Sample records for low-cost parabolic trough

  1. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation This...

  2. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing an advanced, low-cost CSP collector...

  3. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an advanced, low-cost receiver project for parabolic troughs, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. Norwich Technologies is designing a novel receiver that addresses these issues for parabolic trough concentrating solar power systems. This technology represents significant operational and cost advances in the most trusted and broadly implemented form of CSP and provides a viable pathway to achieving SunShot’s $0.06/kWh goal for utility-scale CSP systems.

  4. Advanced Low-Cost Recievers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROJECT OBJECTIVES KEY RESULTS AND OUTCOMES NEXT MILESTONES 1. Burkholder F, Kutscher C. Heat Loss Testing of Schott's 2008 PTR70 Parabolic Trough Receiver (NRELTP-550-45633):...

  5. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Trough Receiver (NRELTP-550-45633): NREL, 2009. 2. Kutscher C, et al. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan: NREL Milestone Report, 2010. 3. Mahoney R. Trough...

  6. Parabolic trough solar collectors : design for increasing efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic trough collectors are a low cost implementation of concentrated solar power technology that focuses incident sunlight onto a tube filled with a heat transfer fluid. The efficiency and cost of the parabolic trough ...

  7. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  8. Parabolic Trough | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic Trough Parabolic Trough DOE funds solar research

  9. A Linear Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, M.; Archer, D.; Masson, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A performance model has been programmed for solar thermal collector based on a linear, tracking parabolic trough reflector focused on a surface-treated metallic pipe receiver enclosed in an evacuated transparent tube: a Parabolic Trough Solar...

  10. A new parabolic trough solar collector P. Kohlenbach1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A new parabolic trough solar collector P. Kohlenbach1 , S. McEvoy1 , W. Stein1 , A. Burton1 , K) power generation system. The parabolic trough collectors have been installed in the National Solar and power generation (CHP), CSIRO has built a solar thermal parabolic trough collector field which

  11. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  12. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Norwich Technologies is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced receivers. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  13. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tracing and numerical system optimization. * Zemax optical analysis was developed by optics expert and experienced Zemax software user Brynmor Davis, Ph.D., of Creare, Inc and NT...

  14. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  15. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    width 6m 8m Maximum operating temperature 400C 500C Heat transfer fluid Thermal Oil Thermal Oil or Molten Salt ReflecTech(tm) Mirror Film ReflecTech(tm)PLUS - Abrasion...

  16. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    receivers. Some of these drawbacks include expensive and technologically intensive absorption coatings, a 1%-5% annual failure rate for tubes due to vacuum degradation, and...

  17. Project Profile: Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 | Department ofPlantLong IslandDepartment of

  18. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  19. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  20. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  1. hal-00177601,version2-30Oct2007 A closed parabolic trough solar collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00177601,version2-30Oct2007 A closed parabolic trough solar collector Gang Xiao 30th October of closed-box parabolic trough concentrated solar collector. By accepting an optical loss of a few 2007 Parabolic trough[1] is the most mature technology for large scale exploitation of solar energy

  2. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  3. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  4. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, R.; May, K. [Industrial Solar Technology, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  5. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  6. Flux Distribution of a Single-Axis Tracking Parabolic Trough Array with Photovoltaic Receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With single-axis tracking the incident solar rays are not in general perpendicular to the trough. NonFlux Distribution of a Single-Axis Tracking Parabolic Trough Array with Photovoltaic Receiver G 0200 Australia E-mail: gregory.burgess@anu.edu.au Abstract Single-axis tracking parabolic troughs

  7. Parabolic Trough Solar System Piping Model: Final Report, 13 May 2002 ? 31 December 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, B.; Kearney, D.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subcontract report by Nexant, Inc., and Kearny and Associates regarding a study of a piping model for a solar parabolic trough system.

  8. PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER FOR THE CALIFORNIA COMPETITIVE MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California is about to complete its third year of a deregulated competitive wholesale power market. During the first two years of the competitive market, power prices averaged between 2 and 3˘/kWh. During 2000, electric supply to California was constrained a number of times causing maximum the price of power to peak over 100˘/kWh, and the average price of power to quadruple. The power output from solar plants tends to coincide with the high power demand periods in California. This fact had been demonstrated by the solar electric generating stations (SEGS) located in the California Mojave Desert, which operate under specific contracts signed in the 1980’s and early 1990’s with the local utility. This paper, on the other hand, examines how new parabolic trough solar plants would have faired on the wholesale competitive power market during 1999 and 2000.

  9. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  10. Mechanical development of the actuation system of a parabolic solar trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Conor R. (Conor Rakis)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents my personal contribution to the engineering and design of an actuation system with the purpose of rotating a parabolic solar trough to track the sun throughout the day. The primary focus of the design ...

  11. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  12. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  13. Nexant Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Systems Analysis; Task 3: Multiple Plants at a Common Location, 20 January 2005 - 31 December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, B.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subcontract report by Nexant, Inc., regarding a system analysis of multiple solar parabolic trough plants at a common location.

  14. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Norwich Technologies project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  15. Advanced Low-Cost Recievers for Parabolic Troughs- FY13 Q3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Norwich project, funded by SunShot, for the third quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 | DepartmentEnergy MITis PVSalts

  17. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit Edison AdvancedAssessorNOTOff-Gas from

  18. Near-term improvements in parabolic troughs: an economic and performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Murphy, L.M.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic-trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis qualifies the performance potential of various parabolic-trough component improvements from a systems viewpoint and uses these performance data to determine the worth of each improvement on an economic basis. The improvements considered are evacuated receivers, silvered-glass reflectors, improved receiver, selective coatings, higher optical accuracy concentrations, and higher transmittance receiver glazings. Upper-bound costs for each improvement are provided as well as estimates of the increased solar system rates of return that are made possible by these improvements. The performance and economic potential of some of these improvements are shown to be substantial, especially at higher collector operating temperatures.

  19. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forristall, R.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development, validation, and use of a heat transfer model implemented in Engineering Equation Solver. The model determines the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector's linear receiver, also called a heat collector element. All heat transfer and thermodynamic equations, optical properties, and parameters used in the model are discussed. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

  20. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  1. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  2. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  3. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  4. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  5. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  6. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  7. NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New analytical method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes.

  8. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  9. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  10. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50˘/kWhe , which achieved the Phase 2 Go/No Go target of less than 0.12˘/kWhe. Abengoa Solar has high confidence that the primary risk areas have been addressed in the project and a commercial plant utilizing molten salt is economically and technically feasible. The strong results from the Phase 1 and 2 research, testing, and analyses, summarized in this report, led Abengoa Solar to recommend that the project proceed to Phase 3. However, a commercially viable collector interconnection was not fully validated by the end of Phase 2, combined with the uncertainty in the federal budget, forced the DOE and Abengoa Solar to close the project. Thus the resources required to construct and operate a molten salt pilot plant will be solely supplied by Abengoa Solar.

  11. Design and analysis of hydraulically driven actuation system For a parabolic solar trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovi?, Katarina, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents Katarina Popovic's contribution to the design of hydraulic cylinder actuation system for day to day solar trough sun tracking, a semester long project within 2.752 Development of Mechanical Products ...

  12. Error analysis of motion transmission mechanisms : design of a parabolic solar trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koniski, Cyril (Cyril A.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the error analysis pertaining to the design of an innovative solar trough for use in solar thermal energy generation fields. The research was a collaborative effort between Stacy Figueredo from Prof. ...

  13. Mechanical development of an actuation system for a parabolic solar trough collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrillo, Juan Felipe (Carrillo Salazar)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents my personal contribution to the development of a hydraulic-based actuation system for a solar trough collector. The goal of this project was to design the actuation system using hydraulic actuators ...

  14. Hydrogen Removal From Heating Oil of a Parabolic Trough Increases the Life

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogen and Fuel CellFew-LayerGas Streamsof the Trough

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  16. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  17. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  18. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  19. A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613Portsmouth SitePresentations | Department ofCouncil OfficialsA

  20. A survey of potential low-cost concentrator concepts for use in low-temperature water detoxification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendelin, T.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different concentrator concepts have been considered for use in the detoxification of chemically contaminated water. The reactions of interest are predominantly photocatalytic in nature and are driven by low concentrations (between 1 and 50 suns) of UV radiation in the 300- to 385-nm wavelength range. Optical performance characteristics of these concentrators are thus somewhat different compared to concentrators developed for industrial process heat and electrical energy production. Relaxed optical tolerances might lead to reductions in concentrator cost that, when integrated into overall field system cost, could make the solar-driven process competitive with current UV lamp technology. Aspects of the concentrator system that might realize cost reductions include the concentrating element, the support structure, the tracking and drive system, the manufacturing processes, and the installation procedures. Several ideals have been resurrected from earlier research in the Solar Thermal Program where the need for more stringent optical performance requirements led to a decline or even an end to further investigation. In light of this new application, the most promising of these ideas are presented, including a description and a discussion of the cost and performance trade-offs. In addition, the results of recent investigate research on several of these concepts will be presented. The concepts include a low-cost parabolic trough, the inflatable line-focus concentrator, and the holographic concentrator. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  2. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  3. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  4. Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    10 - Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive Components edm2@chrysler.com February 28, 2008 Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium...

  5. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with...

  6. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

  7. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  8. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

  9. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED...

  10. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  11. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief...

  12. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  13. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic...

  14. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  15. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  16. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  17. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA); Skidmore, Jay A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  18. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  19. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, Belen [Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David [Inst. of Physics Applied to the Sciences and Technologies, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Roig, Ana B. [Department of Optics, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  20. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  1. Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  2. The potential for low-cost airlines in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietlin, Philipp, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to assess the potential for low-cost airlines in Asia. Low-cost airlines have been very successful in North America and Europe and have significantly impacted the airline industry and its ...

  3. Development of Low-Cost, High Strength Commercial Textile Precursor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    provide an overview of and accomplishments for a project to develop develop a low-cost precursor fiber that can be converted to low-cost carbon fiber (CF) with at least 650...

  4. ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  5. The era of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    The era of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is approaching an end. Without massive mitigation of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is approaching an end. The good news is that commercially viable mitigation

  6. Light-weight-trough type solar concentrator shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severson, A.M.

    1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A parabolic cylindrical trough solar concentrator shell is disclosed having a pair of oppositely disposed end support members jointed by spanning structural support members which may be in the form of individual elongated generally triangular polygon members to form the parabolic cylindrical trough. The inwardly directed surface of each polygon member is concave in shape and rendered highly reflective and so disposed such that the composite produces a highly reflective, concave, generally parabolic surface which reflects and focusses radiant energy striking upon it along a line parallel to and above the surface of the trough. A radiant energy receiving and absorbing conduit which carries a fluid heat transfer medium is provided along the focal line. The conduit is structurally supported from the end support members in a manner which allows free rotation of the structure relative to the support. In addition to the composite triangular polygon members, the structure may be fabricated using other shapes or a spanning sheet corrugated for strength covered by a separate reflecting surface.

  7. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The goal is to move away from the limitations of: Current technologies that rely on glass reflectors and receiver tubes from limited suppliers Traditional structures that...

  8. A Linear Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, M.; Archer, D.; Masson, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through a 6m by 2.3m PTSC with 900 w/m^2 solar insulation and 0 incident angle, the estimated collector efficiency is about 55% The model predictions will be confirmed by the operation of PTSCs now being installed at Carnegie Mellon....

  9. A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of Energy ThisThis guide isJanuary 2014with CO2 |This

  10. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of Energy TEES logo TexasEnergy SNLfor CSP

  11. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian, NewPalisades

  12. FirstOPTIC Software Package for Parabolic Trough Evaluation - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProof ofof EnergyInnovation Portal

  13. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    information" 4 Approach BASF has a low cost production process for Li ion battery cathode materials. In this project, the cathode materials developed in the laboratory will be...

  14. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and...

  15. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  16. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    instruments under static, flowing, and injecting conditions with hand cranked reels. Low cost well monitoring hardware consisting of used capillary tubing systems and programmable...

  17. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    instruments understatic, flowing, and injecting conditions with hand crankedreels. Low cost well monitoring hardware consisting of usedcapillary tubing systems and programmable...

  18. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

  19. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient,...

  20. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low...

  1. Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive Components: Manufacturing Process Feasibility StudyAMD 310 Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium...

  2. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  3. Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro1,2 , Michel of security threat mitigation mecha- nisms in RFID systems, specially in low-cost RFID tags, are gaining great. Cryptography is a key tool to address these threats. Nevertheless, strong hardware constraints

  4. Sponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Fulfilling a Dream: Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    material for low cost, thin film, solar cell absorber layers is the quaternary compound of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS for the development of low cost Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 thin film solar cells with even higher efficiency. BIOGRAPHY Lili electronics and in flexible solar panels with applications in electric cars, smarter buildings and data

  5. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation A. Der Minassians, K. H. Aschenbach discuss the technical and economic feasibility of a low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power technologies should be judged by output power per dollar rather than by efficiency or other technical merits

  6. NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Power Plant Market, Economic Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck Platooning Testing Photo of two tractorWebmasterand

  7. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  8. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    about this Top Innovation. See an example of this Top Innovation in action. Find more case studies of Building America projects across the country that demonstrate low-cost...

  9. Low-cost electromagnetic tagging : design and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Richard R. (Richard Ribon)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several implementations of chipless RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are presented and discussed as low-cost alternatives to chip-based RFID tags and sensors. An overview of present-day near-field electromagnetic ...

  10. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  11. Low cost private education in India : challenges and way forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Nupur, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low Cost Private School phenomenon has gained momentum and increased visibility in recent years as researchers have begun to map and record the existence of millions of private schools that cater to the education needs ...

