National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for low-cost zero-emissions magnesium

  1. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High...

  2. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  3. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  4. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan W.; Rosemeier, Cory A.; Mayers, David; Singh, Jogender

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  5. Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Institute for Energy, Environment and the Economy, Institute of Transportation Studies transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states that zero emission vehicles are critical to achieve sustainable transportation

  6. The Business of Near Zero Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Business of Near Zero Emissions The Business of Near Zero Emissions deer10charbonneau.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Vehicle Electrification Navistar-Driving...

  7. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  8. Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation ZEV #12;Advanced Clean Cars ZEV Program.4% of Annual Sales in 2025 Projected: ZEVs #12;Advanced Clean Cars Hydrogen Infrastructure · Without infrastructure, the cars won't come · Complementary Policies to support ZEV regulation ­ Clean Fuels Outlet

  9. The origin of California’s zero emission vehicle mandate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Collantes, Gustavo O

    2008-01-01

    Regulations for Low-Emission Vehicles and Clean Fuels: FinalAmendments to the Zero-Emissions Vehicle Requirements, Marchauthority to regulate vehicle emissions. California is not

  10. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  11. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pronske, K.

    2007-06-15

    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  12. Low-cost interference lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey P.

    The authors report demonstration of a low-cost ( ? 1000 USD) interference lithography system based on a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer that is capable of ? 300?nm pitch patterning. The components include only a 405?nm GaN ...

  13. Innovation, Retail Performance and Zero Emission Vehicle Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ;3 "Encourage and support auto dealers to increase sales and leases of ZEVs." (p. 15) " " Why Study the Retail1 Innovation, Retail Performance and Zero Emission Vehicle Policy Eric Cahill Research Briefing Market for Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs)? #12;4 Policy Focus is on Automakers and Consumers Government

  14. Hydrogen cars have zero emissions at the tailpipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    · Hydrogen cars have zero emissions at the tailpipe · Hydrogen cars can be engineered to have a range similar to that of gasoline cars · Construction, operation, and maintenance of a hydrogen infrastructure would provide jobs · Hydrogen fuel cells have a higher "tank to wheel' efficiency than gasoline

  15. Toward zero emissions from coal in China Robert H. Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is oxygen-blown (O2­blown) gasification to generate synthesis gas from coal. This technology is used is a strong candidate for becoming the "third" clean energy carrier for China. Evolving a coal-based energyToward zero emissions from coal in China Robert H. Williams Princeton Environmental Institute, Room

  16. Fact #771: March 18, 2013 California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: March 18, 2013 California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate is Now in Effect Fact 771: March 18, 2013 California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate is Now in Effect A waiver granted by...

  17. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Zero Emission Cargo Transport II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about zero emission cargo transport II.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Zero Emission Cargo Transport Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Houston-Galvelston Area Council at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about zero emission...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Zero-Emission Heavy-Duty Drayage Truck Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about zero-emission heavy-duty drayage truck...

  1. Sustainable School Buildings: Some of the Latest Dutch Examples of Nearly zero Emissions Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Waard, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands with respect to sustainable educational building there is a continuous development going on from sustainable building, to Passive House schools, to nearly Zero Emission Buildings to even Energy positive buildings. The Dutch...

  2. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  3. Explorations in low-cost compliant robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumpf, Adam (Adam A.)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

  4. Explorations in Low-Cost Compliant Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumpf, Adam

    2007-01-30

    This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

  5. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called â??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,â?ť and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named â??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.â?ť This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: â?˘ Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. â?˘ Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. â?˘ Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. â?˘ Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. â?˘ Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. â?˘ Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. â?˘ The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvemen

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  7. Low Cost Ceramics:Low Cost Ceramics: Applications in Water FiltrationApplications in Water Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Low Cost Ceramics:Low Cost Ceramics: Applications in Water FiltrationApplications in Water as a SolutionCeramics as a Solution Low Materials CostLow Materials Cost Worldwide Availability ­ Variable change in head of water Qcw = (k/)(2R/lcw) 0 hw (hw)d (RR1)L = (R1R2)1 (approx.) R = R

  8. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED...

  9. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation This...

  10. A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCRDPF ApplicationsData-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions...

  11. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a 100 million...

  12. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management This presentation, which...

  13. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential and Utility Solar Power Generating Systems SunPower,Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated PV Systems Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power...

  14. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  15. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications...

  16. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

  17. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  18. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

  19. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with...

  20. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  1. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured...

  2. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  3. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple...

  4. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing...

  5. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  6. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .0: Catalyst Optimization ­ Control catalyst loading ­ Improve application · Task 2.1: Computational Cell Model Catalyst Flow fields PFSA materials, reduced thickness Process improvements/ reduced loading Higher functionality · Task 3.0: Low Cost Manufacturing ­ Laminate concepts ­ Alternate processes · Task 4

  7. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  8. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA); Skidmore, Jay A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  9. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  10. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25,...

  11. Low Cost Security: Explicit Formulae for Genus 4 Hyperelliptic Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    1 Low Cost Security: Explicit Formulae for Genus 4 Hyperelliptic Curves Jan Pelzl, Thomas Wollinger. Our contribution shows that for low cost security applications genus-4 hyperellip- tic curves (HEC surprising results are: 1) for low cost security application, namely considering an underlying group of order

  12. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  13. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  14. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    beneficial after Video. Low-cost alternative externalmaterials cost for the low-cost external rotation shoulderR eview A rticle Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation

  15. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hamer, Tim Spencer OLEDWorks LLC Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review DOE...

  16. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006) Areas (1) Chena Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCostExploration,Testing,andDevelopmentoftheChenaGeothermalRes...

  17. Low-cost Wireless Sensors for Building Monitoring Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    er mp Low-cost Wireless Sensors for Building Monitoring Applications 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Source: http:www.idsc.ethz.ch Controll Inverter Vapor co ....

  18. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Available...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Available to US Manufacturers for Market Development and Demonstration Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is making available market development quantities...

  19. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  20. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  1. Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PCCI A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines...

  2. Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Automotive Components: Manufacturing Process Feasibility StudyAMD 310 Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive Components: Manufacturing...

  3. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink...

  4. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient,...

  5. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  6. A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty 2BZ, UK carlp@ic.ac.uk Abstract: A low cost adaptive optics system constructed almost en- tirely a diffractive wavefront generator based on a ferroelectric spatial light modulator. This is used to produce

  7. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  9. Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

    2011-01-01

    A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

  10. A reproducible and low-cost piezoelectric droplet generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design for a piezoelectric droplet generator capable of producing highly repeatable droplets ranging from 0.60 mm to 1.60 mm in diameter. The generator is low cost, simple to fabricate, and easily ...

  11. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2007) Areas (1) Chena Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCostExploration,Testing,AndDevelopmentOfTheChenaGeothermalRes...

  12. Low cost private education in India : challenges and way forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Nupur, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The Low Cost Private School phenomenon has gained momentum and increased visibility in recent years as researchers have begun to map and record the existence of millions of private schools that cater to the education needs ...

  13. Low-cost electromagnetic tagging : design and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Richard R. (Richard Ribon)

    2002-01-01

    Several implementations of chipless RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are presented and discussed as low-cost alternatives to chip-based RFID tags and sensors. An overview of present-day near-field electromagnetic ...

  14. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles Chad Duty, Ph.D. Technical Lead Additive Manufacturing Roll-to-Roll Processing June 26, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for...

  15. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  16. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the ALM Materials Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ALM Materials Program Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the ALM Materials Program Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February...

  17. Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security Applications Front-end creel for processing precursor in tow format In-line melt spinning for...

  18. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  19. Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -volume industrial applications such as automobiles, wind energy, oil and gas, and infrastructure is limited because Low-Cost Carbon Fiber? · Energy Independence Increase the nation's investment in energy technologies

  20. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for mass production and that produces high adhesive strength of the ceramic-metal interfaces. Consider the fabrication and use of low-cost AlN as a potential (and...

  1. Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    12/10/01 Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). Specifically, the Air Resources Board mandated that at least 2 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent of new car sales

  2. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  3. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  4. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rate of 5 to 10 parts per minute. * Integrated pre-heater, press and newly acquired robot (loaned from Ford) to automatically load pre-heated sheets into the press. Connected...

  5. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership onProton Conductivity

  7. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1Energy 1 DOEDepartment of

  8. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1Energy 1 DOEDepartment

  9. The optimal suppression of a low-cost technology by a durable-good monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    1994-01-01

    SUPPRESSION OF A LOW-COST TECHNOLOGY BY A DURABLE-GOODsuppression of a low-cost technology by a durable-goodSuppression of a Low-Cost Technology by a Durable-Good

  10. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  11. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Vehicle...

  12. Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration / Users Facility and Commercializati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile Precursors Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile...

  13. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  14. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  15. Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    volume PV manufacturing, therefore to reduce manufacturing cost and accelerate PV use. ! q Silicon waferIntroduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing! Prof. Shreyes Melkote, Manufacturing Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology Photovoltaics (PV) will be part of the energy mix

  16. Low cost robotic imaging system for high precision photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier

    Low cost robotic imaging system for high precision photometry Olivier Guyon (Subaru Telescope robotic, robust to weather, hardware failures, software errors automatic decision making (flats, darks angular resolution (with longer focal length lens) Installed Dec 30, 2010 ­ working robotically now New

  17. Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    J. of Photovoltaics, 2 (2012) p. 303. Si GaAs #12;Why thin film GaAs;Gallium Arsenide · The 1.4 eV band gap is ideal for solar cells. · High quality films are grownEmerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science

  18. Digital Fingerprints for Low-Cost Platforms using MEMS sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaumont, Patrick

    Digital Fingerprints for Low-Cost Platforms using MEMS sensors Aydin Aysu, Nahid Farhady Ghalaty. In this paper, we target a commonly used MEMS sensor, an accelerometer, and utilize its process variations electrostatic impulse and its inherent offset values. Our results revealed that MEMS sensors could be used

  19. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  20. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  1. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  2. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  3. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  4. Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moving stations on rock glacier Low-cost L1 GPS receivers (blox) Power source: solar panels Local data Rock glacier GPS antennaGPS antenna Solar panelSolar panel Box incl.Box incl. -GPS receiverData logger Instruments Solar panelSolar panel (24W, 12V, 50x50cm)(24W, 12V, 50x50cm) Costs per station: 2

  5. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergyDuctsDurable Low Cost

  6. Project Profile: Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |Project Management ProjectEnergy Low-Cost,

  7. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an advanced, low-cost receiver project for parabolic troughs, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. Norwich Technologies is designing a novel receiver that addresses these issues for parabolic trough concentrating solar power systems. This technology represents significant operational and cost advances in the most trusted and broadly implemented form of CSP and provides a viable pathway to achieving SunShot’s $0.06/kWh goal for utility-scale CSP systems.

  8. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergyDuctsDurable Low CostDurable,

  9. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  10. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  11. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  12. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  13. Low-cost sensor tape for environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Nan-Wei

    We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic connections with low-cost ...

  14. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch...

  15. Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and After-treatment Systems Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and After-treatment Systems Poster...

  16. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle -...

  17. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires Lead Performer: Cree, Inc. - Durham, NC DOE...

  18. On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough April 18, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis NREL Scientist...

  19. Measuring cycling kinematics using a low-cost, flashing LED, multi-camera approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Matthew (Matthew W.)

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis a low cost motion capture approach is presented and applied to measure cyclists' kinematics. The motion capture system consists of low cost hardware and custom developed software. Based on still-frame, ...

  20. DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery October 29, 2014 -...

  1. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources Energy Department Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen...

  2. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Lead...

