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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a variety of routes, and electrochromic behavior has beenof Cu x O films, electrochromic devices based onbeen investigated. Unlike electrochromic devices based on

Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Rubin, Michael D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

4

Electrochromic Poly(DNTD)/WO3 Nanocomposite Films via Electorpolymerization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochromic Poly(DNTD)/WO3 Nanocomposite Films via Electorpolymerization Huige Wei, Xingru Yan AFM observations. An air-stable electrochromical window was assembled and obtained by a homemade electrochemical cell to study the electrochromism and stability of the nanocomposite film. The composite film

Guo, John Zhanhu

5

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

6

Electropolymerized Polyaniline Stabilized Tungsten Oxide Nanocomposite Films: Electrochromic Behavior and Electrochemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electropolymerized Polyaniline Stabilized Tungsten Oxide Nanocomposite Films: Electrochromic. The optical properties and electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the composite films for electrochromic (EC electrochromism at both positive and negative potentials arising from PANI and WO3, respectively. A coloration

Guo, John Zhanhu

7

Patternable transparent carbon nanotube films for electrochromic devices Liangbing Hu and George Grunera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Patternable transparent carbon nanotube films for electrochromic devices Liangbing Hu and George nanotube films on polyethylene terephthalate as flexible electrodes in electrochromic devices using. Electrochromic devices attract much interest due to their potential use in applications such as smart windows

Gruner, George

8

LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION OF ELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILMS T. J. Richardson and M. D. Rubin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION OF ELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILMS T. J. Richardson and M. D. Rubin electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared, and readily scalable to larger substrates. Keywords: liquid phase deposition; electrochromic films; thin film

9

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Granqvist, C.G. 2000. "Electrochromic Tungsten Oxide Films:the performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Photopatterned electrochromic conjugated polymer films via precursor approach Arvind Kumar a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photopatterned electrochromic conjugated polymer films via precursor approach Arvind Kumar a , Sung Keywords: Conjugated polymers Electrochromism Photopatterning a b s t r a c t Herein we report the photolithography of electrochromic conjugated polymer (CP) films on the micron scale without exposing the CP

Otero, Toribio Fernández

13

Hybrid Electrochromic Fluorescent Poly(DNTD)/CdSe@ZnS Composite Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Electrochromic Fluorescent Poly(DNTD)/CdSe@ZnS Composite Films Huige Wei, Xingru Yan, Springdale, Arkansas 72764, United States ABSTRACT: Hybrid electrochromic poly(DNTD)/CdSe@ZnS quantum dots of an electrical current after the application of an appropriate electrode potential.15-17 The electrochromic

Guo, John Zhanhu

14

Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer.

Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer. 5 figures.

Branz, H.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Tracy, C.E.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

16

Lithium-based electrochromic mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITHIUM-BASED ELECTROCHROMIC MIRRORS Thomas J. Richardson*with pure antimony films. Electrochromic cycling speed andand silver. INTRODUCTION Electrochromic devices that exhibit

Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Light Weight Thin Film Solar Concentrators PI: Gani B. Ganapathi (JPLCaltech) Other Contributors: L'Garde: Art Palisoc, Gyula Greschik, Koorosh Gidanian JPL: Bill Nesmith,...

18

Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control switched across their dynamic range and could be fully integrated into a complete daylight, glare

19

Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field studyof a Thin-Film Ceramic Electrochromic Window: Field StudyEC window product characteristics The EC is a thin-film WO3-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Engineering the electrochromism and ion conduction of layer-by-layer assembled films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work applies the processing technique of layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly to the creation and development of new electrochemically active materials. Elements of the thin-film electrochromic cell were chosen as a particular ...

DeLongchamp, Dean M. (Dean Michael), 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Enhanced electrochromic property of nickel hydroxide thin films prepared by anodic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide thin films have received much attention as electrochromic (EC) materials, particularly as the materials for a complementary counterlayer against an EC tungsten oxide layer in smart window systems. Nickel hydroxide thin films were prepared onto transparent conductive tin oxide (NESA) substrates by potentiostatic electrolysis of a nickel amine complex solution at various potentials (0.6 to 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Nickel hydroxide thin film (F0.7) obtained at relatively lower anodic potential (0.7 V) showed enhanced electrochromism between colorless and dark brown in a sodium borate buffer solution at pH 12; the absorption spectrum in the colored (oxidized) state was broadened in the visible and near-infrared region compared with the nickel hydroxide films prepared at the higher anodic potential (1.1 V). characterization of the films revealed that crystal structure of F0.7 is assigned to [alpha]-Ni(OH)[sub 2], and that its electrochromism is based on the reversible oxidation to hexagonal [gamma][sub 2]-2NiO[sub 2] [center dot] NiOOH structure. Composite nickel hydroxide film, i.e., by the electrolytic deposition at 1.1 V followed by that at 0.7 V, showed electrochromic property similar to F0.7 and its durability in repeated redox cycles were much improved in comparison with that of F0.7. Electrochromic properties in switching performance of this composite nickel hydroxide film were investigated.

Chigane, Masaya; Ishikawa, Masami (Osaka Municipal Technical Research Inst. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics Rehan Kapadia1,2 *, Zhibin-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics

California at Irvine, University of

25

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field studywindows in a bleached state (left) or colored state (right). Electrochromic coatings (EC) are switchable thin-film

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Termpaul_fini@cree.com CREE SBTC Low-Cost

27

Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMDHeavy DutyLow Cost 3-10kW

28

CO2 Capture Using Electric Fields: Low-Cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-Zero Energy Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Two faculty members at Lehigh University created a new technique called supercapacitive swing adsorption (SSA) that uses electrical charges to encourage materials to capture and release CO2. Current CO2 capture methods include expensive processes that involve changes in temperature or pressure. Lehigh University’s approach uses electric fields to improve the ability of inexpensive carbon sorbents to trap CO2. Because this process uses electric fields and not electric current, the overall energy consumption is projected to be much lower than conventional methods. Lehigh University is now optimizing the materials to maximize CO2 capture and minimize the energy needed for the process.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Lead Performer: ITN Energy Systems - Littleton, CO Partners: -- Electric Power Research Institute - Palo Alto, CA -- Colorado School of Mines - Golden, CO -- Stanford Linear Accelerator - Menlo Park, CA -- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA

30

Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films Composed of Free-Standing Acicular Nanorods Exhibiting Reversible Electrochromism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible Electrochromism Chung-Wei Kung, Timothy Chiaan Wang, Joseph E. Mondloch, David Fairen electrochromic switching between yellow and deep blue by means of a one-electron redox reaction at its pyrene and rapid switching rate. KEYWORDS: electrochromism, metal-organic frameworks, one-dimensional nanorods

32

Electrochemical Preparation of Molybdenum Trioxide Thin Films: Effect of Sintering on Electrochromic and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Electrochromic and Electroinsertion Properties Todd M. McEvoy and Keith J. Stevenson* Department of Chemistry-/nanocrystallinity,whichdirectlyinfluencemeasuredLi+ diffusion properties as well as electroinsertion and electrochromic reversibilities. Structural analysis of electrochromics1 and batteries.2 The electro- chromic effect observed in these materials has led

33

Electrochromic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

Schwendemanm, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Kingsport, TN); Knowles, Julianna M. (Apollo, PA)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Electrochromic polyaniline/graphite oxide nanocomposites with endured electrochemical energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochromic polyaniline/graphite oxide nanocomposites with endured electrochemical energy February 2013 Keywords: Polyaniline nanocomposite film Electropolymerization Electrochromism a b s t r a c films for electrochromic displays and electrochemical energy storage devices applications were

Guo, John Zhanhu

35

Solid state electrochromic light modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

Cogan, Stuart F. (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062); Rauh, R. David (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solid state electrochromic light modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Solid state electrochromic light modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

1990-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

38

Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

Bhattacharya, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

Mattos, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows Attachment 17:electrochromic prototype windows that were deemed sufficiently mature for market

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electrochromic optical switching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer, a polymerizable organo-sulfur layer which comprises the counter electrode of the structure, and an ionically conductive electronically insulating material which comprises the separator between the electrodes. In a preferred embodiment, both the separator and the organo-sulfur electrode (in both its charged and uncharged states) are transparent either to visible light or to the entire solar spectrum. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises such electrodes and separator encased in glass plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film in respective electrical contact with the electrodes which facilitates formation of an external electrical connection or contact to the electrodes of the device to permit electrical connection of the device to an external potential source.

Lampert, Carl M. (El Sobrante, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Electrochromic optical switching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer, a polymerizable organo-sulfur layer which comprises the counter electrode of the structure, and an ionically conductive electronically insulating material which comprises the separator between the electrodes. In a preferred embodiment, both the separator and the organo-sulfur electrode (in both its charged and uncharged states) are transparent either to visible light or to the entire solar spectrum. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises such electrodes and separator encased in glass plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film in respective electrical contact with the electrodes which facilitates formation of an external electrical connection or contact to the electrodes of the device to permit electrical connection of the device to an external potential source. 3 figs.

Lampert, C.M.; Visco, S.J.

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

Sheng, Xing

44

Low-Cost, Fiber-Optic Hydrogen Gas Detector Using Guided-Wave, Surface-Plasmon Resonance in Chemochromic Thin Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-cost, hydrogen-gas-leak detectors are needed for many hydrogen applications, such as hydrogen-fueled vehicles where several detectors may be required in different locations on each vehicle. A fiber-optic leak detector could be inherently safer than conventional detectors, because it would remove all detector electronics from the vicinity of potential leaks. It would also provide freedom from electromagnetic interference, a serious problem in fuel-cell-powered electric vehicles. This paper describes the design of a fiber-optic, surface-plasmon-resonance hydrogen detector, and efforts to make it more sensitive, selective, and durable. Chemochromic materials, such as tungsten oxide and certain Lanthanide hydrides, can reversibly react with hydrogen in air while exhibiting significant changes in their optical properties. Thin films of these materials applied to a sensor at the end of an optical fiber have been used to detect low concentrations of hydrogen gas in air. The coatings include a thin silver layer in which the surface plasmon is generated, a thin film of the chemochromic material, and a catalytic layer of palladium that facilitates the reaction with hydrogen. The film thickness is chosen to produce a guided-surface plasmon wave along the interface between the silver and the chemochromic material. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the reflected spectrum into a portion near the resonance and a portion away from the resonance, and directs these two portions to two separate photodiodes. The electronic ratio of these two signals cancels most of the fiber transmission noise and provides a stable hydrogen signal.

Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.; Lee, S-H. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Hishmeh, G. A.; Haberman, D. P. (DCH Technologies, Valencia, CA); Ciszek, P. A. (Evergreen Solar, Waltham, MA)

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Electrochromic device using mercaptans and organothiolate compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer and a composite ion counter electrode for transporting ions. The counter electrode further comprises a polymer electrolyte material and an organosulfur material in which, in its discharged state, the organosulfur material is further comprised of a mercaptan or an organothiolate. In one preferred embodiment, both the electrochromic electrode and the counter electrode are transparent either to visible light or to the entire electromagnetic spectrum in both charged and discharged states. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises one or more electrochromic electrodes encased in glass or plastic plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film. Electrical contacts, which are in electrical contact with the conductive films, facilitate external electrical connection. 5 figs.

Lampert, C.M.; Ma, Y.P.; Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Electrochromic device using mercaptans and organothiolate compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer and a composite ion counter electrode for transporting ions. The counter electrode further comprises a polymer electrolyte material and an organosulfur material in which, in its discharged state, the organosulfur material is further comprised of a mercaptan or an organothiolate. In one preferred embodiment, both the electrochromic electrode and the counter electrode are transparent either to visible light or to the entire electromagnetic spectrum in both charged and discharged states. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises one or more electrochromic electrodes encased in glass or plastic plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film. Electrical contacts, which are in electrical contact with the conductive films, facilitate external electrical connection.

Lampert, Carl M. (El Sobrante, CA); Ma, Yan-ping (Berkeley, CA); Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Visco, Steven (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Improved Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Films Integrated with Metal Nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tin oxide films in electrochromic (EC) devices. The successful integration of such graphene/NW films. KEYWORDS: Graphene, nanowires, transparent conductive films, electrochromic devices Due to low electron

48

Electrochromic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

Allemand, Pierre M. (Tucson, AZ); Grimes, Randall F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Ingle, Andrew R. (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Kennedy, Steve R. (Tuscon, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Boulton, Jonathan M. (Tucson, AZ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Self bleaching photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device comprising a first transparent electrode and a second transparent electrode in parallel, spaced relation to each other. The first transparent electrode is electrically connected to the second transparent electrode. An electrochromic material is applied to the first transparent electrode and a nanoporous semiconductor film having a dye adsorbed therein is applied to the second transparent electrode. An electrolyte layer contacts the electrochromic material and the nanoporous semiconductor film. The electrolyte layer has a redox couple whereby upon application of light, the nanoporous semiconductor layer dye absorbs the light and the redox couple oxidizes producing an electric field across the device modulating the effective light transmittance through the device.

Bechinger, Clemens S. (Konstanz, DE); Gregg, Brian A. (Golden, CO)

2002-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

50

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventionalissues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialOffice worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot

Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Fulfilling a Dream: Low Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material for low cost, thin film, solar cell absorber layers is the quaternary compound of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS for the development of low cost Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 thin film solar cells with even higher efficiency. BIOGRAPHY Lili electronics and in flexible solar panels with applications in electric cars, smarter buildings and data

Fisher, Frank

53

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly ...

Schmidt, Daniel J.