  12. Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooney, Lauren Alise

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

  13. Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Objectives · Develop Enabling Technology for Low Cost Production of Hydrogen for Vehicles - natural gas - photovoltaic or wind power utilized when available - up to 80 MPa (11,600 psi) - residential or filling station

  14. Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security Applications Front-end creel for processing precursor in tow format In-line melt spinning for...

  15. Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

  16. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  17. The optimal suppression of a low-cost technology by a durable-good monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUPPRESSION OF A LOW-COST TECHNOLOGY BY A DURABLE-GOODsuppression of a low-cost technology by a durable-goodSuppression of a Low-Cost Technology by a Durable-Good

  18. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Trough Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trough Systems CLFR Power Towers Acciona Abengoa Sener Solar Millennium SkyFuel Siemens Ausra SPGMann SkyFuel Abengoa Brightsource Energy SolarReserve eSolar Dish Engine...

  20. Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel Cell Manufacturing Methods Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel Cell Manufacturing...

  1. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination 2015 Project Portfolio 2014 Solid-State...

  2. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  3. Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Abstract: Low-cost...

  4. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable,...

  5. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

  6. Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration / Users Facility and Commercializati...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile Precursors Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile...

  7. A TEST OF EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM USING LOW COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    A TEST OF EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM USING LOW COST ACCELEROMETER IN HUALIEN, TAIWAN Y.-M. Wu early warning system was first motivated by the Hualien offshore earthquake (Mw = 7.8) in November 15 Abstract The earthquake early warning (EEW) research group at the National Taiwan University (NTU) and one

  8. Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    mechanical strength and! solar cell integrity! q Silicon wafering (diamond wire sawing)! q Silicon waferIntroduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing! Prof. Shreyes Melkote volume PV manufacturing, therefore to reduce manufacturing cost and accelerate PV use. ! q Silicon wafer

  9. Data aware, Low cost Error correction for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Data aware, Low cost Error correction for Wireless Sensor Networks Shoubhik Mukhopadhyay, Debashis challenges in adoption and deployment of wireless networked sensing applications is ensuring reliable sensor of such applications. A wireless sensor network is inherently vulnerable to different sources of unreliability

  10. Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud Computing Services and Open. Nodes #12;ViPDAC Costs per Run Charge Amount Used Unit Size Units Cost / Unit Cost EC2 EC2 - Data ­ Consistent data analysis for long term projects ­ SOP across laboratories #12;Advantages of ViPDAC · Cost

  11. Transmitting Digitized Video Using the Low Cost G-Link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Transmitting Digitized Video Using the Low Cost G-Link Chipset Application Note 1077 h-Link) to distribute multiple uncompressed digitized video signals across a single coaxial or fiber-optic cable. Although the main theme of the paper is video distribution, the techniques discussed apply to any applica

  12. Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium Precourt Institute for Energy Stanford University #12;Source: US DOE report "$1/W Photovoltaic Systems," August 2010. DOE

  13. Sensitivity of Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost and Financing with Solar Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) was developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry. This model, developed by staff at NREL and Sandia National Laboratory, is able to model the costs, finances, and performance of concentrating solar power and photovoltaics (PV). Currently, parabolic troughs and concentrating PV are the two concentrating technologies modeled within the SAM environment.

  14. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  15. PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, PPG Industries, Inc., has developed a low-cost OLED substrate, using inexpensive soda-lime "float" glass that the company manufactures at high volume for the architectural industry. Float glass is thin sheet glass and is much less expensive than the borosilicate or double-side-polished display glass that's currently being used as substrates by OLED device manufacturers.

  16. Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moving stations on rock glacier Low-cost L1 GPS receivers (blox) Power source: solar panels Local data Rock glacier GPS antennaGPS antenna Solar panelSolar panel Box incl.Box incl. -GPS receiverData logger Instruments Solar panelSolar panel (24W, 12V, 50x50cm)(24W, 12V, 50x50cm) Costs per station: 2

  17. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates CH Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. Fuel Cell Project, stationary and automobile fuel cell systems. $0.00 $0.05 $0.10 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.40 $0.45 $0. · The technology has been evaluated by various clients and used in portable fuel cell power systems. Corporate

  18. Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| Department ofofLow Cost

  19. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About UsDurable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel

  20. Hydrogen Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detectorof Energy Leak Detection - Low-Cost

  1. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment of EnergyLow-CostManagement

  2. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCummins PowerLow-Cost Titanium

  3. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  4. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  5. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts.

  6. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua [TreadStone Technologies, Inc.

    2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  7. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  8. Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric Drive Vehicles Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric...

  9. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources Energy Department Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen...

  10. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  11. Novel technologies and techniques for low-cost phased arrays and scanning antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher Timothy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation introduces new technologies and techniques for low-cost phased arrays and scanning antennas. Special emphasis is placed on new approaches for low-cost millimeter-wave beam control. Several topics are covered. A novel...

  12. Low-cost sensor tape for environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Nan-Wei

    We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic connections with low-cost ...

  13. Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a 1...

  14. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2...

  15. DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery October 29, 2014 -...

  16. Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and After-treatment Systems Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and After-treatment Systems Poster...

  17. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic...

  18. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    our hospital billing data. The low- cost external rotationcost brace from our hospital’s operative room billing data.

  19. Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract-- We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing connections with low-cost conductive inkjet printed copper traces. Our first attempt is to fabricate humidityLow-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process Nan

  20. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  1. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  2. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  3. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  4. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from trucks (large symbols). The emissions from midsize and smaller cars, emit about half as much. Question

  5. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

  6. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

  7. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

  8. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  9. Task 8.8 -- Low cost ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This subtask was originally titled ``Reheat Combustor Materials`` and was proposed in anticipation of the addition of a reheat combustor to the ICR gas turbine cycle. When the emphasis of ATS became the optimized recuperated cycle, the goal of the subtask was changed to the evaluation of low cost materials for gas turbine combustor liners. It now supplements similar work being conducted by Solar under DOE Contract No.DE-ACO2-92-CE40960, titled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) Development.`` The use of a ceramic combustor liner in gas turbines contributes to emissions reductions by freeing cooling air for use as primary combustion air and by allowing higher wall temperatures, which contribute to more complete combustion of hydrocarbons. Information from a literature survey, manufacturer`s data, and Solar`s experience was used to select three materials for testing. In addition to material properties requirements for selection, subscale combustor liner cost was required to be at least half of the high modulus continuous fiber reinforced composite part cost. The three materials initially selected for evaluation are listed in Table 1. Four hour subscale rig tests were planned for eight inch diameter liners made from each material. Upon successful completion of each four hour test, a fifty hour test was planned.

  10. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

  11. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  12. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.] [Giner, Inc.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm˛); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  13. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nichiolas William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Keffer, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  14. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Adam London

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

  15. alternative low-cost precursors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    115 Phase advance modulation of low-cost power electronic converters for SPM wind turbine generators. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This research...

  16. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

  17. Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination Presenter: Paul Fini, CREE Santa Barbara Technology...

  18. Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CSP Collectors Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors Oak Ridge National Laboratory logo The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),...

  19. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LM Materials Program Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

  20. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solar cells. Inof metal oxide based electronics on heat sensitive flexibleNanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by

  1. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to improve AB yields and purities

  2. Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas Justin A. Hogan,1 sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self

  3. Development of Low-Cost, High Strength Commercial Textile Precursor (PAN-MA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides, presented at the 2014 DOE Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, provide an overview of and accomplishments for a project to develop develop a low-cost precursor fiber that can be converted to low-cost carbon fiber.

  4. Low-Cost Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) VLSI Architecture: A Minimalist Bit-Serial Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Orlando

    Low-Cost Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) VLSI Architecture: A Minimalist Bit-Serial Approach proposed both in software and hardware. This paper presents a low cost and low power hardware architecture. A focus on low power and cost allows for scaling of the architecture towards vulnerable portable

  5. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  6. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain�������¢����������������s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  7. Engineering, Financial and Net Energy Performance, and Risk Analysis for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Jun

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrating solar power plant. A set of engineering performance, financial and net energy models were developed as tools to predict a plant’s engineering performance, cost and energy payback. The models were validated by comparing the predicted results...

  8. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  9. Engineering, Financial and Net Energy Performance, and Risk Analysis for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Jun

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrating solar power plant. A set of engineering performance, financial and net energy models were developed as tools to predict a plant’s engineering performance, cost and energy payback. The models were validated by comparing the predicted results...

  10. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department of EnergyDeputy Secretary visitsDepartment ofState |- Report

  11. Molten Nitrate Salt Development for Thermal Energy Storage in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTIONES2008-54174 This manuscript has been authored

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, High Capacity Non-Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sila Nanotechnologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, high capacity...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 24M Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, structurally...

  14. Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

  15. The Creation of a low-cost, reliable platform for mobile robotics research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Taylor Harrison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work documents the planning process, design, fabrication, and integration of a low-cost robot designed for research on the problem of life-long robot mapping. The robotics platform used is the iRobot Create. This robot ...

  16. Low cost monitoring system to diagnose problematic rail bed : case study of Mud Pumping Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aw, Eng Sew, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development of low cost sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) platform aimed at characterizing problematic rail beds (subgrade). The instrumentations are installed at a busy high-speed Northeast ...

  17. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  18. UpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    , and evaluation of several of in situ persuasive displays integrated and low-cost water flow sensors (Figure 1, culminating in long-term deployment of sensors in four private showers over the course of three weeks. Sensors

  19. Evaluating cost-reduction alternatives and low-cost sourcing opportunities for aerospace castings and forgings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obermoller, Amber J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As companies continue to outsource large portions of their manufacturing, managing costs in the supply chain is increasingly important in reducing overall costs and remaining competitive. Low-cost sourcing has become an ...

  20. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests

  1. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles DE-FC26-07NT43122 DOE Peer Review Presentation Lembit Salasoo, Project Manager & Presenter Ayman El-Refaie,...

  2. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  3. An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rungchareonrat, N.

    AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Architecture AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT...

  4. PARABOLIC OBSTACLE PROBLEMS APPLIED TO FINANCE A ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Introduction. 1.1. Background. The parabolic obstacle problem refers to finding the smallest supper-solution (for a given parabolic ... H. Shahgholian is supported by Swedish Research Council. 1 ...... MR MR2052937 (2005d:35276). [BD97].

  5. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  7. Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

  8. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki

    2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  9. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sales, J H O

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  10. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  11. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  12. Mobile trough genesis over the Mongolian Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEver, Gregory David

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTRODUCTION II PREVIOUS WORK AND MOTIVATION 1. Trough tracking methods. 2. Potential vorticity. 3. Quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) . . . . . 4. Nielsen-Gammon's (1995) conceptual models. . . . . . 5. Motivation. . III DATA AND METHODS. 1... and Stern (1962) defined QGPV or pseudopotential vorticity as 10 where d q 0 (2. 6) dr In this equation, qi is the geopotential, f0 is a constant(1 x 10 s ), and ci is the reference -4 -i static stability. The difference between QGPV and PV...

  13. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  14. ROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauser, Kris

    ROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots Anna Eilering of the robot links, which are then 3D printed and assembled. This procedure is generalizable to variety to target robot. smaller scale suitable for desktop use. The puppet is a 3D- printed miniature of the target

  15. Novel technologies and techniques for low-cost phased arrays and scanning antennas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher Timothy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    59 - 71 GHz Intelligent highway systems and intelligent transportation 76 - 77 GHz Consumer radar and civilian airborne radiolocation Q- through W-band The journal model is IEEE Transactions...-wave frequencies. Interest in developing broadband, low-cost methods of * copyrightserif 2003 IEEE. Parts of this chapter are reprinted, with permission, from C.T. Rodenbeck, M. Li, and K. Chang, ?A novel...

  16. Designing Privacy-preserving Smart Meters with Low-cost Microcontrollers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    Designing Privacy-preserving Smart Meters with Low-cost Microcontrollers Andres Molina Microsoft Research Cambridge Abstract. Smart meters that track fine-grained electricity usage and implement smart meter deployment is that fine-grained usage data indirectly reveals detailed information about

  17. Low-Cost Truthful Multicast in Selfish and Rational Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    en- joy a more flexible composition. A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of radio devices limited transmission power. One of the dis- tinctive features of wireless networks is that the signal sent1 Low-Cost Truthful Multicast in Selfish and Rational Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weizhao Wang Xiang

  18. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20.1039/c2ee23073a It is estimated that for photovoltaics to reach grid parity around the planet, they must tandem photovoltaic (HTPV), and show that it is capable of meeting these targets. HTPV is composed

  19. Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells R. Bashyam and P. Zelenay 1 LALP-07-013 Winter 2007 F uel cells, which directly convert a fuel's chemical energy into electricity. Of several different types under development, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is generally recognized

  20. Design of a Low-Cost, Highly Mobile Urban Search and Rescue Robot Bradley E. Bishop*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crabbe, Frederick

    Assisted Search and Rescue (CRASAR), which coordinates and assists robotic search and rescue efforts [21 Design of a Low-Cost, Highly Mobile Urban Search and Rescue Robot Bradley E. Bishop* Frederick L@usna.edu Keywords: Rescue Robotics, Mobile Robotics, Locomotion, Physical Simulation, Genetic Algorithms Abstract

  1. UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless Identification Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless nature of the circuit and providing operational autonomy by harvesting solar power without affecting, solar power harvesting. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing use of RFIDs and wireless sensor networks

  2. Testing and Analysis of Low Cost Composite Materials Under Spectrum Loading and High Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -year experimental study of low- cost composite materials for wind turbine blades. Wind turbines are subjected to 109 Cycle, Spectrum Loads, Wind Turbine Blades INTRODUCTION Most turbine blades are constructed from low blades [1]. As wind turbines expand in both size and importance, improvements in materials and lifetime

  3. Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope C for publication 29 September 1995 A versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope has been developed. Fiber and disadvantages.11,12 We report here the development of an automated highly versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Point-of-Use Ultraviolet Water Disinfection Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    receive chlorinated water while another receives contaminated water with no residual level of chlorineDesign and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Point-of-Use Ultraviolet Water Disinfection Device Alicia Cohn around the world to supply safe drinking water. We have developed a device for disinfecting drinking

  5. Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

  6. corresponding author: jean-luc.maurice@polytechnique.edu DEVELOPING LOW-COST GRAPHENE DEVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    corresponding author: jean-luc.maurice@polytechnique.edu DEVELOPING LOW-COST GRAPHENE DEVICES C. S In spite of numerous efforts for developing the applications of graphene, it remains difficult to put-area (industrial) graphene includes in its structure and on its surfaces a significant density of defects that make

  7. Low-Cost Sensor Can Diagnose Bacterial Infections Copyright 2011 by Virgo Publishing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Low-Cost Sensor Can Diagnose Bacterial Infections Copyright 2011 by Virgo Publishing. http diagnose bacterial infections in only a few hours. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer Bacterial infections really sensor. Led by University of Illinois chemistry professor Ken Suslick, the team published its results

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST ROBOTIC MANIPULATOR AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moussavi, Zahra M. K.

    DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST ROBOTIC MANIPULATOR AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL STUDIES C impedance controlled manipulator to study human motor learning. In particular, the focus was to develop of the mechanical and control components of the manipulator were completed with the aim of applying the system

  9. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A LOW-COST AIDED DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A LOW-COST AIDED DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATION SYSTEM D. Gebre. This is because the cost of the inertial sensors required to mechanize a classical inertial navigator is the stochastic nature of the wind field speed (i.e., the motion of the air mass in which the airplane is flying

  10. BeamStar: A New Low-cost Data Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    BeamStar: A New Low-cost Data Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Shiwen Mao and Y-assisted, location-aware routing protocol, which we call BeamStar, for wireless sensor networks. We make a major microorganisms, contaminant transport, ecosystems, and battlefields. Wireless sensor networks, in which each

  11. CaRbON FibeR Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    for manufacturing carbon fiber and carbon-fiber-reinforced composite structures tend to be slow and energy intensive the development and growth of existing and new US carbon fiber and composites · Job Growth Seed regionalCaRbON FibeR TeChNOLOGy FaCiLiTy Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy

  12. Assessment of a low-cost, point-of-use, ultraviolet water disinfection technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    lack access to safe drinking water and an accelerated effort is required if the MDG is to be met (WHOAssessment of a low-cost, point-of-use, ultraviolet water disinfection technology Sarah A. Brownell, Portland, OR, USA Rachel L. Peletz Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Canada

  13. Planning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Moghavvemi University ofMalaya INTRODUCTION The use of electronics in the automotive industry will reach (or the position and speed as with other components used in the automotive industry, radars will find widespreadPlanning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications H. Ameri, A. Attaran & M

  14. Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST 3D PRINTING Simon Bradshaw,* Adrian Bowyer° and Patrick Haufe Abstract In the late 1970s 3D printing started to become established as a manufacturing technology. Thirty years on the cost of 3D printing machines is falling

  15. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  16. Proactive Temperature Balancing for Low Cost Thermal Management in MPSoCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Proactive Temperature Balancing for Low Cost Thermal Management in MPSoCs Ayse Kivilcim Coskun-die temperature variations at low performance cost is a very significant challenge for multiprocessor system the future temperature and adjusts the job allocation on the MPSoC to minimize the impact of thermal hot

  17. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy · Trend: Cap the brown energy consumption of large electricity consumers (data centers) · CappingCapping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Energy Consumption · Improving efficiency does not promote green energy or guarantee limits on brown

  18. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells TONIO BUONASSISI1 online: 14 August 2005; doi:10.1038/nmat1457 A s the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive

  19. Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

  20. Power converters for parabolic dishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truscello, V.C.; Williams, A.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development status of receivers and power conversion units to be used with parabolic dish concentrators is presented. Applications are identified, and the key role played by the power converter element of the collector module is emphasized. The electrical output of the 11-meter-diameter dish modules which are being developed varies up to a maximum of about 25 kilowatts, depending on the thermodynamic cycle of the power converter. Three power conversion units are being developed: an organic Rankine, an air Brayton, and a Stirling. The development program for the receivers and the power conversion units is described in detail.

  1. Coupled Parabolic Equations for Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hongkai

    Coupled Parabolic Equations for Wave Propagation Kai Huang, Knut Solna and Hongkai Zhao #3; April simulation of wave propagation over long distances. The coupled parabolic equations are derived from a two algorithms are important in order to understand wave propagation in complex media. Resolving the wavelength

  2. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  3. Lite Trough LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners and WindLightingLinthicum, Maryland:source HistoryLite Trough LLC

  4. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States); Speakman, Jacquelyn [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States); Nettleship, Ian, E-mail: nettles@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  5. 2 DOF Low Cost Platform for Driving Simulator: Modeling and Control Hichem Arioui, Salim Hima and Lamri Nehaoua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2 DOF Low Cost Platform for Driving Simulator: Modeling and Control Hichem Arioui, Salim Hima simulators need to be better designed to reduce simulator sickness. In this paper, we expose platform design, description and the modeling aspects of a 2 DOF low cost motion platform allowing the restitution

  6. Parabolic curves in Lie groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauley, Michael [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To interpolate a sequence of points in Euclidean space, parabolic splines can be used. These are curves which are piecewise quadratic. To interpolate between points in a (semi-)Riemannian manifold, we could look for curves such that the second covariant derivative of the velocity is zero. We call such curves Jupp and Kent quadratics or JK-quadratics because they are a special case of the cubic curves advocated by Jupp and Kent. When the manifold is a Lie group with bi-invariant metric, we can relate JK-quadratics to null Lie quadratics which arise from another interpolation problem. We solve JK-quadratics in the Lie groups SO(3) and SO(1,2) and in the sphere and hyperbolic plane, by relating them to the differential equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator00.

  7. Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    of the prototype. The final design is an asymmetric compound parabolic concentrator mounted to an encapsulated increase in power output over an encapsulated receiver with no reflector. Keywords: compound parabolic push for drastic cost reductions in the deployment of solar electricity production has renewed interest

  8. A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

  9. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B. [SCB Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Churchill, J.K. [Quantic-Holex, Hollister, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  10. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  11. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  12. Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| Department ofofLow CostSolar

  13. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| DepartmentRyan Paul,Low-Cost Gas

  14. Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| DepartmentRyan Paul,Low-Cost

  15. Low-Cost Energy Efficiency Goes Block-to-Block | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLosCombustionTimTextileLow-Cost Energy

  16. Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLosCombustionTimTextileLow-Cost

  17. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment of EnergyLow-Cost Light

  18. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment of EnergyLow-Cost

  19. Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric Drive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCummins PowerLow-Cost

  20. Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric Drive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCummins PowerLow-CostVehicles

  1. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 | DepartmentEnergyThermalDepartmentSunTrough

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thick Low-Cost, High-Power Lithium-Ion Electrodes via Aqueous Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thick low-cost,...

  3. A Low-cost Compliant 7-DOF Robotic Manipulator Morgan Quigley, Alan Asbeck, and Andrew Y. Ng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    A Low-cost Compliant 7-DOF Robotic Manipulator Morgan Quigley, Alan Asbeck, and Andrew Y. Ng a robotic arm with similar performance on many measures to high-end research robotic Morgan Quigley, Alan

  4. Low-cost carriers in Japan : challenges and paths to success - using a corporate simulation model for empirical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiotani, Sayaka

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the causes behind the sluggishness of new airlines, low cost carriers (LCCs), in Japan. The object is to identify and to recommend innovative policy changes and ideas for the industry, by analyzing the ...

  5. LOW-COST BACTERIAL DETECTION SYSTEM FOR FOOD SAFETY BASED ON AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION, AMPLIFICATION AND READOUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    To ensure food, medical and environmental safety and quality, rapid, low-cost and easy-to-use detection methods are desirable. Here, the LabSystem is introduced for integrated, automated DNA purification and amplification. ...

  6. Ion Torren Semiconductor Sequencing Allows Rapid, Low Cost Sequencing of the Human Exome ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jenkins, David [EdgeBio

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    David Jenkins on "Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing allows rapid, low-cost sequencing of the human exome" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low?cost, high?capacity...

  9. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-cost flexural bearing based 3D printing tool head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Aaron Eduardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis discusses the design, characterization and optimization of a low-cost additive rapid-prototyping tool head for a technology known as Fused Filament Fabrication for use in an educational curriculum. Building a ...

  10. Low cost manufacturing of light trapping features on multi-crystalline silicon solar cells : jet etching method and cost analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrada Sounni, Amine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine low cost methods to improve the light trapping ability of multi-crystalline solar cells. We focused our work on improving current wet etching methods to achieve the ...

  11. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  12. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  13. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  14. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  15. Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod Array LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Timothy; Stach, Eric; Garcia, Edwin

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The completed project, entitled â??Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod LEDs,â?ť targeted the goal of a phosphor-free nanorod-based white LED with IQE > 50% across the spectrum from 450 nm to 600 nm on metallized silicon substrates. The principal achievements of this project included: â?˘ Demonstration of (In,Ga)N nanopyramid heterostructures by a conventional OMVPE process. â?˘ Verification of complete filtering of threading dislocations to yield dislocation-free pyramidal heterostructures. â?˘ Demonstration of electroluminescence with a peak wavelength of ~600 nm from an (In,Ga)N nanopyramid array LED. â?˘ Development of a reflective ZrN/AlN buffer layer for epitaxial growth of GaN films and GaN nanopyramid arrays on (111)Si.

  16. Philips Lumileds Develops a Low-Cost, High-Power, Warm-White LED Package

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds has developed a low-cost, high-power, warm-white LED package for general illumination. During the course of the two-year project, this package was used to commercialize a series of products with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 2700 to 5700 K, under the product name LUXEON M. A record efficacy of nearly 125 lm/W was demonstrated at a flux of 1023 lumens, a CCT of 3435 K, and a color rendering index (CRI) of more than 80 at room temperature in the productized package. In an R&D package, a record efficacy of more than 133 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lumens, a CCT of 3475 K, and a CRI greater than 80 at room temperature were demonstrated.

  17. Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

  18. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  19. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost and accurate ocean temperature logger on subsurface mooring systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring seawater temperature is important to understanding evolving ocean processes. To monitor internal waves or ocean mixing, a large number of temperature loggers are typically mounted on subsurface mooring systems to obtain high-resolution temperature data at different water depths. In this study, we redesigned and evaluated a compact, low-cost, self-contained, high-resolution and high-accuracy ocean temperature logger, TC-1121. The newly designed TC-1121 loggers are smaller, more robust, and their sampling intervals can be automatically changed by indicated events. They have been widely used in many mooring systems to study internal wave and ocean mixing. The logger’s fundamental design, noise analysis, calibration, drift test, and a long-term sea trial are discussed in this paper.

  1. Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Jip [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 Korea and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process.

  2. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  3. Phase-Sensitive Detection in the undergraduate lab using a low-cost microcontroller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, K D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase-sensitive detection (PSD) is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. PSD is also used in modulation spectroscopy and is used in the stabilization of optical sources. Commercial lock-in amplifiers that use PSD are often expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices seem like a good match for learning about PSD; however, making a self-contained device (reference signal, voltage input, mixing, filtering, and display) is difficult, but in the end the project teaches students "tricks" to turn the Arduino into a true scientific instrument.

  4. LEP3: a low-cost, high-luminosity Higgs factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Koratzinos

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a relatively light Higgs opens up the possibility of circular e+e- Higgs factories. LEP3 is such a machine with emphasis on low cost, since it re-uses most of the LHC infrastructure, including the tunnel, cryogenics, and the two general-purpose LHC experiments Atlas and CMS, with some modifications. The energy reach of LEP3 is 240GeV in the centre of mass, close to the ZH production maximum. Alternative tunnel diameters and locations are possible, including a Higgs factory housed in the UNK tunnel, UNK-L, and a machine located in a new 80 km tunnel in the Geneva region, TLEP, than can further house a very high energy pp collider. The design merits further consideration and a detailed study should be performed, so that LEP3 can be one more option available to the community for the next step in High Energy Physics.

  5. LEP3: a low-cost, high-luminosity Higgs factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koratzinos, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a relatively light Higgs opens up the possibility of circular e+e- Higgs factories. LEP3 is such a machine with emphasis on low cost, since it re-uses most of the LHC infrastructure, including the tunnel, cryogenics, and the two general-purpose LHC experiments Atlas and CMS, with some modifications. The energy reach of LEP3 is 240GeV in the centre of mass, close to the ZH production maximum. Alternative tunnel diameters and locations are possible, including a Higgs factory housed in the UNK tunnel, UNK-L, and a machine located in a new 80 km tunnel in the Geneva region, TLEP, than can further house a very high energy pp collider. The design merits further consideration and a detailed study should be performed, so that LEP3 can be one more option available to the community for the next step in High Energy Physics.

  6. The parabolic trough power plants Andasol 1 to 3 The largest solar power plants in the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    finite. In addition, conventional energy production causes global warming which is a result of greenhouse the sky is overcast and at night. In this way, electricity production can be achieved almost round a billion terawatt hours of energy to the Earth, which is equal to 60,000 times the world's electricity

  7. Influence of adhesive shear deformation on laminate structural behavior with application to parabolic trough solar collectors. [SHEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, D.B.; Reuter, R.C. Jr.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified theory for the bending behavior of a thin flat bi-lamina panel is developed which includes the effects of shear deformation in the central adhesive layer. Static equilibrium equations for elastic thermomechanical cylindrical bending of a thin plate are used. A solution form is proposed which greatly facilitates application of this theory to structural panels with numerous discrete property changes in the variable direction. The influence of adhesive shear stiffness parameters upon overall laminate behavior is characterized through numerical examples typifying various thermal and mechanical loading conditions.

