoses, close rates, and LET to enable risk tions occur estimation at doses,radiation-induced cancer necessarily be based primarily on human dose-incidence data. in man must However, risk estimation

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. V. ALFVN IONIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvn ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (?10{sup 7}) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvn ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvn ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10{sup 6}-1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvn ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H{sub 2}, or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvn ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks.

Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Rimmer, P. B. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diver, D. A., E-mail: craig.stark@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

Molecular Pathways: Targeted ?-Particle Radiation Therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and profibrotic cytokines. Radiation-induced malignancy can...1-5 Gy). Kyoji Furukawa (Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan) reviewed the Japanese atomic...late effects of ionizing radiation exposure at low/moderate...

Kwamena E. Baidoo; Kwon Yong; and Martin W. Brechbiel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Ionizing radiation dosimetry in the absorbed dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} based on resistance and ESR linewidth measurements of organic conducting crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The materials studied in the present work as high-dose dosimeters are members of a large class of molecular crystals which are organic conductors of electricity. Very different from each other in the details of their molecular and crystal structures, they all behave in the same way when subjected to increasing high doses of radiation, at least from the point of view of their electronic transport properties, because of the quasi-one-dimensional character of the conduction process. Their resistivities increase exponentially with the absorbed dose while their electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidths decrease exponentially. Very small single crystals less than 10 ?m thick can be used as dosimeters in the dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} for ? rays as well as for electron irradiations, by applying four probe resistance measurements. Only a few compounds over a large number of candidates have been irradiated in the present work with ?-rays, low energy x-rays and electrons. In some favourable cases the energy and temperature dependences of the dosimeters have been checked experimentally. Their mass energy absorption coefficients and electron stopping powers have been also calculated. It is hoped to extend this kind of dosimetry to lower and higher doses by trying new compounds from the large family of organic conductors or by improving the resistivity and ESR measurement techniques.

L. Zuppiroli; S. Bouffard; J.J. Jacob

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

General. The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

426

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

427

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the best performance. At 50 mGy, the deviation from the reference obtained at 500 mGy were less than 4%. Also the LDPC algorithm provides reasonable results with deviation less than 10% at 50 mGy while PCF and MKB reconstruction show larger deviations even at higher dose levels. Conclusions: LDPC and HDTV increase CNR and allow for quantitative evaluations even at dose levels as low as 50 mGy. The left ventricular volumes exemplarily illustrate that cardiac parameters can be accurately estimated at lowest dose levels if sophisticated algorithms are used. This allows to reduce dose by a factor of 10 compared to today's gold standard and opens new options for longitudinal studies of the heart.

Maier, Joscha, E-mail: joscha.maier@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrie, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of ErlangenNrnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)] [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of ErlangenNrnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Radiation worker health study: Scoping phase: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to develop a scope of work for an epidemiologic study of the health of workers at nuclear utilities. We propose a study of cancer mortality among electric utility personnel assigned to nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of the study is to provide information to assist in maintaining a healthy work environment in electric utilities; such information would also help to resolve some uncertainties about the effects of low-level ionizing radiation by providing direct observation of human beings exposed at low doses and dose rates. Workers at each nuclear generating station would be identified from company records, their dose histories would be collected, and their vital status would be ascertained as well as cause of death, if deceased. This study would be historical in that past records would be used and prospective in that employees would continue to be followed in future years. Our estimates indicate that a study population composed of employees and contractors at all commercial nuclear generating stations would total approximately 2,000,000 person-years of observation and would be adequate to detect (or exclude) a 50 percent increase in leukemia with reasonable statistical power. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Dreyer, N.A.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Loughlin, J.E.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Weak interaction studies using resonance ionization spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Important developments in laser sources for the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum are making it possible to carry out resonance ionization of some of the noble gases. It has already been shown that xenon can be ionized in a two-photon allowed excitation from the ground state. Recently a new method of generating radiation by four-wave mixing in mercury vapor enables excitation of xenon in a one-photon resonance process. With these new laser sources we expect to have effective ionization volumes of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 3/ for the cases of argon, krypton, and xenon. This has important consequences in weak interaction physics and environmental research.

Payne, M.G.; Hurst, G.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

435

EPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cancer. EPA does not regulate naturally occurring radiation or the non-ionizing radiation that is emittedEPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from Radioactive Materials EPA materials. These radioactive materials emit ionizing radiation, which can damage living tissue and cause

436

College of Health Sciences RAS Radiation Sciences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; excitation and ionization processes; selected nuclear reactions; basic radiation detection and dosimetry, and nuclear medical physics. Prereq or concur: RM/PHY 472G or consent of instructor. (Same as PHY/RM 546.) RAS 601 ADVANCED RADIATION DOSIMETRY. (2

MacAdam, Keith

437

(Resonance ionization spectroscopy)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

J. P. Young attended the Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and presented an invited oral presentation on research he and coworkers had carried out in applying diode lasers to resonance ionization mass spectrometry. A summary of the conference is given along with an assessment of some of the presentations that the author found of interest. Young also visited Professor Marassi at the University of Camerino to present a seminar and discuss mutual interests in a new molten salt research project of the author. Some of the studies at Camerino are described. Ideas concerning the author's research that came from private discussions are also presented here.

Young, J.P.

1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A- General Provisions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

439

Treatment Outcome of Medium-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Comparison With Low-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of medium-dose-rate (MDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 419 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated by radical radiotherapy with curative intent at Tokyo Women's Medical University from 1969 to 1999. LDR was used from 1969 to 1986, and MDR has been used since July 1987. When compared with LDR, fraction dose was decreased and fraction size was increased (1 or 2 fractions) for MDR to make the total dose of MDR equal to that of LDR. In general, the patients received a total dose of 60 to 70 Gy at Point A with external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. In the LDR group, 32 patients had Stage I disease, 81 had Stage II, 182 had Stage III, and 29 had Stage IVA; in the MDR group, 9 patients had Stage I disease, 19 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 12 had Stage IVA. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA in the LDR group were 78%, 72%, 55%, and 34%, respectively. In the MDR group, the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 68%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. No significant statistical differences were seen between the two groups. The actuarial rates of late complications Grade 2 or greater at 5 years for the rectum, bladder, and small intestine in the LDR group were 11.1%, 5.8%, and 2.0%, respectively. The rates for the MDR group were 11.7%, 4.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, all of which were without statistical differences. Conclusion: These data suggest that MDR ICBT is effective, useful, and equally as good as LDR ICBT in daytime (about 5 hours) treatments of patients with cervical cancer.

Kaneyasu, Yuko, E-mail: kaneyasu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kita, Midori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Okawa, Tomohiko [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)] [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Maebayashi, Katsuya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Mari [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sonoda, Tatsuo; Hirabayashi, Hisae [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Estimation of the total effective dose from low-dose CT scans and radiopharmaceutical administrations delivered to patients undergoing SPECT/CT explorations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effective dose calculation is useful to compare the doses from, and the radiation risks associated with, different diagnostic examinations. ... account the uncertainties associated with the estimated effectiv...

Carlos Montes; Pilar Tamayo; Jorge Hernandez

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Radiation effects on humans  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on r