54

Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical of deterioration over 150 switching cycles. Additionally, in an effort to assemble an electrochromic device with chiroptical properties, the electrochromism of films generated from the enantiomerically pure CTPCT[FeII CTPCT

Bernhard, Stefan

55

High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites fabricated by layer-by-layer assemblyw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites: 10.1039/b803915a Electrochromic Ruthenium Purple­polymer nanocomposite films, fabricated by multilayer assembly, were found to exhibit sub-second switching speed and the highest electrochromic con

Heflin, Randy

56

A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windowsfor the eventual market success of electrochromic windows inearly niche market might consist of adding an electrochromic

Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ratio of 0.30. The electrochromic windows were controlled toProceedings. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performanceand economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows,"

Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

60

Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low Cost Non-Reactive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - Rocky MountainPrepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost

62

Presented at the Third International Meeting on Electrochromics in London, England, September 8, 1998 and accepted for publication in Electrochimica Acta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-42277 OM-395 Presented at the Third International Meeting on Electrochromics in London or by exposing the film to hydrogen gas. Unlike amorphous oxide electrochromics, the transformation a simple gasochromic and electrochromic [2] switchable mirror can be constructed. Even better optical

63

Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers Arvind Kumara  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers on paper Arvind Kumara , Chris Asemotaa. Electrochromic nanofibers of conducting polymer (terthiophene) have been deposited over a conventional paper in electrochromic characters. SEM images of the conducting polymer nanofibers together with the cellulose fibers

Otero, Toribio Fernández

65

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

BUSINESS PLAN NIRMAL: LOW COST WATER PURIFICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water. Hence we intend to address the issue by providing a low cost water purification system usingNIRMAL #12;BUSINESS PLAN 2 NIRMAL: LOW COST WATER PURIFICATION I. Executive summary Nearly one area, it makes sense to transport the point of use purification system itself. Field research by team

Mlllet, Dylan B.

67

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. CaliforniaGuide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. CaliforniaGUIDE FOR EARLY-MARKET ELECTROCHROMIC WINDOWS Prepared For:

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Effects of Overhangs on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled forwindows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/ Winkelmann, F.C. ,

Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilotDetails for an Electrochromic Window Wall Attached arethe performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Research Renewable Energy inhibit the potential growth of the California photovoltaic market: high installation costs, expenses improvements have been made in recent years on the assembly and deployment of flatplate photovoltaic

76

A low cost high flux solar simulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

Codd, Daniel S.

77

Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lifetime prediction of electrochromic windows for buildingsenergy performance of electrochromic windows. ” Proceedingsin the Proceedings. Electrochromic Windows for Commercial

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

Fernandes, Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Submitted toin a full-scale electrochromic window testbed. Technicaloptimization of electrochromic operations for occupant

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

Epler, John

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of Low-Cost, High Strength Commercial Textile Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

a project to develop develop a low-cost precursor fiber that can be converted to low-cost carbon fiber (CF) with at least 650 ksi tensile strength. Development of Low-Cost, High...

82

Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

83

A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCRDPF ApplicationsData-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions...

84

Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

85

Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

10 - Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium Automotive Components edm2@chrysler.com February 28, 2008 Low Cost PM Technology for Particle Reinforced Titanium...

86

Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

87

Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

88

www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform Cooperative Agreement: DE-FC36-01GO11004 Timothy M. Aaron Team Praxair - Tonawanda, NY Boothroyd-Dewhurst - Wakefield, RI Diversified Manufacturing (Hot Components Only) Praxair HGS Comparison 1/4 Capacity 1/6 Physical Plant Size Lower H2 Cost

89

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Electrochromic projection and writing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus causes the photoconductive material to conduct current locally in proportion to the amount of light incident on the photoconductive material. The flow of current causes the underlying portions of the electrochromic material to switch from an opaque state to a clear or transmissive state, thereby allowing back-light to propagate through the electrochromic material to create a visible image on the surface of the projection apparatus. Reversal of the electric field causes the electrochromic material to revert back to its opaque state, thereby blocking the transmission of back-light and effectively erasing the image from the surface of the projection apparatus.

Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for use in fuel cell systems need development in order to achieve cost targets. Low-cost, highLow-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 LowLow--CostCost;2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective

92

Low-cost laser diode array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA); Skidmore, Jay A. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low-cost laser diode array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

0-7803-8906-9/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE 2005 Electronic Components and Technology Conference Exploring the Limits of Low Cost, Organics-Compatible High-k Ceramic Thin-Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processing techniques for embedding capacitors into organic PWBs. Hydrothermal synthesis allows integration process. Hydrothermal techniques enable synthesis of crystalline barium titanate films at temperatures-sputtering in conjunction with a foil transfer process can be used to integrate a variety of perovskite thin films

Swaminathan, Madhavan

95

Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Multicolored Electrochromism in Polymers: Structures and Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multicolored Electrochromism in Polymers: Structures and Devices Avni A. Argun, Pierre-Henri Aubert May 12, 2004 A review of electrochromic (EC) polymers and their applications in absorption/transmission, reflective, and patterned electrochromic devices (ECDs) is presented. Fundamental properties of EC materials

Tanner, David B.

97

Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

Ferrer, Belen [Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David [Inst. of Physics Applied to the Sciences and Technologies, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Roig, Ana B. [Department of Optics, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

98

Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and...

100

The era of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The era of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is approaching an end. Without massive mitigation of plentiful, low-cost petroleum is approaching an end. The good news is that commercially viable mitigation

Laughlin, Robert B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Modeling of optical and energy performance of tungsten-oxide-based electrochromic windows including their intermediate states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, 7] C. ?G.  Granqvist, Electrochromic materials: Out of a Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices,  Cambridge 

Lim, Sunnie H.N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid complex films Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

doping acid during the formation of thin films. Both the electrical switching and electrochromic... and forms sulfuric acid within the PBZT film. The ... Source: Guo, John Zhanhu...

103

Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues for Large-area Electrochromic Windows in CommercialAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows”, ASHRAEon the Performance of Electrochromic Windows Asilhan Tavil

Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercial buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of inorganic electrochromic materials. 1995.R. Sullivan. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performancetime of large-scale electrochromic devices. In Large-Area

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alone Photovoltaic-Powered Electrochromic Smart Window.Subject responses to electrochromic windows. To be publishedAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows, ASHRAE

Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006. Advancement of electrochromic windows: Final report.User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilotenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

Lee, Eleanor S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have beencontrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogenThe application of electrochromic devices based on tungsten

Anders, Andre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

110

Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Low Cost High Efficiency Clean Diesels Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit,...

111

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

information" 4 Approach BASF has a low cost production process for Li ion battery cathode materials. In this project, the cathode materials developed in the laboratory will be...

112

Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paper: Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Resource Abstract The Chena Hot Springs geothermal field was intensively explored, tested, and...

113

Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Article: Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal Resource Abstract The Chena Hot Springs geothermal field was intensivelyexplored, tested, and...

114

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Li-Ion Battery Cell...

115

An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and...

116

Fast, Low Cost Method for Manufacturing Porous Structures for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Fast, Low Cost Method for Manufacturing Porous Structures for Fuel Cells, Catalysts and Filtration...

117

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- EV) Use BASF's existing assets and low cost production process. Validate that cost and quality targets are met via coin cells, pouch cells and 18650 cells. ...

118

Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

119

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

120

ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates H. -T. Lin, A. A. Wereszczak, and S. Waters Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation A. Der Minassians, K. H. Aschenbach discuss the technical and economic feasibility of a low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power technologies should be judged by output power per dollar rather than by efficiency or other technical merits

Sanders, Seth

123

The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fig. 12. Market penetration rates of electrochromic windowsmarket penetration level in that year. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency, electrochromic

Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows tested were market-electrochromic windows that were deemed sufficiently mature for market

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

126

Electrochimica Acta 46 (2001) 20772084 Fe-containing CeVO4 films as Li intercalation transparent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are good candidates for optically passive counter-electrodes in electrochromic (EC) devices. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Fe-contaning orthovanadates; Electrochromic film in the development of materials for electrochromic (EC) variable transmission glass devices. WO3 is one of the most

Artuso, Florinda

127

Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

Schulz, Stephen C. (Tewksbury, MA); Michalski, Lech A. (Pennington, NJ); Volltrauer, Hermann N. (Englishtown, NJ); Van Dine, John E. (Faribault, MN)

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

128

Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

129

Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Photochromic, electrochromic, photoelectrochromic and photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light activated photoelectrochromic device is formed of a two-component system formed of a photoactive charge carrier generating material and electrochromic material (plus an elecrolyte). Light interacts with a semiconductive material to generate hole-electron charge carriers which cause a redox reaction in the electrochromic material. One device is formed of hydrated nickel oxide as the electrochromic layer and polycrystalline titanium dioxide as the charge generating material. The materials may be formed as discrete layers or mixed together. Because of the direct charge transfer between the layers, a circuit to apply a voltage to drive the electrochromic reaction is not required, although one can be used to enhance the reaction. The hydrated nickel oxide-titanium dioxide materials can also be used to form a photovoltaic device for generating electricity.

Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

LOW COST COMPOSITE (LCC) STRUCTURES MASTER'S RESEARCH PROJECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOW COST COMPOSITE (LCC) STRUCTURES MASTER'S RESEARCH PROJECT November 2010 Supervisors: Profs undergraduate 4th Year Project teams have used the results of this work to manufacture various GS II

Dawson, Jeff W.

132

A microelectronic design for low-cost disposable chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis demonstrates the novel concept and design of integrated microelectronics for a low-cost disposable chemical sensor. The critical aspects of this chemical sensor are the performance of the microelectronic chip ...

Laval, Stuart S. (Stuart Sean), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security Applications Front-end creel for processing precursor in tow format In-line melt spinning for...

134

Low cost private education in India : challenges and way forward  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Low Cost Private School phenomenon has gained momentum and increased visibility in recent years as researchers have begun to map and record the existence of millions of private schools that cater to the education needs ...

Garg, Nupur, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

Vohra, A.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Design of small, low-cost, underwater fin manipulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis details the development of a small, low cost, underwater manipulator for use on the XAUV. At this time, there are no cheap underwater servos commercially available. The design involves modifying a commercially ...

Roberts, Megan Johnson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Low-cost electromagnetic tagging : design and implementation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several implementations of chipless RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are presented and discussed as low-cost alternatives to chip-based RFID tags and sensors. An overview of present-day near-field electromagnetic ...

Fletcher, Richard R. (Richard Ribon)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to Photovoltaic Cells Fabricated with IIIEmerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium Precourt Institute

McGehee, Michael

142

Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates H. -T. Lin, A. A. Wereszczak, M. L. Santella, and G. Muralidharan Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) This presentation does not...

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony film electrode Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes by layer-by-layer assembly for electrochromic devices Summary: of polythiophene multilayer films on single wall carbon nanotube...

144

Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a) Lu Liu, Susan E. Legenski, Dai Ning March 2004) A large contrast ratio (> 60%) and rapid switching (0.3­1 s) electrochromic (EC) polymer

Taya, Minoru

145

End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-6027E End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application E Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application Eleanor S. Lee1 Abstract , Erin S. Claybaugh Building Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585 USA Automated electrochromic (EC) windows, advanced thermally

146

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays Pierre of electroactive and conducting polymers offers new opportunities for the design of materials for electrochromic the most promising electrochromic (EC) properties. Here, we report the use of highly porous metallized

Tanner, David B.

147

Efficient Synthesis and Properties of Novel Near-Infrared Electrochromic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient Synthesis and Properties of Novel Near-Infrared Electrochromic Anthraquinone Imides@pku.edu.cn Received December 13, 2007 ABSTRACT An efficient synthesis of novel near-infrared electrochromic 6 are electrochromic and absorb intensely in the near-infrared range of 700-1600 nm upon electrochemical reduction

Wan, Xin-hua

148

Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen and ElectricityLow-Cost

150

Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Abstract: Low-cost...

151

Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration / Users Facility and Commercializati...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile Precursors Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile...

152

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

153

Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries...

154

Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy and National Security Applications #12 posttreatment for various resin systems Winding and packaging Carbon fiber is a strong, stiff, lightweight of today's relatively high price. Current methods for manufacturing carbon fiber and carbon-fiber

Pennycook, Steve

155

Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems DE-FC36-99GO-10455 POC: Doug Hooker Dr Approach: System Concept Fuel Cell Subsystem Battery Subsystem Converter Electrolyzer Subsystem Inverter, -- (216) 541(216) 541--10001000 Slide 5 Approach: Challenges ·Electrolyzer Subsystem Efficiency ·Fuel Cell

156

Transmitting Digitized Video Using the Low Cost G-Link  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transmitting Digitized Video Using the Low Cost G-Link Chipset Application Note 1077 h-Link) to distribute multiple uncompressed digitized video signals across a single coaxial or fiber-optic cable. Although the main theme of the paper is video distribution, the techniques discussed apply to any applica

California at Santa Cruz, University of

157

Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud Computing Services and Open and maintain. #12;Cloud Computing · Distributed or Cloud computing allows for the use of virtual computers Web Services (AWS) · EC2 ­ Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud "a web service that provides resizable compute

158

LOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane, and bio-derived fuel) as well as hydrogenLOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Dr. Christopher E. Milliken, Materials Group Boulevard Cleveland, Ohio 44108 216-541-1000 Abstract Fuel cell technologies are described in the 2001 DOE

159

Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing! Prof. Shreyes Melkote, Manufacturing Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology Photovoltaics (PV) will be part of the energy mix volume PV manufacturing, therefore to reduce manufacturing cost and accelerate PV use. ! q Silicon wafer

Das, Suman

160

Efficient Electrochromic Devices Made from 3D Nanotubular Gyroid Maik R. J. Scherer and Ullrich Steiner*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient Electrochromic Devices Made from 3D Nanotubular Gyroid Networks Maik R. J. Scherer scale is therefore an effective strategy to enhance performance in electrochromic devices substantially enhanced electrochromic performance, combining fast switching speeds with high coloration contrast

Steiner, Ullrich

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electrochromic devices based on lithium insertion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic devices having as an active electrode materials comprising Sb, Bi, Si, Ge, Sn, Te, N, P, As, Ga, In, Al, C, Pb, I and chalcogenides are disclosed. The addition of other metals, i.e. Ag and Cu to the active electrode further enhances performance.