  8. Boundary approximate controllability of some linear parabolic April 5, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Boundary approximate controllability of some linear parabolic systems April 5, 2013 Guillaume Olive controllability of two classes of linear parabolic systems, namely a system of n heat equations coupled through are the only ones concerning the boundary controllability of linear parabolic systems of heat-type. For more

  9. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.

  10. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  11. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

  12. Low cost fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Levine, S.R.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost processing technique called reaction forming for the fabrication of near-net and complex shaped components of silicon carbide based ceramics and composites is presented. This process consists of the production of a microporous carbon preform and subsequent infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The microporous preforms are made by the pyrolysis of a polymerized resin mixture with very good control of pore volume and pore size thereby yielding materials with tailorable microstructure and composition. Mechanical properties (elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness) of reaction-formed silicon carbide ceramics are presented. This processing approach is suitable for various kinds of reinforcements such as whiskers, particulates, fibers (tows, weaves, and filaments), and 3-D architectures. This approach has also been used to fabricate continuous silicon carbide fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC`s) with silicon carbide based matrices. Strong and tough composites with tailorable matrix microstructure and composition have been obtained. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties of a silicon carbide (SCS-6) fiber reinforced reaction-formed silicon carbide matrix composites are discussed.

  13. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  14. HOW DO THEY DO IT DOWN UNDER? New Zealand dairy producers have huge exports and low costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    HOW DO THEY DO IT DOWN UNDER? New Zealand dairy producers have huge exports and low costs. But it is the world's largest dairy exporter, and, unlike the European Union and the United States, New Zealand provides no export subsidies. About 95 percent of New Zealand milk ends up as dairy products consumed

  15. Get a whiff of this: Low-cost sensor can diagnose bacterial April 27th, 2011 in Chemistry / Analytical Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Get a whiff of this: Low-cost sensor can diagnose bacterial infections April 27th, 2011 in Chemistry / Analytical Chemistry Enlarge A colorimetric sensor array is placed in an Petri dish for culturing bacteria and scanned with an ordinary flatbed photo scanner kept inside a lab incubator. The dots

  16. Hardware and software architecture for state estimation on an experimental low-cost small-scaled helicopter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Low-cost sensors Embedded systems MEMS Unmanned aerial vehicle Autonomous helicopter Data fusion a b contribution of this paper is to detail, at the light of a successful reported autonomous hovering flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with various degrees of auton- omy (see Wise, 2004). Prime examples

  17. Low-Cost Parallel Algorithms for 2:1 Octree Balance Tobin Isaac, Carsten Burstedde, Omar Ghattas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sminchisescu, Cristian

    Low-Cost Parallel Algorithms for 2:1 Octree Balance Tobin Isaac, Carsten Burstedde, Omar Ghattas§ Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES) The University of Texas at Austin, USA Email of Texas at Austin, USA §Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

  18. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    electric power system models primarily address either day-to-day operation or long-term capacity planningHigh-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low greenhouse gas emissions. Exploiting intermittent renewable energy resources demands power system planning

  19. Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

  20. Design of a Very Low-power, Low-cost 60 GHz Receiver Front-End Implemented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Design of a Very Low-power, Low-cost 60 GHz Receiver Front-End Implemented in 65 nm CMOS Technology- noise amplifier (LNA), mixer, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a local oscillator (LO) buffer, France The research on the design of receiver front-ends for very high data-rate communication in the 60

  1. Quasi-Rheotaxy a new technique to grow large grain thin films on low cost amorphous substrates (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , could be used to build low cost thin film solar cells. Revue Phys. Appl. 16 (1981) 11-14 JANVIER 1981 is required in thin film direct gap absorbers solar cells to overcome thebfficiency value of 10 % is about 2 comparable with the grain size, reports that a thin film solar cell based on GaAs with a resistivity of 10

  2. Parts: Low Cost Sensor Networks at Scale Michael Beigl, Christian Decker, Albert Krohn, Till Riedel, Tobias Zimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    a closer look into the typical use of the above men- tioned sensor network in nowadays, activityµParts: Low Cost Sensor Networks at Scale Michael Beigl, Christian Decker, Albert Krohn, Till}@teco.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents the µPart wireless sensor system espe- cially designed for settings requiring

  3. The function of the clinic is to provide high-quality, low-cost mental health services for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    The function of the clinic is to provide high- quality, low-cost mental health services in mental health and marriage and family counseling obtain clinical experience. Student counselors the Human Development CliniDevelopment Clinic . . .c . . . Human Development Clinic 1501 S. 3rd Ave

  4. RAID0.5: Active Data Replication for Low Cost Disk Array Data Protection John A. Chandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    RAID0.5: Active Data Replication for Low Cost Disk Array Data Protection John A. Chandy Department-performance disk subsystems. However, reliability in RAID systems comes at the cost of extra disks. In this paper, we describe a mechanism that we have termed RAID0.5 that enables striped disks with very high data

  5. Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing created under the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005 (and detailed in Internal Revenue Code Section 54

  6. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

  7. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  9. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  10. MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Fabricate Low-Cost Second Generation HTS Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) of buffer layers on RABiTS substrates is considered a potential, low-cost approach to manufacturing high performance Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The typical architecture used by American Superconductor in their 2G HTS wire consists of a Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a reactively sputtered Y2O3 seed layer, YSZ barrier layer and a CeO2 cap layer. This architecture supports critical currents of over 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) with 0.8 mum YBCO films deposited by the TFA-MOD process. The main challenge in the development of the MOD buffers is to match or exceed the performance of the standard vacuum deposited buffer architecture. We have recently shown that the texture and properties of MOD - La2Zr2Ogamma (LZO) barrier layers can be improved by inserting a thin sputtered Y2O3 seed layer and prepared MOD deposited LZO layers followed by MOD or RF sputtered CeO2 cap layers that support MOD-YBCO films with Ic's of 200 and 255 A/cm-width, respectively. Detailed X-ray and microstructural characterizations indicated that MOD - CeO2 cap reacted completely with MOD YBCO to form BaCeOs. However, sputtered CeO2 cap/MOD YBCO interface remains clean. By further optimizing the coating conditions and reducing the heat-treatment temperatures, we have demonstrated an Ic of 336 A/cm with improved LZO layers and sputtered CeO2 cap and exceeded the performance of that of standard vacuum deposited buffers.

  11. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  12. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a coating system meeting the requirements for photovoltaic module encapsulation.

  13. Low Cost, Single Layer Replacement for the Back-Sheet and Encapsulant Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Thapa, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) based polymers have been formulated for specific use in photovoltaic modules to produce better performance and longer term stability at a lower cost than standard materials. EPDM formulations are advantageous over ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) because they can use the same lamination/cure cycle as EVA, they do not need a second back-sheet protective material (e.g. PET/Tedlar), they have a lower glass transition temperature, no melting transition, more constant mechanical moduli as a function of temperature, they are less polar than EVA (provides better corrosion protection), and they have excellent damp heat (85 C/85% relative humidity) resistance against delamination. Module designs typically use EVA on the back side of cells despite the fact that transparency is not advantageous. We have developed a single encapsulant layer that will replace standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/PET/Tedlar. Because a single low-cost material layer is used, it will provide a significant materials cost savings of about $6 to $8/m{sup 2} as compared to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests were conducted using 0.85 mm thick stainless steel sheets as a model for a cell. It was found that a polymer layer thickness of about 0.33mm provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedla (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar{trademark}. Upon accelerated exposure to light at 60C and 60% RH it was found that an EVA layer in front of these materials would decompose before significant yellowing and delamination of the back EPDM layer occurs.

  14. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demonstrated. A linear Fresnel collector system in Sevilleeconomical. Linear Fresnel and parabolic trough collectortemperature collectors (parabolic trough, linear Fresnel,

  15. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  16. A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komar, Keith Nickolas

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

  17. Seasonal variation of upper-level mobile trough development upstream of the Pacific storm track 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myoung, Boksoon

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate seasonal and interannual statistics of troughs associated with the Pacific storm track and quantify the influence of deformation on trough development upstream of the western Pacific. The goal...

  18. A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komar, Keith Nickolas

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

  19. Seasonal variation of upper-level mobile trough development upstream of the Pacific storm track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myoung, Boksoon

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate seasonal and interannual statistics of troughs associated with the Pacific storm track and quantify the influence of deformation on trough development upstream of the western Pacific. The goal...

  20. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  1. A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System Travis Mc://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/EnergyStorageSystem.pdf May 3, 2014 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664 of existing systems. Energy storage is a viable method for increasing the e ciency of a broad range of systems

  2. Testing the normality of the gravitational wave data with a low cost recursive estimate of the kurtosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Chassande-Mottin

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a monitoring indicator of the normality of the output of a gravitational wave detector. This indicator is based on the estimation of the kurtosis (i.e., the 4th order statistical moment normalized by the variance squared) of the data selected in a time sliding window. We show how a low cost (because recursive) implementation of such estimation is possible and we illustrate the validity of the presented approach with a few examples using simulated random noises.

  3. Un/DoPack: Re-Clustering of Large System-on-Chip Designs with Interconnect Variation for Low-Cost FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemieux, Guy

    to offer separate low-cost and resource-rich families. For a similar number of logic elements (LEs. This is demonstrated by Table 1, where the low-cost Cyclone family offers significant savings. Unfortunately, some designs may fit within the Cyclone LE and memory capacity limits but not within the routing capacity

  4. Architecture of a Small Low-Cost Satellite D. Del Corso, C. Passerone, L. M. Reyneri, C. Sanso`e, M. Borri, S. Speretta, M. Tranchero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ones, such as solar panels and antennas. The tem- perature range inside the satellite is [+30,+70] CArchitecture of a Small Low-Cost Satellite D. Del Corso, C. Passerone, L. M. Reyneri, C. Sanso`e, M satellite that we have developed. The main design cri- teria were low cost and fault tolerance, which have

  5. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

  6. Nontracking parabolic solar energy collector apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, M. T.; Rogers, M. C.

    1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror collector having a generally parabolic surface terminating near the vertex in a circular or cylindrical curve, an evacuated cylindrical heat entrapment tube compossed of a clear glass for energy admission and two pair of elongated heat collector tubes centrally located in the heat entrapment tube for passing an inner fluid to be heated. The two pair of heat collector tubes are constructed of copper with a selective absorption coating for receiving heat and positioned so that the mirror collector concentrates substantially all incoming energy upon the central heat collector tubes.

  7. Petroleum geology of Benue trough and southeastern Chad basin, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petters, S.W.; Ekweozor, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cretaceous cyclic sedimentation in the southern Benue trough, together with unconformities, provide a tripartite subdivision of the sedimentary succession into (1) the Albian Asu River Group, (2) the late Cenomanian to early Santonian Cross River Group (new name) and interfingering marginal marine sandstones, and (3) the post-Santonian coal measures sequence. Most of the Albian to Eocene marine shales in the Benue trough and the Turonian shales in the southern Chad basin contain well over 0.5% total organic carbon, with values of up to 7.4% in Turonian anaerobic shales. Based on the high content of soluble organic matter, thermal maturity, and the predominantly terrigenous character of the Late Cretaceous shales, mostly natural gas was probably generated in both basins. The late Santonian folding and uplift would have disrupted petroleum reservoirs. Also, crude oil accumulations which were not dissipated by tectonism would be relocated at relatively shallow depths and hence become accessible to invading meteoric waters.

  8. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  9. Lithography-free sub-100nm nanocone array antireflection layer for low-cost silicon solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhida

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High density and uniformity sub-100nm surface oxidized silicon nanocone forest structure is created and integrated onto the existing texturization microstructures on photovoltaic device surface by a one-step high throughput plasma enhanced texturization method. We suppressed the broadband optical reflection on chemically textured grade-B silicon solar cells for up to 70.25% through this nanomanufacturing method. The performance of the solar cell is improved with the short circuit current increased by 7.1%, fill factor increased by 7.0%, conversion efficiency increased by 14.66%. Our method demonstrates the potential to improve the photovoltaic device performance with low cost high and throughput nanomanufacturing technology.

  10. The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The cycling performance of low-cost LiFePO4-based high-power lithium-ion cells was investigated and the components were analyzed after cycling to determine capacity fade mechanisms. Pouch type LiFePO4/natural graphite cells were assembled and evaluated by constant C/2 cycling, pulse-power and impedance measurements. From post-test electrochemical analysis after cycling, active materials, LiFePO4 and natural graphite, showed no degradation structurally or electrochemically. The main reasons for the capacity fade of cell were lithium inventory loss by side reaction and possible lithium deposition on the anode.

  11. Identification of design requirements for a high-performance, low-cost, passive prosthetic knee through user analysis and dynamic simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narang, Yashraj S. (Yashraj Shyam)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 2012, a partnership was initiated between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti (BMVSS, a.k.a., Jaipur Foot) to design a high-performance, low-cost, passive ...

  12. Low-cost Accelerometers for Robotic Manipulator Perception Morgan Quigley, Reuben Brewer, Sai P. Soundararaj, Vijay Pradeep, Quoc Le, and Andrew Y. Ng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    Low-cost Accelerometers for Robotic Manipulator Perception Morgan Quigley, Reuben Brewer, Sai P pair of joints and infers the joint angles using an M. Quigley, S. P. Soundararaj, Q. Le, and A. Y. Ng

  13. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  14. Micro-forging technique for rapid, low-cost manufacture of lens array molds and its application in a biomedical instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in micro-optical components for applications ranging from telecommunications to the life sciences has driven the need for accessible, low-cost fabrication techniques. Most micro-lens fabrication processes are ...