  3. Real-time Navigation, Guidance, and Control of a UAV using Low-cost Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

    maneuvering scenarios. Index Terms-- Autonomous UAV, low cost sensors, Kalman filter, guidance and controlReal-time Navigation, Guidance, and Control of a UAV using Low-cost Sensors Jong-Hyuk Kim, Stuart, Australia Email: {s.wishart}@acfr.usyd.edu.au Abstract-- Applying low-cost sensors for the Guidance, Navi

  4. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  5. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  6. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  7. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  8. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  9. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

  10. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

  11. Acoustic Activity as a Low Cost and Scalable Index of Seabird Colony Size: An Example with Forster's Terns (S. fosterii)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borker, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    as a scalable, low-cost index of the relative abundance ofACTIVTITY AS A LOW COST AND SCALABLE INDEX OF SEABIRD COLONYACTIVTITY AS A LOW COST AND SCALABLE INDEX OF SEABIRD COLONY

  12. Testing of a low-cost item monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, D.J.; Cunningham, K.R.; Hoover, C.E.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Material control is an important element of any security system which seeks to address the insider threat. Sandia has developed Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) which is a remote sensor system that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Rockwell International/Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and Sandia have conducted a long-term evaluation of the WATCH system in an operating production facility. Testing was conducted in a large scale, remote access storage vault for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). A total of fourteen WATCH units were placed on storage containers in the vault. A schedule was established which provided prearranged movement of monitored containers on a regular basis. The test objectives were to determine (1) the feasibility of using the WATCH system technology to implement material control concepts, (2) the system performance in an active production area, and high radiation environment, (3) the sensitivity settings required for optimum system performance, and (4) the spatial resolution of the transmitter/receiver utilized.

  13. Testing of a low-cost item monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, D.J.; Cunningham, K.R.; Hoover, C.E.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Material control is an important element of any security system which seeks to address the insider threat. Sandia has developed Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) which is a remote sensory system that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Rockwell International/Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and Sandia have conducted a long-term evaluation of the WATCH system in an operating production facility. Testing was conducted in a large scale, remote access storage vault for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). A total of fourteen WATCH units were placed on storage containers in the vault. A schedule was established which provided prearranged movement of monitored containers on a regular basis. The test objectives were to determine 1) the feasibility of using the WATCH system technology to implement material control concepts, 2) the system performance in an active production area, and high radiation environment, 3) the sensitivity settings required for optimum system performance, and 4) the spatial resolution of the transmitter/receiver utilized.

  14. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

    2007-01-05

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

  15. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolonkin, A; Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for che...

  16. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  17. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  18. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm˛); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  19. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nichiolas William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Keffer, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  20. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research in the LM Materials Program Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  2. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

  3. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Adam London

    2008-06-20

    The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

  4. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solar cells. Inof metal oxide based electronics on heat sensitive flexibleNanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by

  5. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Cummins Power Generation, in collaboration with...

  6. Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device for AC Systems Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIRSTTR...

  7. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium-Ion Batteries Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  8. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nnovative M anufacturing and M aterials for Low -Cost Lithium -I on Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information...

  9. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    after Video. Low-cost alternative external rotation shoulder1 : January 2015 Lacy et al. Alternative External RotationMedicine Lacy et al. Alternative External Rotation Shoulder

  10. Low-Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fibers for High-Temperature Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resources such as Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF). Approach Lignin, a biopolymer, has potential to be a low-cost carbon fiber precursor if certain technical...

  11. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vacuum Insulating Glazings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Image of vacuum capsules in water (4 mgml) used for dip coating. Vacuum Insulation for Windows...

  12. Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and solvents that can be applied to large area surfaces using simple low-cost spray coating techniques developed by the commercial paint industry. Innovation This project...

  13. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to improve AB yields and purities

  14. High-Performance and Low-Cost Dual-Thread VLIW Processor Using Weld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Thomas M.

    High-Performance and Low-Cost Dual-Thread VLIW Processor Using Weld Architecture Paradigm Emre O-performance dual-thread VLIW processor model. The dual-thread VLIW processor model is a low-cost subset of the Weld runtime events. The general Weld architectural model is proposed as a statically scheduled, horizontal

  15. A Low-Cost Laser Positioning Apparatus and UUV for Ship Hull Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    .D. In the maritime shipping, cruise, and naval industries, vast expenditures are made in fuel costs that couldA Low-Cost Laser Positioning Apparatus and UUV for Ship Hull Analysis By Hunter Crenshaw Brown the attached thesis A Low-Cost Laser Positioning Apparatus and UUV for Ship Hull Analysis by Hunter Crenshaw

  16. A Novel Low Cost Solar Central Inverters Topology With 99.2 % Efficiency Heiko Preckwinkel and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    A Novel Low Cost Solar Central Inverters Topology With 99.2 % Efficiency Heiko Preckwinkel IGBT-based 3-level modules are limited to about 300- 600 A nominal current. A Novel Low Cost Solar)», «Transformer», Abstract For solar central inverters, high efficiency is still a very important issue

  17. UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless Identification Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless antenna using low cost flexible substrate materials is presented. Flexible amorphous silicon a-Si solar nature of the circuit and providing operational autonomy by harvesting solar power without affecting

  18. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells TONIO BUONASSISI1 to producing cost-effective solar cells. The photovoltaic industry has been growing at a steady annual rate. To eliminate dependence on high-quality silicon feedstock, the development of low-cost `solar-grade silicon

  19. Design of a Low Cost Multiple User Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    Design of a Low Cost Multiple User Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation (MUVER) of Patients Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation (MUVER). The MUVER has three components: the low cost P5 Glove been created and tested with six healthy subjects. Keywords. Stroke, Rehabilitation, Virtual Reality

  20. Integrating Sequencing Technologies in Personal Genomics: Optimal Low Cost Reconstruction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Mark

    Integrating Sequencing Technologies in Personal Genomics: Optimal Low Cost Reconstruction, Snyder M, et al. (2009) Integrating Sequencing Technologies in Personal Genomics: Optimal Low Cost of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce

  1. Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas Justin A. Hogan,1 sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self

  2. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  3. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  4. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  5. Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

  6. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on...

  7. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a...

  8. Precision of a Low-Cost InGaAs Detector for Near Infrared Photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an InGaAs near-infrared camera to explore whether low-cost detectors can make small (?1 m) telescopes capable of precise (photometry of relatively bright targets. ...

  9. The Creation of a low-cost, reliable platform for mobile robotics research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Taylor Harrison

    2011-01-01

    This work documents the planning process, design, fabrication, and integration of a low-cost robot designed for research on the problem of life-long robot mapping. The robotics platform used is the iRobot Create. This robot ...

  10. Novel Inkjet-Printed Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Structures on Low-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    on a multilayer paper substrate, which permits to implement low-cost and eco-friendly structures. A broadband waveguide, paper-based inkjet-printed technology, eco-friendly materials. I. INTRODUCTION The implementation

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 24M Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, structurally...

  12. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01

    S. Lewis, “Toward Cost-Effective Solar Energy Use,” Science,D. S. Ginley, “Low-Cost Inorganic Solar Cells: From Ink Toto lowering the cost of solar electricity production with

  13. Low cost monitoring system to diagnose problematic rail bed : case study of Mud Pumping Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aw, Eng Sew, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of low cost sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) platform aimed at characterizing problematic rail beds (subgrade). The instrumentations are installed at a busy high-speed Northeast ...

  14. How can Chinese low-cost carriers become successful and profitable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a discussion of improvements Chinese Low-cost Carriers (LCCs) could make in order to become profitable and successful as their counterparts in Europe and the United States. China is Asia's latest LCC market ...

  15. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Low-Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which...

  16. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  17. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to produce low cost CF from novel PO polymer precursors in higher yield and at lower cost than the incumbent CF made from specialty- grade PAN fiber. This project intended to...

  18. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Systems Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed Electric Motor Improves Energy Efficiency In 2011, the U.S. industrial,...

  19. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, High Capacity Non-Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sila Nanotechnologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, high capacity...

  1. Low-Cost Differential Front-End for Doppler Radar Vital Sign Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    We present a differential front end design for improving the performance of short-range low-cost Doppler radars for vital sign detection with application to automotive driver safety systems, health monitoring, and security ...

  2. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling lower LCOE. The project will develop low-cost substrates to template the growth of GaAs.

  3. Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

  4. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Alexander F. (Cambridge, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  5. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  6. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  7. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  8. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  9. ROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauser, Kris

    -the-shelf electronics and new rapid proto- typing technologies, specifically the wide availability of 3D printers to nonROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots Anna Eilering of the robot links, which are then 3D printed and assembled. This procedure is generalizable to variety

  10. Towards Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacenter Power Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    Towards Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacenter Power Infrastructure Sriram Govindan,yic@zurich.ibm.com,{anand,bhuvan}@cse.psu.edu Abstract. Realizing highly available datacenter power in- frastructure is an extremely expensive datacenter availability models using Continuous-time Markov Chains and Reliability Block Diagrams to quantify

  11. SAFIR: LOW-COST SPATIAL SOUND FOR INSTRUMENTED ENVIRONMENTS Michael Schmitz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAFIR: LOW-COST SPATIAL SOUND FOR INSTRUMENTED ENVIRONMENTS Michael Schmitz1 and Andreas Butz2 1, instrumented environments. INTRODUCTION Real-time 3D sound rendering has proven to be valuable across a wide. In this work, we present SAFIR (Spatial Audio Framework for Instrumented Rooms), an API that allows

  12. Analysis of low-cost building material for the MixAlco process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titzman, L. Clinton

    2009-05-15

    Engineering iii ABSTRACT Analysis of Low-cost Building Material for the MixAlco Process. (December 2006) L. Clinton Titzman, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mark Holtzapple The development of biofuels... ............................................................................................................. 1 2 Quonset shape ............................................................................................................... 3 3 Tow mixer...

  13. Optimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    water treatment residuals with vertical-flow constructed wetland mesocosms planted with Schoenoplectus treatment residual; iron; lime sludge; municipal wastewater Introduction The US-EPA has identifiedOptimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed

  14. A LOW COST WAFER-LEVEL MEMS PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Pejman Monajemi, Paul J. Joseph*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    A LOW COST WAFER-LEVEL MEMS PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Pejman Monajemi, Paul J. Joseph* , Paul A. Kohl-cost low-temperature packaging technique for wafer-level encapsulation of MEMS devices fabricated on any arbitrary substrate. The packaging process presented here does not involve wafer bonding and can be applied

  15. Low-Cost Traffic Analysis of Tor Steven J. Murdoch and George Danezis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danezis, George

    .Murdoch,George.Danezis}@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract Tor is the second generation Onion Router, supporting the anonymous transport of TCP streams over, available for public use, already has 50 nodes acting as onion routers (as of November 2004). Tor aimsLow-Cost Traffic Analysis of Tor Steven J. Murdoch and George Danezis University of Cambridge

  16. Low-Cost Checkpointing and Failure Recovery in Mobile Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Ravi

    Low-Cost Checkpointing and Failure Recovery in Mobile Computing Systems Ravi Prakash and Mukesh-mail: fprakash, singhalg@cis.ohio-state.edu Abstract A mobile computing system consists of mobile and stationary every node in the system to take a new local snapshot, or block the underlying computation during

  17. Designing a Low-cost, Expressive Educational Robot Thomas Hsiu, Steve Richards, Ajinkya Bhave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas such as parking lots, sidewalks and lawns; it must be able to overcome obstaclesDesigning a Low-cost, Expressive Educational Robot Thomas Hsiu, Steve Richards, Ajinkya Bhave Pittsburgh, PA 15213, illah@ri.cmu.edu Abstract The Trikebot is the result of a ground-up design effort

  18. RuralNet (Digital Gangetic Plains): WiFi-Based Low-Cost Rural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Bhaskaran

    RuralNet (Digital Gangetic Plains): WiFi-Based Low-Cost Rural Networking Bhaskaran Raman Department in the west This business model can thrive when average per capita income is high ($20K) Wireless systems being deployed in India are successful in Metro pockets, but providing cost effective voice and data

  19. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    species: CO, NO, O3, SO2, NO2 (electrochemical (EC) at 2 s) CO2 and total VOCs (optical at 10 s). · Size stations outside LHR (all CO2, sizeA Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport Olalekan

  20. A Low-Cost Hands-On Laboratory for an Undergraduate Microwave Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hum, Sean Victor

    A Low-Cost Hands-On Laboratory for an Undergraduate Microwave Course S. V.Hum and M. Okoniewski@ieee.org Abstract A low-operating-cost microwave laboratory for undergraduate students is presented, which and measurement of microwave circuits. By training the students in the proper use of modern microwave test

  1. From Passive to Covert Security at Low Cost Ivan Damgard, Martin Geisler, and Jesper Buus Nielsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    From Passive to Covert Security at Low Cost Ivan Damg°ard, Martin Geisler, and Jesper Buus Nielsen to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into one that is secure against covert attacks categorized as being either semi-honest (passive) or malicious (ac- tive). A semi-honest adversary will only