Richardson, Thomas J. (Oakland, CA)

2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

163

Electrochromism and electrocatalysis in viologen polyelectrolyte multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyelectrolyte multilayers were constructed from a polyviologen and poly(styrene sulfonate) using an alternating polyion solution deposition technique. In situ absorption spectroscopy showed multilayers to be strongly electrochromic. Oxygen reduction at multilayer-coated conducting glass electrodes was also shown to be facilitated.

Stepp, J.; Schlenoff, J.B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Chiral Organogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis regions have been realized using a low molecular weight gel as a chiral scaffold and electrochromic

Wan, Xin-hua

165

Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

Frysinger, G.R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates CH Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. Fuel Cell Project, stationary and automobile fuel cell systems. $0.00 $0.05 $0.10 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.40 $0.45 $0. · The technology has been evaluated by various clients and used in portable fuel cell power systems. Corporate

168

Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

moving stations on rock glacier Low-cost L1 GPS receivers (blox) Power source: solar panels Local data Rock glacier GPS antennaGPS antenna Solar panelSolar panel Box incl.Box incl. -GPS receiverData logger Instruments Solar panelSolar panel (24W, 12V, 50x50cm)(24W, 12V, 50x50cm) Costs per station: 2

169

Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Ruth, Marta R. (Boulder, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Electrodeposition of nickel oxyhydroxide films through polymer masks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochromic materials have attracted much attention for devices including ``smart windows`` and displays. Nickel oxyhydroxide films were electrodeposited through gelatin masks, whose thicknesses may control the optical transmittances of the deposited electrochromic films. The difference of transmittance, {Delta}T{sub 540}, between bleaching and coloration states at wavelength of 540 nm has a linear relationship with the gelatin mask thickness. {Delta}T{sub 540} increased if nickel oxyhydroxide was prepared in agitated electrolyte. The electrodeposited films, prepared with gelatin masks, may have higher stability. These results showed the feasibility of fabricating an electrochromic device with a controlled image whose contrast and brightness are adjustable with potential or current.

Yang, M.C.; Lin, C.K.; Su, C.L. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Low cost, large area silicon detectors for calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trapezoidal detectors with 28 cm{sup 2} active area have been fabricated on >2500 {Omega}cm, 4 in. diameter n-type silicon wafers. Instead of the commonly used ion implantation method, low-cost, high volume solid state diffusion technology along with phosphosilicate-glass and TCA gettering was adopted for boron and phosphorus doping. Typically the diode dark current was 15 {mu}A {at} 100 volts. Efforts are being made to obtain a finished device yield of 80% to meet the $2/cm{sup 2} price goal of SSC semiconductor detector group. 20 refs., 4 figs.

Korde, R. (International Radiation Detectors, Torrance, CA (USA)); Furuno, K.; Hwang, H.; Brau, J.E. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA)); Bugg, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes an advanced, low-cost receiver project for parabolic troughs, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. Norwich Technologies is designing a novel receiver that addresses these issues for parabolic trough concentrating solar power systems. This technology represents significant operational and cost advances in the most trusted and broadly implemented form of CSP and provides a viable pathway to achieving SunShot’s $0.06/kWh goal for utility-scale CSP systems.

174

Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen toLeveragingLindseyLong-TermLosof EnergyLow Cost

175

Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen and

176

Low-Cost LED Luminaire for General Illumination  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Termpaul_fini@cree.com CREE SBTC Low-Cost LED

177

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA andDriving InnovationDurable, Low Cost,

178

low-cost-sorbent | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial Carbon CaptureFY08 Joint JOULE MilestoneEddyObservationsLow Cost Sorbent

179

NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

Wang, Conghua [TreadStone Technologies, Inc.

2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process.

More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Jip [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 Korea and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

182

Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod Array LEDs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The completed project, entitled â??Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod LEDs,â? targeted the goal of a phosphor-free nanorod-based white LED with IQE > 50% across the spectrum from 450 nm to 600 nm on metallized silicon substrates. The principal achievements of this project included: â?¢ Demonstration of (In,Ga)N nanopyramid heterostructures by a conventional OMVPE process. â?¢ Verification of complete filtering of threading dislocations to yield dislocation-free pyramidal heterostructures. â?¢ Demonstration of electroluminescence with a peak wavelength of ~600 nm from an (In,Ga)N nanopyramid array LED. â?¢ Development of a reflective ZrN/AlN buffer layer for epitaxial growth of GaN films and GaN nanopyramid arrays on (111)Si.

Sands, Timothy; Stach, Eric; Garcia, Edwin

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources Energy Department Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable...

184

High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2...

185

DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery October 29, 2014 -...

186

Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric Drive Vehicles Low-Cost U.S. Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric...

187

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

188

Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic...

189

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

190

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

191

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Magnesium...

192

Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Image of porous...

193

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract-- We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing connections with low-cost conductive inkjet printed copper traces. Our first attempt is to fabricate humidityLow-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process Nan

195

Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

aperture, while incorporating additional advancements that substantially lower installed solar field costs. For example, the reflective film surfaces are being upgraded to improve...

196

LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

Lowes, Ted

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

Tucker, R.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

Roney Nazarian

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

Thurston, Anthony

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Task 8.8 -- Low cost ceramic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This subtask was originally titled ``Reheat Combustor Materials`` and was proposed in anticipation of the addition of a reheat combustor to the ICR gas turbine cycle. When the emphasis of ATS became the optimized recuperated cycle, the goal of the subtask was changed to the evaluation of low cost materials for gas turbine combustor liners. It now supplements similar work being conducted by Solar under DOE Contract No.DE-ACO2-92-CE40960, titled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) Development.`` The use of a ceramic combustor liner in gas turbines contributes to emissions reductions by freeing cooling air for use as primary combustion air and by allowing higher wall temperatures, which contribute to more complete combustion of hydrocarbons. Information from a literature survey, manufacturer`s data, and Solar`s experience was used to select three materials for testing. In addition to material properties requirements for selection, subscale combustor liner cost was required to be at least half of the high modulus continuous fiber reinforced composite part cost. The three materials initially selected for evaluation are listed in Table 1. Four hour subscale rig tests were planned for eight inch diameter liners made from each material. Upon successful completion of each four hour test, a fifty hour test was planned.

NONE

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

205

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.] [Giner, Inc.

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. However, window and architectural design as well as electrochromic control options are suggested as methods to broaden the applicability of electrochromics for commercial buildings. Without further modification, its applicability is expected to be limited during cold winter periods due to its slow switching speed.

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

209

Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications CX-009154: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview Carbon Fiber Technology...

210

Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

Pan, Heng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

212

Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

213

POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

eviewmeeting042413chen.pdf More Documents & Publications ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic...

214

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrochromic window products will appear on the market.market and technology assessments apply conventional life-cycle cost analysis methods to determine the viability of electrochromicmarket assessments have been conducted by industry, but this information remains proprietary. Electrochromic

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to hydrogen and oxygen. z Process scaled up to pilot plant up to the film step. II. MEA z Beginning of Life Washington DC 2-13-07 5 #12;Summary of Major Findings for First Generation (M31) I. Membrane z High 50-90 z Materials for membrane evaluation z Generation A (M31) 120-150 z Generation B 120-140 z

217

Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to improve AB yields and purities

Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain�������¢����������������s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% market penetration level in that year. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency, electrochromic windows1 Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected

222

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices H. Bircana polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel

Otero, Toribio Fernández

223

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

Heflin, Randy

224

Electrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis Benjamin Bailleul Pierre Cardol Cecile Breyton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW Electrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis Benjamin Bailleul · Pierre of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we of photosynthetic processes in vivo. Keywords Spectroscopy Á Electrochromism Á Photosynthesis Á Electrochemical

225

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

226

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-6152E Lighting energy savings potential of split- pane electrochromic windows controlled potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort L was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled

227

Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina Schwendeman,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina for electrochromic applications. These polymers exhibit ease of processability and useful mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility). However, the major strength of these organic-based materials is that their electrochromic

Tanner, David B.

228

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

Wan, Xin-hua

229

Growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal V2O5 nanorod arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal V2O5 nanorod arrays Katsunori Takahashi reports a study on the template-based growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal vanadium demonstrated significantly enhanced electrochromic properties; both the larger change of transmittance

Cao, Guozhong

230

A self-powered electrochromic device driven by a nanogenerator Xiaohong Yang,ab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A self-powered electrochromic device driven by a nanogenerator Xiaohong Yang,ab Guang Zhu,a Sihong September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee23194h Electrochromic (EC) devices are capable of reversibly changing.3% was obtained, with electrochromic response time (ERT) and coloration efficiency (CE) of 10 seconds and 58.7 cm2

Wang, Zhong L.

231

Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero * Center characterize any combination of a dual electrochromic system as a function of the redox charge of its reserved. Keywords: Conducting polymer; Electrochromism; Maximum contrast; Dual system; PEDOT; ProDOT 1

Otero, Toribio Fernández

232

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Electroluminescent Polymers Containing Pendant Ruthenium Complex Groups  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Electroluminescent Polymers Containing Pendant Ruthenium ComplexVised Manuscript ReceiVed August 30, 2006 ABSTRACT: A series of near-infrared (NIR) electrochromic. All the polymers are near-infrared (NIR) electrochromic, displaying an intense absorption centered

Wan, Xin-hua

233

Aerosol-Jet-Printed, 1 Volt HBridge Drive Circuit on Plastic with Integrated Electrochromic Pixel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerosol-Jet-Printed, 1 Volt HBridge Drive Circuit on Plastic with Integrated Electrochromic Pixel electrochromic (EC) pixel as large as 4 mm2 that is printed on the same substrate. All of the key components, flexible electronics, electrochromic pixel, transistor, capacitor, ion gel 1. INTRODUCTION Printing

Kim, Chris H.

234

Design and Development of a Low-Cost Test-Bed for Undergraduate Education in UAVs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Development of a Low-Cost Test-Bed for Undergraduate Education in UAVs D. Jung, E. J for the development of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) test-bed for educational purposes. The objective) and graduate students (secondarily) in UAV research. The complete design and development of all hardware

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

235

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATTITUDE ESTIMATION FOR A LOW-COST UAV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATTITUDE ESTIMATION FOR A LOW-COST UAV A thesis submitted of Physics #12;Copyright c by Gregory M. Horn 2009 #12;Abstract Attitude Estimation for a Low-Cost UAV by Gregory M. Horn Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are a rapidly growing

Belanger, David P.

236

CREATING A LOW-COST AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE Richard W. Wall Jerry Bennett, Greg Eis,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CREATING A LOW-COST AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE Richard W. Wall Jerry Bennett, Greg Eis, Kevin Lichy of the project was to design and build a low cost autonomous vehicle control system for a ground vehicle, University of Idaho Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept. Moscow, ID 83844-1023 Abstract ­ Autonomous

Idaho, University of

237

VISION-BASED OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR A SMALL, LOW-COST ROBOT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VISION-BASED OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR A SMALL, LOW-COST ROBOT Chau Nguyen Viet, Ian Marshall Computer.marshall@kent.ac.uk Keywords: obstacle-avoidance, robot vision. Abstract: This paper presents a vision-based obstacle avoidance algorithm for a small indoor mobile robot built from low-cost, and off-the-shelf electronics. The obstacle

Marshall, Ian W.

238

Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas Justin A. Hogan,1 sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self

Shaw, Joseph A.

239

Sensors and Actuators A 109 (2003) 102113 Low-cost uncooled infrared detectors in CMOS process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators A 109 (2003) 102­113 Low-cost uncooled infrared detectors in CMOS process the implementation and comparison of two low-cost uncooled infrared microbolometer detectors that can be imple times more self-heating as compared to that of the diode type detector. This detector has a measured rms

Akin, Tayfun

240

Low-Cost Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) VLSI Architecture: A Minimalist Bit-Serial Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Cost Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) VLSI Architecture: A Minimalist Bit-Serial Approach proposed both in software and hardware. This paper presents a low cost and low power hardware architecture. A focus on low power and cost allows for scaling of the architecture towards vulnerable portable

Hernandez, Orlando

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

Dvoracek, Charlene M.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a coating system meeting the requirements for photovoltaic module encapsulation.

Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative low-cost precursors Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: alternative low-cost precursors Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Increasing vehicle fuel efficiency and decreasing de-pendence on foreign oil are priorities of the U.S....

247

Evaluating cost-reduction alternatives and low-cost sourcing opportunities for aerospace castings and forgings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As companies continue to outsource large portions of their manufacturing, managing costs in the supply chain is increasingly important in reducing overall costs and remaining competitive. Low-cost sourcing has become an ...

Obermoller, Amber J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

TestosterICs: A Low-Cost Functional Chip Tester David Harris and David Diaz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TestosterICs: A Low-Cost Functional Chip Tester David Harris and David Diaz Department of Engineering Harvey Mudd College Claremont, CA 91711 David_Harris@hmc.edu Abstract Students in VLSI design

Harris, David Money

249

An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests

250

High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO 2 Recompression Cycle Brayton Energy, LLC Award Number: DE-EE0005799 | November 30, 2012 | Sullivan * Numerical Modeling is...

251

Low cost monitoring system to diagnose problematic rail bed : case study of Mud Pumping Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development of low cost sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) platform aimed at characterizing problematic rail beds (subgrade). The instrumentations are installed at a busy high-speed Northeast ...

Aw, Eng Sew, 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Design and testing of components for a low cost laser cutter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main goal of this thesis is to document the design and testing of various components for use in a low cost laser cutting mechanism for hobbyists and recreational designers. Different electronics were used to assess the ...