  15. A Monolithic Approach to Fabricating Low-Cost, Millimeter-Scale Multi-Axis Force Sensors for Minimally-Invasive Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Monolithic Approach to Fabricating Low-Cost, Millimeter-Scale Multi-Axis Force Sensors-manufacturing alignment and assembly. The sensor and its custom-fabricated signal conditioning circuitry fit within a 1x1x

  16. Design and engineering of low-cost centimeter-scale repeatable and accurate kinematic fixtures for nanomanufacturing equipment using magnetic preload and potting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watral, Adrienne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a low-cost, centimeter-scale kinematic coupling fixture for use in nanomanufacturing equipment. The fixture uses magnetic circuit design techniques to optimize the magnetic preload required to achieve ...

  17. Lessons Learned: Using Low Cost, Uncooled Infrared Cameras for the Rapid Liquid Level Assessment of Chemical UXO and Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Kevin Larry

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the fall of 2001, the U.S. Army used low-cost infrared cameras provided by the INEEL to image 3190 aging ton shipping containers to determine if any contained liquid, possibly trace amounts of hazardous mustard agent. The purpose of the scan was to provide quick, "hands-off" assessment of the water-heater-sized containers before moving them with a crane. If the thermal images indicated a possible liquid level, extra safety precautions would be taken prior to moving the container. The technique of using infrared cameras to determine liquid levels in large storage tanks is well documented, but the application of this technique to ton shipping containers (45 to 1036 liters) and even smaller individual chemical munitions (2 to 4 liters) is unique and presents some interesting challenges. This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.

  18. Moments and Lyapunov exponents for the parabolic Anderson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borodin, Alexei

    We study the parabolic Anderson model in (1+1) dimensions with nearest neighbor jumps and space–time white noise (discrete space/continuous time). We prove a contour integral formula for the second moment and compute the ...

  19. A low-cost optical sensing device based on paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes. Analytica Chimica Acta 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King-tong Lau; Susan Baldwin; Roderick Shepherd; William J. Yerazunis; Shinichi Izuo; Satoshi Ueyama; Dermont Diamond; Emitter-detector Leds; King-tong Lau; Susan Baldwin; Roderick Shepherd; William J; Shinichi Izuo; Satoshi Ueyama; Dermot Diamond

    A low power, high sensitivity, very low cost light emitting diode (LED) based device for intensity based light measurements is described. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode, is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in us) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1(+5 V) to logic 0 (+1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of light intensity measurements for a few cents. this light intensity dependent discharge process has been applied to measuring concentrations of coloured solutions and a mathematical model developed based on the Beer-Lambert Law.

  20. Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

  1. CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of a High-Concentration Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power GenerationCX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1Date: 09/20/2010Location(s): Arvada, ColoradoOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  2. The spiral troughs of Mars as cyclic steps Isaac B. Smith,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    The spiral troughs of Mars as cyclic steps Isaac B. Smith,1 John W. Holt,1 Aymeric Spiga,2 Alan D to estimate the rate of upstream migration caused by katabatic winds for the spiral troughs. Citation: Smith are constructional features, having migrated northward during deposition since their onset [Smith and Holt, 2010

  3. Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators to eventually optimise the reactor geometry for ammonia-based solar energy storage with troughs, which.1. Storing Solar Energy with Ammonia H2 / N2 gas liquid NH3 Heat Exchangers Power Generation (Steam Cycle

  4. Low Cost Heliostat Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  5. Allegations that low-cost solar space heating systems are being ruled out in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are given of an examination of allegations that Marshall Space Flight Center, in its role as technical reviewer for the DOE, arbitrarily recommended requirements which would effectively rule out the use of low-cost solar space heating systems in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program. The examination addressed whether Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation of the low-cost system in question were based on supporting criteria and data, and was not a technical assessment of the allegations. It was concluded that Marshall's recommended requirements and evaluation of the low-cost system in question were indeed based on supporting criteria and data, and were based on guidelines commonly used in the heating and cooling industry and on data collected by eight independent laboratories. The background information, a discussion of the findings, and a chronology of key events surrounding Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation are presented. (LEW)

  6. On Ex Situ NMR: Developing portable low-cost and/or single sided NMR/MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demas, V; Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Pines, A; Reimer, J

    2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is of unsurpassed versatility in its ability to non-destructively probe for chemical identity. Portable, low-cost NMR sensors would enable on site identification of potentially hazardous substances, such as signatures from production of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapon agents, narcotics, explosives, toxins, and poisons. There exist however problems that need to be considered in the case of such sensors: (a) small-scale magnets produce inhomogeneous magnetic fields and therefore undesired Larmor frequency distributions that conceal much of the useful spectral information, and (b) sensitivity in most experiments decreases due to the inherently low and strongly inhomogeneous fields associated with portable instruments. Our approach is to: (a) try to improve the field of low cost magnets either with hardware (e.g. magnet design and construction of ''shim coils'') or via special pulse sequences, where the field is ''effectively shimmed'' to appear homogeneous to the sample, and (b) to use microcoils to improve sensitivity and to allow focusing in smaller regions and therefore smaller static field variations. We have been working in setting up a table top, 2-Tesla permanent Halbach magnet system for tabletop NMR. The Spectrometer console is a Tecmag Apollo, controlled by a dell notebook. Currently an external linear chemagnetics rf amplifier is being used, though the power requirements for our system are quite low (a few Watts). The Magnetic Resonance lab in LLNL, has developed several types and sizes of microcoils, which have been proven to perform well for NMR experiments. We have evaluated an rf, 360 {micro}m O.D., microcoil probe that was built previously. We have finished mapping the magnetic field of the magnet. In the optimal position (in terms of field quality), the field inhomogeneity was at 17ppm. Preliminary fluorine spectra with a resolved two peak separation have now been obtained. For the field, as mapped, we have initial designs of first degree shimming, or gradient coils (linear correction to the field). We have calculated ''shim pulses'' to effectively shim the mapped field, for ideal gradient coils. These calculations will be repeated after the coils will be built and evaluated.

  7. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  8. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  9. 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar energy collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballheim, R.W.

    1980-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Chamberlain engineers designed a 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector for the subject contract. The collector is a completely housed, 105.75 x 44.75 x 10.23-inch, 240-pound unit with six each evacuated receiver assemblies, a center manifold and a one-piece glass cover. A truncated version of a CPC trough reflector system and the General Electric Company tubular evacuated receiver have been integrated with a mass producible collector design suitable for operation at 250 to 450/sup 0/F. The key criterion for optimization of the design was minimization of the cost per Btu collected annually at an operating temperature of 400/sup 0/F. The reflector is a 4.1X design truncated to a total height of 8.0 inches with a resulting actual concentration ratio of 2.6 to 1. The manifold is an insulated area housing the fluid lines which connect the six receivers in series with inlet and outlet tubes extending from one side of the collector at the center. The reflectors are polished, anodized aluminum which are shaped by the roll form process. The housing is painted, galvanized steel, and the cover glass is 3/16-inch thick tempered, low iron glass. The collector requires four slope adjustments per year for optimum effectiveness. Chamberlain produced ten 3X CPC collectors for the subject contract. Two collectors were used to evaluate assembly procedures, six were sent to the project officer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, one was sent to Argonne National Laboratory for performance testing and one remained with the Company. A manufacturing cost study was conducted to estimate limited mass production costs, explore cost reduction ideas and define tooling requirements. The final effort discussed shows the preliminary design for application of a 3X CPC solar collector system for use in the Iowa State Capitol complex.

  10. Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor for Robotic Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Emanuel

    Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor fingertip force sensor for robotic manipulation. Our design makes the most of 3D printing technology sensor features a detachable fingertip made of 3D- printed materials, and a cantilever mechanism

  11. A low-cost localization system based on Artificial Landmarks Claudio dos S. Fernandes, Mario F. M. Campos and Luiz Chaimowicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    A low-cost localization system based on Artificial Landmarks Cl´audio dos S. Fernandes, Mario F. M for improving the Turtlebot1 mobile robot localization system for navigation in unknown structured environments in the environment ceiling. Although the use of artificial landmarks restricts the applicability of this methodology

  12. 208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra communications applica- tions. An UWB, ultra-short-pulse radar has spectrum extending from very low to very high-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse Transmitter with MESFET Impulse-Shaping Circuitry for Reduced Distortion and Improved

  13. SPECIAL ISSUE OF IEEE PROCEEDINGS -RFID -A UNIQUE RADIO INNOVATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY 1 Low Cost, Ubiquitous RFID Tag Antenna Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    conditions, in effect creating a non-electric memory to monitor state. After identifying the application for low-cost, ubiquitous wireless sensing. Current wireless sensing applications make use of battery the supply chain with a $20 temperature sensor. Battery powered sensors have limited battery life [6

  14. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  15. Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light- to-electricity conversion in indoors low light-to -electricity conversion efficiency in early implementations under AM1.5 solar light. Easy

  16. Output Feedback Control of Parabolic PDE Systems with Input Constraints1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    the fast and slow eigenvalues of the spatial differential operator increases. Key words: Parabolic PDE by quasi-linear parabolic PDEs. Examples in- clude tubular reactors, packed-bed reactors, and chemical vapor deposition reactors. Parabolic PDE systems typi- cally involve spatial differential operators

  17. Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Final technical report, July 5, 1976-December 5, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Johnson, R.E.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MO-CVD technique was applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAl As on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (primarily glasses and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium, arsine, and trimethylaluminum are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperatures of 700 to 750/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. Studies of the properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline GaAs films by the use of transport measurements as a function of temperature indicated that the grain boundary regions are depleted of majority carriers by a large density of neutral traps at the grain boundary interface, causing a barrier to majority carrier flow in the material. Schottky-barrier solar cells of approx. 3 percent efficiency (simulated AM0 illumination, no AR coating) were demonstrated on thin-film polycrystalline GaAs n/n/sup +/ structures on Mo sheet, Mo film/glass, and graphite substrates. Substantial enhancement of average grain size in polycrystalline MO-CVD GaAs films on Mo sheet was obtained by the addition of HCl to the growth atmosphere during deposition. Extensive investigation of polycrystalline thin-film p-n junctions indicated that the forward voltage of such devices is apparently limited to 0.5 to 0.6V. A laboratory-type deposition apparatus for the formation of TiO/sub 2/ antireflection (AR) coatings by pyrolysis of titanium isopropoxide was assembled and tested. Detailed analyses were made of the materials and labor costs involved in the laboratory-scale fabrication of MO-CVD thin-film GaAs solar cells. Details are presented. (WHK)

  18. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  19. Construction and installation of low-cost energy-conservation devices on existing residential structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.

  20. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  1. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  2. Large deviation theory and applications Application I: The parabolic Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of independent, identically distributed random variables. We denote by · the expectation with respect, it is believed that there is a small number of relevant island where the potential takes especially large values, the parabolic Anderson model is intermittent. Throughout, we will assume that the logarithmic moment generating

  3. Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (5217C S. University Ave., Chicago, IL 60615)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).

  4. Dynamical constants of structured photons with parabolic-cylindrical symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Rodriguez-Lara; R. Jauregui

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic modes with parabolic-cylindrical symmetry and their dynamical variables are studied both in the classical and quantum realm. As a result, a new dynamical constant for the electromagnetic field is identified and linked to the symmetry operator which supports it.

  5. Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60şC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which – in principle – could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80şC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120şC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

  6. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  7. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  8. Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

  9. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  10. MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost performance, and reductions in operating voltage through thinner and higher uniformity active device layers. We have now installed a pilot encapsulation system at AVI for controlled, high throughput lamination encapsulation of flexible OLEDs in a novel process. Along with this, we have developed, with our materials supply partners, adhesives, barrier films and other encapsulation materials and we are showing total air product lifetimes in the 2-4 years range from a process consistent with our throughput goals of {approx}1M device per month ({approx}30,000 sq. ft. of processed OLEDs). Within the last year of the project, we have been working to introduce the manufacturing improvements made in our LEP deposition and annealing process to our commercial partners. Based on the success of this, a pilot scale-up program was begun. During this process, Add-Vision was acquired by a strategic partner, in no small part, because of the promise of future success of the technology as evidenced by our commercial partners pilot scale-up plans. Overall, the performance, manufacturing and product work in this project has been successful. Additional analysis and device work at LBL has also shown a unique adhesion change with device bias stressing which may result from active layer polymer cross-linking during bias stressing of device. It was shown that even small bias stresses, as a fraction of a full device lifetime stress period, result in measurable chemical change in the device. Further work needs to be conducted to fully understand the chemical nature of this interaction. Elucidation of this effect would enable doped OLED formulation to be engineered to suppress this effect and further extend lifetimes and reduce voltage climb.

  11. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  12. Method of manufacturing a glass parabolic-cylindrical solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deminet, C.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The method includes the following steps: (1) a microsheet of glass is drawn from a glass melt; (2) a reflective layer, such as silver, is deposited on one surface of the microsheet; (3) a first flexible backing layer, such as fiberglass, is bonded to the reflective layer; (4) the combination of the microsheet with the reflective layer and the first backing layer is formed over a mandrel which is preferably in the form of a parabolic cylinder; and (5) a honeycombed layer, with a second fiberglass backing layer, is then bonded to the first backing layer. The product produced by the steps 1-5 is then cured so that it retains the desired configuration; i.e. parabolic-cylindrical, after it is removed from the mandrel.

  13. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

  14. Peaks and Troughs in Helioseismology: The Power Spectrum of Solar Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin S. Rosenthal

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a matched-wave asymptotic analysis of the driving of solar oscillations by a general localised source. The analysis provides a simple mathematical description of the asymmetric peaks in the power spectrum in terms of the relative locations of eigenmodes and troughs in the spectral response. It is suggested that the difference in measured phase function between the modes and the troughs in the spectrum will provide a key diagnostic of the source of the oscillations. I also suggest a form for the asymmetric line profiles to be used in the fitting of solar power spectra. Finally I present a comparison between the numerical and asymptotic descriptions of the oscillations. The numerical results bear out the qualitative features suggested by the asymptotic analysis but suggest that numerical calculations of the locations of the troughs will be necessary for a quantitative comparison with the observations.