  2. Testing and Analysis of Low Cost Composite Materials Under Spectrum Loading and High Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    papers cited are available through the Sandia National Laboratories website: www.sandia.gov/Renewable_Energy/wind_energy-year experimental study of low- cost composite materials for wind turbine blades. Wind turbines are subjected to 109 in and potential interactions between failure modes. Wind turbine design codes typically assume a Miner's rule

  3. Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells R. Bashyam and P. Zelenay 1) activity in known-to-date non- precious metal. Fuel cell testing of the composite Figure 2 shows a hydrogen LALP-07-013 Winter 2007 F uel cells, which directly convert a fuel's chemical energy into electricity

  4. UpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    - another byproduct of excessive water use, which leads to pollution. While reduced water usage in the USUpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays, Pittsburgh, PA, USA {stace, paulos}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Water is our most precious and most rapidly declining

  5. Low-Cost Truthful Multicast in Selfish and Rational Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    en- joy a more flexible composition. A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of radio devices limited transmission power. One of the dis- tinctive features of wireless networks is that the signal sent1 Low-Cost Truthful Multicast in Selfish and Rational Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weizhao Wang Xiang

  6. Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process Nan based on roll-to- roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic sensors by spin-coating conductive polymer on sensor substrates and integrating the design

  7. Analyze Detect Measure ControlTM Compact, low-cost spectrophotometer offers all the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    Analyze · Detect · Measure · ControlTM Compact, low-cost spectrophotometer offers all with the SPECTRONIC 20 system now run faster, with more efficiency, and yield more accurate results. And for your Benefits: · Easy operation and reliable design for fast, accurate results · Small size saves valuable lab

  8. Low Cost RF MEMS Switches Fabricated on Microwave Laminate Printed Circuit Boards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    1 Low Cost RF MEMS Switches Fabricated on Microwave Laminate Printed Circuit Boards Hung-Pin Chang process for directly constructing RF MEMS capacitive switches has been developed on microwave laminate among components. Index Terms--RF MEMS switches, compressive molding planarization, high density

  9. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Thu D. Nguyen Rutgers University Ozlem Bilgir Margaret Martonosi Princeton University #12;Energy Electricity sources Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Others 100 105 110 115 120 Nigeria Data Centers Czech

  10. Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST 3D PRINTING Simon Bradshaw,* Adrian Bowyer° and Patrick Haufe Abstract In the late 1970s 3D printing started to become established as a manufacturing technology. Thirty years on the cost of 3D printing machines is falling

  11. Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Contact Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security the development and deployment of lower-cost carbon fiber materials and processes and create a new generation Facility (CFTF). This 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility offers a highly flexible, highly

  12. RemoteEyes: A Remote Low-Cost Position Sensing Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    British Columbia, University of

    RemoteEyes: A Remote Low-Cost Position Sensing Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Computing Changsong infrastructure for ubiquitous computing. To reduce the cost, each tracked object carries an inexpensive active, sensing, network, FPGA, ubiquitous computing INTRODUCTION Context information is required by many

  13. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  14. Low-Cost 63% Efficient 2.5-kW UHF Power Amplifier for a Wind Profiler Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Low-Cost 63% Efficient 2.5-kW UHF Power Amplifier for a Wind Profiler Radar Brad Lindseth1,2 , Tom describes a low-cost 449-MHz 2.5-kW peak pulse amplifier for use in a wind profiling radar. New high- powerW cost upwards of US$30,000 [2,3]. The goal of this work is to develop a low-cost UHF power amplifier

  15. In an effort to design a more low cost, highly efficient alternative to the traditional silicon solar cell, our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In an effort to design a more low cost, highly efficient alternative to the traditional silicon solar cell, our research implements lead sulfide nanocrystals as light harvesters. Semiconducting

  16. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  17. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabenhorst, D.W.; Small, T.R.; Wilkinson, W.O.

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  18. Application of a single-board computer as a low cost pulse generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedrizzi, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A BeagleBone Black (BBB) single-board open-source computer was implemented as a low-cost fully programmable pulse generator. The pulse generator makes use of the BBB Programmable Real-Time Unit (PRU) subsystem to achieve a deterministic temporal resolution of 5 ns, an RMS jitter of 290 ps and a timebase stability on the order of 10 ppm. A python based software framework has also been developed to simplify the usage of the pulse generator.

  19. Low-Cost Energy Efficiency Goes Block-to-Block | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership onProton Conductivity Low TemperatureLow-Cost

  20. Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | InternationalLandLiquefiedof EnergyLow-Cost

  1. The Stirling engine as a low cost tool to educate mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gros, J.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Valero, A. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Center for Research of Powerplant Efficiency

    1995-12-31

    The University of Zaragoza through CIRCE, the New Enterprise foundation, an Opel foundation and the local Government of Aragon have been developed a program to introduce the Stirling Engine as a low cost tool to educate students in mechanical engineering. The promotion of a prize like GNAT Power organized by the magazine Model Engineer in London, has improved the practical education of students in the field of mechanical devices and thermal engines. Two editions of the contest, 1993 and 1994, awarded the greatest power Stirling engine made by only using a little candle of paraffin as a heat source. Four engines were presented in the first edition, with an average power of about 100 mW, and seven engines in the second one, achieving a power of about 230 mW. Presentations in Technical Schools and the University have been carried out. Also low cost tools have been made for measuring an electronic device to draw the real internal pressure volume diagram using a PC. A very didactic software to design classic kinematic alpha, beta and gamma engines plus Ringbom beta and gamma engines has been created. A book is going to be published (in Spanish) explaining the design of small Stirling engines as a way to start with low cost research in thermal engines, a very difficult target with IC engines.

  2. AR for the Masses: Building a Low-Cost Portable AR System from Off-the-Shelf Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chun-Fa

    to wear a head-mounted display (HMD). Its cost is low because the whole system consists of only two web of the head position. That is the main reason why we may build a low-cost head tracking system. 2 PreviousAR for the Masses: Building a Low-Cost Portable AR System from Off-the-Shelf Components Hsiang

  3. A Low-Cost Distributed Instrumentation System for Monitoring, Identifying and Diagnosing Irregular Patterns of Behavior in Critical ITS Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havlicek, Joebob

    A Low-Cost Distributed Instrumentation System for Monitoring, Identifying and Diagnosing Irregular are high priorities. In this paper we present a low-cost distributed instrumentation system (DIS) for con by the DIS is integrated into an operational summary that is available on a private website for the design

  4. Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module OH 44106 ABSTRACT Replex Plastics aims to develop a low-cost, low-concentration photovoltaic module concentrator; CPC; low concentration photovoltaics, CPV, LCPV, acrylic reflector 1. INTRODUCTION The recent

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  7. Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dam, Bernard

    Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering Lennard Mooij #12;Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Magnesium hydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1

  8. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  9. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B.; Churchill, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-cost III-V photovoltaics have the potential to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) because III-V cells outperform silicon in terms of efficiency and annual energy harvesting efficiency. In this project, researchers will address both the high costs of III-V epitaxy and single crystal substrates. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is the most promising inexpensive, rapid-growth technique for high efficiency, III-V materials. The continued development of high-throughput HVPE, will be coupled with novel epitaxial liftoff strategies to enable III-V solar cells that are cost-competitive under one-sun conditions.

  11. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  12. Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the BillDepartmentSites | Department ofEnergy LowDepartment ofLow-Cost

  13. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership onProtonConcentrators FY13 Q2 Low-Cost,

  14. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400 Jobs |Inc. | Department of Energy Low Cost

  15. Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    . Extensive sampling of sedimentary pore-fluids by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Abstract Magnesium concentrations in deep-sea sediment pore-fluids typically decrease down core due to net and differentiate these processes, we have measured magnesium isotopes in pore-fluids and sediment samples from

  16. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Wheatley, Dr. Alan; Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  17. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  18. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenholt, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.

  19. Low-cost, compact, robust laser-based ultrasound sensors using photo-EMF detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, D.M.; Dunning, G.J.; Chiao, M.P.; O`Meara, T.R.; Mitchell, P.V.

    1996-12-31

    There is a great need in the manufacturing, aerospace, commercial, energy, automotive, microelectronics and DoD communities for diagnostic systems that can improve the efficiency, yield and performance of various materials processes--while reducing cost, labor, scrap, and machine downtime. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) represents a noncontact, reconfigurable, high-bandwidth ultrasonic inspection and process control technology. LBU enables remote ultrasonic sensing by replacing conventional PZT transducers, squirters, and immersion systems with laser beams. One laser beam generates the ultrasound in an opaque workpiece, while a second laser beam probes the sample to sense minute surface displacements, induced by the ultrasound or via other acoustic emission mechanisms. LBU systems have yet to be fielded commercially, owing primarily to the cost, size, and complexity of the system components. The authors have developed a low-cost, compact sensor which can potentially enable LBU systems to become a reality. The sensor employs a semiconductor crystal (GaAs) using a mechanism called nonsteady-state photo-induced emf. When combined with a laser diode as an optical source, the result is a very compact, low-cost robust sensor, which can function under in-factory conditions, including inspection of rough-cut workpieces which undergo rapid platform motion, such as high-speed, scanning laser welders. Experimental results will be discussed, including the potential for optical fiber delivery.

  20. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  1. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  2. Expansion of point-to-point routes by low-cost carriers in hub networks : traffic and revenue impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zerbib, Gregory (Gregory Jean-Jacques)

    2006-01-01

    Legacy carriers developed hub networks to achieve a high concentration of operations, increase frequency, and serve multiple Origin-Destination markets with maximum efficiency. By contrast, the rapid emergence of low-cost ...

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-cost flexural bearing based 3D printing tool head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Aaron Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design, characterization and optimization of a low-cost additive rapid-prototyping tool head for a technology known as Fused Filament Fabrication for use in an educational curriculum. Building a ...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thick Low-Cost, High-Power Lithium-Ion Electrodes via Aqueous Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thick low-cost,...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low?cost, high?capacity...

  6. Low-cost carriers in Japan : challenges and paths to success - using a corporate simulation model for empirical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiotani, Sayaka

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes behind the sluggishness of new airlines, low cost carriers (LCCs), in Japan. The object is to identify and to recommend innovative policy changes and ideas for the industry, by analyzing the ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  8. Low cost manufacturing of light trapping features on multi-crystalline silicon solar cells : jet etching method and cost analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrada Sounni, Amine

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine low cost methods to improve the light trapping ability of multi-crystalline solar cells. We focused our work on improving current wet etching methods to achieve the ...

  9. Ion Torren Semiconductor Sequencing Allows Rapid, Low Cost Sequencing of the Human Exome ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jenkins, David [EdgeBio

    2013-03-22

    David Jenkins on "Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing allows rapid, low-cost sequencing of the human exome" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  10. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serquis, Adriana C. (Los Alamos, NM); Zhu, Yuntian T. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Frederick M. (Los Alamos, NM); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Liao, Xiao Zhou (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  11. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  13. LEP3: a low-cost, high-luminosity Higgs factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Koratzinos

    2014-11-11

    The discovery of a relatively light Higgs opens up the possibility of circular e+e- Higgs factories. LEP3 is such a machine with emphasis on low cost, since it re-uses most of the LHC infrastructure, including the tunnel, cryogenics, and the two general-purpose LHC experiments Atlas and CMS, with some modifications. The energy reach of LEP3 is 240GeV in the centre of mass, close to the ZH production maximum. Alternative tunnel diameters and locations are possible, including a Higgs factory housed in the UNK tunnel, UNK-L, and a machine located in a new 80 km tunnel in the Geneva region, TLEP, than can further house a very high energy pp collider. The design merits further consideration and a detailed study should be performed, so that LEP3 can be one more option available to the community for the next step in High Energy Physics.

  14. Polycrystalline GaAs solar cells on low-cost Silicon-Film{trademark} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauk, M.G.; Feyock, B.W.; Hall, R.B.; Cavanaugh, K.D.; Cotter, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The authors assess the potential of a low-cost, large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet as a substrate for thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells. Silicon-Film is a relatively inexpensive material on which large-grain (>2 mm) polycrystalline GaAs films can be formed. The GaAs epitaxial layers are grown by a simple close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique using water vapor as a transport agent. A recrystallized Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si{sub x} buffer layer between the GaAs epilayer and Silicon-Film substrate can facilitate growth of the GaAs. Selective epitaxy on patterned, oxide-masked substrates is effective in reducing thermal stress effects.