Ramos, Joshua D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors Oak Ridge National Laboratory logo The Oak...

255

The Creation of a low-cost, reliable platform for mobile robotics research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work documents the planning process, design, fabrication, and integration of a low-cost robot designed for research on the problem of life-long robot mapping. The robotics platform used is the iRobot Create. This robot ...

Gilbert, Taylor Harrison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08salasoo.pdf More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High...

258

Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

optimization and scale up for energy cells To be completed June-13 June-13 Optimized low cost andor safer electrolyte for energy cells On schedule June-13 Cathode coated stack...

259

Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

Richardson, Thomas J. (Oakland, CA)

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Low Cost, Single Layer Replacement for the Back-Sheet and Encapsulant Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) based polymers have been formulated for specific use in photovoltaic modules to produce better performance and longer term stability at a lower cost than standard materials. EPDM formulations are advantageous over ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) because they can use the same lamination/cure cycle as EVA, they do not need a second back-sheet protective material (e.g. PET/Tedlar), they have a lower glass transition temperature, no melting transition, more constant mechanical moduli as a function of temperature, they are less polar than EVA (provides better corrosion protection), and they have excellent damp heat (85 C/85% relative humidity) resistance against delamination. Module designs typically use EVA on the back side of cells despite the fact that transparency is not advantageous. We have developed a single encapsulant layer that will replace standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/PET/Tedlar. Because a single low-cost material layer is used, it will provide a significant materials cost savings of about $6 to $8/m{sup 2} as compared to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests were conducted using 0.85 mm thick stainless steel sheets as a model for a cell. It was found that a polymer layer thickness of about 0.33mm provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedla (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar{trademark}. Upon accelerated exposure to light at 60C and 60% RH it was found that an EVA layer in front of these materials would decompose before significant yellowing and delamination of the back EPDM layer occurs.

Kempe, M. D.; Thapa, P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Architecture AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT...

Rungchareonrat, N.

263

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

264

The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic Regina R, and market characteristics on air traffic; and 2) the impact of high-speed rail and low-cost in system-wide air travel demand, whereas the expansion of low-cost carriers has led to a significant

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

265

High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

267

High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Low-cost method for fabricating palladium and palladium-allow thin films on porous supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming a palladium or palladium alloy membrane on a ceramic surface by forming a pre-colloid mixture comprising a powder palladium source, carrier fluid, dispersant and a pore former and a binder. Ultrasonically agitating the precolloid mixture and applying to a substrate with an ultrasonic nozzle and heat curing the coating form a palladium-based membrane.

Lee, Tae H; Park, Chan Young; Lu, Yunxiang; Dorris, Stephen E; Balachandran, Uthamalingham

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

269

Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella OneidensistheSynthesis ofInnovation

270

Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - Rocky Mountain

271

A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity Low-Cost

274

Low-Cost Wireless Sensors for Building Applications | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen andLow-Cost Wireless

275

Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Annual Technical Progress Report, Phase 1, 22 October 2002-30 September 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objectives of this subcontract are for Specialized Technology Resources, Inc., to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers representing crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide (CIS), and other state-of-the-art thin-film technologies to develop formulations, production processes, prototype and qualify new low-cost, high-performance photovoltaic module encapsulants/packaging materials. The manufacturers will assist in identifying each materials' deficiencies while undergoing development, and then ultimately in qualifying the final optimized materials designed to specifically meet their requirements. Upon completion of this program, new low-cost, high-performance, PV module encapsulant/packaging materials will be qualified, by one or more end-users, for their specific application. Information gathering on topics related to thin-film module technology, including device performance/failure analysis, glass stability, and de vice encapsulation, has been completed. This information has provided concepts and considerations for module failure analysis, accelerated testing design, and encapsulation formulation strategy for thin-film modules.

Agro, S. C.; Tucker, R. T.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Submitted to Energy and Buildings February 23, 2005 and accepted for publication March 1, 2006. Subject responses to electrochromic windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. LBNL-57125 Subject responses to electrochromic windows R.D. Clear* , V. Inkarojrit, E.S. Lee Building in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually- operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3

277

Synthesis and characterization of a novel kind of near-infrared electrochromic polymers containing an anthraquinone imide group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis and characterization of a novel kind of near-infrared electrochromic polymers containing October 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b915978a A novel near-infrared (NIR) electrochromic polyelectrolyte consisting the processability of the polymer as well as the monomer conversion. The electrochemical and electrochromic

Wan, Xin-hua

278

Modification of single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes by layer-by-layer assembly for electrochromic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electrochromic devices Vaibhav Jain,1,a Henry M. Yochum,2 Reza Montazami,3 James R. Heflin,3 Liangbing Hu,4,a ,b online 3 April 2008 We have studied the morphological properties and electrochromic EC performance forms a nanoporous mor- phology which offers low resistance to charge and mass transfer. Electrochromic

Gruner, George

279

Photosystem II of Green Plants: Topology of Core Pigments and Redox Cofactors As Inferred from Electrochromic Difference Spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochromic Difference Spectra Armen Y. Mulkidjanian,,§ Dmitry A. Cherepanov,| Michael Haumann, and Wolfgang ABSTRACT: Three electrochromic difference spectra induced by the deposition of (1) a negative charge a molecules on the D1 subunit. On the basis of the electrochromic properties of chlorins and our data, we

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

280

Solid-state electrochromic devices based on poly ,,phenylene vinylene... A. L. Holt, J. M. Leger, and S. A. Cartera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-state electrochromic devices based on poly ,,phenylene vinylene... polymers A. L. Holt, J. M state electrochromic device based on poly phenylene vinylene light-emitting polymers and explore device-of-the-art conducting polymer electrochromic devices. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

Carter, Sue

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Full design of a low-cost quadrotor UAV by student team  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Full design of a low-cost quadrotor UAV by student team Jean-Baptiste Devaud#1 , Stéphane Najko.marzat@onera.fr Abstract-- This paper presents the complete design of a quadrotor UAV, named VORTEX, comprising its architecture and control. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for surveillance, observation and security

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform Robert B. Bollinger and Timothy M. Aaron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform Robert B. Bollinger and Timothy M. Aaron Praxair, Inc. P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14151 Phone: 716-879-2000 Abstract Praxair is in the initial phases of developing. Praxair has as partners in this program, Boothroyd-Dewhurst Inc. (BDI) and Diversified Manufacturing Inc

283

CaRbON FibeR Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for manufacturing carbon fiber and carbon-fiber-reinforced composite structures tend to be slow and energy intensive the development and growth of existing and new US carbon fiber and composites · Job Growth Seed regionalCaRbON FibeR TeChNOLOGy FaCiLiTy Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy

Pennycook, Steve

284

UpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the world does not have access to safe drinking water (1.1 billion people), over 2.5 billion lack adequateUpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays, Pittsburgh, PA, USA {stace, paulos}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Water is our most precious and most rapidly declining

Paulos, Eric

285

Low-Cost Single-Phase Powered Induction Machine Drive for Residential Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and lifetime. Keywords-induction motor; harmonic elimination; power factor correction; efficiency; low cost of the motors are less than 1 hp in size, and account for approximately 10% of the electricity consumed by the electric motor population [1]. These fractional horsepower motors are primarily single- phase induction

Chapman, Patrick

286

Planning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications H. Ameri, A. Attaran & M. Moghavvemi University ofMalaya INTRODUCTION The use of electronics in the automotive industry will reach (or the position and speed as with other components used in the automotive industry, radars will find widespread

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

The PANOPTES project: discovering exoplanets with low-cost digital cameras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PANOPTES project: discovering exoplanets with low-cost digital cameras Olivier Guyona,b, Josh at optimizing system robustness while maintaining adequate cost. PANOPTES is both an outreach project (PANOPTES, www.projectpanoptes.org) project is aimed at identifying transiting exoplanets using a wide

Guyon, Olivier

288

Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

Cui, Yi

289

corresponding author: jean-luc.maurice@polytechnique.edu DEVELOPING LOW-COST GRAPHENE DEVICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

corresponding author: jean-luc.maurice@polytechnique.edu DEVELOPING LOW-COST GRAPHENE DEVICES C. S In spite of numerous efforts for developing the applications of graphene, it remains difficult to put-area (industrial) graphene includes in its structure and on its surfaces a significant density of defects that make

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Modeling and Identification of 2 DOF Low Cost Driving Simulator: Experimental Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consists in motorized rail for the longitudinal movement while the second system consists in motorized yaw and the modeling aspects of a 2 DOF low cost motion platform allowing the restitution of the longitudinal and yaw will be implemented. The whole system is considered as a two coupled systems and linked mechanically. The first system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

Low-Cost Sensor Can Diagnose Bacterial Infections Copyright 2011 by Virgo Publishing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Cost Sensor Can Diagnose Bacterial Infections Copyright 2011 by Virgo Publishing. http diagnose bacterial infections in only a few hours. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer Bacterial infections really sensor. Led by University of Illinois chemistry professor Ken Suslick, the team published its results

Suslick, Kenneth S.

292

UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless Identification Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless nature of the circuit and providing operational autonomy by harvesting solar power without affecting, solar power harvesting. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing use of RFIDs and wireless sensor networks

Tentzeris, Manos

293

Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

Carlos H. Rentel

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells TONIO BUONASSISI1 online: 14 August 2005; doi:10.1038/nmat1457 A s the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive

295

ROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ROBOPuppet: Low-Cost, 3D Printed Miniatures for Teleoperating Full-Size Robots Anna Eilering of the robot links, which are then 3D printed and assembled. This procedure is generalizable to variety to target robot. smaller scale suitable for desktop use. The puppet is a 3D- printed miniature of the target

Hauser, Kris

296

Strategic Plan for Utilizing Low Cost Engineering Resources at Generic Aerospace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these methods are costly and may cause other issues, such as inconsistent output, high turnover and resource constraints for other sites. One concept that is being more readily adopted is the use of Low Cost Engineering Services (LCES) offered by third party...

Veach, Michael

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

297

Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Consumption of Data Centers 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2000 2006 2011 Electricity consumption of US DCs Billion Energy Consumption · Improving efficiency does not promote green energy or guarantee limits on brown

298

Optimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment residual; iron; lime sludge; municipal wastewater Introduction The US-EPA has identified for removing P from wastewater (US-EPA, 1993). However, questions of mechanisms, predictabilityOptimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed

Florida, University of

299

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST ROBOTIC MANIPULATOR AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST ROBOTIC MANIPULATOR AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL STUDIES C of the experimental results seen with more expensive systems. KEY WORDS Robotics, Manipulator, Motor Learning, a robotic planar manipulator has been used for this purpose [4] [5]. Such systems make use of direct

Moussavi, Zahra M. K.

300

Designing Privacy-preserving Smart Meters with Low-cost Microcontrollers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing Privacy-preserving Smart Meters with Low-cost Microcontrollers Andres Molina Microsoft Research Cambridge Abstract. Smart meters that track fine-grained electricity usage and implement smart meter deployment is that fine-grained usage data indirectly reveals detailed information about

Shenoy, Prashant

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20.1039/c2ee23073a It is estimated that for photovoltaics to reach grid parity around the planet, they must tandem photovoltaic (HTPV), and show that it is capable of meeting these targets. HTPV is composed

McGehee, Michael

302

reFresh SSDs: Enabling High Endurance, Low Cost Flash in Datacenters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reFresh SSDs: Enabling High Endurance, Low Cost Flash in Datacenters Vidyabhushan Mohan Sriram datacenters. Solid State Drives (SSDs) offer both performance and power advantages over hard disk drives it attractive for use in large- scale storage in datacenters. However, flash suffers from limited endurance

Humphrey, Marty

303

Towards Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacenter Power Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacenter Power Infrastructure Sriram Govindan,yic@zurich.ibm.com,{anand,bhuvan}@cse.psu.edu Abstract. Realizing highly available datacenter power in- frastructure is an extremely expensive datacenter availability models using Continuous-time Markov Chains and Reliability Block Diagrams to quantify

Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

304

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

305

Design of a Low-Cost, Highly Mobile Urban Search and Rescue Robot Bradley E. Bishop*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assisted Search and Rescue (CRASAR), which coordinates and assists robotic search and rescue efforts [21 Design of a Low-Cost, Highly Mobile Urban Search and Rescue Robot Bradley E. Bishop* Frederick L@usna.edu Keywords: Rescue Robotics, Mobile Robotics, Locomotion, Physical Simulation, Genetic Algorithms Abstract

Crabbe, Frederick

306

Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volume 7, Issue 1, April 2010 THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST 3D PRINTING Simon Bradshaw,* Adrian Bowyer° and Patrick Haufe Abstract In the late 1970s 3D printing started to become established as a manufacturing technology. Thirty years on the cost of 3D printing machines is falling

Martin, Ralph R.

307

Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will fuel cells take their place as a centerpiece of a hydrogen economy and position hydrogen as a major) activity in known-to-date non- precious metal. Fuel cell testing of the composite Figure 2 shows a hydrogenLow-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells R. Bashyam and P. Zelenay 1

308

Low-cost wearable low-vision aid using a handmade retinal light-scanning microdisplay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scanning fiber display6 to present icons indicating the location of potential hazards. The scanning fiberLow-cost wearable low-vision aid using a handmade retinal light-scanning microdisplay Ryland C) is a portable system that uses machine vision to track potential walking hazards for the visually impaired

Washington at Seattle, University of

309

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

311

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Proj ect Title: ITN Energy Systems - Low-cost Electrochrom ic Film on Plastic for Net-zero Energy Buildi ng Location: *- Multiple States - Colorado, Michigan Proposed Action or...

312

CX-009891: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination ITN Energy Systems - Low-cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-Zero Energy Building CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09212011...

313

CX-008670: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination ITN Energy Systems - Low-cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-zero Energy Building CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09212011...