  15. alxga1-xas parabolic quantum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marko Znidaric 2001-03-01 37 Dynamical constants of structured photons with parabolic-cylindrical symmetry Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: Electromagnetic modes with...

  16. Deformation of a thin, elastic plate to a deep parabolic cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, R.C. Jr.; Wilson, R.K.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equations governing the elastic deformation of thin plates through large displacements to deep parabolic cylinders are presented and solved. The solution consists of expressions for a spatially distributed surface pressure and uniform rim loads which, when applied to the plate, produce the specified, deep parabolic cylindrical shape. These forming loads are written in dimensionless form for parabolic cylinders of arbitrary focal length and arbitrary rim to rim aperture. Numerical results are presented and limiting values are discussed. The solution and results find immediate application to mechanical forming and adhesive retention of parabolic solar collector components.

  17. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  18. OPTICAL DESIGN OF A NOVEL 2-STAGE SOLAR TROUGH CONCENTRATOR BASED ON PNEUMATIC POLYMERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -length 7.9 m-width sun-tracking prototype system. Theoretical maximum solar concentration ratio is 151 sunsOPTICAL DESIGN OF A NOVEL 2-STAGE SOLAR TROUGH CONCENTRATOR BASED ON PNEUMATIC POLYMERIC STRUCTURES Croce 1, 6710 Biasca, Switzerland 3 Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen

  19. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough, Nigeria2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough address: romain.vullo@univ-rennes1.fr9 10 Abstract11 Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Cenomanian­early Turonian and25 Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish

  20. Okinawa Trough genesis: structure and evolution of a backarc basin developed in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    with the China margin could have provoked: lateral extrusion; clockwise rotation (45° to 50° according to palaeomagnetic data) and buckling of the south Ryukyu non-volcanic arc; tension in the weak crustal zone constituted by the south Ryukyu volcanic arc and opening of the south Okinawa Trough. Similar lateral

  1. Analytical model and performance data for a cylindrical parabolic collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, F.M.; Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar collectors provide higher fluid temperatures than flat-plate, an important advantage in many applications. The parabolic cylinder is one of the most popular types of concentrating collectors because of its relatively simple construction and tracking configuration. A mathematical model was developed for one such collector in order to predict thermal efficiency as a function of solar insolation. An experiment was then devised in an attempt to verify this model. Discrepancies between predicted and observed values are discussed, and suggestions are made for improving the model and the experimental procedure.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced low-cost SiC and GaN wide...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

  4. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Annual Technical Progress Report, Phase 1, 22 October 2002-30 September 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agro, S. C.; Tucker, R. T.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of this subcontract are for Specialized Technology Resources, Inc., to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers representing crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide (CIS), and other state-of-the-art thin-film technologies to develop formulations, production processes, prototype and qualify new low-cost, high-performance photovoltaic module encapsulants/packaging materials. The manufacturers will assist in identifying each materials' deficiencies while undergoing development, and then ultimately in qualifying the final optimized materials designed to specifically meet their requirements. Upon completion of this program, new low-cost, high-performance, PV module encapsulant/packaging materials will be qualified, by one or more end-users, for their specific application. Information gathering on topics related to thin-film module technology, including device performance/failure analysis, glass stability, and de vice encapsulation, has been completed. This information has provided concepts and considerations for module failure analysis, accelerated testing design, and encapsulation formulation strategy for thin-film modules.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  6. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

  7. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

  8. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  9. Gravitational wave energy spectrum of a parabolic encounter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher P. L. Berry; Jonathan R. Gair

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an analytic expression for the energy spectrum of gravitational waves from a parabolic Keplerian binary by taking the limit of the Peters and Matthews spectrum for eccentric orbits. This demonstrates that the location of the peak of the energy spectrum depends primarily on the orbital periapse rather than the eccentricity. We compare this weak-field result to strong-field calculations and find it is reasonably accurate (~10%) provided that the azimuthal and radial orbital frequencies do not differ by more than ~10%. For equatorial orbits in the Kerr spacetime, this corresponds to periapse radii of rp > 20M. These results can be used to model radiation bursts from compact objects on highly eccentric orbits about massive black holes in the local Universe, which could be detected by LISA.

  10. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  11. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  12. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  13. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5LetLooking5investsLouisPrepared: 10/28/09 Low

  14. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  15. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  16. Very Low-Cost Internet Access Using KioskNet S. Guo, M.H. Falaki, E.A. Oliver, S. Ur Rahman, A. Seth, M.A. Zaharia, and S. Keshav

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    ) and appears to be economically viable. We estimate that our system requires a capital expenditure of $100Very Low-Cost Internet Access Using KioskNet S. Guo, M.H. Falaki, E.A. Oliver, S. Ur Rahman, A kiosks in developing regions can cost-effectively provide communication and e-governance services

  17. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  18. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  19. Electrical Characterization of Trough Silicon Via (TSV) depending on Structural and Material Parameters based on 3D Full Wave Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Electrical Characterization of Trough Silicon Via (TSV) depending on Structural and Material the electrical characteristics of TSV depending on number of stacked TSVs. All electrical characterizations battery in one time charging. At the first trying for 3-D stacked chip packages, a wire- bonding

  20. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  1. High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Ron

    High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries Frédéric Gibou Chohong Min Ron Fedkiw November 2, 2012 In honor of Stan Osher's 70th birthday of chemical species (see [48] and the references therein); they are also core building blocks in fields

  2. On the inverse transform of Laplace transforms that contain (products of) the parabolic cylinder function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dirk Veestraeten

    2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laplace transforms of the transition probability density and distribution functions for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process contain the product of two parabolic cylinder functions, namely D_{v}(x)D_{v}(y) and D_{v}(x)D_{v-1}(y), respectively. The inverse transforms of these products have as yet not been documented. However, the transition density and distribution functions can be obtained by alternatively applying Doob's transform to the Kolmogorov equation and casting the problem in terms of Brownian motion. Linking the resulting transition density and distribution functions to their Laplace transforms then specifies the inverse transforms to the aforementioned products of parabolic cylinder functions. These two results, the recurrence relation of the parabolic cylinder function and the properties of the Laplace transform then enable the calculation of inverse transforms also for countless other combinations in the orders of the parabolic cylinder functions such as D_{v}(x)D_{v-2}(y), D_{v+1}(x)D_{v-1}(y) and D_{v}(x)D_{v-3}(y).

  3. Phenomenological study of parabolic and spherical indentation of elastic-ideally plastic material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Phenomenological study of parabolic and spherical indentation of elastic-ideally plastic material O ideally plastic materials was carried out by using precise results of finite elements calculations behaviour is found. Two elastic-plastic regimes and two plastic regimes are observed for materials of very

  4. Nuclear spin dynamics in parabolic quantum wells Ionel Tifrea* and Michael E. Flatte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Nuclear spin dynamics in parabolic quantum wells Ionel T¸ifrea* and Michael E. Flatte´ Department March 2004 We present a detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the nuclear spin dynamics of the electronic wave function in small electric fields. The nuclear spin relaxation via the hyperfine interaction

  5. Hybrid Control of Parabolic PDE Systems Nael H. El-Farra and Panagiotis D. Christofides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    - tinguishing feature of distributed control problems is that they involve the regulation of distributed on the synthesis of nonlinear low-order controllers on the basis of ODE models obtained through combinationHybrid Control of Parabolic PDE Systems Nael H. El-Farra and Panagiotis D. Christofides Department

  6. Numerical schemes for a pseudo-parabolic Burgers equation: discontinuous data and long-time behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    . Here u denotes the water saturation. Equation (1.6) follows by combining Darcy's law, the massNumerical schemes for a pseudo-parabolic Burgers equation: discontinuous data and long Burgers'­type equation that is extended with a third-order term containing mixed derivatives in space

  7. Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Troy, New York 12180 Finn B. Jensen and Mario Zampolli NATO Undersea Research Center, 19126 La Spezia solutions. We also apply the approach to a model problem based on a complex environment off the New Jersey to outgoing and incoming energy. These factors give rise to the parabolic wave equations7 r ur w = ± i L-1 M 1

  8. Two parabolic equations for propagation in layered poro-elastic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 Michael D. Collins Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis and efficient for ocean acoustic propagation when outgoing energy domi- nates backscattered.1 In many shallow new parabolic equation formulations are derived for layered poro-elastic media. An earlier formulation

  9. Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Separation in WGS Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naidu Seetala; Upali Siriwardane

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H{sub 2} separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO{sub 2} separation. Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina, Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina granular WGS catalysts incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles into alumina support were prepared using sol-gel/oil-drop methods. The catalysts were characterized by Powder X-ray Diffractometer (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA), Thermal Gravitational Analyzer (TGA), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) techniques. TGA shows sharp weight loss at approximately 215°C and DTA shows dehydration of metal hydroxides between 200°C and 250°C. The PXRD spectra show an increase in crystallinity as a result of heating to 1000°C, and indicating a fine dispersion of the metal oxide nanoparticles in alumina supports during the sol-gel synthesis and calcination at 450°C. BET analysis indicated a mesoporous structure of the granules with high surface area. A gas-phase dynamic flow reactor is used to optimize the reaction temperatures. A gas-phase batch reactor was used to obtain kinetic data and the parameters for maximum CO conversion. In Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina category, Cu(0%)Ni(10%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best WGS catalyst among six Low Temperature Shift (LTS) catalysts with optimum temperatures between 200-300�°C, while Ni(5%)Cu(5%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best among four High Temperature Shift (HTS) catalysts with optimum temperature between 350-400°C. In the Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina category catalysts, Fe(8%)Ni(0%)Ce(8%)/alumina and Fe(6%)Ni(2%)Ce(8%)/alumina catalysts showed optimum WGS reaction temperature below 150°C. All Ni(8-x%)Fe(x%)Ce(8%) had lower WGS reaction efficiencies compared to Ni(8-x%)Cu(x%)Ce(8%). Metal (Nb or Ta)/ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from the WGS reaction gas products have been prepared using a) sputtering and b) aluminothermic techniques. A polyvinyl-glass permeability tester was used with a gas chromatograph (GC) for H{sub 2}/CO permeability testing. Nb films showed a higher permeability than Ta at a given disk porosity. The aluminothermically deposited membranes have higher H{sub 2} permeability compared to the sputtered films, and Nb-film coated disks showed lower H{sub 2} permeability than Ta-film. A three-stage prototype stainless steel reactor with integrated housing for 1) WGS reaction catalysts, 2) H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation metal/ceramic or metal/asbestos membranes, and 3) CO/CO{sub 2} separation cellulose acetate /filter-paper membranes has been designed and tested to have capabilities to perform WGS reactions at temperatures up to 400°C and withstand gas pressures up to 15 bars. The cracking of ceramic disks and gas leaks were successfully prevented by replacing ceramic disks with asbestos sheets that can easily withstand 400°C. Kinetic studies of H{sub 2} and CO permeabilities were performed through the single and double layer Nb and Ta membranes. Cellulose acetate (CA) films with 25% triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer were prepared for H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} gas separation with varying thickness of the films by acetone solutions at different concentrations and by dip-coating onto filter papers. The AFM analysis of the CA membrane showed that the uniform coating had fewer and smaller pores as the film thickness increased, and corroborated by gas permeability studies. The CO{sub 2} permeability has decreased faster than CO permeability with the CA/TEC membrane thickness, and findings support that the CA membrane could be used to entrap CO{sub 2}. Several CA/TEC membranes were also staked to increase the separation efficiency. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) was used to estimate the micro-porosity (pore size and concentration) and fractional free volume changes of CA/TEC films, and used to understand the variations observed in the CO{sub 2}/CO permeabilities.

  10. Shallow hydrothermal regime of the East Brawley and Glamis known geothermal resource areas, Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mase, C.W.; Sass, J.H.; Brook, C.A.; Munroe, R.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal gradients and thermal conductivities were obtained in real time using an in situ heat-flow technique in 15 shallow (90 to 150 m) wells drilled between Brawley and Glamis in the Imperial Valley, Southern California. The in situ measurements were supplemented by follow-up conventional temperature logs in seven of the wells and by laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity on drill cuttings. The deltaic sedimentary material comprising the upper approx. 100 m of the Salton Trough generally is poorly sorted and high in quartz resulting in quite high thermal conductivities (averaging 2.0 Wm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ as opposed to 1.2 to 1.7 for typical alluvium). A broad heat-flow anomaly with maximum of about 200 mWm/sup -2/ (approx. 5 HFU) is centered between Glamis and East Brawley and is superimposed on a regional heat-flow high in excess of 100 mWm/sup -2/ (> 2.5 HFU). The heat-flow high corresponds with a gravity maximum and partially with a minimum in electrical resistivity, suggesting the presence of a hydrothermal system at depth in this area.

  11. Degradation of parabolic-cylindrical solar collector performance: receiver misalignments and tracking inaccuracies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratzel, A.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were conducted to determine the performance of a 2-m, 90/sup 0/ E-W oriented solar reflector trough and a receiver assembly consisting of a receiver tube surrounded by a concentric outer glass envelope. Three receiver tube diameters (2.223, 2.54, and 3.175 cm o.d. tubes) were analyzed subject to a variety of collector errors including receiver misalignments and tracking bias, to assess the detrimental effects of these problems. Of the possible problems considered, it was shown that a misalignment of the receiver assembly above the focal plane is most critical, since the absorbed solar fluxes are concentrated near the base of the tube, leading to possible ''hot spots.'' In addition, as a result of this work, it was shown that the intermediate receiver tube size (2.54 cm o.d.) should be used with the 2-m reflector trough, so long as small errors and misalignments are expected.

  12. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet), Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future of CSP:BrookhavenHygrothermal Performance of aLow-Cost

  13. Some modifications to the design of a parabolic solar concentrator for construction in Lesotho and their effects on power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Toni (Toni Jolene)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to test the effectiveness of design modifications terms of efficiency and power production in an existing parabolic solar concentrator. The proposed modifications included limiting the ...