  15. Enhancing Low-Cost Ozone Spectrometers to Measure Mesospheric Winds and Tides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, O B

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based spectrometers have been developed to measure the concentration, velocity, and temperature of ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) using low-cost satellite television electronics to observe the 11.072 GHz spectral line of ozone. A two-channel spectrometer has been engineered to yield various performance improvements, including a doubling of the signal-to-noise ratio, improved data processing efficiency, and lower power consumption at 15 W. Following 2009 and 2012 observations of the seasonal and diurnal variations in ozone concentration near the mesopause, the ozone line was observed at an altitude near 95 km and latitude of 38 degrees north using three single-channel spectrometers located at the MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA), Chelmsford High School (Chelmsford, MA), and Union College (Schenectady, NY) pointed south at 8 degrees. Observations from 2009 through 2014 are used to derive the nightly-averaged seasonal variation in meridional velocity, as well as the seasonally...

  16. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  17. A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi

    2013-01-01

    We describe a flexible, simple to build, low-cost, and computer-controlled optical mirror actuator system we developed for undergraduate research laboratories. Geared motors for hobby robotics are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller board in combination with an H bridge to finely position the mirror mount actuators. We present a graphical user interface based on the free Python script language. The price of the fully controlled actuator system is thus only a small fraction of the price of any commercial system; however, it is quickly implementable due to the use of open hardware electronics. We show the performance of the system and give an outlook for future expansions and use in advanced optical setups.

  18. Phase-Sensitive Detection in the undergraduate lab using a low-cost microcontroller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, K D

    2015-01-01

    Phase-sensitive detection (PSD) is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. PSD is also used in modulation spectroscopy and is used in the stabilization of optical sources. Commercial lock-in amplifiers that use PSD are often expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices seem like a good match for learning about PSD; however, making a self-contained device (reference signal, voltage input, mixing, filtering, and display) is difficult, but in the end the project teaches students "tricks" to turn the Arduino into a true scientific instrument.

  19. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost and accurate ocean temperature logger on subsurface mooring systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2014-06-23

    Monitoring seawater temperature is important to understanding evolving ocean processes. To monitor internal waves or ocean mixing, a large number of temperature loggers are typically mounted on subsurface mooring systems to obtain high-resolution temperature data at different water depths. In this study, we redesigned and evaluated a compact, low-cost, self-contained, high-resolution and high-accuracy ocean temperature logger, TC-1121. The newly designed TC-1121 loggers are smaller, more robust, and their sampling intervals can be automatically changed by indicated events. They have been widely used in many mooring systems to study internal wave and ocean mixing. The logger’s fundamental design, noise analysis, calibration, drift test, and a long-term sea trial are discussed in this paper.

  1. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  2. A simple, low-cost, data logging pendulum built from a computer mouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hubler, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Lessons and homework problems involving a pendulum are often a big part of introductory physics classes and laboratory courses from high school to undergraduate levels. Although laboratory equipment for pendulum experiments is commercially available, it is often expensive and may not be affordable for teachers on fixed budgets, particularly in developing countries. We present a low-cost, easy-to-build rotary sensor pendulum using the existing hardware in a ball-type computer mouse. We demonstrate how this apparatus may be used to measure both the frequency and coefficient of damping of a simple physical pendulum. This easily constructed laboratory equipment makes it possible for all students to have hands-on experience with one of the most important simple physical systems.

  3. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  4. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  5. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.

  6. Utilizing fly ash particles to produce low-cost metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, G.

    2008-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are a blend of fine ceramic particles mixed with metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Fly ash is considerably cheaper than ceramics; aluminium-fly ash composites cost less than 60% of conventional aluminium-SiC composites making them attractive to automakers striving for lower weight and cheaper materials for brake rotors or brake drums. Ultalite.com has consulted with US researchers to to find the optimum requirements of the fly ash needed to make MMCs. Particle size 20-40 microns, low calcium oxide content and spherical particles were identified. The desired particles once extracted are stirred into molten aluminum and the resulting composite is into ingots for shipment to a casting facility. Dynamometer testing has shown that aluminium-fly ash composite brake drums have better performance and wear than cast iron drums. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  8. Construction of low-cost, Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lark, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbines is described. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycomb-cored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The blades have completed nearly 8000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections at NASA-Lewis showed that the wood composite structure remains in excellent condition.

  9. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  10. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  11. A HIGH ASPECT RATIO, FLEXIBLE, TRANSPARENT AND LOW-COST PARYLENE-C SHADOW MASK TECHNOLOGY FOR MICROPATTERNING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokmeci, Mehmet

    A HIGH ASPECT RATIO, FLEXIBLE, TRANSPARENT AND LOW-COST PARYLENE-C SHADOW MASK TECHNOLOGY and Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract: In this paper, we present a flexible parylene-C shadow mask technology for creating microscale patterns on flat and curved surfaces. The smallest feature size of 4 µm

  12. A low cost Earth Observation method for monitoring Green House Gas emissions from forests in developing countries. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlambo, Reason

    2015-11-26

    Structure from Motion (SfM) from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is increasingly being utilised for a wide range of applications including characterisation of forests. The aim of this study was to evaluate SfM from UAVs as a potential low cost method...

  13. Low-cost Rigid-frame Exoskeleton Glove with Finger-joint Flexion Tracking Mapped onto a Robotic Hand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    This thesis provides a representation of a low-cost rigid-frame exoskeleton glove that is used to track finger-joint flexion mapped onto a robotic hand to mimic user movements. The overall setup consists of an exoskeleton glove (exo-glove), sensors...

  14. A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics Rehan Kapadia1,2 *, Zhibin-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics

  15. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer Daniel R. Albert, Michael A. Todt, and H. Floyd Davis*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H. Floyd

    A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer Daniel R. Albert, Michael A. Todt, and H with spectrophotometry. Additionally, more than 75% of the high school teachers polled stated that the high cost of modern spectrophotometers was prohibitive for regular classroom use. The lowest-cost modern

  16. Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

  17. Abstract--Design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight, ultra low-power, intelligent sensors capable of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milenkovi, Aleksandar

    1 of 4 Abstract--Design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight, ultra low-power, intelligent sensors promises a cost-effective, flexible platform that allows easy customization, run-time reconfiguration for hardware acceleration will increase reuse and alleviate costs of transition to a new generation of sensors

  18. HOW DO THEY DO IT DOWN UNDER? New Zealand dairy producers have huge exports and low costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    HOW DO THEY DO IT DOWN UNDER? New Zealand dairy producers have huge exports and low costs. But it is the world's largest dairy exporter, and, unlike the European Union and the United States, New Zealand provides no export subsidies. About 95 percent of New Zealand milk ends up as dairy products consumed

  19. Listen-to-Nose: A low-cost system to record nasal symp-toms in daily life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Hao-hua

    Listen-to-Nose: A low-cost system to record nasal symp- toms in daily life Nan-Chen Chen National, such as sneezing and runny nose, occur in everyday settings. It is hoped that this system can be used to collect the function of other systems by absorbing oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide. In the process of exchanging air

  20. Analysis of Bioproducts from Ultra-Low Cost Biomass Processing Lucy Cheadle, Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, MO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    countries Using the process to oven-dry wood would reduce transportation costs needed to haul the biomassAnalysis of Bioproducts from Ultra-Low Cost Biomass Processing Lucy Cheadle, Chemical Engineering of biochar product to processing variations. Possible uses for biochar: · Natural coal replacement · Soil

  1. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  2. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a coating system meeting the requirements for photovoltaic module encapsulation.

  3. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  4. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lark, R.F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    A contract was awarded to Gougeon Brothers, Inc., by NASA Lewis Research Center, under Department of Energy sponsorship, for the development and fabrication of two 60-foot, low-cost wood composite blades for service on a 200-kW Mod-0A wind turbine machine. The contractural effort consisted of blade design and analysis and fabrication phases. This report provides a brief summary of the design and analysis phase, and an indepth review of the blade fabrication phase. The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load takeoff studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the newest Mod-0A wind turbine test facility at Kukuku, Hawaii called Makini Huila (wind wheel) by the Hawaiians. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an 18-month period (nearly 8000 h) prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades were taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit. The remainder of the blade, including the embedded portion of the fractured stud, and the entire wood structure was found to be in excellent condition. All of the remaining studs, with the exception of four studs that showed an onset of corrosion, were also in excellent condition. The failed stud, as well as four of the corroded studs were successfully replaced with new studs. The blade is currently in a service-ready condition.

  6. Use of coconut fiber as a low-cost thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochhar, G.S.; Manohar, K. [Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1997-11-01

    Cost is one of the major factors to be considered when choosing a thermal insulator. Design engineers continuously strive to provide the best at the lowest possible cost. In the tropics climate conditions are essentially hot and humid and a cause for daily discomfort. To some extent, air-conditioning of buildings has solved this problem. The major deterrent to air-conditioning is the exorbitant cost of imported thermal insulation materials. This has prompted a search for local, low-cost but effective thermal insulation for buildings. Coconut fiber is available at minimal cost from the copra industry in Trinidad, as it is a waste product from the coconut. The viability of using coconut fiber as building thermal insulation was explored by conducting thermal conductivity tests on 200 mm X 400 mm X 60 mm thick slab-like specimens. The test equipment used was a locally designed constant temperature hot box apparatus. This apparatus was designed to test slab-like specimens under steady-state conditions. The reliability if this experimental set up was checked using Gypsum Plaster. The thermal conductivity test results for coconut fiber over the density range 30 kg/m{sup 3} to 115 kg/m{sup 3} showed the characteristic hooked shape graph for fibrous material. For the 60 mm thick specimens at a mean temperature of 39 C, a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.058 W/mK occurred at an optimum density of 85 kg/m{sup 3}. The thermal conductivity of commonly used industrial insulators, namely loose-fill expanded vermiculite, cellular glass and blanket fiber glass, at a mean temperature of 38 C are 0.066 W/mK, 0.061 W/mK and 0.052 W/mK respectively. When compared, these results show that air dried coconut fiber has far reaching potential for use as an effective building thermal insulation.

  7. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  8. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  9. Low-cost, high-power mechanical impact transducers for sonar and acoustic through-wall surveillance applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felber, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A new concept is presented for mechanical acoustic transmitters and matched resonant receivers. The lightweight, compact, and low-cost transmitters produce high-power acoustic pulses at one or more discrete frequencies with very little input power. The transducer systems are well suited for coupling acoustic pulse energy into dense media, such as walls and water. Applications of the impact transducers are discussed, including detection and tracking of humans through walls and long-duration underwater surveillance by a low-cost network of autonomous, self-recharging, battery-operated sonobuoys. A conceptual design of a sonobuoy surveillance network for harbors and littoral waters is presented. An impact-transmitter and matched-receiver system that detected human motion through thick walls with only rudimentary signal processing is described, and results are presented. Signal processing methods for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by several tens of dB are discussed.

  10. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  11. A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System Travis Mc://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/EnergyStorageSystem.pdf May 3, 2014 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664 of existing systems. Energy storage is a viable method for increasing the e ciency of a broad range of systems

  12. Supporting information Screen Printing as a Scalable and Low-cost Approach for Rigid and Flexible Thin-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    1 Supporting information Screen Printing as a Scalable and Low-cost Approach for Rigid and Flexible ) Index of devices 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Log(Ion /Ioff ) Index of devices 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 Index of devices Ion /W(A/mm) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thresholdvoltage

  13. Low-Cost PCI E Series Multifunction I/O 200 kS/s, 12-Bit, 16 Analog Inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wedeward, Kevin

    Low-Cost PCI E Series Multifunction I/O ­ 200 kS/s, 12-Bit, 16 Analog Inputs 602xE Families (E-5 outputs. An additional 24 lines of 5V/TTL I/O makes the 6025E family the best value of any PCI data/O Overview on page 231. 6023E Family (AI-16E-5) PCI-6023E 6024E Family (MIO-16E-5) PCI-6024E 6025E Family

  14. 944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 48, NO. 5, OCTOBER 1999 A Fast Low-Cost Solar Cell Spectral Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Luis

    944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 48, NO. 5, OCTOBER 1999 A Fast Low-Cost Solar Cell Spectral Response Measurement System with Accuracy Indicator S. Silvestre, L. Sent´is, and L and simplify serial communications between the different subsys- tems involved, resulting in a low-cost

  15. Data-driven Motion Estimation with Low-Cost Sensors Liguang Xie1, Mithilesh Kumar1, Yong Cao1,Denis Gracanin1, Francis Quek1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yong

    a motion estimation framework that utilizes a small set of low-cost, 3D acceleration sensors. We use a data-driven a commercially available professional motion capture system. At the same time we also capture 3D acceleration that our system can accurately estimate full body motion using a small number of low-cost acceleration

  16. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  17. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  18. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suplinskas, Raymond J. (Haverhill, MA); Finnemore, Douglas (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Serquei (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul (Ames, IA)

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  19. Tissue magnesium and calcium concentration in relation to magnesium and calcium intake in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkham, Carrie Stanton

    1987-01-01

    TISSUE MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN RELATION TO MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM INTAKE IN RATS A Thesis by CARRIE STANTON PINKRAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirerrents... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition TISSUE MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN RELATION TO MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM INTAKE IN RATS A Thesis by CARRIE STANTON PINKHAM Approved as to style and content by: Karen S...