314

Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar control, and electrochromic). Specially, we considerelectrolyte switching, electrochromic, photovoltaic, andnanocrystal-based electrochromic switching films which

Hansen, Todd

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B. [SCB Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Churchill, J.K. [Quantic-Holex, Hollister, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen toLeveragingLindseyLong-TermLosofLow Cost Solar Water

319

Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't HappenLow-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity

320

An Exploratory Initiative for Improving Low-Cost Housing in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sources and Affordable Housing Program Listing 85 IV.04.b. Habitat For Humanity Construction Costs 87 IV.04.C. National Association of Home Builders' "PATH" Durability Research 88 IV.04.d. Useful Internet Sites 89 VI Part I. The Low-Cost Housing Technology...-cost housing market. This market and demographic analysis revealed the following: There is currently a $5 billion potential market for new homes selling for around $30,000 that would meet the more dramatic needs of 157,000 households, and would be sustainable...

McKittrick, T. L.; Haberl, J. S.; Graham, C. W.; Claridge, D. E.; Swain, W. B.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Low-Cost Energy Efficiency Goes Block-to-Block | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term StorageDepartmentSystemLow-Cost Energy

322

Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Available to US Manufacturers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministrationManufacturing - GE Appliances, ORNL Low-Cost

323

Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslieEnergy LoanOfficialLow-Cost Direct Bonded

324

Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslieEnergy LoanOfficialLow-Cost Direct

325

Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslieEnergy LoanOfficialLow-Cost

326

Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslieEnergy LoanOfficialLow-CostALTEXDepartment

327

A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

328

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

329

Review of Back Contact Silicon Solar Cells for Low-Cost Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Back contact solar cells hold significant promise for increased performance in photovoltaics for the near future. Two major advantages which these cells possess are a lack of grid shading loss and coplanar interconnection. Front contacted cells can have up to 10% shading loss when using screen printed metal grids. A front contact cell must also use solder connections which run from the front of one cell to the back of the next for series interconnection. This procedure is more difficult to automate than the case of co-planar contacts. The back contact cell design is not a recent concept. The earliest silicon solar cell developed by Bell Labs was a back contact device. There have been many design modifications to the basic concept over the years. To name a few, there is the Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) cell, the Stanford Point contact solar cell, the Emitter Wrap Through (EWT), and its many variations. A number of these design concepts have demonstrated high efficiency. The SunPower back contact solar cell holds the efficiency record for silicon concentrator cells. The challenge is to produce a high efficiency cell at low cost using high throughput techniques. This has yet to be achieved with a back contact cell design. The focus of this paper will be to review the relevant features of back contact cells and progress made toward the goal of a low cost version of this device.

Smith, David D.

1999-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland; Das, Sujit [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

LOW-COST BACTERIAL DETECTION SYSTEM FOR FOOD SAFETY BASED ON AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION, AMPLIFICATION AND READOUT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To ensure food, medical and environmental safety and quality, rapid, low-cost and easy-to-use detection methods are desirable. Here, the LabSystem is introduced for integrated, automated DNA purification and amplification. ...

Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

333

Ion Torren Semiconductor Sequencing Allows Rapid, Low Cost Sequencing of the Human Exome ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

David Jenkins on "Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing allows rapid, low-cost sequencing of the human exome" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Jenkins, David [EdgeBio

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Low cost manufacturing of light trapping features on multi-crystalline silicon solar cells : jet etching method and cost analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study was conducted in order to determine low cost methods to improve the light trapping ability of multi-crystalline solar cells. We focused our work on improving current wet etching methods to achieve the ...

Berrada Sounni, Amine

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-cost flexural bearing based 3D printing tool head  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis discusses the design, characterization and optimization of a low-cost additive rapid-prototyping tool head for a technology known as Fused Filament Fabrication for use in an educational curriculum. Building a ...

Ramirez, Aaron Eduardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A Low-cost Compliant 7-DOF Robotic Manipulator Morgan Quigley, Alan Asbeck, and Andrew Y. Ng  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Low-cost Compliant 7-DOF Robotic Manipulator Morgan Quigley, Alan Asbeck, and Andrew Y. Ng a robotic arm with similar performance on many measures to high-end research robotic Morgan Quigley, Alan

Ng, Andrew Y.

337

Low-cost carriers in Japan : challenges and paths to success - using a corporate simulation model for empirical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper analyzes the causes behind the sluggishness of new airlines, low cost carriers (LCCs), in Japan. The object is to identify and to recommend innovative policy changes and ideas for the industry, by analyzing the ...

Shiotani, Sayaka

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evaluation of a low-cost and accurate ocean temperature logger on subsurface mooring systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring seawater temperature is important to understanding evolving ocean processes. To monitor internal waves or ocean mixing, a large number of temperature loggers are typically mounted on subsurface mooring systems to obtain high-resolution temperature data at different water depths. In this study, we redesigned and evaluated a compact, low-cost, self-contained, high-resolution and high-accuracy ocean temperature logger, TC-1121. The newly designed TC-1121 loggers are smaller, more robust, and their sampling intervals can be automatically changed by indicated events. They have been widely used in many mooring systems to study internal wave and ocean mixing. The logger’s fundamental design, noise analysis, calibration, drift test, and a long-term sea trial are discussed in this paper.

Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ming

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

339

Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-cost graphite submicronparticles (GSP) are employed as a possible catalyst support for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Platinum nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (XC-72), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and GSP via ethylene glycol (EG) reduction method. The morphologies and the crystallinity of Pt/XC-72, Pt/CNT, and Pt/GSP are characterized with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, which shows that Pt nanoparticles (~ 3.5 nm) are uniformly dispersed on GSP support. Pt/GSP exhibits the highest activity towards oxygen reduction reactions. The durability study indicates that Pt/GSP is 2 ~ 3 times durable than Pt/CNT and Pt/XC-72. The enhanced durability of Pt/GSP catalyst is attributed to the higher corrosion resistance of graphite submicronparticles, which results from higher graphitization degree of GSP support. Considering its low production cost, graphite submicronparticles are promising electrocatalyst support for fuel cells.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaohong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Phase-Sensitive Detection in the undergraduate lab using a low-cost microcontroller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phase-sensitive detection (PSD) is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. PSD is also used in modulation spectroscopy and is used in the stabilization of optical sources. Commercial lock-in amplifiers that use PSD are often expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices seem like a good match for learning about PSD; however, making a self-contained device (reference signal, voltage input, mixing, filtering, and display) is difficult, but in the end the project teaches students "tricks" to turn the Arduino into a true scientific instrument.

Schultz, K D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

Beecher, D.T.

1980-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

A simple, low-cost, data logging pendulum built from a computer mouse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lessons and homework problems involving a pendulum are often a big part of introductory physics classes and laboratory courses from high school to undergraduate levels. Although laboratory equipment for pendulum experiments is commercially available, it is often expensive and may not be affordable for teachers on fixed budgets, particularly in developing countries. We present a low-cost, easy-to-build rotary sensor pendulum using the existing hardware in a ball-type computer mouse. We demonstrate how this apparatus may be used to measure both the frequency and coefficient of damping of a simple physical pendulum. This easily constructed laboratory equipment makes it possible for all students to have hands-on experience with one of the most important simple physical systems.

Gintautas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hubler, Alfred [UIUC

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using front-facing photovoltaic cell luminescent solarwith front-facing photovoltaic cells using weighted Montefor tandem photovoltaic cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516,

Leow, Shin Woei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A tunable electrochromic fabry-perot filter for adaptive optics applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for electrochromic (EC) materials to be incorporated into a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter to allow modest amounts of tuning was evaluated by both experimental methods and modeling. A combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and electrochemical methods was used to produce an ECFP film stack consisting of an EC WO{sub 3}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NiO{sub x}H{sub y} film stack (with indium-tin-oxide electrodes) sandwiched between two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric reflector stacks. A process to produce a NiO{sub x}H{sub y} charge storage layer that freed the EC stack from dependence on atmospheric humidity and allowed construction of this complex EC-FP stack was developed. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for each layer in the EC-FP film stack was measured between 300 and 1700 nm. A prototype EC-FP filter was produced that had a transmission at 500 nm of 36%, and a FWHM of 10 nm. A general modeling approach that takes into account the desired pass band location, pass band width, required transmission and EC optical constants in order to estimate the maximum tuning from an EC-FP filter was developed. Modeling shows that minor thickness changes in the prototype stack developed in this project should yield a filter with a transmission at 600 nm of 33% and a FWHM of 9.6 nm, which could be tuned to 598 nm with a FWHM of 12.1 nm and a transmission of 16%. Additional modeling shows that if the EC WO{sub 3} absorption centers were optimized, then a shift from 600 nm to 598 nm could be made with a FWHM of 11.3 nm and a transmission of 20%. If (at 600 nm) the FWHM is decreased to 1 nm and transmission maintained at a reasonable level (e.g. 30%), only fractions of a nm of tuning would be possible with the film stack considered in this study. These tradeoffs may improve at other wavelengths or with EC materials different than those considered here. Finally, based on our limited investigation and material set, the severe absorption associated with the refractive index change suggests that incorporating EC materials into phase correcting spatial light modulators (SLMS) would allow for only negligible phase correction before transmission losses became too severe. However, we would like to emphasize that other EC materials may allow sufficient phase correction with limited absorption, which could make this approach attractive.

Blaich, Jonathan David; Kammler, Daniel R.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Sweatt, William C.; Verley, Jason C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Yelton, William Graham

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Synthesis, Characterization, and Ultrafast Dynamics of Metal, Metal Oxide, and Semiconductor Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electron storage, electrochromic, and photoelectrochromicV. Thin Solid Films Electrochromic and photoelectrochemical

Wheeler, Damon Andreas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.

Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ultra-Light, Low-Cost Solar Concentrator Offers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a thin film lens to concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small area of photovoltaic (PV) cells optimized for the best performance, reliability, and efficiency through NASA's award-winning space

352

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials. Amsterdam:electrodes in electrochromic devices [4]. Particularly,optical, electrical and electrochromic properties [6-8],

Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Design, development, and applications of a low-cost, dynamic neutron radiography system utilizing the TAMU NSC TRIGA reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC'IENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT. AND APPLICATIONS OF A LOW ? COST, DYNAMIC NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM UTILIZING THE TAMU NSC TRIGA REACTOR A...DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT. AND APPLICATIONS OF A LOW ? COST, DYNAMIC NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM UTILIZING THE TAMU NSC TRIGA REACTOR A Thesis SC'OTT PATRIC'If ItIIDGETT Submitted to the Ofhce of Graduate Studies of Texas AklVI I!niversity rn...

Midgett, Scott Patrick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

Buonassisi, Tonio

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

356

Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Cooling and Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials can be made into coolers (TECs) that use electricity to develop a temperature difference, cooling something, or generators (TEGs) that convert heat directly to electricity. One application of TEGs is to place them in a waste heat stream to recuperate some of the power being lost and putting it to use more profitably. To be effective thermoelectrics, however, materials must have both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity, a combination rarely found in nature. Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have fabricated higher efficiency thermoelectric materials. The process involves creating an amorphous material through melt spinning and then sintering it with either spark plasma or a hot press for as little as two minutes. This results in a 100% dense material with an extremely fine grain structure. The grain boundaries appear to retard phonons resulting in a reduced thermal conductivity while the electrons move through the material relatively unchecked. The techniques used are low-cost and scaleable to support industrial manufacturing.

Li, Q.

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

357

Low cost fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low cost processing technique called reaction forming for the fabrication of near-net and complex shaped components of silicon carbide based ceramics and composites is presented. This process consists of the production of a microporous carbon preform and subsequent infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The microporous preforms are made by the pyrolysis of a polymerized resin mixture with very good control of pore volume and pore size thereby yielding materials with tailorable microstructure and composition. Mechanical properties (elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness) of reaction-formed silicon carbide ceramics are presented. This processing approach is suitable for various kinds of reinforcements such as whiskers, particulates, fibers (tows, weaves, and filaments), and 3-D architectures. This approach has also been used to fabricate continuous silicon carbide fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC`s) with silicon carbide based matrices. Strong and tough composites with tailorable matrix microstructure and composition have been obtained. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties of a silicon carbide (SCS-6) fiber reinforced reaction-formed silicon carbide matrix composites are discussed.

Singh, M.; Levine, S.R.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Solar cells with low cost substrates and process of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar cell having a substrate and an intermediate recrystallized film and a semiconductor material capable of absorbing light with the substrate being selected from one of a synthetic organic resin, graphite, glass and a crystalline material having a grain size less than about 1 micron.sup.2. The intermediate recrystallized film has a grain size in the range of from about 10 microns.sup.2 to about 10,000 microns.sup.2 and a lattice mismatch with the semiconductor material not greater than about 4%. The semiconductor material has a grain size not less than about 10 microns.sup.2. An anti-reflective layer and electrical contact means are provided. Also disclosed is a subcombination of substrate, intermediate recrystallized film and semiconductor material. Also, methods of formulating the solar cell and subcombination are disclosed.

Mitchell, Kim W. (Indian Hills, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 13, JULY 1, 2008 1151 Low-Cost Optoelectronic Self-Injection-Locked  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 13, JULY 1, 2008 1151 Low-Cost Optoelectronic Self by injecting 8-dBm optical signals without using any high-speed optoelectronic components. Index Terms--InP monolithic oscillator, optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), phase-noise reduction, self-injection locking (SIL

Choi, Woo-Young

360

Get a whiff of this: Low-cost sensor can diagnose bacterial April 27th, 2011 in Chemistry / Analytical Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Get a whiff of this: Low-cost sensor can diagnose bacterial infections April 27th, 2011 in Chemistry / Analytical Chemistry Enlarge A colorimetric sensor array is placed in an Petri dish for culturing bacteria and scanned with an ordinary flatbed photo scanner kept inside a lab incubator. The dots

Suslick, Kenneth S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing created under the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005 (and detailed in Internal Revenue Code Section 54

362

Obstacle detection and mapping in low-cost, low-power multi-robot systems using an Inverted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Obstacle detection and mapping in low-cost, low-power multi-robot systems using an Inverted with constrained memory capacity and processing power, and is called the Inverted Particle Filter. This method has circuits. An important benefit of this is reduced power consumption opening for new battery-powered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low energy Carbon emissions a b s t r a c t Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear

Kammen, Daniel M.