  14. Energetic protons from an ultraintense laser interacting with a symmetric parabolic concave target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Bake, Muhammad; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme of a symmetric parabolic concave target irradiated by an ultraintense laser for efficient proton acceleration is proposed and involved problem is studied by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Results indicate that on one hand, the laser field is focused by the front parabolic concave surface of target and, on the other hand, more energetic hot electrons will traverse to the rear surface of target due to concave shape. The space-charge-separation field, induced by those hot electrons escaping form parabolic concave rear surface of target, can accelerate protons to relatively high energy with narrow energy spread. The dependence of the efficiency of proton acceleration on the target parameters is examined, and the optimal target parameters are obtained. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the proton peak energy and energy spread are greatly enhanced when the target parameters are chosen optimal, for example, a proton bunch with the maximum energy {approx}27.5 MeV and energy spread {approx}7% can be generated. Some implications of our results to experiments and comparisons with the other works are also discussed briefly.

  15. Effects of gaps in adhesives that bond elastically deformed panels to parabolic, cylindrical substructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.K.; Reuter, R.C. Jr.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies of the mechanical behavior of line focusing solar collectors, the reflective surface panel was modeled as a thin, initially flat, elastic plate that underwent large displacements to attain the shape of a prescribed parabolic cylinder. Attention was focused upon the stresses that developed in an adhesive layer which bonded the deformed panel to a rigid, parabolic substructure. Among the myriad possible collector designs, some possess longitudinally oriented, hollow ribs or corrugations in the substructure which interrupt the transverse continuity of the bond line between the deformed panel and the substructure. Thus, finite gaps in the adhesive are present which create regions where the panel surface becomes intermittently supported. The presence of these gaps perturbs the otherwise smooth distribution of adhesive contact stresses and it is the analytical modeling of this behavior that is the subject of the present report. In particular, attention is devoted to gaps which overlap with the edge effect zone - a region near the rim or vertex of the deformed panel where, in the absence of uniform edge loads necessary to maintain a true parabolic shape, high stresses and associated deformations occur. Significant influences of the gap size and position in the edge effect zone are demonstrated and discussed.

  16. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  17. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732 DOE F 243.2DashboardsDepartment ofSubcommittee|DeveloperTrough

  18. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of Energy TEES logoSolar Power |TransferTrough

  19. Studies of burial metamorphism in the Cretaceous sediments of the Southern Benue Trough and Anambra, Basin, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akande, S.O. [Univ. of Ilorin (Nigeria); Erdtmann, B.D. [Technical Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic matter reflectance, illite crystallinity and fluid inclusion techniques are applied to the evaluation of burial history of Cretaceous sediments in the southern Benue Trough and Anambra Basin. The successions are invaded by intrusives, volcanic rocks and intra-formational veins especially in the Albian sections of the Abakaliki anticline and sub-bituminous coals in the Lower Maastrichtian sections of the Anambra Basin. Vitrinite reflectance (Rm) data from exposed NW/SE sections from Enugu to Abakaliki are ca: .55% in the Lower Maastrichtian coals and shales, 0.67% in the Coniacian shales, 0.91 in the Turonian shales and 4.31% in the Albian shales. A corresponding decrease in illite crystallinity indices coupled with a decrease in the percentage of smectite from 30% to 0% (%S in I/S) was observed on the NW/SE section. Fluid inclusion temperatures from vein quartz in the Albian shales range from 170 to 250{degrees}C. Our data suggest that sediments in the study area were buried to ranks within and beyond the oil window at their present outcrop levels. Possibilities for Cretaceous targets should be sought in the deeper non emergent sections of the Benue Trough and the Anambra Basin.

  20. An analytical model and performance data for a cylindrical parabolic collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, F.M.; Stewart, W.E.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar collectors provide higher fluid temperatures than flat-plate, an important advantage in many applications. The parabolic cylinder is one of the most popular types of concentrating collectors because of its relatively simple construction and tracking configuration. A mathematical model was developed for one such collector in order to predict thermal efficiency as a function of solar insolation. An experiment was then devised in an attempt to verify this model. Discrepancies between predicted and observed values are discussed, and suggestions are made for improving the model and the experimental procedure.

  1. Omnium-G parabolic dish optical efficiency: a comparison of two independent measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, M.; Gaul, H.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements made at SERI of the optical efficiency of the Omnium-G parabolic dish concentrator are described. Two independent techniques were used: the cold-water calorimeter method and the heat of fusion method. Results from both techniques agree quite well and indicate that the optical efficiency for a 10-cm receiver aperture is 25%. Optical efficiency measured in early 1979 was 37%, and in mid 1979 it had degraded to 21%. An optical alignment procedure is described that resulted in the increase in optical efficiency from 21% to the current value of 25%.

  2. Investigation of Q-tubes stability using the piecewise parabolic potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Nugaev; A. Shkerin

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the classical stability of Q-tubes --- charged extended objects in $(3+1)$-dimensional complex scalar field theory. Explicit solutions were found analytically in the piecewise parabolic potential. Our choice of potential allows us to construct a powerful method of stability investigation. We check that in the case of the zero winding number $n=0$, the previously known stability condition $\\partial^2E/\\partial Q^21$ becomes unstable towards the decay into the $n$ vortices with the single winding number.

  3. Wind loads on heliostats and parabolic dish collectors: Final subcontractor report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, Z.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major intent of this study was to define wind load reduction factors for parabolic dish solar collectors within a field protected by upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other blockages. This information will help researchers improve the economy of parabolic collector support structures and drive mechanisms. The method used in the study was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. A second objective of the study was to confirm and document a sensitivity in load to level of turbulence, or gustiness, in the approaching wind. A key finding was that wind-load reduction factors for forces (horizontal and vertical) were roughly similar to those for flat heliostats, with some forces significantly less than those for flat shapes. However, load reductions for moments showed a smaller load reduction, particularly for the azimuth moment. The lack of load reduction could be attributed to collector shape, but specific flow features responsible for and methods to induce a load reduction were not explored. 62 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Large Parabolic Dish collectors with small gas-turbine, Stirling engine or photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehlisch, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.; Simon, M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison for different solar thermal power plants is presented and demonstrates that the large parabolic dish in association with a gas turbine or a Sterling engine could be a competitive system design in the net power range of 50-1000KW. The important advantages of the Large Parabolic Dish concept compared to the Farm and Tower concept are discussed: concentration ratios up to 5000 and uniform heat flux distribution throughout the day which allow very high receiver temperatures and therefor high receiver efficiency to operate effectively Stirling motors or small gas turbines in the mentioned power range with an overall efficiency of 20 to 30%. The high focal plane concentration leads to the efficient use of ceramic materials for receivers of the next generation, applicable in temperature ranges up to 1,300 /sup 0/C for energy converters. Besides the production of electricity, the system can supply process heat in the temperature range of 100 to 400 /sup 0/C as waste heat from the gas turbo converter and heat at temperature levels from 500 to 900 /sup 0/C (1300 /sup 0/C) directly out of the receiver.

  5. Low cost computer interface using eye tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zee, Bernard Chan Heng

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the modulator signal changes, the demodulator allows only 66k 1. 79 kHz 0 A) Clock Circuit using MC145848 Schmidt Trig Hex fnvertor OtoSv jn 50k 33k/ 150k + 0 to ? 10v 6) Demodulator Driver using LM741 Op Amp Vin o 100k 033uF 100k . 033uF Vout... noise in the input eye signals. Pin An2 is connected to the hardware micro- 29 Vdd Vdd 10k 10k (829)Vd 4. 7uF~ ~. tuF (831)Gn Vdd Vss lao Pa1 Pa2 Pa7 (820) CI (82) Res 10k Vdd 4. 7k Reset Pdo Pd1 Pd2 Pd3 Pd4 Pdfi Str8 BrA Dreq...

  6. Design of a low cost bamboo footbridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laroque, Paul (Paul Vivien Marc)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays the construction business, more so than other industries, is responsible most of the environmental issues that our society encounters. Given the increasing concern our impact on the environment, the need for new ...

  7. Low cost multi-channel GPS receiver 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Tachita, R.; Ikeda, K.; Teranishi, A.; Noe, P.S.

    1988-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    and receiver. 455 CH2675-7/88/0000-0455 $1.00 0 1988 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 16:25:37 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. In the section entitled Receiver Configuration...:25:37 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. NCO - For the carrier regeneration of the satellite signals, an NCO is used. The NCO, similar to the code generator, inputs a clock pulse of a constant frequency to control the phase of the regenerated...

  8. Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Livermore, CA); Burke, Gerald J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Tracy, CA); Stever, Robert D. (Lathrop, CA); Governo, George K. (Livermore, CA); Mullenhoff, Donald J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

  9. Low cost multi-channel GPS receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Tachita, R.; Ikeda, K.; Teranishi, A.; Noe, P.S.

    1988-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted on compact, multichannel GPS (global positioning system) receivers. The code generator and correlation equipment were simplified, attempting to avoid downgrading the properties possessed by multichannel receivers...

  10. Unconditional security at a low cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiongfeng Ma

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    By simulating four quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments and analyzing one decoy-state QKD experiment, we compare two data post-processing schemes based on security against individual attack by L\\"{u}tkenhaus, and unconditional security analysis by Gottesman-Lo-L\\"{u}tkenhaus-Preskill. Our results show that these two schemes yield close performances. Since the Holy Grail of QKD is its unconditional security, we conclude that one is better off considering unconditional security, rather than restricting to individual attacks.

  11. Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Technology Management Inc.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

  12. Low cost, self-built housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Gale K

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lve, Mit, bout; reason, they ccsre Co be disregarded. The same ay~oh 'cess eo be. follocc- ~ ed in rex+ion to:usnitcLry en'd", sleebrio, o+cxs, 0bher ree4riot4ons quite Coo ccould have C'o bo disoaxde4, shen they seemingly mighb result in Mgh- r', oaf...'Cion, Xt*wux ~ed hossvav ChaC a fooC Co a foot : and one half above a san~e heyd vould not be out of the'question. The- ' ' f9nak aelQCion:Co tha %$11 heighC Jpa~Nes ChaC Q18 IEI IPBLse Che ~ Co a heiahC of 6&~2, 1", This 'ie Cho' diksCanae fanon Che...

  13. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  14. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Powder for Feedstock Principal Investigator: Curt Lavender Presenter: Mark T. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory OVT 2008 DOE Peer Review February 28, 2008 This...

  15. Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Titanium (Ti) is highly valued for its strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion re- sistance. However, after it is processed to a wrought, or shaped form, it is...

  16. Portable low-cost magnetic resonance imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, Clarissa Zimmerman

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: As the premiere modality for brain imaging, MRI could find wider applicability if lightweight, portable systems were available for siting in unconventional locations such as intensive care units (ICUs), physician ...

  17. Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

  18. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  19. Low Cost Embedded Network Message Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    in only 3 or 4 bytes? Approach: Status: Motivation: &Electrical Computer ENGINEERING Chris Szilagyi, Prof

  20. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    process Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high...

  1. www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Compression Burner Air Blower Condensate to Drain Syngas Cooling & Water Separation Burner Alternatives Evaluation Reformer Pressure Syngas / Natural Gas Compression Materials of Construction Thermal

  2. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  3. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Bauer, Hans F. (Morgantown, WV); Grimes, Robert W. (Laramie, WY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  4. Low-Cost MHTES Systems for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  5. Deploying Low-Cost Suspension Heliostats

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternate deposition techniques and engineered nanostructures Supplier qualification, near term cost Qualification · Task 7.0: H2A Model Cost Analysis ­ Input design parameters ­ Assess impact of changes #12% 5 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Development 06/30/13 0% 6 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Qualification 09

  7. Design of a low cost hydrostatic bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Anthony Raymond

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design and manufacturing method for a new surface self compensating hydrostatic bearing. A lumped resistance model was used to analyze the performance of the bearing and provide guidance on laying ...

  8. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| DepartmentRyan

  9. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos Angeles County,Energia10

  10. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos AngelesGuillermo10 DOE1 DOE0Cost,

  11. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCumminsMaterial |

  12. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCumminsMaterial |Cost,

  13. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Custom Engineering trough with glass reflector surface and Sandia-designed receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Custom Engineering trough and Sandia-designed receivers, with glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States. Two experimental receivers were tested, one with an antireflective coating on the glass envelope around the receiver tube and one without the antireflective coating.

  14. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, Florian; Saad, Mazen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry's law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.

  15. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional Coulomb clusters in parabolic traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'yachkov, L. G., E-mail: dyachk@mail.ru; Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER), Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7310 (United States); Hyde, T. W.; Kong, J.; Matthews, L. [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER), Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7310 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the shell structure of Coulomb clusters in an axially symmetric parabolic trap exhibiting a confining potential U{sub c}(?,z)=(m?{sup 2}/2)(?{sup 2}+?z{sup 2}). Assuming an anisotropic parameter ??=?4 (corresponding to experiments employing a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions), we have calculated cluster configurations for particle numbers N?=?3 to 30. We have shown that clusters with N???12 initially remain flat, transitioning to three-dimensional configurations as N increases. For N?=?8, we have calculated the configurations of minimal potential energy for all values of ? and found the points of configuration transitions. For N?=?13 and 23, we discuss the influence of both the shielding and anisotropic parameter on potential energy, cluster size, and shell structure.

  16. L{sup p} Theory for Super-Parabolic Backward Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Whole Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Kai, E-mail: kdu@fudan.edu.cn; Qiu, Jinniao, E-mail: 071018032@fudan.edu.cn; Tang Shanjian, E-mail: sjtang@fudan.edu.cn [Fudan University, Department of Finance and Control Sciences, School of Mathematical Sciences, and Laboratory of Mathematics for Nonlinear Sciences (China)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with semi-linear backward stochastic partial differential equations (BSPDEs for short) of super-parabolic type. An L{sup p}-theory is given for the Cauchy problem of BSPDEs, separately for the case of p Element-Of (1,2] and for the case of p Element-Of (2,{infinity}). A comparison theorem is also addressed.