  20. Lithography-free sub-100nm nanocone array antireflection layer for low-cost silicon solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhida

    2014-01-01

    High density and uniformity sub-100nm surface oxidized silicon nanocone forest structure is created and integrated onto the existing texturization microstructures on photovoltaic device surface by a one-step high throughput plasma enhanced texturization method. We suppressed the broadband optical reflection on chemically textured grade-B silicon solar cells for up to 70.25% through this nanomanufacturing method. The performance of the solar cell is improved with the short circuit current increased by 7.1%, fill factor increased by 7.0%, conversion efficiency increased by 14.66%. Our method demonstrates the potential to improve the photovoltaic device performance with low cost high and throughput nanomanufacturing technology.

  1. The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-11-25

    The cycling performance of low-cost LiFePO4-based high-power lithium-ion cells was investigated and the components were analyzed after cycling to determine capacity fade mechanisms. Pouch type LiFePO4/natural graphite cells were assembled and evaluated by constant C/2 cycling, pulse-power and impedance measurements. From post-test electrochemical analysis after cycling, active materials, LiFePO4 and natural graphite, showed no degradation structurally or electrochemically. The main reasons for the capacity fade of cell were lithium inventory loss by side reaction and possible lithium deposition on the anode.

  2. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Lightweighting Materials Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...

  3. Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2013-02-11

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  5. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  6. Identification of design requirements for a high-performance, low-cost, passive prosthetic knee through user analysis and dynamic simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narang, Yashraj S. (Yashraj Shyam)

    2013-01-01

    In January 2012, a partnership was initiated between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti (BMVSS, a.k.a., Jaipur Foot) to design a high-performance, low-cost, passive ...

  7. Design and engineering of low-cost centimeter-scale repeatable and accurate kinematic fixtures for nanomanufacturing equipment using magnetic preload and potting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watral, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost, centimeter-scale kinematic coupling fixture for use in nanomanufacturing equipment. The fixture uses magnetic circuit design techniques to optimize the magnetic preload required to achieve ...

  8. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute) [Broad Institute

    2012-06-01

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  9. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  10. We describe a low cost high precision photometric imaging system, which has been in robotic operation for one year on the Mauna Loa observatory (Hawaii). The system, which can be easily duplicated, offers a 150 sq deg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier

    We describe a low cost high precision photometric imaging system, which has been in roboticAchieving high precision photometry for identifying transiting exoplanets with a low-cost robotic DSLR-based imaging systemexoplanets with a low-cost robotic DSLR-based imaging system Mauna Kea Dual camera system

  11. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale - Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which community-scale energy savings can be evaluated based on results at the occupied test house level.Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a whole-house systems integrated measures package and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  12. Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

  13. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  14. Cellulose-Bound Magnesium Diboride Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Cellulose-Bound Magnesium Diboride Superconductivity Y.L. Lin and M.O. Pekguleryuz Department a cellulose based polymer. Cellulose tends to react only very weekly and is very robust, hence constitutes

  15. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge, giving it potential as a more efficient energy source. Magnesium has a high volumetric capacity, which could mean more battery power in a smaller space. However, to bring...

  16. Low Cost Heliostat Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  17. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  18. Zero Emissions Coal Syngas Oxygen Turbo Machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Horazak

    2010-12-31

    Siemens Energy, Inc. (formerly Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation) worked with Clean Energy Systems and Florida Turbine Technologies to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of advanced turbines for oxy-fuel based power systems that discharge negligible CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. The approach builds upon ultra supercritical steam turbine and advanced gas turbine technology with the goal of attaining plant efficiencies above 50% in the 2015 timeframe. Conceptual designs were developed for baseline, near term, and long term oxy-fuel turbine cycles, representing commercial introductions of increasingly advanced thermal conditions and increasing exposure to steam-CO{sub 2} mixtures. An economic analysis and market demand study was performed by Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), and indicated that long-term oxy-fuel turbine cycles start to look attractive in 2025 when the CO{sub 2} tax is assumed to reach $40/ ton, and by 2030 it has a clear advantage over both IGCC with sequestration and pulverized coal with sequestration. A separate risk analysis of the oxy-fuel combustor, HP turbine, re-heater, and IP turbine of the long-term cycle identified and categorized risks and proposed mitigation measures. In 2007 the program began to focus on a potential oxy-fuel turbine power generation demonstration project in the 2012 -13 time period while still maintaining a link to the requirements of the long-term oxy-syngas cycle. The SGT-900 turbine was identified as the best fit for modification into an intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) for this application. The base metals, bond coats, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), and rotor materials used in the SGT-900 were tested for their ability to operate in the steam- CO{sub 2} environment of the oxy-fuel OFT-900. Test results indicated that these same materials would operate satisfactorily, and the plan, is to use SGT-900materials for the OFT-900. Follow-on programs for corrosion testing and evaluation of crack growth rates in oxy-fuel environments have been proposed to build on these results and provide quantifiable assessments of the effects of oxy-fuel environments on the service lives of turbine components.

  19. Zero Emission Heavy Duty Drayage Truck Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Houston Zero Emission Delivery Vehicle Deployment Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Zero Emissions Leasing LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) JumpZhuyuan Electric Development CoZebecZenithZero

  2. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  3. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  4. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE OF IEEE PROCEEDINGS -RFID -A UNIQUE RADIO INNOVATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY 1 Low Cost, Ubiquitous RFID Tag Antenna Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    conditions, in effect creating a non-electric memory to monitor state. After identifying the application for low-cost, ubiquitous wireless sensing. Current wireless sensing applications make use of battery the supply chain with a $20 temperature sensor. Battery powered sensors have limited battery life [6

  6. > REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) Low-Cost Sensor System for Alarm Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Idaho, University of

    could monitor and report any type of data of interest to us, such as oil pipeline pressure, gas flow> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) Low and microcontrollers are leveraged upon in providing low-cost automated event reporting and metering data in utility

  7. 208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra communications applica- tions. An UWB, ultra-short-pulse radar has spectrum extending from very low to very high-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse Transmitter with MESFET Impulse-Shaping Circuitry for Reduced Distortion and Improved

  8. A low-cost localization system based on Artificial Landmarks Claudio dos S. Fernandes, Mario F. M. Campos and Luiz Chaimowicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    A low-cost localization system based on Artificial Landmarks Cl´audio dos S. Fernandes, Mario F. M in the environment ceiling. Although the use of artificial landmarks restricts the applicability of this methodology is a complicating factor in terms of problem complexity. The use of computer vision techniques for aiding mobile

  9. Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor for Robotic Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Emanuel

    Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor fingertip force sensor for robotic manipulation. Our design makes the most of 3D printing technology sensor features a detachable fingertip made of 3D- printed materials, and a cantilever mechanism

  10. Low-cost contour and groundwater mapping Electronics Group, Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Colin

    Low-cost contour and groundwater mapping Colin Fox Electronics Group, Department of Physics of a sizable inverse problem. A groundwater problem on a neighbouring property prompted me to also develop, surveying, inverse problem, groundwater, fluid sensor, piezometer 1. INTRODUCTION In 2008 we1 bought

  11. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) consist of small, low-cost, resource-constrained embedded computers equipped with low-power radios and various sensors. When deployed, they form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maróti, Miklós

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) consist of small, low-cost, resource-constrained embedded computers, healthcare, structural monitoring and the military among others. Many WSN applications rely on the location as they require no specialized hardware; they use the radio chip readily available on WSN nodes. RSS-based ranging

  12. Generation of sub-150-fs, 100 nJ pulses from a low-cost cavity-dumped Cr:LiSAF laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    We report a low-cost, cavity dumped Cr:LiSAF laser, generating 135-fs pulses at 825 nm, with 105 nJ pulse energies and ?0.78 MW of peak power at 10 kHz, using only 600 mW of pump power.

  13. Advanced Coating Technologies and Processes --The development of low-cost high-yield coating technologies is one of the most important ingredients for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    #12;Advanced Coating Technologies and Processes -- The development of low-cost high-yield coating the reliability of batteries. ORNL's research on wet and dry coating technologies could reduce the time and energy techniques to fuse amorphous iron-based powders into ultrahard nanocomposite coatings many times harder than

  14. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  15. Combustion Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kale, M. A. [Physics Department, S.V.S.S. College of Engineering and Research, Nagpur 4411 10 (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, Ramdeobaba Engineering College, Katol Road, Nagpur 440 013 (India); Moharil, S. V. [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, 440033 (India)

    2011-10-20

    In the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, three compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}(also expressed as-Mg{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2.4}O{sub 4}) and MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} are well known. Importance of the first two is well established. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel is a technologically important material due to its interesting thermal properties. The MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics also find application as humidity sensors. Apart from the luminescence studies, the interest in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is due to various applications such as humidity-sensing and PEM fuel cells, TL/OSL dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, white light source. Interest in the MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} has aroused due to possible use as a substrate for GaN growth. Attempt was made to synthesize these compounds by the combustion synthesis using metal nitrates as oxidizer and urea as a fuel. Compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were formed in a single step, while MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} was not formed by this procedure. Activation of MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} by rare earth ions like Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and ns{sup 2} ion Pb{sup 2+} could be achieved. Excitation bands for MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} are at slightly shorter wavelengths compared to those reported for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  16. The Bolting of Magnesium Components in Car Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1 The Bolting of Magnesium Components in Car Engines Sarennah J.P. Longworth Newnham College of bolting together magnesium alloys components at temperatures around 100o C, such as those found in car

  17. Texture Control by Selective Deformation Mechanism Activation in Magnesium Alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, David Christopher

    2014-07-01

    The need for high strength, light weight structures in automotive and aerospace applications has driven a resurgence of interest in magnesium and its alloys. Unlike aluminum, wrought magnesium typically has a high degree ...

  18. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  19. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  20. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  1. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  2. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, Mark A

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  3. MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

    2011-12-13

    Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost performance, and reductions in operating voltage through thinner and higher uniformity active device layers. We have now installed a pilot encapsulation system at AVI for controlled, high throughput lamination encapsulation of flexible OLEDs in a novel process. Along with this, we have developed, with our materials supply partners, adhesives, barrier films and other encapsulation materials and we are showing total air product lifetimes in the 2-4 years range from a process consistent with our throughput goals of {approx}1M device per month ({approx}30,000 sq. ft. of processed OLEDs). Within the last year of the project, we have been working to introduce the manufacturing improvements made in our LEP deposition and annealing process to our commercial partners. Based on the success of this, a pilot scale-up program was begun. During this process, Add-Vision was acquired by a strategic partner, in no small part, because of the promise of future success of the technology as evidenced by our commercial partners pilot scale-up plans. Overall, the performance, manufacturing and product work in this project has been successful. Additional analysis and device work at LBL has also shown a unique adhesion change with device bias stressing which may result from active layer polymer cross-linking during bias stressing of device. It was shown that even small bias stresses, as a fraction of a full device lifetime stress period, result in measurable chemical change in the device. Further work needs to be conducted to fully understand the chemical nature of this interaction. Elucidation of this effect would enable doped OLED formulation to be engineered to suppress this effect and further extend lifetimes and reduce voltage climb.

  4. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Bergum, John W. (Concord, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  5. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [GM China Lab] [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  6. MAGNESIUM-BASED METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND DEVICES - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Abstract: An aspect of the present invention is an electrical device, where the device includes a current collector and a porous...