364

Hardware and software architecture for state estimation on an experimental low-cost small-scaled helicopter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Low-cost sensors Embedded systems MEMS Unmanned aerial vehicle Autonomous helicopter Data fusion a b contribution of this paper is to detail, at the light of a successful reported autonomous hovering flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with various degrees of auton- omy (see Wise, 2004). Prime examples

365

Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

Demirbas, Umit

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

Mike Hack

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Use of coconut fiber as a low-cost thermal insulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cost is one of the major factors to be considered when choosing a thermal insulator. Design engineers continuously strive to provide the best at the lowest possible cost. In the tropics climate conditions are essentially hot and humid and a cause for daily discomfort. To some extent, air-conditioning of buildings has solved this problem. The major deterrent to air-conditioning is the exorbitant cost of imported thermal insulation materials. This has prompted a search for local, low-cost but effective thermal insulation for buildings. Coconut fiber is available at minimal cost from the copra industry in Trinidad, as it is a waste product from the coconut. The viability of using coconut fiber as building thermal insulation was explored by conducting thermal conductivity tests on 200 mm X 400 mm X 60 mm thick slab-like specimens. The test equipment used was a locally designed constant temperature hot box apparatus. This apparatus was designed to test slab-like specimens under steady-state conditions. The reliability if this experimental set up was checked using Gypsum Plaster. The thermal conductivity test results for coconut fiber over the density range 30 kg/m{sup 3} to 115 kg/m{sup 3} showed the characteristic hooked shape graph for fibrous material. For the 60 mm thick specimens at a mean temperature of 39 C, a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.058 W/mK occurred at an optimum density of 85 kg/m{sup 3}. The thermal conductivity of commonly used industrial insulators, namely loose-fill expanded vermiculite, cellular glass and blanket fiber glass, at a mean temperature of 38 C are 0.066 W/mK, 0.061 W/mK and 0.052 W/mK respectively. When compared, these results show that air dried coconut fiber has far reaching potential for use as an effective building thermal insulation.

Kochhar, G.S.; Manohar, K. [Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

Alptekin, Gokhan

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High volume method of making low-cost, lightweight solar materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thin film solar cell and a method fabricating thin film solar cells on flexible substrates. The method includes including providing a flexible polymeric substrate, depositing a photovoltaic precursor on a surface of the substrate, such as CdTe, ZrTe, CdZnTe, CdSe or Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, and exposing the photovoltaic precursor to at least one 0.5 microsecond to 10 second pulse of predominately infrared light emitted from a light source having a power output of about 20,000 W/cm.sup.2 or less to thermally convert the precursor into a crystalline photovoltaic material having a photovoltaic efficiency of greater than one percent, the conversion being carried out without substantial damage to the substrate.

Blue, Craig A.; Clemens, Art; Duty, Chad E.; Harper, David C.; Ott, Ronald D.; Rivard, John D.; Murray, Christopher S.; Murray, Susan L.; Klein, Andre R.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solutions can be an impor- tant component of low-cost solar cells, transparent electrodes for large of non-toxic, low cost, earth abundant elements, easily forms films and nanostructures by room-area lighting panels, and the transparent circuit ele- ments that drive the pixels in emerging display

Evans, Paul G.

373

Jet-printed electrodes and semiconducting oligomers for elaboration of organic thin-film transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demonstrated the possibility to fabricate inexpensive OTFTs by direct writing paving the way toward using candidates to make organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) active components for the fab- rication of low-cost], and OTFT display backplanes [3]. However, the carrying out of OTFTs does not attain the low-cost expected

Hone, James

374

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Berkeley, California Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have and therefore has limitations in controlling the energy flux associated with solar illumination. The issue storage capacity with the amount of hydrogen needed for maximum switching range. For this reason, as well

375

Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract A DOE-2.1E energy simulation-to-wall ratio in order to better understand the interactions between 1) electric lighting energy use. Electrochromic glazing can be reversibly switched from a clear to a transparent, colored state by means

376

MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost performance, and reductions in operating voltage through thinner and higher uniformity active device layers. We have now installed a pilot encapsulation system at AVI for controlled, high throughput lamination encapsulation of flexible OLEDs in a novel process. Along with this, we have developed, with our materials supply partners, adhesives, barrier films and other encapsulation materials and we are showing total air product lifetimes in the 2-4 years range from a process consistent with our throughput goals of {approx}1M device per month ({approx}30,000 sq. ft. of processed OLEDs). Within the last year of the project, we have been working to introduce the manufacturing improvements made in our LEP deposition and annealing process to our commercial partners. Based on the success of this, a pilot scale-up program was begun. During this process, Add-Vision was acquired by a strategic partner, in no small part, because of the promise of future success of the technology as evidenced by our commercial partners pilot scale-up plans. Overall, the performance, manufacturing and product work in this project has been successful. Additional analysis and device work at LBL has also shown a unique adhesion change with device bias stressing which may result from active layer polymer cross-linking during bias stressing of device. It was shown that even small bias stresses, as a fraction of a full device lifetime stress period, result in measurable chemical change in the device. Further work needs to be conducted to fully understand the chemical nature of this interaction. Elucidation of this effect would enable doped OLED formulation to be engineered to suppress this effect and further extend lifetimes and reduce voltage climb.

DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Feasibility Analysis for the Design of A Low-Cost High-Power Energy Storage System Travis Mc://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/EnergyStorageSystem.pdf May 3, 2014 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664 of existing systems. Energy storage is a viable method for increasing the e ciency of a broad range of systems

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

379

ZnO PN Junctions for Highly-Efficient, Low-Cost Light Emitting Diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By 2015, the US Department of Energy has set as a goal the development of advanced solid state lighting technologies that are more energy efficient, longer lasting, and more cost-effective than current technology. One approach that is most attractive is to utilize light-emitting diode technologies. Although III-V compound semiconductors have been the primary focus in pursuing this objective, ZnO-based materials present some distinct advantages that could yield success in meeting this objective. As with the nitrides, ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor whose gap energy (3.2 eV) can be tuned from 3.0 to 4 eV with substitution of Mg for higher bandgap, Cd for lower bandgap. ZnO has an exciton binding energy of 60 meV, which is larger than that for the nitrides, indicating that it should be a superior light emitting semiconductor. Furthermore, ZnO thin films can be deposited at temperatures on the order of 400-600 C, which is significantly lower than that for the nitrides and should lead to lower manufacturing costs. It has also been demonstrated that functional ZnO electronic devices can be fabricated on inexpensive substrates, such as glass. Therefore, for the large-area photonic application of solid state lighting, ZnO holds unique potential. A significant impediment to exploiting ZnO in light-emitting applications has been the absence of effective p-type carrier doping. However, the recent realization of acceptor-doped ZnO material overcomes this impediment, opening the door to ZnO light emitting diode development In this project, the synthesis and properties of ZnO-based pn junctions for light emitting diodes was investigated. The focus was on three issues most pertinent to realizing a ZnO-based solid state lighting technology, namely (1) achieving high p-type carrier concentrations in epitaxial and polycrystalline films, (2) realizing band edge emission from pn homojunctions, and (3) investigating pn heterojunction constructs that should yield efficient light emission. The project engaged established expertise at the University of Florida in ZnO film growth (D. Norton), device fabrication (F. Ren) and wide bandgap photonics (S. Pearton). It addressed p-type doping and junction formation in (Zn,Mg)O alloy thin films. The project employed pulsed laser deposition for film growth. The p-type dopant of interest was primarily phosphorus, given the recent results in our laboratory and elsewhere that this anions can yield p-type ZnO-based materials. The role of Zn interstitials, oxygen vacancies, and/or hydrogen complexes in forming compensating shallow donor levels imposes the need to simultaneously consider the role of in situ and post-growth processing conditions. Temperature-dependent Hall, Seebeck, C-V, and resistivity measurements was used to determine conduction mechanisms, carrier type, and doping. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence was used to determine the location of the acceptor level, injection efficiency, and optical properties of the structures. X-ray diffraction will used to characterize film crystallinity. Using these materials, the fabrication and characterization of (Zn,Mg)O pn homojunction and heterojunction devices was pursued. Electrical characterization of the junction capacitance and I-V behavior was used to extract junction profile and minority carrier lifetime. Electroluminescence from biased junctions was the primary property of interest.

David P. Norton; Stephen Pearton; Fan Ren

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Architecture of a Small Low-Cost Satellite D. Del Corso, C. Passerone, L. M. Reyneri, C. Sanso`e, M. Borri, S. Speretta, M. Tranchero  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ones, such as solar panels and antennas. The tem- perature range inside the satellite is [+30,+70] CArchitecture of a Small Low-Cost Satellite D. Del Corso, C. Passerone, L. M. Reyneri, C. Sanso`e, M satellite that we have developed. The main design cri- teria were low cost and fault tolerance, which have

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Un/DoPack: Re-Clustering of Large System-on-Chip Designs with Interconnect Variation for Low-Cost FPGAs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to offer separate low-cost and resource-rich families. For a similar number of logic elements (LEs. This is demonstrated by Table 1, where the low-cost Cyclone family offers significant savings. Unfortunately, some designs may fit within the Cyclone LE and memory capacity limits but not within the routing capacity

Lemieux, Guy

382

The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

383

Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational factory in Faribault MN which is shipping products throughout the world. There is a much larger factory currently under construction close by. This project was targeted specifically to address the issues outlined above, with a view to implementation on the new high volume manufacturing facility. Each of the Tasks which were addressed in this project is relatively straightforward to implement in this new facility and so the benefits of the work will be realized quickly. , and (iv) ensure the proposed changes have no detrimental effect to the proven durability of the window. The research described here has helped to understand and provide solutions to several interesting and previously unresolved issues of the technology as well as make progress in areas which will have a significant impact on energy saving. In particular several materials improvements have been made, and tasks related to throughput and yield improvements have been completed. All of this has been accomplished without any detrimental effect on the proven durability of the SageGlass EC device. The project was divided into four main areas: 1. Improvement of the Properties of the EC device by material enhancements (Task 2); 2. Reduce the cost of production by improving the efficiency and yields of some key manufacturing processes (Task 3); 3. Further reduce the cost by significant modifications to the structure of the device (Task 4); 4. Ensure the durability of the EC device is not affected by any of the changes resulting from these activities (Task 5). A detailed description of the activities carried out in these areas is given in the following report, along with the aims and goals of the work. We will see that we have completed Tasks 2 and 3 fully, and the durability of the resulting device structure has been unaffected. Some of Task 4 was not carried out because of difficulties with integrating the installation of the required targets into the production coater due to external constraints not related to this project. We will also see that the durability of the devices produced as a result of this work was

Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Construction and Test of Low Cost X-Ray Tomography Scanner for Physical-Chemical Analysis and Nondestructive Inspections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe the development of a low cost micro-CT X-ray scanner that is being developed for nondestructive testing. This tomograph operates using a microfocus X-ray source and contains a silicon photodiode as detectors. The performance of the system, by its spatial resolution, has been estimated through its Modulation Transfer Function-MTF and the obtained value at 10% of MTF is 661 {mu}m. It was built as a general purpose nondestructive testing device.

Oliveira, Jose Martins Jr. de [Universidade de Sorocaba-UNISO, Campus Seminario, Caixa Postal 578, Av. Dr. Eugenio Salermo, 100, Centro, 18035-430, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho-UNESP, GASI, Av. 3 de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

385

Lithography-free sub-100nm nanocone array antireflection layer for low-cost silicon solar cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density and uniformity sub-100nm surface oxidized silicon nanocone forest structure is created and integrated onto the existing texturization microstructures on photovoltaic device surface by a one-step high throughput plasma enhanced texturization method. We suppressed the broadband optical reflection on chemically textured grade-B silicon solar cells for up to 70.25% through this nanomanufacturing method. The performance of the solar cell is improved with the short circuit current increased by 7.1%, fill factor increased by 7.0%, conversion efficiency increased by 14.66%. Our method demonstrates the potential to improve the photovoltaic device performance with low cost high and throughput nanomanufacturing technology.

Xu, Zhida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

George A. Marchetti

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

Antoniadis, H.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Design and engineering of low-cost centimeter-scale repeatable and accurate kinematic fixtures for nanomanufacturing equipment using magnetic preload and potting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces a low-cost, centimeter-scale kinematic coupling fixture for use in nanomanufacturing equipment. The fixture uses magnetic circuit design techniques to optimize the magnetic preload required to achieve ...

Watral, Adrienne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Micro-forging technique for rapid, low-cost manufacture of lens array molds and its application in a biomedical instrument  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interest in micro-optical components for applications ranging from telecommunications to the life sciences has driven the need for accessible, low-cost fabrication techniques. Most micro-lens fabrication processes are ...

Saez, Miguel Angel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Low-cost Accelerometers for Robotic Manipulator Perception Morgan Quigley, Reuben Brewer, Sai P. Soundararaj, Vijay Pradeep, Quoc Le, and Andrew Y. Ng  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-cost Accelerometers for Robotic Manipulator Perception Morgan Quigley, Reuben Brewer, Sai P pair of joints and infers the joint angles using an M. Quigley, S. P. Soundararaj, Q. Le, and A. Y. Ng

Ng, Andrew Y.