  17. The Parabolic variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance based on least-square fit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernotte, F; Bourgeois, P -Y; Rubiola, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Allan variance (AVAR) is one option among the wavelet variances. However a milestone in the analysis of frequency fluctuations and in the long-term stability of clocks, and certainly the most widely used one, AVAR is not suitable when fast noise processes show up, chiefly because of the poor rejection of white phase noise. The modified Allan variance (MVAR) features high resolution in the presence of white PM noise, but it is poorer for slow phenomena because the wavelet spans over 50% longer time. This article introduces the Parabolic Variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance similar to the Allan variance, based on the Linear Regression (LR) of phase data. The PVAR relates to the Omega frequency counter, which is the topics of a companion article [the reference to the article, or to the ArXiv manuscript, will be provided later]. The PVAR wavelet spans over 2 tau, the same of the AVAR wavelet. After setting the theoretical framework, we analyze the degrees of freedom and the detection of weak noise processes in...

  18. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  19. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  20. Microtopographic characterization of ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska: a digital map of troughs, rims, centers derived from high resolution (0.25 m) LiDAR data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The dataset represents microtopographic characterization of the ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska. Three microtopographic features are delineated using 0.25 m high resolution digital elevation dataset derived from LiDAR. The troughs, rims, and centers are the three categories in this classification scheme. The polygon troughs are the surface expression of the ice-wedges that are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The elevated shoulders of the polygon interior immediately adjacent to the polygon troughs are the polygon rims for the low center polygons. In case of high center polygons, these features are the topographic highs. In this classification scheme, both topographic highs and rims are considered as polygon rims. The next version of the dataset will include more refined classification scheme including separate classes for rims ad topographic highs. The interior part of the polygon just adjacent to the polygon rims are the polygon centers.

  1. Microtopographic characterization of ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska: a digital map of troughs, rims, centers derived from high resolution (0.25 m) LiDAR data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    The dataset represents microtopographic characterization of the ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska. Three microtopographic features are delineated using 0.25 m high resolution digital elevation dataset derived from LiDAR. The troughs, rims, and centers are the three categories in this classification scheme. The polygon troughs are the surface expression of the ice-wedges that are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The elevated shoulders of the polygon interior immediately adjacent to the polygon troughs are the polygon rims for the low center polygons. In case of high center polygons, these features are the topographic highs. In this classification scheme, both topographic highs and rims are considered as polygon rims. The next version of the dataset will include more refined classification scheme including separate classes for rims ad topographic highs. The interior part of the polygon just adjacent to the polygon rims are the polygon centers.

  2. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    eviewmeeting042413chen.pdf More Documents & Publications ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic...

  3. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  4. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Sustainable thermal Energy Storage Technologies, Part I:2009, “Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change2002, “Survey of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough

  5. STA'IfEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ABENGOA SOLAR INC. ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    under the above referenced cooperative agreement entitled , Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants." According to ASI's...

  6. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient...

  7. DOE Finalizes $1.45 Billion Loan Guarantee for One of the World...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Abengoa Solar Inc.'s Solana project, the world's largest parabolic trough concentrating solar plant. Located near Gila Bend, Arizona, the 250-megawatt (MW) project is the first...

  8. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moss year 2009 Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, both parabolic trough and power towers, are being built or planned that will generate significant electrical power output...

  9. Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the four major types of concentrating solar power technologies (CSP): parabolic trough, tower concentrators, linear Fresnel lenses and dish engine systems. It also provides an...

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in SAM Photovoltaics Concentrating PV Solar Water Heating Geothermal Dish-Stirling Linear Fresnel Power Tower Parabolic Trough Small Wind Utility-scale Wind Biomass...

  11. Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids and Novel Thermal Storage Concepts...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    were selected under this competitive solicitation: Abengoa: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Acciona Solar: Indirect,...

  12. Efficient directional spontaneous emission from an InGaAs/InP heterostructure with an integral parabolic reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gfroerer, T.H.; Cornell, E.A. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309-0440 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to increase the radiative efficiency and directivity of spontaneous emission from a lattice-matched InGaAs/InP heterostructure, we have polished the substrate into a parabolic reflector. We combine optical and thermal measurements to obtain the absolute external efficiency over a wide range of carrier densities. Using a simple model, the measurement is used to determine interface, radiative, and Auger recombination rates in the active material. At the optimal density, the quantum efficiency exceeds 60{percent} at room temperature. The divergence of the emitted light is less than 20{degree}. In fact, the beam profile is dominated by a 6{degree} wide lobe that can be swept across the field of emission by changing the excitation position. This suggests a way to create an all-electronic scanned light beam. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Electromagnetic modeling of the energy distribution of a metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector covered with a magnetized plasma layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir; Khajehmirzaei, M. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi-Rahaghi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A. [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy distribution along the focal axis of a long metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector with a plasma layer on its surface in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. The effects of some physical parameters, such as the plasma frequency, the wave frequency and the thickness of plasma layer on the energy distribution and the reflected and transmitted electromagnetic fields, are simulated. These investigations for both S- and P-polarizations have been done separately. It is found that the maximum value of the reflected intensity increases by increasing the incident wave frequency and by decreasing the plasma layer thickness and the plasma frequency for both polarizations. Furthermore, the results show that the increase of the magnetic field strength can cause an increase in the reflected intensity for S-polarization and a slight decrease for P-polarization.

  14. Efficient proton acceleration and focusing by an ultraintense laser interacting with a parabolic double concave target with an extended rear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie, Bai-Song; Aimidula, Aimierding [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Hong-Yu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China) [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new scheme for acceleration and focusing of protons via an improved parabolic double concave target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse is proposed. When an intense laser pulse illuminates a concave target, the hot electrons are concentrated on the focal region of the rear cavity and they form a strong space-charge-separation field, which accelerates the protons. For a simple concave target, the proton energy spectrum becomes very broad outside the rear cavity because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields. However, particle-in-cell simulations show that, when the concave target has an extended rear, the hot electrons along the wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field, resulting in a clear enhancement of proton focusing, which makes the lower proton energy spread, while, leads to a little reduction of the proton bunch peak energy.

  15. The Whitehorse Trough is an early Mesozoic marine sedimentary basin, which extends from southern Yukon to Dease Lake in British Columbia. This paper outlines the stratigraphy and structure, and characterises the overall petroleum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Stephen T.

    pyrolysis data indicate that potential source rocks in the Inklin Formation are gas-prone, and, along. Strata within the central Whitehorse Trough include carbonate rocks of the Upper Triassic Sinwa Formation levels of organic maturation along the northeastern flank of the basin are favourable and structural

  16. Simulation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of a supersonic slip surface with the Piecewise-Parabolic method (PPM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1984-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Piecewise-Parabolic Method (PPM) has been used to study the nonlinear development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of a Mach 2 slip surface in both a gamma-law gas and in an isothermal gas. A simplified version of PPM appropriate to this and other problems with only weak shocks is described. The instability calculations demonstrate the usefulness of discontinuity steepening in PPM and they illustrate the complexity in a flow problem which this method can treat accurately on Cray-I-class computers. The simulations also bring to light characteristic combinations of nonlinear waves which arise from finite-amplitude perturbations of the slip surface and which exhibit an approximately self-similar growth. After passing through a fairly chaotic phase of development, the mixing layer generated by the instability achieves a relatively ordered state which does not appear to depend greatly upon the nature of the initial perturbation, but which does depend upon the length scale over which strict periodicity is enforced in the simulation.

  17. Test of the adequacy of using smoothly joined parabolic segments to parametrize the multihumped fission barriers in actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, B.S. (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Garyounis, Benghazi (Libya))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adequacy of using smoothly joined parabolic segments to parametrize the multihumped fission barriers has been tested by examining its simultaneous consistency with the three relevant fission observables, namely, the near-barrier fission cross sections, isomeric half-lives, and the ground-state spontaneous fission half-lives of a wide variety of a total of 25 actinide nuclides. The penetrabilities through such multihumped fission barriers have been calculated in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, and the various fission half-lives have been determined using the formalism given earlier by Nix and Walker. The results of our systematic analysis of these actinide nuclides suggest that such a parametrization is quite adequate at least for the even-even nuclei, as it reproduces satisfactorily their various observed fission characteristics. Major difficulties remain, however, for the odd mass and for the doubly odd nuclei where the calculated ground-state spontaneous fission half-lives are found to be several orders of magnitude larger than those measured. Possible reasons for such discrepancies are discussed. Fission branching ratios of the decay of the shape isomers in various actinide nuclides have also been calculated and are compared with their measured values.

  18. Thermal Properties of a Particle Confined to a Parabolic Quantum Well in 2D Space with Conical Disclination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tridev Mishra; Tapomoy Guha Sarkar; Jayendra N. Bandyopadhyay

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal properties of a system, comprising of a spinless non-interacting charged particle in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and confined in a parabolic quantum well are studied. The focus has been on the effects of a topological defect, of the form of conical disclination, with regard to the thermodynamic properties of the system. We have obtained the modifications to the traditional Landau-Fock-Darwin spectrum in the presence of conical disclination. The effect of the conical kink on the degeneracy structure of the energy levels is investigated. The canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables. The study shows an interplay between magnetic field, temperature and the degree of conicity by setting two scales for temperature corresponding to the frequency of the confining potential and the cyclotron frequency of external magnetic field. The kink parameter is found to affect the quantitative behaviour of the thermodynamic quantities. It plays a crucial role in the competition between the external magnetic field and temperature in fixing the values of the thermal response functions. This study provides an important motivation for studying similar systems, however with non trivial interactions in the presence of topological defects.

  19. innovati nComponents Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , was deployed at Acciona's 64-megawatt Nevada Solar One plant near Las Vegas, Nevada, which began commercial with Aerial photo of Acciona's Nevada Solar One plant, with its rows of parabolic troughs. Courtesy of Accionainnovati nComponents Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost Parabolic trough technology

  20. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Industrial Process Heat using High- Temperature Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors project (Contract Number of a project to demonstrate the use of solar collectors that produce high temperature process heat GENERATION USING PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTION NOVEMBER 2010 CEC5002011040 Prepared for: California

  1. A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology...

  2. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    techniques to develop a new low-e film with high visible transmission and high infrared reflectivity. These images show ITN's low-e film effectively blocks the flow of the...

  3. Low Cost Components: Screening of Advanced Battery Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitsubishi Chemical, and ConocoPhillips Vehicle Technologies Program Barriers Identify lithium-ion battery materials, with enhanced stability, that lower cell-level costs while...

  4. Low-Cost INS/GPS Integration: Concepts and Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    available in recent years. This group of instruments, called motion sensors, is six to eight times less, lower precision sensors, are currently available. This group of instruments, called motion sensors, is six to eight times less costly than a standard 119Journal of Navigation, Royal Institute of Navigation

  5. Rapid, Low-Cost Conversion from Rice to Improved Pastures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weihing, Ralph M. (Ralph Martin); Moncrief, James B.

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was broadcast September 29, 1949 in rice at last draining. The *clover was broadcast in the stubble in November 1949. Twelve-inch rice stubble is ob- scured by grass and clover. The plots were mowed March 13 and May 16, 1950. Yields are shown in Table 2...

  6. Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Hack

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

  7. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  8. Mobile Robot Navigation With Low-Cost Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yap, Teddy Ng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mapping with applications to multi-robot and 3d mapping. InMapping In many application areas, a mobile robot needs torobots are being employed in grow- ing numbers not only in industrial but also in service-oriented applications (

  9. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Current) (Future-2012) 1 -$ 2 -$ 3 -$ 4 -$ 5 -$ 5-Year catalyst replacement (15% of SMR Capex) 6 175,872$ (175,872)$ 7 -$ 7-year replacement of hot module (12% of Capex) 8 92,775$ 92,775$ 9 -$ 10 -$ SMR (H2A

  10. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  11. A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

  12. Building Green Cloud Services at Low Cost Josep Ll. Berral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    at a relatively low additional cost compared to existing services. Keywords-datacenter; renewable energy; green sources of renewable ("green") energy such as solar and wind into datacenters. In particular, several advantage of green energy produced on- site [7]­[10]. Two key observations behind these works are: (1

  13. ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ORNL) 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy FY13 - 1: Complete optimization of fabrication processing parameters for DBA substrates with alumina (Al 2 O 3 )...

  14. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    information Energy & Environmental Solutions Alternative Energy Products Overview 2 Cost of manufacturing Cycling lifetime of high capacity materials Prismatic cell...

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Richard M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and air mover ii. Thermophoretic deposition module iii.Figure 6. Microfabricated thermophoretic heaters and theirand characteristics of thermophoretic deposition Figure 6.

  16. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic collection efficiency using an increased temperature gradient, and shielding the resonator electronics from deposition of ultrafine particles.

  17. A Simple, Low Cost Longitudinal Phase Space Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertsche, Kirk; Emma, Paul; /SLAC; Shevchenko, Oleg; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For proper operation of the LCLS [1] x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), and other similar machines, measurement and control of the electron bunch longitudinal phase space is critical. The LCLS accelerator includes two bunch compressor chicanes to magnify the peak current. These magnetic chicanes can generate significant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can distort the phase space distribution. We propose a diagnostic scheme by exciting a weak skew quadrupole at an energy-chirped, high dispersion point in the first LCLS bunch compressor (BC1) to reconstruct longitudinal phase space on an OTR screen after BC1, allowing a time-resolved characterization of CSR effects.

  18. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  19. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which focuses on passive PEM water management, was given by Susie Stenkamp of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. newfcstenkamppnnl.pdf More...

  20. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.