  7. Final project report - CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materials for low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Bennett, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were as follows: To develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  8. Low cost, compact high efficiency, traction motor for electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles. Final report for the period September 1998 - December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Jerry; Kessinger, Roy

    2000-04-28

    This final report details technical accomplishments for Phase I of the ''Low Cost, Compact High Efficiency, Traction Motor for Electric Vehicles/Hybrid Electric Vehicles'' program. The research showed that the segmented-electromagnetic array (SEMA) technology combined with an Integrated Motion Module (IMM) concept is highly suited for electric vehicles. IMMs are essentially mechatronic systems that combine the motor, sensing, power electronics, and control functions for a single axis of motion into a light-weight modular unit. The functional integration of these components makes possible significant reductions in motor/alternator size, weight, and cost, while increasing power density and electromechanical conversion efficiency.

  9. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  10. Stationary storage and purification of hydrogen using nickel-coated magnesium powder. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-30

    The following conclusions were reached: (1) The concept of a coating on a magnesium particle serving as a well-supported hydrogen-permselective membrane is sound. (2) Magnesium nitride can be made to coat magnesium particles through chemical vapor deposition within a fluidized bed. (3) Magnesium nitride exhibits the properties necessary for such a coating. (4) Magnesium nitride is not chemically inert to hydrogen in the absence of ammonia at temperatures typically used to hydride/dehydride magnesium.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced low-cost SiC and GaN wide...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

  13. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwam, David

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

  14. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  15. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

  16. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

  17. The effects of a suboptimal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on parturition, growth, and viability in the rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Sonja D'Awn

    1985-01-01

    fed the magnesium- deficient diet. Magnesium deficiency did not lower femur calcium content, but it significantly decreased femur magnesium. Studies of the human situation would be of interest. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express thanks... of dietary magnesium and protein source on tissue 42 Table 11 Effects of dietary treatment on serum magnesium and femur magnesium and calcium 44 LIST OF FIGURES page Figure 1 Weights of dams fed control diet, low magnesium casein diet, soy diet...

  18. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  19. LOW COST BIOHEATING OIL APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2003-05-01

    The report describes primarily the results of combustion tests carried out with a soy methyl ester (SME) that can be considered as a biofuel that does not quite meet the ASTM D 6751-02 specifications for biodiesel. The tests were performed in a residential boiler and a commercial boiler. Blends of the SME in distillate fuel (home heating fuel or equivalently, ASTM No.2 fuel oil) were tested in both the boilers. Similar tests had been conducted in a previous project with ASTM biodiesel blends and hence provided a comparison. Blends of the SME in ASTM No.6 oil (residual oil) were also tested in the commercial boiler using a different burner. Physical properties of the blends (in both the petroleum based fuels) were also measured. It was found that the SME blends in the distillate burned, not surprisingly, similarly to biodiesel blends. Reductions in NOx with blending of the SME were the most significant finding as before with biodiesel blends. The blends in No.6 oil also showed reductions in NOx in the commercial boiler combustion tests, though levels with No.6 blends are higher than with No.2 blends as expected. A significant conclusion from the physical property tests was that even the blending of 10% SME with the No.6 oil caused a significant reduction in viscosity, which suggests a potential direction of application of such blends.

  20. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogoFeet) DeliveriesSubstrates -

  1. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional Geothermal Indicator in Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  2. Interlayer-Expanded Molybdenum Disulfide Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Magnesium Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and grid energy storage.1-4 Mg rechargeable batteries (MgRBs) stand out as a promising choice due for the development of advanced materials for next-generation energy storage. KEYWORDS: Magnesium rechargeable

  3. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  4. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  5. Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2004-08-17

    A new method for combining magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate to form an inexpensive compactible ceramic to stabilize very low solubility metal oxides, ashes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast, and to reinforce and strengthen the ceramics formed by the addition of fibers to the initial ceramic mixture.

  6. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  7. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW-AC solar tracking subarray for grid-connected PV power system applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; Duran, G.; Fourer, G.; Mackamul, K.; Whalen, W.; Loo, M. van; West, R.

    1998-06-01

    This report chronicles Utility Power Group's (UPG) successful two-year Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Phase 4A1 work effort which began in July, 1995. During this period, UPG completed design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a modular and fully integrated 15-kW-ac, solar tracking PV power system sub-array. The two key and innovative components which were developed are a Modular Panel which optimizes factory assembly of PV modules into a large area, field-deployable, structurally-integrated PV panel, and an Integrated Power Processing Unit which combines all dc and ac power collection, conversion and control functions within a single, field-deployable structurally-integrated electrical enclosure. These two key sub-array elements, when combined with a number of other electrical, mechanical, and structural components, create a low-cost and high-performance PV power system. This system, or sub-array, can be deployed in individual units, or paralleled with any number of other sub-arrays, to construct multi-megawatt P fields. 21 figs.

  8. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  9. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  10. Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

  11. There has been much interest in photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy in recent years due to its potential for low-cost, sustainable and renewable production of fuels. Despite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to its potential for low-cost, sustainable and renewable production of fuels. Despite the huge potentialThere has been much interest in photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy in recent years due characteristics such as the bandgap, flatband potential, band structure, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical

  12. The goal of this work is to develop low cost and highly efficient hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). Hybrid solar cells have been demonstrated to take advantages of both inorganic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The goal of this work is to develop low cost and highly efficient hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). Hybrid solar cells have been demonstrated to take advantages of both to improve optical and electrical properties of photovoltaic devices. Hybrid solar cells having long-armed Cd

  13. ccurate and low-cost sensor localization is a critical requirement for the deployment of wireless sensor networks in a wide variety of applications. Low-power wireless sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Dramatic advances in RF and MEMS IC design have made possible the use of large networks of wireless sensorsccurate and low-cost sensor localization is a critical requirement for the deployment of wireless sensor networks in a wide variety of applications. Low-power wireless sensors may be many hops away from

  14. 0-7803-8906-9/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE 2005 Electronic Components and Technology Conference Exploring the Limits of Low Cost, Organics-Compatible High-k Ceramic Thin-Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    the Limits of Low Cost, Organics-Compatible High-k Ceramic Thin-Films for Embedded Decoupling Applications to integrate them. Ceramic-polymer nanocomposite approach pursued by various research groups over the past today are investigating ceramic-based thin films (

  15. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwchem@gmail.com [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Chunhong [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Ming [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Sun, Lingna [ShenZhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Hu, Changwen [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education of China, The Institute for Chemical Physics and Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  17. Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature on Fracture and Damage of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez Atencio, Ana Karina

    2015-04-29

    Due to their low density and high specific strength, magnesium and its alloys are structural metals attractive for the aerospace and automotive industries. However, wide spread use of wrought magnesium is challenged by its ...

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of an environmentally friendly conversion coating for magnesium alloys using optical measurement techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, David

    2006-10-30

    Magnesium alloys have one of the highest specific strengths of all construction metals used. Specifically, magnesium alloy castings are used in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aerospace vehicles. Coating systems must be employed...

  19. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  20. Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the scope of a new project, just initiated, for the Lightweight Materials Program within the Office of Transportation Materials. The Center for Transportation Research and the Energy Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory will assess the feasibility and technical potential of using magnesium and its alloys in place of steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications in order to enable more energy-efficient, lightweight passenger vehicles. The analysis will provide an information base to help guide magnesium research and development in the most promising directions.

  1. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. • High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. • The nanofibers calcined at 100–700 °C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. • The calcined nanofibers at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 °C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 20–90 nm in diameter and 2–7 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300–400 °C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 °C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 600–1000 °C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300–700 °C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 800–1000 °C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 °C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  2. Towards Zero Emissions CO2-Reduction in Mediterranean Social Housing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabate, J.; Peters, C.; Cuchi, A.; Lopez, F.; Sagrera, A.; Wadel, G.; Vidal, J.; Cantos, S.

    2008-01-01

    of lacquered aluminium with interruption of thermal bridge. Exterior carpentry made of laminated Northern pine, controlled forest management and valid certificate. Solar protection Venetian blind of lacquered aluminium with vertical, manually...

  3. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  4. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongho, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosocha, Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A multi-institutional plasma combustion team was awarded a research project from the DOE/NNSA GIPP (Global Initiative for Prolifereation Prevention) office. The Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia); Leonardo Technologies, Inc. (an American-based industrial partner), in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory are participating in the project to develop novel plasma assisted combustion technologies. The purpose of this project is to develop prototypes of marketable systems for more stable and cleaner combustion of syngas/biofuels and to demonstrate that this technology can be used for a variety of combustion applications - with a major focus on contemporary gas turbines. In this paper, an overview of the project, along with descriptions of the plasma-based combustors and associated power supplies will be presented. Worldwide, it is recognized that a variety of combustion fuels will be required to meet the needs for supplying gas-turbine engines (electricity generation, propulsion), internal combustion engines (propulsion, transportation), and burners (heat and electricity generation) in the 21st Century. Biofuels and biofuel blends have already been applied to these needs, but experience difficulties in modifications to combustion processes and combustor design and the need for flame stabilization techniques to address current and future environmental and energy-efficiency challenges. In addition, municipal solid waste (MSW) has shown promise as a feedstock for heat and/or electricity-generating plants. However, current combustion techniques that use such fuels have problems with achieving environmentally-acceptable air/exhaust emissions and can also benefit from increased combustion efficiency. This project involves a novel technology (a form of plasma-assisted combustion) that can address the above issues. Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a growing field that is receiving worldwide attention at present. The project is focused on research necessary to develop a novel, high-efficiency, low-emissions (near-zero, or as low as reasonably achievable), advanced combustion technology for electricity and heat production from biofuels and fuels derived from MSW. For any type of combustion technology, including the advanced technology of this project, two problems of special interest must be addressed: developing and optimizing the combustion chambers and the systems for igniting and sustaining the fuel-burning process. For MSW in particular, there are new challenges over gaseous or liquid fuels because solid fuels must be ground into fine particulates ({approx} 10 {micro}m diameter), fed into the advanced combustor, and combusted under plasma-assisted conditions that are quite different than gaseous or liquid fuels. The principal idea of the combustion chamber design is to use so-called reverse vortex gas flow, which allows efficient cooling of the chamber wall and flame stabilization in the central area of the combustor (Tornado chamber). Considerable progress has been made in design ing an advanced, reverse vortex flow combustion chamber for biofuels, although it was not tested on biofuels and a system that could be fully commercialized has never been completed.

  5. The origin of California’s zero emission vehicle mandate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Collantes, Gustavo O

    2008-01-01

    Sperling, D. , 1989. Electric vehicles: performance, life-in California: The Role of Electric Vehicles. The ClaremontGM’s Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. Random House, New York.

  6. California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Cleaner air needed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    these highly functional vehicles and called for more. The regulation also spurred advances in natural gas allow recharging overnight ­no trips to the gas station as EV drivers wake up each morning with a "full gasoline powered vehicle *** Includes powerplant emissions Studies estimate that EV maintenance will cost

  7. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

  8. Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

  9. A Zero Emission Mechanical Seal with Integral Micro Heat Exchanger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khonsari, M.

    2005-01-01

    Emission Seal with Improved Heat Transfer Characteristics Michael Khonsari Dow Chemical Endowed Chair in Rotating Machinery and Professor Center for Rotating Machinery Department of Mechanical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA... 70803 Khonsari@me.lsu.edu Mechanical seals are susceptible to premature failure due to intense heat generation at the interface between the rotating and stationary seal faces. Heat checking, blistering, and hot spotting are all manifestations...

  10. Zero-Emission Facilities Production Tax Credit | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-Sessions |discussed howCommercial Local Government State Government Savings

  11. Maldives-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5Transport Projects |NIES

  12. The Future of Public Transport - In Pursuit of Zero Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState of Pennsylvania U.S.The First Five YearsThe Future

  13. NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    ) and grain refinement were observed in sand cast SiCp/Mg(AZ91) [7] and SiCp/Mg(ZCM630) composites [8 Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Received May 5, 1999) (Accepted June 24, 1999) Keywords: Casting; Nucleation performance of matrix metals and alloys. Most magnesium alloy based MMCs are produced via a casting process

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    to that of the bone (1.8­ 2.1 g/cm3 ) [1]. (ii) The fracture toughness of magnesium is greater than ceramic bone compared with the traditional Ti6Al4V, better ductility than the synthetic HA, and higher strength

  15. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  16. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  17. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  18. An investigation of magnesium production in silicon by neutron transmutation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Freddie Joe

    1986-01-01

    NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING CHAPTER II. THEORY APPROACH IRRADIATION AND PRODUCTS NUMERICAL PREDICTIONS 10 REGISTRATION EFFICIENCY CHAPTER III. EXPERIMENT FILM SELECTION 23 PRELIMINARY TESTS OF LR-115 FILM 25 TARGET CONFIGURATION 29 INHERENT... approach. CHAPTER II THEORY APPROACH The general procedure was to irradiate silicon target materially using the NSCR as a neutron source. The desired interaction, that producing magnesium, gives rise to an alpha particle, which may escape the silicon...