392

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

393

A low-cost optical sensing device based on paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes. Analytica Chimica Acta 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low power, high sensitivity, very low cost light emitting diode (LED) based device for intensity based light measurements is described. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode, is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in us) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1(+5 V) to logic 0 (+1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of light intensity measurements for a few cents. this light intensity dependent discharge process has been applied to measuring concentrations of coloured solutions and a mathematical model developed based on the Beer-Lambert Law.

King-tong Lau; Susan Baldwin; Roderick Shepherd; William J. Yerazunis; Shinichi Izuo; Satoshi Ueyama; Dermont Diamond; Emitter-detector Leds; King-tong Lau; Susan Baldwin; Roderick Shepherd; William J; Shinichi Izuo; Satoshi Ueyama; Dermot Diamond

394

Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

395

Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WI. Also ide Films for Electrochromic Devices," published as1) (1995). posited Electrochromic Coatings," nology: 1973-37747, July 1995. Use of Electrochromic Windows," Ther- LBL

Selkowitz, S.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

junction solar cells and electrochromic windows. Follow-upof a new dynamic electrochromic coating we have developed.such films in an electrochromic half cell, we have

ed, Todd Hansen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Low Cost Heliostat Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

398

Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1 MembersStability| EMSLforThin Sheet

399

Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation 2010 We theoretically investigate the enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar.1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 However

Veronis, Georgios

400

Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Separation in WGS Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H{sub 2} separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO{sub 2} separation. Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina, Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina granular WGS catalysts incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles into alumina support were prepared using sol-gel/oil-drop methods. The catalysts were characterized by Powder X-ray Diffractometer (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA), Thermal Gravitational Analyzer (TGA), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) techniques. TGA shows sharp weight loss at approximately 215°C and DTA shows dehydration of metal hydroxides between 200°C and 250°C. The PXRD spectra show an increase in crystallinity as a result of heating to 1000°C, and indicating a fine dispersion of the metal oxide nanoparticles in alumina supports during the sol-gel synthesis and calcination at 450°C. BET analysis indicated a mesoporous structure of the granules with high surface area. A gas-phase dynamic flow reactor is used to optimize the reaction temperatures. A gas-phase batch reactor was used to obtain kinetic data and the parameters for maximum CO conversion. In Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina category, Cu(0%)Ni(10%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best WGS catalyst among six Low Temperature Shift (LTS) catalysts with optimum temperatures between 200-300�°C, while Ni(5%)Cu(5%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best among four High Temperature Shift (HTS) catalysts with optimum temperature between 350-400°C. In the Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina category catalysts, Fe(8%)Ni(0%)Ce(8%)/alumina and Fe(6%)Ni(2%)Ce(8%)/alumina catalysts showed optimum WGS reaction temperature below 150°C. All Ni(8-x%)Fe(x%)Ce(8%) had lower WGS reaction efficiencies compared to Ni(8-x%)Cu(x%)Ce(8%). Metal (Nb or Ta)/ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from the WGS reaction gas products have been prepared using a) sputtering and b) aluminothermic techniques. A polyvinyl-glass permeability tester was used with a gas chromatograph (GC) for H{sub 2}/CO permeability testing. Nb films showed a higher permeability than Ta at a given disk porosity. The aluminothermically deposited membranes have higher H{sub 2} permeability compared to the sputtered films, and Nb-film coated disks showed lower H{sub 2} permeability than Ta-film. A three-stage prototype stainless steel reactor with integrated housing for 1) WGS reaction catalysts, 2) H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation metal/ceramic or metal/asbestos membranes, and 3) CO/CO{sub 2} separation cellulose acetate /filter-paper membranes has been designed and tested to have capabilities to perform WGS reactions at temperatures up to 400°C and withstand gas pressures up to 15 bars. The cracking of ceramic disks and gas leaks were successfully prevented by replacing ceramic disks with asbestos sheets that can easily withstand 400°C. Kinetic studies of H{sub 2} and CO permeabilities were performed through the single and double layer Nb and Ta membranes. Cellulose acetate (CA) films with 25% triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer were prepared for H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} gas separation with varying thickness of the films by acetone solutions at different concentrations and by dip-coating onto filter papers. The AFM analysis of the CA membrane showed that the uniform coating had fewer and smaller pores as the film thickness increased, and corroborated by gas permeability studies. The CO{sub 2} permeability has decreased faster than CO permeability with the CA/TEC membrane thickness, and findings support that the CA membrane could be used to entrap CO{sub 2}. Several CA/TEC membranes were also staked to increase the separation efficiency. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) was used to estimate the micro-porosity (pore size and concentration) and fractional free volume changes of CA/TEC films, and used to understand the variations observed in the CO{sub 2}/CO permeabilities.

Naidu Seetala; Upali Siriwardane

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of electrochemically deposited thin oxide films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have utilized ''in situ'' X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy to investigate the structure and composition of thin oxide films of nickel and iron that have been prepared by electrodeposition on a graphite substrate from aqueous solutions. The films are generally disordered. Structural information has been obtained from the analysis of the data. We also present initial findings on the local structure of heavy metal ions, e.g. Sr and Ce, incorporated into the electrodeposited nickel oxide films. Our results are of importance in a number of technological applications, among them, batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic and ferroelectric materials, corrosion protection, as well as environmental speciation and remediation.

Balasubramanian, M.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

402

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

Elliott, Jeannine

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

A survey of potential low-cost concentrator concepts for use in low-temperature water detoxification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several different concentrator concepts have been considered for use in the detoxification of chemically contaminated water. The reactions of interest are predominantly photocatalytic in nature and are driven by low concentrations (between 1 and 50 suns) of UV radiation in the 300- to 385-nm wavelength range. Optical performance characteristics of these concentrators are thus somewhat different compared to concentrators developed for industrial process heat and electrical energy production. Relaxed optical tolerances might lead to reductions in concentrator cost that, when integrated into overall field system cost, could make the solar-driven process competitive with current UV lamp technology. Aspects of the concentrator system that might realize cost reductions include the concentrating element, the support structure, the tracking and drive system, the manufacturing processes, and the installation procedures. Several ideals have been resurrected from earlier research in the Solar Thermal Program where the need for more stringent optical performance requirements led to a decline or even an end to further investigation. In light of this new application, the most promising of these ideas are presented, including a description and a discussion of the cost and performance trade-offs. In addition, the results of recent investigate research on several of these concepts will be presented. The concepts include a low-cost parabolic trough, the inflatable line-focus concentrator, and the holographic concentrator. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Wendelin, T.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

CX-011089: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Low-cost, Highly Transparent Flexible Low-e Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 09/03/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office

405

Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor for Robotic Manipulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design, Optimization, Calibration, and a Case Study of a 3D-Printed, Low-cost Fingertip Sensor fingertip force sensor for robotic manipulation. Our design makes the most of 3D printing technology sensor features a detachable fingertip made of 3D- printed materials, and a cantilever mechanism

Todorov, Emanuel

406

Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

light-to -electricity conversion efficiency in early implementations under AM1.5 solar light. EasyDye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light- to-electricity conversion in indoors low-light

407

BazookaSPECT: A Low-Cost Approach to High-Resolution, Single-Photon Imaging Using Columnar Scintillators and Image Intensifiers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-photon counting gamma-ray detector based on an image intensifier optically coupled to a low-cost CCD. Typically and allowing for a customizable imaging system. Operating in photon-counting mode, individual gamma-ray functioning as a gamma-ray microscope, (b) white-light microscope image of four 111 In oxine source beads, (c

Arizona, University of

408

Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

Armstrong, Phillip

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Construction and installation of low-cost energy-conservation devices on existing residential structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.

None

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the Institute of Energy of Photovoltaics 2. IEC: History and Capabilities 3. Current Research at IEC #12;Bill Shafarman 2 May 15, 2013 Concentrators #12;Bill Shafarman 5 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Potential for low cost PV using " a

Firestone, Jeremy

411

Single crystal growth and heteroepitaxy of polyacene thin films on arbitrary substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a number of low-cost, large area electronic applications such as flat panel displays. Organic thin film as other substrates.6-12 Recently, significant progress has been made towards fabricating high quality is to prepare single crystal films on arbitrary substrates. Here we describe two significant advances towards

Headrick, Randall L.

412

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which – in principle – could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Micromachined thin-film gas flow sensor for microchemical reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micromachined thin-film gas flow sensor for microchemical reactors W C Shin and R S Besser New applications not practical before such as highly compact, non-invasive pressure sensors, accelerometers and gas power consumption, fast response, and low-cost batch production [1-4]. Spurred by the development

Besser, Ronald S.

415

Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Design of an Actinide-Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low-Cost Electricity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) University Research Consortium (URC) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, material compatibility, plant engineering, and coolant activation. In the area of core neutronic design, the reactivity vs. burnup and discharge isotopics of both non-fertile and fertile fuels were evaluated. An innovative core for pure actinide burning that uses streaming, fertile-free fuel assemblies was studied in depth. This particular core exhibits excellent reactivity performance upon coolant voiding, even for voids that occur in the core center, and has a transuranic (TRU) destruction rate that is comparable to the proposed accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) facility. These studies suggest that a core can be designed to achieve a long life while maintaining safety and minimizing waste. In the area of material compatibility studies, an experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials has been designed and built at the INEEL. The INEEL forced-convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The corrosion cell is being used to test steel that is commercially available in the United States to temperatures above 650°C. Progress in plant engineering was made for two reactor concepts, one utilizing an indirect cycle with heat exchangers and the other utilizing a direct-contact steam cycle. The evaluation of the indirect cycle designs has investigated the effects of various parameters to increase electric production at full power. For the direct-contact reactor, major issues related to the direct-contact heat transfer rate and entrainment and carryover of liquid lead-bismuth to the turbine have been identified and analyzed. An economic analysis approach was also developed to determine the cost of electricity production in the lead-bismuth reactor. The approach will be formulated into a model and applied to develop scientific cost estimates for the different reactor designs and thus aid in the selection of the most economic option. In the area of lead-bismuth coolant activation, the radiological hazard was evaluated with particular emphasis on the direct-contact reactor. In this system, the lack of a physical barrier between the primary and secondary coolant favors the release of the alpha-emitter Po?210 and its transport throughout the plant. Modeling undertaken on the basis of the scarce information available in the literature confirmed the importance of this issue, as well as the need for experimental work to reduce the uncertainties on the basic characteristics of volatile polonium chemical forms.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Davis, Cliff Bybee; MIT folks

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

419

Recent technological advances in thin film solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-efficiency, low-cost thin film solar cells are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. This paper reviews the substantial advances made by several thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline silicon. Recent examples of utility demonstration projects of these emerging materials are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Ullal, H.S.; Zwelbel, K.; Surek, T.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Design and Development of a Plastic Film Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the PFHX technology in olving heat. exchange at any pressure other than'atmo pheric pressure. Atmospheric applications could ope ate with a simple remote level control basin. There are also many other potential appl ca tions of the PFHX technology...DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PLASTIC FILM HEAT EXCHANGER Eric C. Guyer, Sc.D., David L. Brownell, and Martin K. Gollin Dynatech RID Company Cambridge, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A plastic film heat exchang.er (PFHX) utilizes the low cost...

Guyer, E. C.; Gollin, M. K.; Brownell, D. L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated PV Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-239  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this CRADA, NREL's Silicon group members performed the following research activities: (1) investigation of the role of hydrogen in growth of a mixed-phase nc-Si:H/a-Si:H material; (2) role of hydrogen in light-induced degradation of a-Si:H and development of Staebler-Wronski effect resistive a-Si:H; and (3) performing characterizations of UniSolar's a-Si:H and nc-Si materials, with goal to help optimizing large-area uniformity and quality of the UniSolar's nanocrystalline Si:H.

Stradins, P.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

MAKO: a pathfinder instrument for on-sky demonstration of low-cost 350 micron imaging arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submillimeter cameras now have up to $10^4$ pixels (SCUBA 2). The proposed CCAT 25-meter submillimeter telescope will feature a 1 degree field-of-view. Populating the focal plane at 350 microns would require more than $10^6$ photon-noise limited pixels. To ultimately achieve this scaling, simple detectors and high-density multiplexing are essential. We are addressing this long-term challenge through the development of frequency-multiplexed superconducting microresonator detector arrays. These arrays use lumped-element, direct-absorption resonators patterned from titanium nitride films. We will discuss our progress toward constructing a scalable 350 micron pathfinder instrument focusing on fabrication simplicity, multiplexing density, and ultimately a low per-pixel cost.

Swenson, Loren J; Dowell, Charles D; Eom, Byeong H; Hollister, Matthew I; Jarnot, Robert; Kovãcs, Attila; Leduc, Henry G; McKenney, Christopher M; Monroe, Ryan; Mroczkowski, Tony; Nguyen, Hien T; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; 10.1117/12.926223

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

424

Conformal Metal Thin Films for H2 Purification and Fuel-Cell Catalyst Applications Tyler Munhollon, Coe College, SURF 2009 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that will become a hydrogen filter in syngas pipelines. The thin film metal membranes are fairly inexpensive- shaped substrate that replicates a syngas pipeline. The membranes are also permeable to only hydrogen a heightened need for pure hydrogen gas at a low cost. Research has begun on thin film metal membranes

Li, Mo

425

Chemical vapour deposition of crystalline thin films of tantalum phosphide C. Blackman, C. J. Carmalt, I. P. Parkin* and S. A. O'Neill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Al/W-metallization [2]. A number of transition metal phosphides, including tungsten (WP bulk transition metal phosphides are well known [5, 6] the production of thin films of these materials of the production of TaP thin films using a CVD process. Stimulated by this lack of a low-cost route to a material

Guillas, Serge

426

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Electrochromism, IME2, (San Diego, CA, October, 1996), to be published in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. LBNL #39633  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), to be published in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. LBNL #39633 ANALYSIS OF DURABILITY IN LITHIUM NICKEL an electronically isolated corner into devices. This structure enabled identification of potential problems-time effects. Testing and analysis of durability for electrochromic devices is a very complex problem involving

428

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Strength; Fiber Format & Manufacturing Methods 1-10 M lbsyr 100M - 1B lbsyr Oil & Gas Deep Water Production Enabler Pipes, Drill Shafts, Off-Shore Structures Low Mass, High...