  19. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  20. Determination of the concentrations of magnesium and aluminum in alloys by laser produced atomic emission spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashe, William Monroe

    1997-01-01

    It Works) 35 5 RESULTS Data Collection . . 38 Part One (Boxcar Averager in Fixed Mode) 38 Part Two (Boxcar Averager in Scanning Mode) . . 39 Magnesium Spectra . . 40 Aluminum Alloy Specna Sensitivity , . 46 Error Analysis . . 48 Part One.... This spectra has been averaged over 5 runs using the Bin and Hold method . 65 32 Plot of intensity ratio vs. concentration ratio for the various magnesium alloys, incluthng the Johnson Matthey magnesium alloy sample data point (circled) 33 Close up...

  1. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet), Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels ResearchofDerivativeCold ClimateInsulated Siding Retrofit inLow-Cost

  2. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01

    lower f eed intake s than did rats from other dietary treatments. During lactation, dai ly feed consumpt ion was lower in an ima1 s depr ived of magnesium. Approximately 24 hr postpartum, in dams who consumed a magnesium-deficient diet, the heart... and kidney contained significantly more calcium, 150'% and 300% respectively. During lactation, mild magnesium restriction resulted in increased weight loss by dams and decreased weight gain by pupa. In the of f spring of rats dep1 et ed o f magnesium...

  3. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  4. Structural properties and enthalpy of formation of magnesium hydride from quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfč, Dario

    Structural properties and enthalpy of formation of magnesium hydride from quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the structural properties of magnesium hydride MgH2 , including the pressure. INTRODUCTION The energetics of metal hydrides has recently become an issue of large scientific

  5. High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs), energy storage, Coulombic efficiency, dendrite-free magnesium

  6. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  7. Low cost multi-channel GPS receiver 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Tachita, R.; Ikeda, K.; Teranishi, A.; Noe, P.S.

    1988-11-29

    An investigation was conducted on compact, multichannel GPS (global positioning system) receivers. The code generator and correlation equipment were simplified, attempting to avoid downgrading the properties possessed by multichannel receivers...

  8. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Jet Propulsion Laboratory Project Leader: Dr. Gani Ganapathi gani.b.ganapathi@jpl.nasa.gov Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper,...

  9. Low-cost field-fabricated Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    can be saved. #12;Potable water : To find out wheather water is suitable for drinking ? #12;Data Logger for recording water level in Well _ Vigyan Ashram maintains records of water level in the well, everyday. _ We have records for last 24 years _ It helps us in predictating the time till water last

  10. Design of a low cost bamboo footbridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laroque, Paul (Paul Vivien Marc)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays the construction business, more so than other industries, is responsible most of the environmental issues that our society encounters. Given the increasing concern our impact on the environment, the need for new ...

  11. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    allow for minimal disturbance of soil and ecosystem, and comprehensive full system delivery: April 2009 to March 2012 For more information, please contact: · Placing concentrating photovoltaic for this information or the researc

  12. Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Livermore, CA); Burke, Gerald J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Tracy, CA); Stever, Robert D. (Lathrop, CA); Governo, George K. (Livermore, CA); Mullenhoff, Donald J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

  13. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  14. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  15. Deploying Low-Cost Suspension Heliostats

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  17. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Bauer, Hans F. (Morgantown, WV); Grimes, Robert W. (Laramie, WY)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  18. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    corrosion resistant alloys construction Oil and gas platform processes, separators, LNG processing, chillers, heat pumps, fuels reforming, waste heat power systems and...

  19. Design of a low cost hydrostatic bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Anthony Raymond

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and manufacturing method for a new surface self compensating hydrostatic bearing. A lumped resistance model was used to analyze the performance of the bearing and provide guidance on laying ...

  20. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Powder for Feedstock Principal Investigator: Curt Lavender Presenter: Mark T. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory OVT 2008 DOE Peer Review February 28, 2008 This...

  1. www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Heat Transfer Burner Air Natural Gas PSAPurification System Boiler Feed Water Treatment Feed Water Pump-Site H2 Production Existing Technologies (SMR) Transportation & Industrial (1,000 - 5,000 scfh for Transportation / Industrial Assess Economics Vs. Current Supply Options Business Cases Phase II (06/03 - 12

  2. Low cost crowd counting using audio tones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kannan, Pravein Govindan

    With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

  3. Portable low-cost magnetic resonance imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, Clarissa Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the premiere modality for brain imaging, MRI could find wider applicability if lightweight, portable systems were available for siting in unconventional locations such as intensive care units (ICUs), physician ...

  4. Low-Cost MHTES Systems for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  5. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safety StandardsLaborLignol<ColinandTheRyan Paul,

  6. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUpListSummaryDepartment of10 DOE

  7. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUpListSummaryDepartment10 DOECost, Durable

  8. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership onProton

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: Long-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Magnesium and Carbon Fiber)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office supports research into magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced composites, which could reduce the weight of some components by 50-75 percent in the long-term.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  11. Effect of Texture on Formability and Mechanical Anisotropy of a Severe Plastically Deformed Magnesium Alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modarres Razavi, Sonia

    2012-02-14

    Magnesium and its alloys have been considered as alternatives to aluminum alloys and steels for structural applications in automotive and aerospace applications due to their superior specific strength and light-weight. ...

  12. SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    : Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Shrinkage Porosity, Hot Tears, Modeling Abstract Simulations are performed within commercial casting simulation software to predict shrinkage porosity and hot tears changes are introduced to mitigate the shrinkage and hot tear problems in these castings. The comparisons

  13. Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review Nan Li, Yufeng Zheng*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    of their high me- chanical strength as well as high fracture toughness. The den- sities of magnesium (1.738 g efficiency, so higher strength, and better ductility and corrosion resistance are required. Nevertheless

  14. Controlling the Biodegradation of Magnesium Implants Through Nanostructured Calcium-Phosphate Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iskandar, Maria Emil

    2012-01-01

    In-Seop L. Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy forsimulated body fluid. Surface Coating Technology 2004:92-98.XN. Electrodeposition of Ca-P coatings on biodegradable Mg

  15. The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Manhar C

    1969-01-01

    THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

  16. A study of the role of calcium and magnesium in casein micellar structure in human milk 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallaway, Sheila Ann

    1988-01-01

    ) Karen . Kubena (Member) Wa ne L. R&cko11 (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT A Study of the Role of Calcium and Magnesium in Casein Micellar Structure in Human Milk. (December 1988) Sheila Ann Gallaway, B, S.... , Texas ASM University; M. S. , Texas ASM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. W. Dill The effects of EDTA, phosphatase hydrolysis, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride on human casein micelles were observed using electron microscopy...

  17. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  18. A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn and B

  19. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01

    the exchangeable potassium and magnesium in a Lakeland fine sand 4 Distribution of potassium, magnesium, and sulfate in a Lakeland fine sand. 48 Effect of fertilizer treatments on total yield of Coastal bermudagrass grown in the field in 1968. . 51 10 Effect...THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDy SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Submitted to the Graduate Collccje of Texas AFM Unive, sity in partial fulfillment...

  20. Effect Of Neodymium Substitution In Structural Characteristics Of Magnesium Ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thankachan, Smitha; Binu, P. J.; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M. [Department of Physics, Maharaja's College, Ernakulam (India)

    2011-10-20

    The effect of Nd{sup 3+} substitution on the structural properties of Magnesium ferrite was studied in the series MgNd{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4}, where x = 0 to 0.3 in steps of 0.05. The series was prepared by sol-gel technique which is one of the novel technique to prepare nanosized samples. Structural characterization was done using X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. XRD analysis reveals the prepared samples are single phasic till x = 0.2. From x0 = .25, a secondary phase of iron neodymium oxide appears along with the spinel phase. Particle size calculation shows the prepared samples are in the 9nm to 11 nm regime. Lattice parameter was found to increase with concentration of Nd. XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed spinel structure of the prepared samples. XRF result shows the expected composition of prepared samples. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant in the range 100 Hz--120MHz was also studied

  1. Oxide Film and Porosity Defects in Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rhee, Hongjoo [Mississippi State University (MSU); Felicelli, Sergio D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Berry, John T. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation in magnesium alloy AZ91. Microstructure analysis was performed on several samples obtained from gravity-poured ingots in graphite plate molds. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. Tensile tests and conventional four point bend tests were also conducted on specimens cut from the cast plates. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure on the fracture surface of the specimens. The results of this study revealed the existence of abundant oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. Remnants of oxide films were detected on some pore surfaces, and folded oxides were observed in fracture surfaces indicating the presence of double oxides entrained during pouring.

  2. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-03-28

    An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

  3. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  4. ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T. van Duin, and William A. Goddard III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Duin, Adri

    ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 ReceiVed: September 3FFMgH) for magnesium and magnesium hydride systems. The parameters for this force field were derived from fitting

  5. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  6. Effects of fluctuant magnesium concentration on phenotype of the primary chondrocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    , Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China 2 DepartmentM of MgCl2 solution set as the control group. Concentra- tions of Mg ions and pH values of the culture generally degrade to magnesium hydroxide, hydrogen gas, sulfate, and phosphate in aqueous environments via

  7. Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K of the plates were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The TIG arc was also used to deposit welding beads on some of the thin plates. No cracking was found in the butt joints. However, hot cracking

  8. Enthalpies of formation of magnesium compounds from first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Enthalpies of formation of magnesium compounds from first-principles calculations Hui Zhang, miscellaneous B. Thermodynamic and thermochemical properties E. Ab initio calculations a b s t r a c). The calculated lattice parameters and enthalpies of formation of binary compounds in these systems are compared

  9. Evaluation of Heat Shields from RTS Wright Industries Magnesium and Uranium Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2002-10-29

    Heat shields from a factory test of the furnaces that will be used to heat the magnesium and uranium beds for the tritium extraction facility (TEF) were examined to determine the cause of discoloration. The samples were examined using visual, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  10. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Loper, L. [Alabama Electric Coopreative, Leroy, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by INFINIUM, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about scale-up of magnesium...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by INFINIUM, Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about scale-up of magnesium...

  13. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-01-01

    barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphateto identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 infacilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified

  14. The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Thuy Huong

    1989-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND DIETARY FAT ON CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, IRON, AND ZINC ON SELECTED TISSUES IN RATS A Thesis by THUY HUONG NGUYEN Approved as to style... and content by: Karen S. ubena (Chair of Committee) L. yne Greene (Member) Barbara C. O' Brien (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT The Effects of Exercise and Dietary Fat on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc...

  15. The interaction of nitrogen and magnesium deficiences in certain aspects of the physiology of the cotton plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Debabrata

    1961-01-01

    THE INTERACTION OF NITROGEN AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES IN CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE COTTON PLANT A Thesis By DEBABRATA GHOSH Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject: plant physiology THE INTERACTION OF NITROGEN AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES IN CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE COTTON PLANT A Thesis By DEBABRATA...

  16. The determination of the bioavailability and the site of absorption in lambs fed different sources of magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Leigh Anne

    1988-01-01

    of the animal influences Ng avail- ability. Grace (1972) found that older cows exhibited a sharper decrease in plasma Ng than did younger cows in the early stages of lactation. Magnesium Supplementation The adequacy of dietary Mg levels is probably...THE DETERMINATION OF THE BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE SITE OF ABSORPTION IN LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM A Thesis I, EIGH ANNE HURLEY Submitted to the Of f ice of Graduate Studies Texas AAM UniversitY in partial fulfillment...

  17. Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Mozammel

    1967-01-01

    ASH, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF THE METACARPUS OF HEREFORD COWS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS A Thesis By MOZAMMEL HAQUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... centages of Calcium, Phosphorus snd Magnesium in Bone Ash for Cows Gi;en Different Treatments During Pre- And Post-Partum Periods 22 10 Analysis of Variance oi Calcium in Bone Ash Dun an's )tultiple tvange Test 1'or Calcium in Bone Ash. Analy...

  18. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  19. Sol-Gel Preparation Of Lead Magnesium Ni Obate (Pmn) Powdersand Thin Films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg.sub.1/3 Nb.sub.2/3)O.sub.3, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films.

  20. The effect of rare earth elements on the texture and formability of asymmetrically rolled magnesium sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, Dr. Martyn [Magnesium Elektron North America; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Bruce [Magnesium Elektron North America; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Randman, David [Magnesium Elektron North America; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The lack of formability is a serious issue when considering magnesium alloys for various applications. Standard symmetric rolling introduces a strong basal texture that decreases the formability; however, asymmetric rolling has been put forward as a possible route to produce sheet with weaker texture and greater ductility. It has also been shown in recent work that weaker textures can be produced through the addition of rare earth elements to magnesium alloys. Therefore, this study has been carried out to investigate the effect of rare earth additions on the texture changes during asymmetric rolling. Two alloys have been used, AZ31B and ZEK100. The effect that the rare earth additions have on the texture of asymmetrically rolled sheet and the subsequent changes in formability will be discussed.

  1. An examination of the relationship between calcium and magnesium and hypertension 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georghiades, Mary Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    of MASTER QF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject. : Nutrition AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM AND HYPERTENSION A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH GEORGH I ADES Approved as to style and content by: Karen S. Kubena (Chair... of Committee) Gary Smith (Head of Department) j fj Joanne R. Lupton (Member) W. Alex Mclntosh (Member) May l988 ABSTRACT An Examination of the Relationship between Calcium and Hagnesiurn and Hypertension. (Nay 19BB) Nary Elizabeth Geor ghiades, B. S...

  2. Blood pressure and red blood cell magnesium, potassium, and calcium responses to dietary fats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrman, Noreen Elaine

    1993-01-01

    influences the activities of several membrane transport systems, including the sodium pump which exchanges three sodium ions for two potassium ions, the Na+-K+-Cl cotransport system which moves these three ions across the cell membrane, and the K... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Nutrition BLOOD PRESSURE AND RED BLOOD CELL MAGNESIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM RESPONSES TO DIETARY FATS A Thesis by NOREEN ELAINE WEHRMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  3. Large scale two-dimensional arrays of magnesium diboride superconducting quantum interference devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Wong, T. J.; Cho, E. Y.; Beeman, J. W.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2014-05-05

    Magnetic field sensors based on two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices were constructed from magnesium diboride thin films. Each array contained over 30?000 Josephson junctions fabricated by ion damage of 30?nm weak links through an implant mask defined by nano-lithography. Current-biased devices exhibited very large voltage modulation as a function of magnetic field, with amplitudes as high as 8?mV.

  4. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bichler, L. [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ravindran, C., E-mail: rravindr@ryerson.ca [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  5. Yield Asymmetry Design of Magnesium Alloys by Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ahzi, Said

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to microstructure, characterized by texture and grain size. Modified intermediate phi-model, a polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry by thermomechanical processing. In some texture, for example, rolled texture, CYS/TYS is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In some texture, for example, extruded texture, asymmetry is large along normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, the asymmetry will increased to close to 1 along rolling direction after compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our model shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Besides texture control, grain refinement can also optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreased to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 since CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  6. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using a regenerable magnesium hydroxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Stevens, Jr., Robert W

    2013-06-25

    A process for CO.sub.2 separation using a regenerable Mg(OH).sub.2 sorbent. The process absorbs CO.sub.2 through the formation of MgCO.sub.3 and releases water product H.sub.2O. The MgCO.sub.3 is partially regenerated through direct contact with steam, which acts to heat the magnesium carbonate to a higher temperature, provide heat duty required to decompose the magnesium carbonate to yield MgO and CO.sub.2, provide an H.sub.2O environment over the magnesium carbonate thereby shifting the equilibrium and increasing the potential for CO.sub.2 desorption, and supply H.sub.2O for rehydroxylation of a portion of the MgO. The mixture is polished in the absence of CO.sub.2 using water product H.sub.2O produced during the CO.sub.2 absorption to maintain sorbent capture capacity. The sorbent now comprised substantially of Mg(OH).sub.2 is then available for further CO.sub.2 absorption duty in a cyclic process.

  7. Manufacturing of SiCp Reinforced Magnesium Composite Tubes by Hot Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw [National Sun Yat-Sen University-Department of Mechanical and Electro-mechanical Engineering, No.70, Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Song-Jeng; Huang, Yu-San [National Chung Cheng University-Department of Mechanical Engineering, 168 University Rd. Ming-Hsiung, ChiaYi, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-04

    Magnesium alloys have higher specific strength compared with other metals, such as aluminum, copper and steel. Nevertheless, their ductility is still not good for further metal forming and their strength is not large enough for real structure applications. The aim of this paper is to develop magnesium alloy composite tubes reinforced with SiC particulates by the stir-casting method and hot extrusion processes. At first, AZ61/SiCp composite ingots reinforced with 5 wt% SiC particulates are fabricated by the melt-stirring technique. Then, finite element simulations are conducted to analyze the plastic flow of magnesium alloy AZ61 within the die and the temperature distribution of the products. AZ61/SiCp composite tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion using a specially designed die-set for obtaining uniform thickness distribution tubes. Finally, the mechanical properties of the reinforced AZ61/SiCp composite and Mg alloy AZ61 tubes are compared with those of the billets to manifest the advantages of extrusion processes and reinforcement of SiC particulates. The microstructures of the billet and extruded tubes are also observed. Through the improvement of the strength of the tube product, its life cycle can be extended and the energy consumption can be reduced, and eventually the environmental sustainability is achieved.

  8. Project Information Form Project Title White Paper on Strategies for Transitioning to Zero-Emission Vehicles--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    health, enhance energy diversity, save consumers money, and promote economic growth. While national (ZEVs) include battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel-cell-electric vehicles (HFCVs). These technologies can be used in passenger cars, trucks

  9. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy Edward

    1999-01-01

    Residential Sector Electricity Prices in California Table 2-Residential Sector Electricity Prices in California (1995$)Residential electricity prices in the Los Angeles area are currently about $0.10 per kWh, but the California

  10. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    Residential Sector Electricity Prices in CaliforniaResidential electricity prices in the Los Angeles area are currently about $0.10 per kWh, but the California

  11. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Senator Rosenthal Toyota Volkswagen The first cluster found96 Dynasty Motorcar O1 Volkswagen 90 EDF 96 WSPA 90 EMA 901 Toyota Toyota 1 1 l l Volkswagen Volkswagen 1 Mazda Mazda

  12. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    Senator Rosenthal Toyota Volkswagen Cluster Pro ZEV Mandate90 UCS 01 UCS 03 UCS 96 Volkswagen 90 WSPA 90 Pro PublicBenz Nissan EMA Toyota Volkswagen Mazda CAMCDA AAM Ass’n of

  13. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-10-30

    The ultimate goal of this program is to identify the power block cycle conditions and/or configurations which could increase the overall thermal efficiency of the Baseline IGCC by about 8% on a relative basis (i.e., 8% on a heat rate basis). This document presents the cycle conditions and/or the configurations for evaluation in an initial screening analysis. These cycle conditions and/or configurations for investigation in the screening analysis are identified by literature searches and brain storming sessions. The screening analysis in turn narrows down the number of promising cases for detailed analysis.

  14. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ÂşF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  15. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy Edward

    1999-01-01

    based on coal or biomass feedstocks, or a combination ofproduction from biomass feedstocks; and storage of hydrogen

  16. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    California. ‘ The Role of Electric Vehicles. The Claremontof GM ’s Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. New York: Random1995). Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable

  17. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    in California: The Role of Electric Vehicles. The ClaremontGM’s Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. New York: Random House.1995). Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable

  18. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    gases; NC = natural gas-fired powerplant; O = other fuelpowerplant emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gasespowerplant electricity for BEV recharging is from coal and natural gas

  19. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy Edward

    1999-01-01

    = natural gas-fired powerplant; O = other fuel powerplant. aF = fuel oil-fired powerplant; GHGs = greenhouse gases; NGpowerplant emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases

  20. CNG-Hybrid: A Practical Path to "Net Zero Emissions" in Commuter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by conversion to natural gas, using waste heat recovery, and employing intercooled gas turbine engines. p-06cook.pdf More Documents & Publications Clean Air Act General...

  1. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    TECH_READY_NEW ZEV_MKT_NEW TECH_FORCE Cronbach's alphaNEW ZEV_MKT_OLD ZEV_MKT_NEW TECH_FORCE Cronbach's alphaNEW ZEV_MKT_OLD ZEV_MKT_NEW TECH_FORCE SIP Cronbach's alpha

  2. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    INNOVATION -0505 -0165 TECH READY NEW -0-107 0-397 ZEV MKT0.223 TECH READY OLD 0213 TECH READY NEW 0.157 ZEV MKT OLD0-116 ZEV MKT NEW 0.093 0132 TECH FORCE -0.098 -0.084 0.170

  3. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-11-01

    Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

  4. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    High Production Volume Historical Oil Prices and CEC Delphithat it is replacing. Historical Oil Prices and CEO Delphi

  5. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy Edward

    1999-01-01

    Volume Figure 7-1: Historical Oil Prices and CEC Delphireplacing. Figure 7-1: Historical Oil Prices and CEC Delphi

  6. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy Edward

    1999-01-01

    to costs for vehicles and emissions. Also, infrastructureN.E. Delucchi (1997) Vehicle Emissions: Author Estimatec (restrictions on motor vehicle emissions and drew attention

  7. Zero-Emission Vehicle Scenario Cost Analysis Using A Fuzzy Set-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    to costs for vehicles and emissions. Also, infrastructure3,2321a Delucchi (1997) Vehicle Emissions: Author Estimate‘restrictions on motor vehicle emissions and drew attention

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Zero-Emission Heavy-Duty Drayage Truck Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by South Coast Air Quality Management District at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  9. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    in the history of vehicle emissions regulation: the Zero-adopt and implement motor vehicle emission standards, in-useCalifornia and Federal vehicle emission standards to that

  10. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    the oil companies) were for reformulated gasoline. Notcompanies that oppose any movement away from today’s gasolinegasoline-powered autos, is part of a broader effort by the company

  11. The California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: A Study of the Policy Process, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    the oil companies) were for reformulated gasoline. Notcompanies that oppose any movement away from today’s gasolinegasoline—powered autos, is part of a broader effort by the company

  12. Costa Rica-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy of Costa Rica | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumerLEDS Tier I Activities Jump

  13. The Future of Public Transport - In Pursuit of Zero Emissions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of Energy The Final 40%: SunShotDepartmentof

  14. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission Cargo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,LocalEfficiency |<

  15. DOT Offers nearly $25 Million for More Zero-Emission Buses | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153 METHODSDOE/LaborSeptember 6,53197

  16. Eight States Plan for 3.3 Million Zero-Emission Vehicles by 2025 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVthe nextofofEffluent andEfforts

  17. Fact #771: March 18, 2013 California Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate is Now

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007 FeeFederalFirst2Decisions|Last Fivein

  18. Magnesium deficiency and type of protein during gestation and lactation in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Kathryn Ellen Hughes

    1988-01-01

    those fed the CD diet, but only for one day (day 8). No physical changes were noted during week 1 of lactation. One dam from group CD exhibited bright pink ears and a slightly pink tail during week 2 of lactation, but these signs were not apparent... with deficient males produced smaller litters. Restricted diets during gestation and lactation in rats have also been shown to cause reduced serum and bone magnesium levels in dams and reduced viability and body weights of offspring (2). Ma nesium and Protein...

  19. MAGNESIUM OXIDE AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/index.html MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER Why is MgO Used At WIPP? The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE

  20. Effect of dietary magnesium and calcium on blood lipids and minerals in tissues in rats fed a high fat diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy-Downs, Jean

    1991-01-01

    EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND MINERALS ZN TISSUES IN BATS FED A HIGH FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DONNS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPZDS AND MZNERALS ZN TISSUES IN RATS FED A BIGS FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DOWNS Approved as to style...