432

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

433

Residual Stress in CVD-grown 3C-SiC Films on Si Substrates Alex A. Volinsky1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on 50 mm (100) and (111) Si substrates in a hot-wall CVD reactor. The film tensile residual stress was non-uniform, having a linear profile along the growth direction. This presented a challenge of using to deposit SiC on Si wafers due to their high quality and low cost, in comparison to SiC substrates. However

Volinsky, Alex A.

434

In-situ Spectroscopic Reflectometry for Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Etch Rate Determination During Reactive Ion Etching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for low-cost, high-speed film thickness measurement systems. We have used spectroscopic reflectometry (SR features in the fabrication process of microelectronic devices and circuitry. As the integrated circuits industry continues its progress toward higher performance circuitry, circuit designers are pushing

Terry, Fred L.

435

Enhancement of Hydrogen Gas Sensing of Nanocrystalline Nickel Oxide by Pulsed-Laser Irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a variety of applications, such as transparent electrochromic film, super capacitors, fuel cell electrodes

Khare, Sanjay V.

436

Very Low-Cost Internet Access Using KioskNet S. Guo, M.H. Falaki, E.A. Oliver, S. Ur Rahman, A. Seth, M.A. Zaharia, and S. Keshav  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and appears to be economically viable. We estimate that our system requires a capital expenditure of $100Very Low-Cost Internet Access Using KioskNet S. Guo, M.H. Falaki, E.A. Oliver, S. Ur Rahman, A kiosks in developing regions can cost-effectively provide communication and e-governance services

California at Irvine, University of

437

A LOW COST MULTI-BAND/MULTI-MODE RADIO FOR PUBLIC SAFETY S.M. Hasan (Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, U.S.A., hasan@vt.edu); P. Balister  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A LOW COST MULTI-BAND/MULTI-MODE RADIO FOR PUBLIC SAFETY S.M. Hasan (Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, U.S.A., hasan@vt.edu); P. Balister (Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, U.S.A., balister@vt.edu); K. Lee

Ellingson, Steven W.

438

Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

Zhou, Yaoqi

439

Ultra-sensitive strain sensors based on piezoresistive nanographene films Jing Zhao, Congli He, Rong Yang, Zhiwen Shi, Meng Cheng et al.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 Along with the relentless pursuit of low-cost and miniatur- ized devices, different candidate materials characteristics of nanographene films, which indicates our results provide a different rout toward ultra advantages in scalable devices fabrication via top-down approaches, which is com- patible with existing

Zhang, Guangyu

440

High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Using Inkjet Printed Silicon and Other Inkjet Processes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-260  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cost of silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV) can be greatly lowered by developing thin-film crystalline Si solar cells on glass or an equally lower cost substrate. Typically, Si film is deposited by thermal evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering. NREL and Silexos have worked under a CRADA to develop technology to make very low cost solar cells using liquid organic precursors. Typically, cyclopentasilane (CPS) is deposited on a glass substrate and then converted into an a-Si film by UV polymerization followed by low-temperature optical process that crystallizes the amorphous layer. This technique promises to be a very low cost approach for making a Si film.

Sopori, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Reduced graphene oxide based silver sulfide hybrid films formed at a liquid/liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free-standing, ultra-thin films of silver sulfide and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based silver sulfide hybrids are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface employing in situ chemical reaction strategy. Ag{sub 2}S and RGO?Ag{sub 2}S hybrid films are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and photo luminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of hybrid films consists of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals on RGO surface while Ag{sub 2}S films contains branched network of dendritic structures. RGO?Ag{sub 2}S exhibit interesting optical and electrical properties. The hybrid films absorb in the region 500–650 nm and show emission in the red region. A higher conductance is observed for the hybrid films arising from the RGO component. This simple low cost method can be extended to prepare other RGO based metal sulfides.

Bramhaiah, K., E-mail: jsneena@csmr.res.in; John, Neena S., E-mail: jsneena@csmr.res.in [Centre for Soft Matter Research, P.B. No.1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore-560013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

443

Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

Wolfe, Jesse D. (Fairfield, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Wickbold, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA)

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

445

A study of laser annealing effects in boron ion implanted polycrystalline silicon films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, large-grain polycrysta11ine silicon has potential use for large volume production of low cost solar cells [1-3] . Polycrystalline silicon is easy to prepare and is compa- tible with monolithic silicon integrated circuit technology; however... of 2O pico second [5]. The MOSFET's fabricated to date on thin films of polycrystalline silicon have also exhibited poor transconductance [5J. It has been reported that the electrical properties of ion implanted polycrystalline silicon can...

Suh, Inhak Harry

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nanocomposite films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

447

US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)) [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

J. Phys. III France 5 (1995) 1491-1499 OCTOBER1995, PAGE1491 Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.15C Electrochromic Niox Film by DC Sputtering(*) Xu Yanzhong, Qiu Muqing, Qiu Sichou, Dai Jing, Hunag weak crystal peaks appear in the latter film. The film has good electrochromic property. The content of oxygen in the vacuum chamber has no obvious effect on the electrochromic property of the film. XPS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC3, supplementauJournaldePhysique11,Volume3,aoDt1993  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion of solar energy into heat. Transition metal trioxides thin films, known as electrochromic promising electrochromic material. The electrochromic materials are able to change their optical [5-71. Of course, the phenomenon is not in a single layer, but the electrochromic layer is the active

Boyer, Edmond

452

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

454

Low cost crowd counting using audio tones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

Kannan, Pravein Govindan

455

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Titanium (Ti) is highly valued for its strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion re- sistance. However, after it is processed to a wrought, or shaped form, it is...

458

Portable low-cost magnetic resonance imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purpose: As the premiere modality for brain imaging, MRI could find wider applicability if lightweight, portable systems were available for siting in unconventional locations such as intensive care units (ICUs), physician ...

Cooley, Clarissa Zimmerman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Low-cost process for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Bauer, Hans F. (Morgantown, WV); Grimes, Robert W. (Laramie, WY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Low Cost Embedded Network Message Authentication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in only 3 or 4 bytes? Approach: Status: Motivation: &Electrical Computer ENGINEERING Chris Szilagyi, Prof

Koopman, Philip

462

Low cost computer interface using eye tracking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ANO PBO/Aa Pe I/AS PB2/AIO Pea/AII PB4/A12 Pea/Aia Pea/AI 4 Per/A15 PAOIIGS e Q 5 ii ( & 0 S MC88HC11A8 Pin Assignments (52 pin PLCC) Q41 ge Qae Q44 /44/ 042 04' fae/ Q4i 038 039 Qa) 089 Qaa 049 /DI 01 03 05 O' SO" 000' 0'0' ~I Oi..., Q? 0? 019 08 /De Q~) 026 Qze Q24 022 Qzo Ga 028 /07 boa 021 Pin assignments for 52- pin chip carrier socket Figure 7. Pin assignments of the microcontroller 24 tor and its line assembler facilities. Later coding and software tests were...

Zee, Bernard Chan Heng

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high performance of...

464

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

Technology Management Inc.

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Low Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal environments · Silicones are known to breakdown and migrate to adjacent fuel cell components potentially Sources 127 (2004) 222-229 Accelerated testing under fuel cell conditions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

467

Design of a low cost bamboo footbridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nowadays the construction business, more so than other industries, is responsible most of the environmental issues that our society encounters. Given the increasing concern our impact on the environment, the need for new ...

Laroque, Paul (Paul Vivien Marc)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Low cost titanium--myth or reality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Low-cost process for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternate deposition techniques and engineered nanostructures Supplier qualification, near term cost Qualification · Task 7.0: H2A Model Cost Analysis ­ Input design parameters ­ Assess impact of changes #12% 5 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Development 06/30/13 0% 6 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Qualification 09

471

Low-Cost MHTES Systems for CSP  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

472

Deploying Low-Cost Suspension Heliostats  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

473

Design of a low cost hydrostatic bearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the design and manufacturing method for a new surface self compensating hydrostatic bearing. A lumped resistance model was used to analyze the performance of the bearing and provide guidance on laying ...

Wong, Anthony Raymond

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Low cost, self-built housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! E, , ;:;; -'. ':;', LOW. CaSTp ''MLF~SUQT, . ' HQN PlQ". -:: , "A %heeled Bj' 9; K, Vatter A~ is 4o tp1e and content lbgc l I J l I LCM 4(8%')-, SgF BUXKT- HGUGXH5 f parthiL fuff~ af t, he xsqaimmnvs fox. the Centres of me X... . mlmmUOTXON I PNX' XX BRStjjLRX OF PBQKQT &O ~ . 2/1 Page %los, Page Po" . $' Papa Vo. X6 Page Uo. 20 44 ~4 41 8 The Zp Pa. ~ Struc4oae . The A Pram@ BeehmKeci Page Ho 2O Page No, 2$ Page Mo, 2C Page Fo. Pago 7lo. PX P?iGTXGaTXQH XX...

Vetter, Gale K

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Concentrators California Institute of TechnologyJet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | April 18, 2013 | Ganapathi * Mirror module development has been approached with...

476

Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Livermore, CA); Burke, Gerald J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Tracy, CA); Stever, Robert D. (Lathrop, CA); Governo, George K. (Livermore, CA); Mullenhoff, Donald J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen

478

Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term Storage of Cesium1940sofof10 DOEofCost

479

Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term Storage ofEnergy HighCost, Durable Seal

480

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Termpaul_fini@cree.comVehicles |JPL/L'Garde

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-cost electrochromic film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Termpaul_fini@cree.comVehicles |JPL/L'GardeCost,

482

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVAC system energy use. Industry rarely offers integrated cross-disciplinary building products, although this trend

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a solution that provided greater daylighting savings.daylighting system was engineered for a private office application. The final technological solution

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Advancement of Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

whole building controls makes sense for demand response,building-wide control solutions for demand response, real-of building-wide control based on demand response, real-time

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 48 Photopatterned electrochromic conjugated polymer films via precursor approach Arvind Kumar a Summary:...

486

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-inflammatory polymeric coatings Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polytechnic University Collection: Materials Science 36 ORIGINAL PAPER Electrochromic films of a methylcarbazole derivative Summary: . Compared with other methods, like...

487

E-Print Network 3.0 - acrylic acid crosslinked Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanoscience and Nanobiotechnology Collection: Materials Science 97 Photopatterned electrochromic conjugated polymer films via precursor approach Arvind Kumar a Summary: in...

488

CdS thin films on LiNbO{sub 3} (1 0 4) and silicon (1 1 1) substrates prepared through an atom substitution method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdS thin films on LiNbO{sub 3} (1 0 4) and silicon (1 1 1) substrates were prepared through an atom substitution technique using cadmium nitrate as a reactant in an H{sub 2}S atmosphere at 230 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy results indicate that the CdS film grows on LiNbO{sub 3} oriented along the [0 0 1] axis in form of crystallized nanoplates, while that deposited on silicon forms randomly oriented nanoparticles. Investigation of the precursor thin film suggests that CdS forms from the O in the CdO precursor thin film being substituted by S from H{sub 2}S in the surrounding environment, which is designated as an atom substitution process. This novel method involving an atom substitution reaction between the CdO precursor thin film and its environment can provide a new low cost approach to the preparation of chalcogenide or other compound thin films. A schematic illustration and corresponding mechanism describing the details of this method are proposed. -- Graphical abstract: Elemental O in CdO is substituted by elemental S from the atmosphere in the apparatus, which is designated as an atom substitution process. This novel method involving an atom substitution reaction between the CdO precursor thin film and its environment can provide a new low cost approach to the preparation of chalcogenide or other compound thin films. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} An atom substitution method for thin film preparation was demonstrated. {yields} Combination of the atom substitution and spin coating method was achieved. {yields} Well oriented CdS thin film was prepared on LiNbO{sub 3} substrate. {yields} The atom substitution method could be used for many compound systems.

Qin Haiming; Zhao Yue [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu Hong, E-mail: hongliu@sdu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Gao Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang Jiyang, E-mail: Jywang@sdu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu Duo; Sang Yuanhua; Yao Bin [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Boughton, Robert I. [Center for Material Science, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

490

Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Low Cost Ceramics:Low Cost Ceramics: Applications in Water FiltrationApplications in Water Filtration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compared to price range ofprice range of commercial filterscommercial filters Drawbacks of parabolic mirrors (fires) and solarDrawbacks of parabolic mirrors (fires) and solar cookers Panel DiscussionIRC Princeton Alumnus Panel Discussion

Petta, Jason

492

Available at: http://publications.ictp.it IC/2010/045 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Transition metal oxides make up a technologically important class of compound because of their electrochromic (Hydrogen) evolution kinetics has been studied. It is well known that WO3 films show better electrochromic

493

Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

494

Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

E-Print Network 3.0 - antireflection coated s-fap Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2005 Thin Film Metrology UsingThin Film Metrology Using Summary: Storage Lighting Optics Solar Energy Sensors HardProtective coatings Electro-chromic rear view mirrors... Solar...

496

E-Print Network 3.0 - antireflection coatings Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2005 Thin Film Metrology UsingThin Film Metrology Using Summary: Storage Lighting Optics Solar Energy Sensors HardProtective coatings Electro-chromic rear view mirrors... Solar...

497

E-Print Network 3.0 - antireflective coating effect Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2005 Thin Film Metrology UsingThin Film Metrology Using Summary: Storage Lighting Optics Solar Energy Sensors HardProtective coatings Electro-chromic rear view mirrors... Solar...

498

Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Capture and Transport of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy for Power Generation Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar...

500

Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

Sopori, B.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z